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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

Map of Angola

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Angola
Definition Field Listing
Civil war has been the norm in Angola since independence from Portugal in 1975. A 1994 peace accord between the government and the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) provided for the integration of former UNITA insurgents into the government and armed forces. A national unity government was installed in April of 1997, but serious fighting resumed in late 1998, rendering hundreds of thousands of people homeless. Up to 1.5 million lives may have been lost in fighting over the past quarter century. The death of insurgent leader Jonas SAVIMBI in 2002 and a subsequent cease fire with UNITA may bode well for the country.
   Geography    Angola
Definition Field Listing
Southern Africa, bordering the South Atlantic Ocean, between Namibia and Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
12 30 S, 18 30 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,246,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 1,246,700 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 5,198 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of discontiguous Cabinda Province), Republic of the Congo 201 km, Namibia 1,376 km, Zambia 1,110 km
Definition Field Listing
1,600 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
contiguous zone: 24 NM
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
Definition Field Listing
semiarid in south and along coast to Luanda; north has cool, dry season (May to October) and hot, rainy season (November to April)
Definition Field Listing
narrow coastal plain rises abruptly to vast interior plateau
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Morro de Moco 2,620 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, copper, feldspar, gold, bauxite, uranium
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 2.41%
permanent crops: 0.4%
other: 97.19% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
750 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
locally heavy rainfall causes periodic flooding on the plateau
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
overuse of pastures and subsequent soil erosion attributable to population pressures; desertification; deforestation of tropical rain forest, in response to both international demand for tropical timber and to domestic use as fuel, resulting in loss of biodiversity; soil erosion contributing to water pollution and siltation of rivers and dams; inadequate supplies of potable water
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
Cabinda is separated from rest of country by the Democratic Republic of the Congo
   People    Angola
Definition Field Listing
10,593,171 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 43.3% (male 2,318,326; female 2,272,726)
15-64 years: 53.9% (male 2,904,595; female 2,806,430)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 131,316; female 159,778) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.18% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
46.18 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
24.35 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
191.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 38.87 years
female: 40.18 years (2002 est.)
male: 37.62 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
6.43 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.78% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
160,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
15,000 (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Angolan(s)
adjective: Angolan
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Ovimbundu 37%, Kimbundu 25%, Bakongo 13%, mestico (mixed European and Native African) 2%, European 1%, other 22%
Definition Field Listing
indigenous beliefs 47%, Roman Catholic 38%, Protestant 15% (1998 est.)
Definition Field Listing
Portuguese (official), Bantu and other African languages
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 42%
male: 56%
female: 28% (1998 est.)
   Government    Angola
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Angola
conventional short form: Angola
local short form: Angola
former: People's Republic of Angola
local long form: Republica de Angola
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic, nominally a multiparty democracy with a strong presidential system
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
18 provinces (provincias, singular - provincia); Bengo, Benguela, Bie, Cabinda, Cuando Cubango, Cuanza Norte, Cuanza Sul, Cunene, Huambo, Huila, Luanda, Lunda Norte, Lunda Sul, Malanje, Moxico, Namibe, Uige, Zaire
Definition Field Listing
11 November 1975 (from Portugal)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 11 November (1975)
Definition Field Listing
11 November 1975; revised 7 January 1978, 11 August 1980, 6 March 1991, and 26 August 1992
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Portuguese civil law system and customary law; recently modified to accommodate political pluralism and increased use of free markets
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS (since 21 September 1979); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Fernando de Piedade Dias DOS SANTOS was appointed Prime Minister on 6 December 2002, but this is not a position of real power
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president
elections: president elected by universal ballot for a NA-year term; President DOS SANTOS originally elected (in 1979) without opposition under a one-party system and stood for reelection in Angola's first multiparty elections 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)
election results: DOS SANTOS 49.6%, Jonas SAVIMBI 40.1%, making a run-off election necessary; the run-off was not held and SAVIMBI's National Union for the Total Independence of Angola (UNITA) repudiated the results of the first election; the civil war resumed
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly or Assembleia Nacional (220 seats; members elected by proportional vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 29-30 September 1992 (next to be held NA)
election results: percent of vote by party - MPLA 54%, UNITA 34%, others 12%; seats by party - MPLA 129, UNITA 70, PRS 6, FNLA 5, PLD 3, others 7
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Tribunal da Relacao (judges are appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Liberal Democratic Party or PLD [Analia de Victoria PEREIRA]; National Front for the Liberation of Angola or FNLA [disputed leadership: Lucas NGONDA, Holden ROBERTO]; National Union for the Total Independence of Angola or UNITA [interim leader: Paulo Lukamba "GATO"], largest opposition party has engaged in years of armed resistance; Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola or MPLA [Jose Eduardo DOS SANTOS], ruling party in power since 1975; Social Renewal Party or PRS [disputed leadership: Eduardo KUANGANA, Antonio MUACHICUNGO]; UNITA-Renovada [Secretary General: Jorge VALENTIM], party officially reunited with UNITA in October 2002
note: about a dozen minor parties participated in the 1992 elections but only won a few seats and have little influence in the National Assembly
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita Henriques TIAGO; Antonio Bento BEMBE]
note: FLEC is waging a small-scale, highly factionalized, armed struggle for the independence of Cabinda Province
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Josefina Perpetua Pitra DIAKIDI
FAX: [1] (202) 785-1258
consulate(s) general: Houston and New York
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1156
chancery: 1615 M Street NW, Suite 900, Washington, DC 20036
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Christopher William DELL
embassy: number 32 Rua Houari Boumedienne (in the Miramar area of Luanda), Luanda
mailing address: international mail: Caixa Postal 6468, Luanda; pouch: American Embassy Luanda, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-2550
telephone: [244] (2) 445-481, 447-028, 446-224
FAX: [244] (2) 446-924
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and black with a centered yellow emblem consisting of a five-pointed star within half a cogwheel crossed by a machete (in the style of a hammer and sickle)
   Economy    Angola
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Angola is an economy in disarray because of a quarter century of nearly continuous warfare. Subsistence agriculture provides the main livelihood for 85% of the population. Oil production and the supporting activities are vital to the economy, contributing about 45% to GDP and 90% of exports. Violence continues, millions of land mines remain, and many farmers are reluctant to return to their fields. As a result, much of the country's food must still be imported. To fully take advantage of its rich natural resources - gold, diamonds, extensive forests, Atlantic fisheries, and large oil deposits - Angola will need to end its conflict and continue reforming government policies. Internal strife discourages investment outside of the petroleum sector, which is producing roughly 800,000 barrels of oil per day. While Angola made progress in bringing inflation down further, from over 300% in 2000 to about 110% in 2001, the government has failed to make sufficient progress on reforms recommended by the IMF, such as increasing foreign exchange reserves and promoting greater transparency in government spending. Angola's GDP could be among the world's fastest growing in 2002 if oil production from the Girassol field, which began production in December 2001, reaches 200,000 barrels per day as expected.
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $13.3 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.4% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $1,330 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 6%
industry: 70%
services: 24% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
110% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
5 million (1997 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 85%, industry and services 15% (1997 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
extensive unemployment and underemployment affecting more than half the population (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $928 million
expenditures: $2.5 billion, including capital expenditures of $963 million
Definition Field Listing
petroleum; diamonds, iron ore, phosphates, feldspar, bauxite, uranium, and gold; cement; basic metal products; fish processing; food processing; brewing; tobacco products; sugar; textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
1.19 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 40%
hydro: 60%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
1.107 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
bananas, sugarcane, coffee, sisal, corn, cotton, manioc (tapioca), tobacco, vegetables, plantains; livestock; forest products; fish
Definition Field Listing
$7 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
crude oil 90%, diamonds, refined petroleum products, gas, coffee, sisal, fish and fish products, timber, cotton
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 44.5%, EU 17.3%, China 22.7%, South Korea 8.1% (2000)
Definition Field Listing
$2.7 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and electrical equipment, vehicles and spare parts; medicines, food, textiles, military goods
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
EU 47.4%, South Korea 16%, South Africa 15.9%, US 11.3%, Brazil 5.5% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$10.4 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$383.5 million (1999)
Definition Field Listing
kwanza (AOA)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
kwanza per US dollar - 32.8716 (January 2002), 22.058 (2001), 10.041 (2000), 2.791 (1999), 0.393 (1998), 0.229 (1997); note - in December 1999 the kwanza was revalued with six zeroes dropped off the old value
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Angola
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
72,000 (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
25,800 (2000)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: telephone service limited mostly to government and business use; HF radiotelephone used extensively for military links
domestic: limited system of wire, microwave radio relay, and tropospheric scatter
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 21, FM 6, shortwave 7 (2000)
Definition Field Listing
815,000 (2000)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
6 (2000)
Definition Field Listing
196,000 (2000)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
1 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
60,000 (2002)
   Transportation    Angola
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,771 km (inland, much of the track is unusable because of land mines still in place from the civil war)
narrow gauge: 2,648 km 1.067-m gauge; 123 km 0.600-m gauge (2000 est.)
Definition Field Listing
total: 76,626 km
paved: 19,156 km
unpaved: 57,470 km (1997)
Definition Field Listing
1,295 km
Definition Field Listing
crude oil 179 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Ambriz, Cabinda, Lobito, Luanda, Malongo, Mocamedes, Namibe, Porto Amboim, Soyo
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 9 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 39,305 GRT/63,528 DWT
ships by type: cargo 8, petroleum tanker 1 (2002 est.)
Definition Field Listing
244 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 32
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 14
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 211
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 30
914 to 1,523 m: 95
under 914 m: 80 (2002)
   Military    Angola
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Police Force
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,532,469 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,272,509 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 103,807 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$1.2 billion (FY97)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
22% (1999)
   Transnational Issues    Angola
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
used as a transshipment point for cocaine destined for Western Europe and other African states

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

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