Top banner
The World Factbook 2002 Banner

Flag of Uganda
Click to enlarge
Categories Banner
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

Map of Uganda

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Uganda
Definition Field Listing
Uganda achieved independence from the UK in 1962. The dictatorial regime of Idi AMIN (1971-79) was responsible for the deaths of some 300,000 opponents; guerrilla war and human rights abuses under Milton OBOTE (1980-85) claimed another 100,000 lives. During the 1990s the government promulgated non-party presidential and legislative elections.
   Geography    Uganda
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Africa, west of Kenya
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
1 00 N, 32 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
total: 236,040 sq km
water: 36,330 sq km
land: 199,710 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,698 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 765 km, Kenya 933 km, Rwanda 169 km, Sudan 435 km, Tanzania 396 km
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Definition Field Listing
tropical; generally rainy with two dry seasons (December to February, June to August); semiarid in northeast
Definition Field Listing
mostly plateau with rim of mountains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Lake Albert 621 m
highest point: Margherita Peak on Mount Stanley 5,110 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
copper, cobalt, hydropower, limestone, salt, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 25.34%
permanent crops: 8.77%
other: 65.89% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
90 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
draining of wetlands for agricultural use; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; water hyacinth infestation in Lake Victoria; poaching is widespread
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; fertile, well-watered country with many lakes and rivers
   People    Uganda
Definition Field Listing
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 50.9% (male 6,314,371; female 6,265,681)
15-64 years: 47% (male 5,803,430; female 5,789,713)
65 years and over: 2.1% (male 247,798; female 278,080) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.94% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
47.15 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
17.53 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population
note: according to the UNHCR, by the end of 2001, Uganda was host to 178,815 refugees from a number of neighboring countries, including: Sudan 155,996, Rwanda 14,375, and Democratic Republic of the Congo 7,459 (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.89 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
89.35 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 43.81 years
female: 44.67 years (2002 est.)
male: 42.97 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
6.8 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
6.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
1.1 million (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
110,000 (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Ugandan(s)
adjective: Ugandan
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Baganda 17%, Ankole 8%, Basoga 8%, Iteso 8%, Bakiga 7%, Langi 6%, Rwanda 6%, Bagisu 5%, Acholi 4%, Lugbara 4%, Batoro 3%, Bunyoro 3%, Alur 2%, Bagwere 2%, Bakonjo 2%, Jopodhola 2%, Karamojong 2%, Rundi 2%, non-African (European, Asian, Arab) 1%, other 8%
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 33%, Protestant 33%, Muslim 16%, indigenous beliefs 18%
Definition Field Listing
English (official national language, taught in grade schools, used in courts of law and by most newspapers and some radio broadcasts), Ganda or Luganda (most widely used of the Niger-Congo languages, preferred for native language publications in the capital and may be taught in school), other Niger-Congo languages, Nilo-Saharan languages, Swahili, Arabic
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 62.7%
male: 74%
female: 54% (2000 est.)
   Government    Uganda
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Uganda
conventional short form: Uganda
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
45 districts; Adjumani, Apac, Arua, Bugiri, Bundibugyo, Bushenyi, Busia, Gulu, Hoima, Iganga, Jinja, Kabale, Kabarole, Kalangala, Kampala, Kamuli, Kapchorwa, Kasese, Katakwi, Kibale, Kiboga, Kisoro, Kitgum, Kotido, Kumi, Lira, Luwero, Masaka, Masindi, Mbale, Mbarara, Moroto, Moyo, Mpigi, Mubende, Mukono, Nakasongola, Nebbi, Ntungamo, Pallisa, Rakai, Rukungiri, Sembabule, Soroti, Tororo
note: there may be eleven more districts: Kaberamaido, Kamwenge, Kanungu, Kayunga, Kyenjojo, Mayngc, Nakapiripiti, Pader, Sironko, Wakiso, Yumbe
Definition Field Listing
9 October 1962 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 9 October (1962)
Definition Field Listing
8 October 1995; adopted by the interim, 284-member Constituent Assembly, charged with debating the draft constitution that had been proposed in May 1993; the Constituent Assembly was dissolved upon the promulgation of the constitution in October 1995
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
in 1995, the government restored the legal system to one based on English common law and customary law; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 29 January 1986); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI (since seizing power 29 January 1986); Prime Minister Apollo NSIBAMBI (since 5 April 1999); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; the prime minister assists the president in the supervision of the cabinet
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among elected legislators
election results: Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI elected president; percent of vote - Lt. Gen. Yoweri Kaguta MUSEVENI 69.3%, Kizza BESIGYE 27.8%
elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 12 March 2001 (next to be held NA 2006); note - first popular election for president since independence in 1962 was held in 1996; prime minister appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly (303 members - 214 directly elected by popular vote, 81 nominated by legally established special interest groups [women 56, army 10, disabled 5, youth 5, labor 5], 8 ex officio members; members serve five-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; note - election campaigning by party was not permitted
elections: last held 26 June 2001 (next to be held May or June 2006);
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the president and approved by the legislature); High Court (judges are appointed by the president)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
only one political organization, the National Resistance Movement or NRM [President MUSEVENI, chairman] is allowed to operate unfettered; note - the president maintains that the NRM is not a political party, but a movement which claims the loyalty of all Ugandans
note: the new constitution requires the suspension of political parties while the Movement organization is in governance; of the political parties that exist but are prohibited from sponsoring candidates, the most important are the Ugandan People's Congress or UPC [Milton OBOTE]; Democratic Party or DP [Paul SSEMOGERERE]; Conservative Party or CP [Joshua S. MAYANJA-NKANGI]; Justice Forum [Muhammad Kibirige MAYANJA]; and National Democrats Forum [Chapaa KARUHANGA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Edith Grace SSEMPALA
FAX: [1] (202) 726-1727
telephone: [1] (202) 726-7100 through 7102, 0416
chancery: 5911 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20011
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Jimmy KOLKER
embassy: 1577 Ggaba Rd., Kampala
mailing address: P. O. Box 7007, Kampala
telephone: [256] (41) 234-142
FAX: [256] (41) 258-451
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
six equal horizontal bands of black (top), yellow, red, black, yellow, and red; a white disk is superimposed at the center and depicts a red-crested crane (the national symbol) facing the hoist side
   Economy    Uganda
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Uganda has substantial natural resources, including fertile soils, regular rainfall, and sizable mineral deposits of copper and cobalt. Agriculture is the most important sector of the economy, employing over 80% of the work force. Coffee is the major export crop and accounts for the bulk of export revenues. Since 1986, the government - with the support of foreign countries and international agencies - has acted to rehabilitate and stabilize the economy by undertaking currency reform, raising producer prices on export crops, increasing prices of petroleum products, and improving civil service wages. The policy changes are especially aimed at dampening inflation and boosting production and export earnings. During 1990-2001, the economy turned in a solid performance based on continued investment in the rehabilitation of infrastructure, improved incentives for production and exports, reduced inflation, gradually improved domestic security, and the return of exiled Indian-Ugandan entrepreneurs. Ongoing Ugandan involvement in the war in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, corruption within the government, and slippage in the government's determination to press reforms raise doubts about the continuation of strong growth. In 2000, Uganda qualified for enhanced Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) debt relief worth $1.3 billion and Paris Club debt relief worth $145 million. These amounts combined with the original HIPC debt relief added up to about $2 billion. Growth for 2001 was held back because of a continued decline in the price of coffee, Uganda's principal export.
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $29 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.1% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $1,200 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 44%
industry: 18%
services: 38% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
35% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 21% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
37 (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
3.5% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
12 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 82%, industry 5%, services 13% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $959 million
expenditures: $1.04 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY98/99 est.)
Definition Field Listing
sugar, brewing, tobacco, cotton textiles, cement
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
7% (1999) (1999)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
1.599 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 1%
hydro: 99%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
1.314 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
174 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
1 million kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, tea, cotton, tobacco, cassava (tapioca), potatoes, corn, millet, pulses; beef, goat meat, milk, poultry, cut flowers
Definition Field Listing
$367 million f.o.b. (2001)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, fish and fish products, tea; gold, cotton, flowers, horticultural products
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 12.0%, Netherlands 10.2%, US 8.7%, Spain 8.0%, Belgium 7.1% (2000)
Definition Field Listing
$1.26 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
capital equipment, vehicles, petroleum, medical supplies; cereals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Kenya 43.1%, US 7.0%, India 6.8%, South Africa 6.1%, Japan 3.4% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$3.4 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$1.4 billion (2000) (2000)
Definition Field Listing
Ugandan shilling (UGX)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Ugandan shillings per US dollar - 1,738.7 (January 2002), 1,755.7 (2001), 1,644.5 (2000), 1,454.8 (1999), 1,240.2 (1998), 1,083.0 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 July - 30 June
   Communications    Uganda
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
50,074; however, 80,868 main lines have been installed (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
9,000 (1998)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: seriously inadequate; two cellular systems have been introduced, but a sharp increase in the number of main lines is essential; e-mail and Internet services are available
domestic: intercity traffic by wire, microwave radio relay, and radiotelephone communication stations, fixed and mobile cellular systems for short range traffic
international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Inmarsat; analog links to Kenya and Tanzania
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 7, FM 33, shortwave 2 (2001)
Definition Field Listing
5 million (2001)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
8 (plus one low-power repeater) (2001)
Definition Field Listing
500,000 (2001)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
2 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
60,000 (2002)
   Transportation    Uganda
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,241 km
narrow gauge: 1,241 km 1.000-m gauge
note: a program to rehabilitate the railroad is underway (2001)
Definition Field Listing
total: 27,000 km
paved: 1,800 km
unpaved: 25,200 km (of which about 4,200 km are all-weather roads) (1990)
Definition Field Listing
Lake Victoria, Lake Albert, Lake Kyoga, Lake George, Lake Edward, Victoria Nile, Albert Nile
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Entebbe, Jinja, Port Bell
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 5,091 GRT/8,229 DWT
ships by type: roll on/roll off 3
note: these ships are in cargo and passenger (ferry) service on Uganda's inland waterways (2002 est.)
Definition Field Listing
27 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 23
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 7 (2002)
   Military    Uganda
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Ugandan Peoples' Defense Force (including Army, Marine unit, Air Wing)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 5,302,787 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,879,083 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$121.3 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
2.1% (FY01)
   Transnational Issues    Uganda
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Tutsi, Hutu, and other ethnic groups, political rebels, and various government forces continue fighting in Great Lakes region, transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, and Uganda

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

Bottom Banner