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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

Map of Colombia

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Colombia
Definition Field Listing
Colombia was one of the three countries that emerged from the collapse of Gran Colombia in 1830 (the others being Ecuador and Venezuela). A 40-year insurgent campaign to overthrow the Colombian Government escalated during the 1990s, undergirded in part by funds from the drug trade. Although the violence is deadly and large swaths of the countryside are under guerrilla influence, the movement lacks the military strength or popular support necessary to overthrow the government. An anti-insurgent army of paramilitaries has grown to be several thousand strong in recent years, challenging the insurgents for control of territory and illicit industries such as the drug trade and the government's ability to exert its dominion over rural areas. While Bogota continues to try to negotiate a settlement, neighboring countries worry about the violence spilling over their borders.
   Geography    Colombia
Definition Field Listing
Northern South America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Panama and Venezuela, and bordering the North Pacific Ocean, between Ecuador and Panama
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
4 00 N, 72 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
South America
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,138,910 sq km
land: 1,038,700 sq km
note: includes Isla de Malpelo, Roncador Cay, Serrana Bank, and Serranilla Bank
water: 100,210 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly less than three times the size of Montana
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 6,004 km
border countries: Brazil 1,643 km, Ecuador 590 km, Panama 225 km, Peru 1,496 km (est.), Venezuela 2,050 km
Definition Field Listing
3,208 km (Caribbean Sea 1,760 km, North Pacific Ocean 1,448 km)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 NM
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Definition Field Listing
tropical along coast and eastern plains; cooler in highlands
Definition Field Listing
flat coastal lowlands, central highlands, high Andes Mountains, eastern lowland plains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico Cristobal Colon 5,775 m
note: nearby Pico Simon Bolivar also has the same elevation
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, natural gas, coal, iron ore, nickel, gold, copper, emeralds, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 1.9%
other: 96.14% (1998 est.)
permanent crops: 1.96%
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
8,500 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
highlands subject to volcanic eruptions; occasional earthquakes; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; soil and water quality damage from overuse of pesticides; air pollution, especially in Bogota, from vehicle emissions
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
only South American country with coastlines on both North Pacific Ocean and Caribbean Sea
   People    Colombia
Definition Field Listing
41,008,227 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 31.6% (male 6,552,961; female 6,399,666)
15-64 years: 63.6% (male 12,694,293; female 13,375,425)
65 years and over: 4.8% (male 886,921; female 1,098,961) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.6% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
21.99 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.66 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.32 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
23.21 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 70.85 years
female: 74.83 years (2002 est.)
male: 67 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.64 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.31% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
71,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
1,700 (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Colombian(s)
adjective: Colombian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
mestizo 58%, white 20%, mulatto 14%, black 4%, mixed black-Amerindian 3%, Amerindian 1%
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 90%
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.3%
male: 91.2%
female: 91.4% (1995 est.)
   Government    Colombia
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Colombia
conventional short form: Colombia
local short form: Colombia
local long form: Republica de Colombia
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic; executive branch dominates government structure
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
32 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento) and 1 capital district* (distrito capital); Amazonas, Antioquia, Arauca, Atlantico, Distrito Capital de Bogota*, Bolivar, Boyaca, Caldas, Caqueta, Casanare, Cauca, Cesar, Choco, Cordoba, Cundinamarca, Guainia, Guaviare, Huila, La Guajira, Magdalena, Meta, Narino, Norte de Santander, Putumayo, Quindio, Risaralda, San Andres y Providencia, Santander, Sucre, Tolima, Valle del Cauca, Vaupes, Vichada
Definition Field Listing
20 July 1810 (from Spain)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 20 July (1810)
Definition Field Listing
5 July 1991
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Spanish law; a new criminal code modeled after US procedures was enacted in 1992-93; judicial review of executive and legislative acts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 August 2002); Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 August 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Alvaro URIBE Velez (since 7 August 2002); Vice President Francisco SANTOS (since 7 August 2002); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet consists of a coalition of the two dominant parties - the PL and PSC - and independents
elections: president and vice president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 26 May 2002 (next to be held NA May 2006)
election results: President Alvaro URIBE Velez received 53% of the vote; Vice President Francisco SANTOS was elected on the same ticket
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Congress or Congreso consists of the Senate or Senado (102 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and the House of Representatives or Camara de Representantes (166 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 10 March 2002 (next to be held NA March 2006); House of Representatives - last held 10 March 2002 (next to be held NA March 2006)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - PL 28, PSC 13, independents and smaller parties (many aligned with conservatives) 61; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PL 54, PSC 21, independents and other parties 91
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
four, coequal, supreme judicial organs; Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justical (highest court of criminal law; judges are selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for eight-year terms); Council of State (highest court of administrative law, judges are selected from the nominees of the Higher Council of Justice for eight-year terms); Constitutional Court (guards integrity and supremacy of the constitution, rules on constitutionality of laws, amendments to the constitution, and international treaties); Higher Council of Justice (administers and disciplines the civilian judiciary; members of the disciplinary chamber resolve jurisdictional conflicts arising between other courts; members are elected by three sister courts and Congress for eight-year terms)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Conservative Party or PSC [Carlos HOLGUIN Sardi]; Liberal Party or PL [Horatio SERPA Uribe]; Patriotic Union or UP is a legal political party formed by Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC and Colombian Communist Party or PCC [Jaime CAICEDO]; 19 of April Movement or M-19 [Antonio NAVARRO Wolff]
note: Colombia has about 60 formally recognized political parties, most of which do not have a presence in either house of Congress
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
two largest insurgent groups active in Colombia - Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC and National Liberation Army or ELN; largest anti-insurgent paramilitary group is United Self-Defense Groups of Colombia or AUC
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Luis Alberto MORENO Mejia
chancery: 2118 Leroy Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, San Juan (Puerto Rico), and Washington, DC
consulate(s): Atlanta
FAX: [1] (202) 232-8643
telephone: [1] (202) 387-8338
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Anne W. PATTERSON
embassy: Calle 22D-BIS, numbers 47-51, Apartado Aereo 3831
mailing address: Carrera 45 #22D-45, Bogota, D.C., APO AA 34038
telephone: [57] (1) 315-0811
FAX: [57] (1) 315-2197
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three horizontal bands of yellow (top, double-width), blue, and red; similar to the flag of Ecuador, which is longer and bears the Ecuadorian coat of arms superimposed in the center
   Economy    Colombia
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Colombia's economy suffered from weak domestic demand, austere government budgets, and a difficult security situation. A new president takes office in 2002 and will face economic challenges ranging from pension reform to reduction of unemployment. Two of Colombia's leading exports, oil and coffee, face an uncertain future; new exploration is needed to offset declining oil production, while coffee harvests and prices are depressed. Problems in public security are a concern for Colombian business leaders, who are calling for progress in the government's peace negotiations with insurgent groups. Colombia is looking for continued support from the international community to boost economic and peace prospects.
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $255 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.5% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $6,300 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 19%
industry: 26%
services: 55% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
55% (2001) (2001)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 1%
highest 10%: 44% (1999) (1999)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
57 (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
7.6% (2001) (2001)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
18.3 million (1999 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
services 46%, agriculture 30%, industry 24% (1990) (1990)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
17% (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $24 billion
expenditures: $25.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
textiles, food processing, oil, clothing and footwear, beverages, chemicals, cement; gold, coal, emeralds
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
4% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
43.342 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 26%
hydro: 73%
other: 1% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
40.348 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
37 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
77 million kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, cut flowers, bananas, rice, tobacco, corn, sugarcane, cocoa beans, oilseed, vegetables; forest products; shrimp
Definition Field Listing
$12.3 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, coffee, coal, apparel, bananas, cut flowers
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 43%, Andean Community of Nations 22%, EU 14%, (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
$12.7 billion c.i.f. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
industrial equipment, transportation equipment, consumer goods, chemicals, paper products, fuels, electricity
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 35%, EU 16%, Andean Community of Nations 15%, Japan 5% (2001 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$39 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
Colombian peso (COP)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Colombian pesos per US dollar - 2,275.89 (January 2002), 2,299.63 (2001), 2,087.90 (2000), 1,756.23 (1999), 1,426.04 (1998), 1,140.96 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Colombia
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
5,433,565 (December 1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
1,800,229 (December 1998)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: modern system in many respects
domestic: nationwide microwave radio relay system; domestic satellite system with 41 earth stations; fiber-optic network linking 50 cities
international: satellite earth stations - 6 Intelsat, 1 Inmarsat; 3 fully digitalized international switching centers; 8 submarine cables
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 454, FM 34, shortwave 27 (1999)
Definition Field Listing
21 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
60 (includes seven low-power stations) (1997)
Definition Field Listing
4.59 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
18 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
1.15 million (2002)
   Transportation    Colombia
Definition Field Listing
total: 3,304 km
standard gauge: 150 km 1.435-m gauge (connects Cerrejon coal mines to maritime port at Bahia de Portete)
narrow gauge: 3,154 km 0.914-m gauge (major sections not in use) (2000 est.)
Definition Field Listing
total: 110,000 km
paved: 26,000 km
unpaved: 84,000 km (2000)
Definition Field Listing
18,140 km (navigable by river boats) (April 1996)
Definition Field Listing
crude oil 3,585 km; petroleum products 1,350 km; natural gas 830 km; natural gas liquids 125 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Bahia de Portete, Barranquilla, Buenaventura, Cartagena, Leticia, Puerto Bolivar, San Andres, Santa Marta, Tumaco, Turbo
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 11 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 32,438 GRT/43,126 DWT
ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 3, container 1, petroleum tanker 2
note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Germany 1 (2002 est.)
Definition Field Listing
1,066 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 96
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 36
under 914 m: 11 (2002)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 38
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 954
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 51
under 914 m: 587 (2002)
914 to 1,523 m: 315
Definition Field Listing
1 (2002)
   Military    Colombia
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army (Ejercito Nacional), Navy (Armada Nacional, including Marines and Coast Guard), Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Colombiana), National Police (Policia Nacional)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 10,946,932 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 7,308,703 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 379,295 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$3.3 billion (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
3.4% (FY01)
   Transnational Issues    Colombia
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Nicaragua filed a claim against Honduras in 1999 and against Colombia in 2001 at the ICJ over disputed maritime boundary involving 50,000 sq km in the Caribbean Sea, including the Archipelago de San Andres y Providencia and Quita Sueno Bank; maritime boundary dispute with Venezuela in the Gulf of Venezuela; Colombian drug activities penetrate Peruvian border area
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
illicit producer of coca, opium poppy, and cannabis; world's leading coca cultivator (cultivation of coca in 2001 was 169,800 hectares, a 25% increase over 2000); potential production of opium between 2000 and 2001 increased by 33% to 40 metric tons; potential production of heroin increased to 4.3 metric tons; the world's largest processor of coca derivatives into cocaine; supplier of about 90% of the cocaine to the US market and the great majority of cocaine to other international drug markets; important supplier of heroin to the US market; active aerial eradication program; a significant portion of non-US narcotics proceeds are either laundered or invested in Columbia through the black market peso exchange

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

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