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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

Map of Finland

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Finland
Definition Field Listing
Finland was a province and then a grand duchy under Sweden from the 12th to the 19th centuries and an autonomous grand duchy of Russia after 1809. It finally won its complete independence in 1917. During World War II, it was able to successfully defend its freedom and fend off invasions by the Soviet Union and Germany. In the subsequent half century, the Finns have made a remarkable transformation from a farm/forest economy to a diversified modern industrial economy; per capita income is now on par with Western Europe. As a member of the European Union, Finland was the only Nordic state to join the euro system at its initiation in January 1999.
   Geography    Finland
Definition Field Listing
Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, and Gulf of Finland, between Sweden and Russia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
64 00 N, 26 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
total: 337,030 sq km
water: 31,560 sq km
land: 305,470 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Montana
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,628 km
border countries: Norway 729 km, Sweden 586 km, Russia 1,313 km
Definition Field Listing
1,126 km (excludes islands and coastal indentations)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive fishing zone: 12 NM; extends to continental shelf boundary with Sweden
territorial sea: 12 NM (in the Gulf of Finland - 3 NM)
Definition Field Listing
cold temperate; potentially subarctic, but comparatively mild because of moderating influence of the North Atlantic Current, Baltic Sea, and more than 60,000 lakes
Definition Field Listing
mostly low, flat to rolling plains interspersed with lakes and low hills
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Baltic Sea 0 m
highest point: Halti 1,328 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
timber, copper, zinc, iron ore, silver
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 6.98%
permanent crops: 0.01%
other: 93.01% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
640 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air pollution from manufacturing and power plants contributing to acid rain; water pollution from industrial wastes, agricultural chemicals; habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
long boundary with Russia; Helsinki is northernmost national capital on European continent; population concentrated on small southwestern coastal plain
   People    Finland
Definition Field Listing
5,183,545 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 17.9% (male 471,920; female 454,082)
15-64 years: 66.9% (male 1,752,493; female 1,717,544)
65 years and over: 15.2% (male 306,216; female 481,290) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.14% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
10.6 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
9.78 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.62 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 77.75 years
female: 81.52 years (2002 est.)
male: 74.1 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.7 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.05% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
1,100 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Finn(s)
adjective: Finnish
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Finn 93%, Swede 6%, Sami 0.11%, Roma 0.12%, Tatar 0.02%
Definition Field Listing
Evangelical Lutheran 89%, Russian Orthodox 1%, none 9%, other 1%
Definition Field Listing
Finnish 93.4% (official), Swedish 5.9% (official), small Lapp- and Russian-speaking minorities
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 100% (1980 est.)
male: NA%
female: NA%
   Government    Finland
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Finland
conventional short form: Finland
local short form: Suomi
local long form: Suomen Tasavalta
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
6 provinces (laanit, singular - laani); Aland, Etela-Suomen Laani, Ita-Suomen Laani, Lansi-Suomen Laani, Lappi, Oulun Laani
Definition Field Listing
6 December 1917 (from Russia)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 6 December (1917)
Definition Field Listing
17 July 1919
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
civil law system based on Swedish law; Supreme Court may request legislation interpreting or modifying laws; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Tarja HALONEN (since 1 March 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Paavo LIPPONEN (since 13 April 1995) and Deputy Prime Minister Ville ITALA (since 31 August 2001)
cabinet: Council of State or Valtioneuvosto appointed by the president, responsible to Parliament
elections: president elected by popular vote for a six-year term; election last held 6 February 2000 (next to be held NA February 2006); prime minister and deputy prime minister appointed from the majority party by the president after parliamentary elections
note: government coalition - SDP, Kok, Leftist Alliance (People's Democratic Union and Democratic Alternative), SFP, and Green League
election results: Tarja HALONEN elected president; percent of vote - Tarja HALONEN (SDP) 51.6%, Esko AHO (Kesk) 48.4%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Parliament or Eduskunta (200 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional basis to serve four-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party - SDP 22.9%, Kesk 22.5%, Kok 21.0%, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 10.9%, SFP 5.1%, Green League 7.2%, SKL 4.2%; seats by party - SDP 51, Kesk 48, Kok 46, Leftist Alliance (Communist) 20, SFP 11, Green League 11, SKL 10, other 3
elections: last held 21 March 1999 (next to be held NA March 2003)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Korkein Oikeus (judges appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Center Party or Kesk [Esko AHO]; Finnish Christian Democratic Party or SKL [C. P. Bjarne KALLIS]; Green League [Osmo SOININVAARA]; Leftist Alliance (Communist) composed of People's Democratic League and Democratic Alternative [Suvi-Anne SIIMES]; National Coalition (conservative) Party or Kok [Ville ITALA]; Social Democratic Party or SDP [Paavo LIPPONEN]; Swedish People's Party or SFP [Jan-Erik ENESTAM]; True Finns [Timo SOINI]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Jukka Robert VALTASAARI
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
FAX: [1] (202) 298-6030
telephone: [1] (202) 298-5800
chancery: 3301 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Bonnie McELVEEN-HUNTER
embassy: Itainen Puistotie 14B, FIN-00140, Helsinki
mailing address: APO AE 09723
telephone: [358] (9) 171931
FAX: [358] (9) 174681
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
white with a blue cross extending to the edges of the flag; the vertical part of the cross is shifted to the hoist side in the style of the Dannebrog (Danish flag)
   Economy    Finland
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Finland has a highly industrialized, largely free-market economy, with per capita output roughly that of the UK, France, Germany, and Italy. Its key economic sector is manufacturing - principally the wood, metals, engineering, telecommunications, and electronics industries. Trade is important, with exports equaling almost one-third of GDP. Except for timber and several minerals, Finland depends on imports of raw materials, energy, and some components for manufactured goods. Because of the climate, agricultural development is limited to maintaining self-sufficiency in basic products. Forestry, an important export earner, provides a secondary occupation for the rural population. Rapidly increasing integration with Western Europe - Finland was one of the 11 countries joining the euro monetary system (EMU) on 1 January 1999 - will dominate the economic picture over the next several years. Growth in 2002 was held back by the global slowdown but will pick up in 2003 provided the world economy suffers no further blows.
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $136.2 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.1% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $26,200 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 4%
industry: 34%
services: 62% (2002 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 22% (1991) (1991)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
26 (1991)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
1.9% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
2.6 million (2000 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
public services 32%, industry 22%, commerce 14%, finance, insurance, and business services 10%, agriculture and forestry 8%, transport and communications 8%, construction 6%
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
8.5% (2002 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $36.1 billion
expenditures: $31 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Definition Field Listing
metal products, electronics, shipbuilding, pulp and paper, copper refining, foodstuffs, chemicals, textiles, clothing
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
5% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
75.356 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 41%
hydro: 19%
other: 12% (2000)
nuclear: 28%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
81.961 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
326 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
12.206 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
barley, wheat, sugar beets, potatoes; dairy cattle; fish
Definition Field Listing
$40.1 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, chemicals, metals; timber, paper, pulp
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 12.4%, US 9.7%, UK 9.6%, Sweden 8.4%, Russia 5.9%, France 4.6% (2001)
Definition Field Listing
$31.8 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
foodstuffs, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, transport equipment, iron and steel, machinery, textile yarn and fabrics, grains
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 14.5%, Sweden 10.2%, Russia 9.6%, US 6.9%, UK 6.4%, France 4.5% (2001)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$30 billion (December 1993)
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $379 million (1997)
Definition Field Listing
euro (EUR); markka (FIM)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); markkaa per US dollar - 5.3441 (1998), 5.1914 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Finland
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
2,847,900 (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
3,728,600 (2001)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: modern system with excellent service
domestic: cable, microwave radio relay, and an extensive cellular net provide domestic needs
international: 1 submarine cable; satellite earth stations - access to Intelsat transmission service via a Swedish satellite earth station, 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Finland shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Iceland, Norway, and Sweden)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 2, FM 186, shortwave 1 (1998)
Definition Field Listing
7.7 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
120 (plus 431 repeaters) (1999)
Definition Field Listing
3.2 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
3 (2002)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
2.69 million (2002)
   Transportation    Finland
Definition Field Listing
total: 5,865 km
broad gauge: 5,865 km 1.524-m gauge (2,234 km electrified; 480 km double- or multiple-track) (2000 est.)
Definition Field Listing
total: 77,831 km
paved: 49,789 km (including 444 km of expressways)
unpaved: 28,042 km (1999)
Definition Field Listing
6,675 km
note: includes Saimaa Canal; 3,700 km suitable for large ships
Definition Field Listing
natural gas 580 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Hamina, Helsinki, Kokkola, Kotka, Loviisa, Oulu, Pori, Rauma, Turku, Uusikaupunki, Varkaus
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 98 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,172,404 GRT/1,144,139 DWT
ships by type: bulk 9, cargo 26, chemical tanker 5, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 11, roll on/roll off 36, short-sea passenger 10
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Germany 1, Sweden 1 (2002 est.)
Definition Field Listing
160 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 74
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 27
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 12 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 76
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 72 (2002)
   Military    Finland
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy, Air Force, Frontier Guard (including Sea Guard)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
17 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,240,762 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,024,379 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 33,883 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$1.8 billion (FY98/99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
2% (FY98/99)
   Transnational Issues    Finland
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

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