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  Field Listing - Independence

Afghanistan 19 August 1919 (from UK control over Afghan foreign affairs)
Albania 28 November 1912 (from Ottoman Empire)
Algeria 5 July 1962 (from France)
American Samoa none (territory of the US)
Andorra 1278 (was formed under the joint suzerainty of the French count of Foix and the Spanish bishop of Urgel)
Angola 11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
Anguilla none (overseas territory of the UK)
Antigua and Barbuda 1 November 1981 (from UK)
Argentina 9 July 1816 (from Spain)
Armenia 21 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Aruba none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
Australia 1 January 1901 (federation of UK colonies)
Austria 1156 (from Bavaria)
Azerbaijan 30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Bahamas, The 10 July 1973 (from UK)
Bahrain 15 August 1971 (from UK)
Bangladesh 16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan); note - 26 March 1971 is the date of independence from West Pakistan, 16 December 1971 is known as Victory Day and commemorates the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
Barbados 30 November 1966 (from UK)
Belarus 25 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Belgium 4 October 1830 a provisional government declared independence from the Netherlands; 21 July 1831 the ascension of King Leopold I to the throne
Belize 21 September 1981 (from UK)
Benin 1 August 1960 (from France)
Bermuda none (overseas territory of the UK)
Bhutan 8 August 1949 (from India)
Bolivia 6 August 1825 (from Spain)
Bosnia and Herzegovina 1 March 1992 (from Yugoslavia; referendum for independence was completed 1 March 1992; independence was declared 3 March 1992)
Botswana 30 September 1966 (from UK)
Brazil 7 September 1822 (from Portugal)
British Virgin Islands none (overseas territory of the UK)
Brunei 1 January 1984 (from UK)
Bulgaria 3 March 1878 (from Ottoman Empire)
Burkina Faso 5 August 1960 (from France)
Burma 4 January 1948 (from UK)
Burundi 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
Cambodia 9 November 1953 (from France)
Cameroon 1 January 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
Canada 1 July 1867 (from UK)
Cape Verde 5 July 1975 (from Portugal)
Cayman Islands none (overseas territory of the UK)
Central African Republic 13 August 1960 (from France)
Chad 11 August 1960 (from France)
Chile 18 September 1810 (from Spain)
China 221 BC (unification under the Qin or Ch'in Dynasty 221 BC; Qing or Ch'ing Dynasty replaced by the Republic on 12 February 1912; People's Republic established 1 October 1949)
Christmas Island none (territory of Australia)
Cocos (Keeling) Islands none (territory of Australia)
Colombia 20 July 1810 (from Spain)
Comoros 6 July 1975 (from France)
Congo, Democratic Republic of the 30 June 1960 (from Belgium)
Congo, Republic of the 15 August 1960 (from France)
Cook Islands none (became self-governing in free association with New Zealand on 4 August 1965 and has the right at any time to move to full independence by unilateral action)
Costa Rica 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Cote d'Ivoire 7 August (1960) (from France)
Croatia 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
Cuba 20 May 1902 (from Spain 10 December 1898; administered by the US from 1898 to 1902)
Cyprus 16 August 1960 (from UK); note - Turkish Cypriot area proclaimed self-rule on 13 February 1975
Czech Republic 1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
Denmark first organized as a unified state in 10th century; in 1849 became a constitutional monarchy
Djibouti 27 June 1977 (from France)
Dominica 3 November 1978 (from UK)
Dominican Republic 27 February 1844 (from Haiti)
East Timor 28 November 1975 (date of proclamation of independence from Portugal); note - 20 May 2002 is the official date of international recognition of East Timor's independence from Indonesia
Ecuador 24 May 1822 (from Spain)
Egypt 28 February 1922 (from UK)
El Salvador 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Equatorial Guinea 12 October 1968 (from Spain)
Eritrea 24 May 1993 (from Ethiopia)
Estonia regained on 20 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Ethiopia oldest independent country in Africa and one of the oldest in the world - at least 2,000 years
Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) none (overseas territory of the UK; also claimed by Argentina)
Faroe Islands none (part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark)
Fiji 10 October 1970 (from UK)
Finland 6 December 1917 (from Russia)
France 486 (unified by Clovis)
French Guiana none (overseas department of France)
French Polynesia none (overseas territory of France)
Gabon 17 August 1960 (from France)
Gambia, The 18 February 1965 (from UK)
Georgia 9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Germany 18 January 1871 (German Empire unification); divided into four zones of occupation (UK, US, USSR, and later, France) in 1945 following World War II; Federal Republic of Germany (FRG or West Germany) proclaimed 23 May 1949 and included the former UK, US, and French zones; German Democratic Republic (GDR or East Germany) proclaimed 7 October 1949 and included the former USSR zone; unification of West Germany and East Germany took place 3 October 1990; all four powers formally relinquished rights 15 March 1991
Ghana 6 March 1957 (from UK)
Gibraltar none (overseas territory of the UK)
Greece 1829 (from the Ottoman Empire)
Greenland none (part of the Kingdom of Denmark; self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark since 1979)
note: foreign affairs is the responsibility of Denmark, but Greenland actively participates in international agreements relating to Greenland
Grenada 7 February 1974 (from UK)
Guadeloupe none (overseas department of France)
Guam none (territory of the US)
Guatemala 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Guernsey none (British crown dependency)
Guinea 2 October 1958 (from France)
Guinea-Bissau 24 September 1973 (unilaterally declared by Guinea-Bissau); 10 September 1974 (recognized by Portugal)
Guyana 26 May 1966 (from UK)
Haiti 1 January 1804 (from France)
Holy See (Vatican City) 11 February 1929 (from Italy)
note: on 11 February 1929, three treaties were signed with Italy which, among other things, recognized the full sovereignty of the Vatican and established its territorial extent; however, the origin of the Papal States, which over the years have varied considerably in extent, may be traced back to the 8th century
Honduras 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Hong Kong none (special administrative region of China)
Hungary 1001 (unification by King Stephen I)
Iceland 1 December 1918 (became a sovereign state under the Danish Crown); 17 June 1944 (from Denmark)
India 15 August 1947 (from UK)
Indonesia 17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949, Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)
Iran 1 April 1979 (Islamic Republic of Iran proclaimed)
Iraq 3 October 1932 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Ireland 6 December 1921 (from UK by treaty)
Israel 14 May 1948 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Italy 17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed; Italy was not finally unified until 1870)
Jamaica 6 August 1962 (from UK)
Japan 660 BC (traditional founding by Emperor Jimmu)
Jersey none (British crown dependency)
Jordan 25 May 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under British administration)
Kazakhstan 16 December 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Kenya 12 December 1963 (from UK)
Kiribati 12 July 1979 (from UK)
Korea, North 15 August 1945 (from Japan)
Korea, South 15 August 1945 (from Japan)
Kuwait 19 June 1961 (from UK)
Kyrgyzstan 31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Laos 19 July 1949 (from France)
Latvia 21 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Lebanon 22 November 1943 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)
Lesotho 4 October 1966 (from UK)
Liberia 26 July 1847
Libya 24 December 1951 (from Italy)
Liechtenstein 23 January 1719 Imperial Principality of Liechtenstein established; 12 July 1806 established independence from the Holy Roman Empire
Lithuania 11 March 1990 (independence declared from Soviet Union); 6 September 1991 (Soviet Union recognizes Lithuania's independence)
Luxembourg 1839 (from the Netherlands)
Macau none (special administrative region of China)
Macedonia, The Former Yugoslav Republic of 8 September 1991 referendum by registered voters endorsing independence (from Yugoslavia)
Madagascar 26 June 1960 (from France)
Malawi 6 July 1964 (from UK)
Malaysia 31 August 1957 (from UK)
Maldives 26 July 1965 (from UK)
Mali 22 September 1960 (from France)
Malta 21 September 1964 (from UK)
Man, Isle of none (British crown dependency)
Marshall Islands 21 October 1986 (from the US-administered UN trusteeship)
Martinique none (overseas department of France)
Mauritania 28 November 1960 (from France)
Mauritius 12 March 1968 (from UK)
Mayotte none (territorial collectivity of France)
Mexico 16 September 1810 (from Spain)
Micronesia, Federated States of 3 November 1986 (from the US-administered UN Trusteeship)
Moldova 27 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Monaco 1419 (beginning of the rule by the House of Grimaldi)
Mongolia 11 July 1921 (from China)
Montserrat none (overseas territory of the UK)
Morocco 2 March 1956 (from France)
Mozambique 25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
Namibia 21 March 1990 (from South African mandate)
Nauru 31 January 1968 (from the Australia-, NZ-, and UK-administered UN trusteeship)
Nepal 1768 (unified by Prithvi Narayan Shah)
Netherlands 1579 (from Spain); note - the northern provinces of the Low Country concluded the Union of Utrecht, but it was 1648 before Spain finally recognized their independence
Netherlands Antilles none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
New Caledonia none (overseas territory of France); note - a referendum on independence was held in 1998 but did not pass; a new referendum is scheduled for 2014
New Zealand 26 September 1907 (from UK)
Nicaragua 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
Niger 3 August 1960 (from France)
Nigeria 1 October 1960 (from UK)
Niue on 19 October 1974, Niue became a self-governing parliamentary government in free association with New Zealand
Norfolk Island none (territory of Australia)
Northern Mariana Islands none (commonwealth in political union with the US)
Norway 7 June 1905 Norway declared the union with Sweden dissolved; 26 October 1905 Sweden agreed to the repeal of the union
Oman 1650 (expulsion of the Portuguese)
Pakistan 14 August 1947 (from UK)
Palau 1 October 1994 (from the US-administered UN Trusteeship)
Panama 3 November 1903 (from Colombia; became independent from Spain 28 November 1821)
Papua New Guinea 16 September 1975 (from the Australian-administered UN trusteeship)
Paraguay 14 May 1811 (from Spain)
Peru 28 July 1821 (from Spain)
Philippines 4 July 1946 (from US)
Pitcairn Islands none (overseas territory of the UK)
Poland 11 November 1918 (independent republic proclaimed)
Portugal 1143 (independent republic proclaimed 5 October 1910)
Puerto Rico none (commonwealth associated with the US)
Qatar 3 September 1971 (from UK)
Reunion none (overseas department of France)
Romania 9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from Turkey; independence recognized 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin; kingdom proclaimed 26 March 1881; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)
Russia 24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Rwanda 1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship)
Saint Helena none (overseas territory of the UK)
Saint Kitts and Nevis 19 September 1983 (from UK)
Saint Lucia 22 February 1979 (from UK)
Saint Pierre and Miquelon none (territorial collectivity of France; has been under French control since 1763)
Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 27 October 1979 (from UK)
Samoa 1 January 1962 (from New Zealand-administered UN trusteeship)
San Marino 3 September 301
Sao Tome and Principe 12 July 1975 (from Portugal)
Saudi Arabia 23 September 1932 (Unification of the Kingdom)
Senegal 4 April 1960 (from France); complete independence was achieved upon dissolution of federation with Mali on 20 August 1960
Serbia and Montenegro 27 April 1992 (Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or FRY formed as self-proclaimed successor to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia or SFRY)
Seychelles 29 June 1976 (from UK)
Sierra Leone 27 April 1961 (from UK)
Singapore 9 August 1965 (from Malaysia)
Slovakia 1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
Slovenia 25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
Solomon Islands 7 July 1978 (from UK)
Somalia 1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland, which became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960, and Italian Somaliland, which became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960, to form the Somali Republic)
South Africa 31 May 1910 (from UK)
Spain the Iberian peninsula was characterized by a variety of independent kingdoms prior to the Moslem occupation that began in the early 8th Century A. D. and lasted nearly seven centuries; the small Christian redoubts of the north began the reconquest almost immediately, culminating in the seizure of Granada in 1492; this event completed the unification of several kingdoms and is traditionally considered the forging of present-day Spain
Sri Lanka 4 February 1948 (from UK)
Sudan 1 January 1956 (from Egypt and UK)
Suriname 25 November 1975 (from Netherlands)
Svalbard none (territory of Norway)
Swaziland 6 September 1968 (from UK)
Sweden 6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king)
Switzerland 1 August 1291 (Founding of the Swiss Confederation)
Syria 17 April 1946 (from League of Nations mandate under French administration)
Tajikistan 9 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Tanzania 26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became independent 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964
Thailand 1238 (traditional founding date; never colonized)
Togo 27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
Tokelau none (territory of New Zealand)
Tonga 4 June 1970 (from UK protectorate)
Trinidad and Tobago 31 August 1962 (from UK)
Tunisia 20 March 1956 (from France)
Turkey 29 October 1923 (successor state to the Ottoman Empire)
Turkmenistan 27 October 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
Turks and Caicos Islands none (overseas territory of the UK)
Tuvalu 1 October 1978 (from UK)
Uganda 9 October 1962 (from UK)
Ukraine 24 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
United Arab Emirates 2 December 1971 (from UK)
United Kingdom England has existed as a unified entity since the 10th century; the union between England and Wales was enacted under the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284; in the Act of Union of 1707, England and Scotland agreed to permanent union as Great Britain; the legislative union of Great Britain and Ireland was implemented in 1801, with the adoption of the name the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland; the Anglo-Irish treaty of 1921 formalized a partition of Ireland; six northern Irish counties remained part of the United Kingdom as Northern Ireland and the current name of the country, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, was adopted in 1927
United States 4 July 1776 (from Great Britain)
Uruguay 25 August 1825 (from Brazil)
Uzbekistan 1 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
Vanuatu 30 July 1980 (from France and UK)
Venezuela 5 July 1811 (from Spain)
Vietnam 2 September 1945 (from France)
Wallis and Futuna none (overseas territory of France)
Yemen 22 May 1990, Republic of Yemen was established with the merger of the Yemen Arab Republic [Yemen (Sanaa) or North Yemen] and the Marxist-dominated People's Democratic Republic of Yemen [Yemen (Aden) or South Yemen]; previously North Yemen had become independent on NA November 1918 (from the Ottoman Empire) and South Yemen had become independent on 30 November 1967 (from the UK)
Zambia 24 October 1964 (from UK)
Zimbabwe 18 April 1980 (from UK)

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

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