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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

Map of Slovakia

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Slovakia
Definition Field Listing
In 1918 the Slovaks joined the closely related Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. Following the chaos of World War II, Czechoslovakia became a Communist nation within Soviet-ruled Eastern Europe. Soviet influence collapsed in 1989 and Czechoslovakia once more became free. The Slovaks and the Czechs agreed to separate peacefully on 1 January 1993. Historic, political, and geographic factors have caused Slovakia to experience more difficulty in developing a modern market economy than some of its Central European neighbors.
   Geography    Slovakia
Definition Field Listing
Central Europe, south of Poland
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
48 40 N, 19 30 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
total: 48,845 sq km
water: 45 sq km
land: 48,800 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
about twice the size of New Hampshire
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,524 km
border countries: Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 215 km, Hungary 677 km, Poland 444 km, Ukraine 97 km
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Definition Field Listing
temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Definition Field Listing
rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m
highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 30.74%
permanent crops: 2.64%
other: 66.62% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
1,740 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys
   People    Slovakia
Definition Field Listing
5,422,366 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 18.3% (male 508,256; female 484,739)
15-64 years: 70.1% (male 1,888,705; female 1,910,842)
65 years and over: 11.6% (male 237,770; female 392,054) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.14% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
10.09 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
9.22 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
8.76 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 74.2 years
female: 78.41 years (2002 est.)
male: 70.19 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.25 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
400 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Slovak(s)
adjective: Slovak
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Slovak 85.7%, Hungarian 10.6%, Roma 1.6% (the 1992 census figures underreport the Gypsy/Romany community, which is about 500,000), Czech, Moravian, Silesian 1.1%, Ruthenian and Ukrainian 0.6%, German 0.1%, Polish 0.1%, other 0.2% (1996)
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 60.3%, atheist 9.7%, Protestant 8.4%, Orthodox 4.1%, other 17.5%
Definition Field Listing
Slovak (official), Hungarian
Definition Field Listing
definition: NA
total population: NA%
male: NA%
female: NA%
   Government    Slovakia
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Slovak Republic
conventional short form: Slovakia
local short form: Slovensko
local long form: Slovenska Republika
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary democracy
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banskobystricky, Bratislavsky, Kosicky, Nitriansky, Presovsky, Trenciansky, Trnavsky, Zilinsky
Definition Field Listing
1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)
Definition Field Listing
ratified 1 September 1992, fully effective 1 January 1993; changed in September 1998 to allow direct election of the president; amended February 2001 to allow Slovakia to apply for NATO and EU membership
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Rudolf SCHUSTER (since 15 June 1999)
head of government: Prime Minister Mikulas DZURINDA (since 30 October 1998)
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by direct, popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 29 May 1999 (next to be held NA May/June 2004); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
note: government coalition - SDK, SDL, SMK, SOP, KDH
election results: Rudolf SCHUSTER elected president in the first direct, popular election; percent of vote - Rudolf SCHUSTER 57%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic or Narodna Rada Slovenskej Republiky (150 seats; members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party - HZDS-LS 19.5%, SDKU 15.1%, SMER 13.5%, SMK 11.2%, KDH 8.3%, ANO 8%, KSS 6.3%; seats by party - governing coalition 78 (SDKU 28, SMK 20, KDH 15, ANO 15), opposition 72 (HZDS 36, SMER 25, KSS 11)
elections: last held 20-21 September 2002 (next to be held NA September 2006)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Council); Constitutional Court (judges appointed by president from group of nominees approved by the National Council)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Pavol HRUSOVSKY]; Democratic Party or DS [Ludovit KANIK]; Direction (Smer) [Robert FICO]; Liberal Democratic Union or LDU [Jan BUDAJ]; Movement for a Democratic Slovakia-People's Party or HZDS-LS [Vladimir MECIAR]; Party of Civic Understanding or SOP [Pavol HAMZIK]; note - SSDS and SZS joined the SOP parliamentary caucus; Party of the Democratic Left or SDL [Pavel KONCOS]; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Bela BUGAR]; Real Slovak National Party or PSNS [Jan SLOTA]; Slovak Communist Party or KSS [leader NA]; Slovak Democratic and Christian Union or SDKU [Mikulas DZURINDA]; note - this is DZURINDA's new party for the 2002 elections; he remains chairman of a rump and splintering SDK; Slovak Democratic Coalition or SDK (loose parliamentary club grouping, representing members of the smaller SSDS, SZS, and those committed to run under SDKU in 2002) [Mikulas DZURINDA]; Slovak National Party or SNS [Anna MALIKOVA]; Yes (ANO) [Paval RUSKO]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Association of Employers of Slovakia; Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ; Metal Workers Unions or KOVO and METALURG
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Martin BUTORA
chancery: 3523 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
FAX: [1] (202) 237-6438
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1054
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Ronald WEISER
embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava
mailing address: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava
telephone: [421] (2) 5443-3338, 5443-0861
FAX: [421] (2) 5443-0096
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red superimposed with the Slovak cross in a shield centered on the hoist side; the cross is white centered on a background of red and blue
   Economy    Slovakia
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Slovakia has mastered much of the difficult transition from a centrally planned economy to a modern market economy. The DZURINDA government has made excellent progress in 2001-02 in macroeconomic stabilization and structural reform. Major privatizations are nearly complete, the banking sector is almost completely in foreign hands, and foreign investment has picked up. Slovakia's economy exceeded expectations in 2001-02, despite the general European slowdown. Unemployment, at an unacceptable 17.2% in 2002, remains the economy's Achilles heel. The government faces other strong challenges in 2003, especially the cutting of budget and current account deficits and the prevention of a revival of inflation.
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $66 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
4% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $12,200 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 5%
industry: 34%
services: 61% (2000)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 5%
highest 10%: 18% (1992) (1992)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
26 (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
3.3% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
3 million (1999)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
industry 29%, agriculture 9%, construction 8%, transport and communication 8%, services 46% (1994) (1994)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
17.2% (2002 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $5.2 billion
expenditures: $5.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999)
Definition Field Listing
metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.4% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
27.53 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 35%
hydro: 17%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 48%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
25.203 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
4.9 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
4.5 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products
Definition Field Listing
$12.9 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transport equipment 39.4%, intermediate manufactured goods 27.5%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 13%, chemicals 8% (1999)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
EU 59.9% (Germany 27.0%, Italy 8.8%, Austria 8.1%), Czech Republic 16.6% (2001)
Definition Field Listing
$15.4 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transport equipment 37.7%, intermediate manufactured goods 18%, fuels 13%, chemicals 11%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 9.5% (1999)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
EU 49.8% (Germany 24.7%, Italy 6.4%), Czech Republic 15.1%, Russia 14.8% (2001)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$9.6 billion (2002 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
ODA $113 million (2000 est.)
Definition Field Listing
Slovak koruna (SKK)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
koruny per US dollar - 47.792 (September 2001), 46.035 (2000), 41.363 (1999), 35.233 (1998), 33.616 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Slovakia
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
1,934,558 (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
736,662 (April 1999)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: a modernization and privatization program is increasing accessibility to telephone service, reducing the waiting time for new subscribers, and generally improving service quality
domestic: predominantly an analog system that is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; mobile cellular capability has been added
international: three international exchanges (one in Bratislava and two in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 15, FM 78, shortwave 2 (1998)
Definition Field Listing
3.12 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
38 (plus 864 repeaters) (1995)
Definition Field Listing
2.62 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
6 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
700,000 (2000)
   Transportation    Slovakia
Definition Field Listing
total: 3,660 km
broad gauge: 102 km 1.520-m gauge
narrow gauge: 51 km (46 km 1,000-m gauge; 5 km 0.750-m gauge) (2001)
standard gauge: 3,507 km 1.435-m gauge (1,505 km electrified; 1,011 km double-tracked)
Definition Field Listing
total: 17,710 km
paved: 17,533 km (including 288 km of expressways)
unpaved: 177 km (1998 est.)
Definition Field Listing
172 km (all on the Danube)
Definition Field Listing
petroleum products NA km; natural gas 2,700 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Bratislava, Komarno
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 15,191 GRT/19,489 DWT
ships by type: cargo 3 (2002 est.)
Definition Field Listing
34 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 17
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 7 (2002)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 17
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 7 (2002)
Definition Field Listing
1 (2002)
   Military    Slovakia
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army (Ground Forces), Air and Air Defense Forces, Home Guards (Territorial Defense Forces), Civil Defense Force, Railway Armed Forces (subordinate to the Ministry of Transportation, Post, and Telecommunications)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,486,728 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,136,775 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 45,502 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$406 million (2002)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
1.89% (2002)
   Transnational Issues    Slovakia
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Slovakia requested additional ICJ judgment in 1998, and talks continue to set modalities to assure Hungarian compliance with 1997 ICJ decision to proceed with construction of Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Dam, abandoned by Hungary in 1989
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for regional market

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

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