Top banner
The World Factbook 2002 Banner

Flag of Mozambique
Click to enlarge
Categories Banner
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

Map of Mozambique

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Mozambique
Definition Field Listing
Almost five centuries as a Portuguese colony came to a close with independence in 1975. Large-scale emigration by whites, economic dependence on South Africa, a severe drought, and a prolonged civil war hindered the country's development. The ruling party formally abandoned Marxism in 1989, and a new constitution the following year provided for multiparty elections and a free market economy. A UN-negotiated peace agreement with rebel forces ended the fighting in 1992. Heavy flooding in both 1999 and 2000 severely hurt the economy.
   Geography    Mozambique
Definition Field Listing
Southern Africa, bordering the Mozambique Channel, between South Africa and Tanzania
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
18 15 S, 35 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
total: 801,590 sq km
water: 17,500 sq km
land: 784,090 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly less than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 4,571 km
border countries: Malawi 1,569 km, South Africa 491 km, Swaziland 105 km, Tanzania 756 km, Zambia 419 km, Zimbabwe 1,231 km
Definition Field Listing
2,470 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
Definition Field Listing
tropical to subtropical
Definition Field Listing
mostly coastal lowlands, uplands in center, high plateaus in northwest, mountains in west
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Monte Binga 2,436 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
coal, titanium, natural gas, hydropower, tantalum, graphite
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 3.98%
permanent crops: 0.29%
other: 95.73% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
1,070 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
severe droughts; devastating cyclones and floods occur in central and southern provinces
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
a long civil war and recurrent drought in the hinterlands have resulted in increased migration of the population to urban and coastal areas with adverse environmental consequences; desertification; pollution of surface and coastal waters; elephant poaching for ivory is a problem
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
the Zambezi flows through the north-central and most fertile part of the country
   People    Mozambique
Definition Field Listing
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected; the 1997 Mozambican census reported a population of 16,099,246 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 42.5% (male 4,162,413; female 4,176,295)
15-64 years: 54.7% (male 5,313,511; female 5,407,052)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 227,761; female 320,487) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.13% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
36.41 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
25.13 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
138.55 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 35.46 years
female: 34.65 years (2002 est.)
male: 36.25 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.71 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
12.6 to 16.4%, estimates vary (2001)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
1,546,643 (2001)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
114,111 (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Mozambican(s)
adjective: Mozambican
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
indigenous tribal groups 99.66% (Shangaan, Chokwe, Manyika, Sena, Makua, and others), Europeans 0.06%, Euro-Africans 0.2%, Indians 0.08%
Definition Field Listing
indigenous beliefs 50%, Christian 30%, Muslim 20%
Definition Field Listing
Portuguese (official), indigenous dialects
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 42.3%
male: 58.4%
female: 27% (1998 est.)
   Government    Mozambique
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Mozambique
conventional short form: Mozambique
local short form: Mocambique
former: Portuguese East Africa
local long form: Republica de Mocambique
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
10 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia), 1 city*; Cabo Delgado, Gaza, Inhambane, Manica, Maputo, Maputo City*, Nampula, Niassa, Sofala, Tete, Zambezia
Definition Field Listing
25 June 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 25 June (1975)
Definition Field Listing
30 November 1990
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO (since 6 November 1986); note - before being popularly elected, CHISSANO was elected president by Frelimo's Central Committee on 4 November 1986 (reelected by the Committee 30 July 1989)
head of government: Prime Minister Pascoal MOCUMBI (since 17 December 1994)
cabinet: Cabinet
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 3-5 December 1999 (next to be held NA 2004); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO reelected president; percent of vote - Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO 52.29%, Afonso DHLAKAMA 47.71%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (250 seats; members are directly elected by popular vote on a secret ballot to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 3-5 December 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
election results: percent of vote by party - Frelimo 48.54%, Renamo-UE 38.81%; seats by party - Frelimo 133, Renamo-UE 117
note: Renamo-UE ran as a multiparty coalition; none of the other opposition parties received the 5% required to win parliamentary seats; in September 2000, Renamo-UE member Raul DOMINGOS was expelled from the party, he continues to hold his parliamentary seat as an independent
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (the court of final appeal; some of its professional judges are appointed by the president and some are elected by the Assembly); other courts include an Administrative Court, customs courts, maritime courts, courts marshal, labor courts
note: although the constitution provides for the creation of a separate Constitutional Court, one has never been established; in its absence the Supreme Court reviews constitutional cases
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Front for the Liberation of Mozambique (Frente de Liberatacao de Mocambique) or Frelimo [Joaquim Alberto CHISSANO, president]; Mozambique National Resistance-Electoral Union (Resistencia Nacional Mocambicana-Uniao Eleitoral) or Renamo-UE [Afonso DHLAKAMA, president]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Institute for Peace and Democracy (Instituto para Paz e Democracia) or IPADE [Raul DOMINGOS, president]; Etica [Abdul CARIMO Issa, chairman]; Movement for Peace and Citizenship (Movimento para Paz e Cidadania); Mozambican League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH [Alice MABOTE, president]; Human Rights and Development (Direitos Humanos e Desenvolvimento) or DHD [Artemisia FRANCO, secretary general]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Armando PANGUENE
FAX: [1] (202) 835-0245
telephone: [1] (202) 293-7146
chancery: 1990 M Street NW, Suite 570, Washington, DC 20036
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Sharon P. WILKINSON
embassy: Avenida Kenneth Kuanda 193, Maputo
mailing address: P. O. Box 783, Maputo
telephone: [258] (1) 492797
FAX: [258] (1) 490448
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of green (top), black, and yellow with a red isosceles triangle based on the hoist side; the black band is edged in white; centered in the triangle is a yellow five-pointed star bearing a crossed rifle and hoe in black superimposed on an open white book
   Economy    Mozambique
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
At independence in 1975, Mozambique was one of the world's poorest countries. Socialist mismanagement and a brutal civil war from 1977-92 exacerbated the situation. In 1988, the government embarked on a series of dramatic macroeconomic reforms designed to stabilize the economy and reduce government participation. These steps combined with the political stability that has prevailed since the 1994 multi-party elections have led to dramatic improvements in the country's growth rate fueled by foreign and domestic investments and donor assistance. Inflation was brought to single digits during the same period, although it has returned to double digits in 2000 and 2001. Foreign exchange rates have remained relatively stable. Fiscal reforms, including the introduction of a value-added tax and reform of the customs service, have improved the government's revenue collection abilities. In spite of these gains, Mozambique remains dependent upon foreign assistance for much of its annual budget, and the majority of the population remains below the poverty line. Subsistence agriculture continues to employ the vast majority of the country's workforce. A substantial trade imbalance persists, although it has diminished with the opening of the MOZAL aluminum smelter, the country's largest foreign investment project. Additional investment projects in titanium extraction/processing and garment manufacturing should further close the import/export gap. Mozambique's once substantial foreign debt has been reduced through forgiveness and rescheduling under the IMF's Heavily Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and Enhanced HIPC initiatives, and is now at a manageable level.
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $17.5 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
9.2% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $900 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 33%
industry: 25%
services: 42% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
70% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 32% (1996-97)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
40 (1996-97 )
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
10% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
7.4 million (1997 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 81%, industry 6%, services 13% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
21% (1997 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $393.1 million
expenditures: $1.025 billion, including capital expenditures of $479.4 million (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
food, beverages, chemicals (fertilizer, soap, paints), petroleum products, textiles, cement, glass, asbestos, tobacco
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.4% (2000)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
7.017 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 4%
hydro: 96%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
925.81 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
5.7 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
100 million kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, cashew nuts, sugarcane, tea, cassava (tapioca), corn, coconuts, sisal, citrus and tropical fruits, potatoes, sunflowers; beef, poultry
Definition Field Listing
$746 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
prawns 40%, cashews, cotton, sugar, citrus, timber; bulk electricity (2000)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
South Africa 12.7%, Zimbabwe 12.2%, Spain 10.6%, Portugal 10.0% (2000)
Definition Field Listing
$1.254 billion c.i.f. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, mineral products, chemicals, metals, foodstuffs, textiles (2000)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
South Africa 33.5%, Portugal 4.8%, US 4.2%, Australia 3.8% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$1 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$632.8 million (2001)
Definition Field Listing
metical (MZM)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
meticais per US dollar - 23,314.2 (January 2002), 20,703.6 (2001), 15,447.1 (2000), 13,028.6 (1999), 12,110.2 (1998), 11,772.6 (1997)
note: effective October 2000, the exchange rate is determined as the weighted average of buying and selling exchange rates of all transactions of commercial banks and stock exchanges with the public; meticais is the plural form of metical
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Mozambique
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
90,000 (December 2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
100,000 (June 2001 est)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: fair system but not available generally (telephone density is only 3.5 telephones for each 1,000 persons)
domestic: the system consists of open-wire lines and trunk connection by microwave radio relay and tropospheric scatter
international: satellite earth stations - 5 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 3 Indian Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 13, FM 17, shortwave 11 (2001)
Definition Field Listing
730,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
1 (2001)
Definition Field Listing
67,600 (2000)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
11 (2002)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
22,500 (2000)
   Transportation    Mozambique
Definition Field Listing
total: 3,131 km
narrow gauge: 2,988 km 1.067-m gauge; 143 km 0.762-m gauge (2001)
Definition Field Listing
total: 30,400 km
paved: 5,685 km
unpaved: 24,715 km (1996)
Definition Field Listing
3,750 km (navigable routes)
Definition Field Listing
crude oil 306 km; petroleum products 289 km
note: not operating
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Beira, Inhambane, Maputo, Nacala, Pemba, Quelimane
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 4,125 GRT/7,024 DWT
ships by type: cargo 3
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belgium 2 (2002 est.)
Definition Field Listing
166 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 22
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 5 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 143
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 16
914 to 1,523 m: 35
under 914 m: 91 (2002)
   Military    Mozambique
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Naval Command, Air and Air Defense Forces, Special Forces, Militia
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 4,711,318 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,720,583 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$35.1 million (2000 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
1% (2000 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Mozambique
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
Southern African transit point for South Asian hashish, South Asian heroin, and South American cocaine probably destined for the European and South African markets; producer of cannabis (for local consumption) and methaqualone (for export to South Africa); corruption and poor regulatory capability makes the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

Bottom Banner