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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

Map of Hungary

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Hungary
Definition Field Listing
Hungary was part of the polyglot Austro-Hungarian Empire, which collapsed during World War I. The country fell under communist rule following World War II. In 1956, a revolt and announced withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact were met with a massive military intervention by Moscow. In the more open GORBACHEV years, Hungary led the movement to dissolve the Warsaw Pact and steadily shifted toward multiparty democracy and a market-oriented economy. Following the collapse of the USSR in 1991, Hungary developed close political and economic ties to Western Europe. It joined NATO in 1999 and is a frontrunner in a future expansion of the EU.
   Geography    Hungary
Definition Field Listing
Central Europe, northwest of Romania
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
47 00 N, 20 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
total: 93,030 sq km
water: 690 sq km
land: 92,340 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,171 km
border countries: Austria 366 km, Croatia 329 km, Romania 443 km, Serbia and Montenegro 151 km, Slovakia 677 km, Slovenia 102 km, Ukraine 103 km
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Definition Field Listing
temperate; cold, cloudy, humid winters; warm summers
Definition Field Listing
mostly flat to rolling plains; hills and low mountains on the Slovakian border
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Tisza River 78 m
highest point: Kekes 1,014 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
bauxite, coal, natural gas, fertile soils, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 52.2%
other: 45.34% (1998 est.)
permanent crops: 2.46%
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
2,100 sq km (1998 est.)
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
the approximation of Hungary's standards in waste management, energy efficiency, and air, soil, and water pollution with environmental requirements for EU accession will require large investments
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Law of the Sea
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; strategic location astride main land routes between Western Europe and Balkan Peninsula as well as between Ukraine and Mediterranean basin; the north-south flowing Duna (Danube) and Tisza Rivers divide the country into three large regions
   People    Hungary
Definition Field Listing
10,075,034 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 16.4% (male 847,081; female 802,340)
15-64 years: 68.8% (male 3,406,701; female 3,528,087)
65 years and over: 14.8% (male 544,956; female 945,869) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.3% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
9.34 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
13.09 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.76 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.58 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
8.77 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 71.9 years
female: 76.55 years (2002 est.)
male: 67.55 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.25 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.05% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
2,500 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Hungarian(s)
adjective: Hungarian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Hungarian 89.9%, Roma 4%, German 2.6%, Serb 2%, Slovak 0.8%, Romanian 0.7%
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 67.5%, Calvinist 20%, Lutheran 5%, atheist and other 7.5%
Definition Field Listing
Hungarian 98.2%, other 1.8%
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 98% (1980 est.)
   Government    Hungary
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Hungary
conventional short form: Hungary
local short form: Magyarorszag
local long form: Magyar Koztarsasag
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary democracy
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
19 counties (megyek, singular - megye), 20 urban counties* (singular - megyei varos), and 1 capital city** (fovaros); Bacs-Kiskun, Baranya, Bekes, Bekescsaba*, Borsod-Abauj-Zemplen, Budapest**, Csongrad, Debrecen*, Dunaujvaros*, Eger*, Fejer, Gyor*, Gyor-Moson-Sopron, Hajdu-Bihar, Heves, Hodmezovasarhely*, Jasz-Nagykun-Szolnok, Kaposvar*, Kecskemet*, Komarom-Esztergom, Miskolc*, Nagykanizsa*, Nograd, Nyiregyhaza*, Pecs*, Pest, Somogy, Sopron*, Szabolcs-Szatmar-Bereg, Szeged*, Szekesfehervar*, Szolnok*, Szombathely*, Tatabanya*, Tolna, Vas, Veszprem, Veszprem*, Zala, Zalaegerszeg*
Definition Field Listing
1001 (unification by King Stephen I)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
St. Stephen's Day, 20 August
Definition Field Listing
18 August 1949, effective 20 August 1949, revised 19 April 1972; 18 October 1989 revision ensured legal rights for individuals and constitutional checks on the authority of the prime minister and also established the principle of parliamentary oversight; 1997 amendment streamlined the judicial system
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
rule of law based on Western model
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: Ferenc MADL (since NA August 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Peter MEDGYESSY (since 27 May 2002)
cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president
elections: president elected by the National Assembly for a five-year term; election last held 6 June 2000 (next to be held by June 2005); prime minister elected by the National Assembly on the recommendation of the president
note: to be elected, the president must win two-thirds of legislative vote in the first two rounds or a simple majority in the third round
election results: Ferenc MADL elected president; percent of legislative vote - NA% (but by a simple majority in the third round of voting); Peter MEDGYESSY elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote - NA%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly or Orszaggyules (386 seats; members are elected by popular vote under a system of proportional and direct representation to serve four-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party (5% or more of the vote required for parliamentary representation in the first round) - FIDESZ/MDF 48.70%, MSZP 46.11%, SZDSZ 4.92%, other 0.27%; seats by party - FIDESZ/MDF 188, MSZP 178, SZDSZ 20
elections: last held 7 and 21 April 2002 (next to be held NA April 2006)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Constitutional Court (judges are elected by the National Assembly for nine-year terms)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Alliance of Free Democrats or SZDSZ [Gabor KUNCZE]; Christian Democratic People's Party or KDNP [Gyorgy GICZY, president]; Hungarian Civic Party or FIDESZ [Zoltan POKORNI]; Hungarian Democratic Forum or MDF [Ibolya DAVID]; Hungarian Democratic People's Party or MDNP [Erzsebet PUSZTAI, chairman]; Hungarian Justice and Life Party or MIEP [Istvan CSURKA, chairman]; Hungarian Socialist Party or MSZP [Laszlo KOVACS, chairman]; Hungarian Workers' Party or MMP [Gyula THURMER, chairman]; Independent Smallholders or FKGP [Jozsef TORGYAN, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Andras SIMONYI
chancery: 3910 Shoemaker Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles and New York
FAX: [1] (202) 966-8135
telephone: [1] (202) 362-6730
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Nancy Goodman BRINKER
embassy: Szabadsag ter 12, H-1054 Budapest
mailing address: pouch: American Embassy Budapest, 5270 Budapest Place, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5270
telephone: [36] (1) 475-4400
FAX: [36] (1) 475-4764
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and green
   Economy    Hungary
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Hungary continues to demonstrate strong economic growth and to work toward accession to the European Union. The private sector accounts for over 80% of GDP. Foreign ownership of and investment in Hungarian firms is widespread, with cumulative foreign direct investment totaling more than $23 billion since 1989. Hungarian sovereign debt was upgraded in 2000 to the second-highest rating among all the Central European transition economies. Inflation and unemployment - both priority concerns in 2001 - have declined substantially. The key short-term issue is the reduction of the public sector deficit from its current 6% of GDP to 4.5% in 2003 and 3% in 2004.
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $134.7 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.2% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $13,300 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 4%
industry: 34%
services: 62% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
9% (1993 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 21% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
24 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
5.3% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
4.2 million (1997) (1997)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
services 65%, industry 27%, agriculture 8% (1996) (1996)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.8% (2002 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $13 billion
expenditures: $14.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Definition Field Listing
mining, metallurgy, construction materials, processed foods, textiles, chemicals (especially pharmaceuticals), motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.1% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
33.436 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 59%
hydro: 1%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 40%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
35.095 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
1.2 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
5.2 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, corn, sunflower seed, potatoes, sugar beets; pigs, cattle, poultry, dairy products
Definition Field Listing
$31.4 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment 57.6%, other manufactures 31.0%, food products 7.5%, raw materials 1.9%, fuels and electricity 1.9% (2001)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 34.9%, Austria 8.7%, Italy 5.9%, US 5.6% (2001)
Definition Field Listing
$33.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment 51.6%, other manufactures 35.3%, fuels and electricity 8.2%, food products 2.9%, raw materials 2.0% (2001)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 26.4%, Italy 8.3%, Austria 7.9%, Russia 6.8% (2001)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$31.5 billion (2002 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
ODA $250 million (2000)
Definition Field Listing
forint (HUF)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
forints per US dollar - 275.920 (January 2002), 286.490 (2001), 282.179 (2000), 237.146 (1999), 214.402 (1998), 186.789 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Hungary
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
3.095 million (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
1.269 million (July 1999)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: the telephone system has been modernized and is capable of satisfying all requests for telecommunication service
domestic: the system is digitalized and highly automated; trunk services are carried by fiber-optic cable and digital microwave radio relay; a program for fiber-optic subscriber connections was initiated in 1996; heavy use is made of mobile cellular telephones
international: Hungary has fiber-optic cable connections with all neighboring countries; the international switch is in Budapest; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean regions), 1 Inmarsat, 1 very small aperture terminal (VSAT) system of ground terminals
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 17, FM 57, shortwave 3 (1998)
Definition Field Listing
7.01 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
35 (plus 161 low-power repeaters) (1995)
Definition Field Listing
4.42 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
16 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
1.2 million (2001)
   Transportation    Hungary
Definition Field Listing
total: 7,869 km
broad gauge: 36 km 1.524-m gauge
narrow gauge: 219 km 0.760-m gauge
standard gauge: 7,614 km 1.435-m gauge (2,423 km electrified; 1,236 km double-tracked)
note: Hungary and Austria jointly manage the cross-border, standard-gauge railway connecting Gyor, Sopron, and Ebenfurt (Gysev railroad) which has a route length of about 101 km in Hungary and 65 km in Austria (2001)
Definition Field Listing
total: 188,203 km
paved: 81,680 km (including 448 km of expressways)
unpaved: 106,523 km (1998 est.)
Definition Field Listing
1,373 km (permanently navigable) (1997)
Definition Field Listing
crude oil 1,204 km; natural gas 4,387 km (1991)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Budapest, Dunaujvaros
Definition Field Listing
43 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 16
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2002)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 27
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
under 914 m: 8 (2002)
914 to 1,523 m: 12
Definition Field Listing
5 (2002)
   Military    Hungary
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Ground Forces, Air Forces
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,559,260 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,039,710 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 64,121 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$1.08 billion (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
1.75% (2002 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Hungary
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Slovakia requested additional ICJ judgment in 1998 and talks continue to set modalities to assure Hungarian compliance with 1997 ICJ decision to proceed with construction of Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Dam, abandoned by Hungary in 1989; Hungary opposes Croatian plan to build a hydropower dam on the boundary stream Drava
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and cannabis and for South American cocaine destined for Western Europe; limited producer of precursor chemicals, particularly for amphetamine and methamphetamine; improving, but remains vulnerable to money laundering related to organized crime and drug trafficking

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

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