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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

Map of Austria

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Austria
Definition Field Listing
Once the center of power for the large Austro-Hungarian Empire, Austria was reduced to a small republic after its defeat in World War I. Following annexation by Nazi Germany in 1938 and subsequent occupation by the victorious Allies in 1945, Austria's status remained unclear for a decade. A State Treaty signed in 1955 ended the occupation, recognized Austria's independence, and forbade unification with Germany. A constitutional law of that same year declared the country's "perpetual neutrality" as a condition for Soviet military withdrawal. This neutrality, once ingrained as part of the Austrian cultural identity, has been called into question since the Soviet collapse of 1991 and Austria's entry into the European Union in 1995. A prosperous country, Austria entered the European Monetary Union in 1999.
   Geography    Austria
Definition Field Listing
Central Europe, north of Italy and Slovenia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
47 20 N, 13 20 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
total: 83,858 sq km
water: 1,120 sq km
land: 82,738 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Maine
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,562 km
border countries: Czech Republic 362 km, Germany 784 km, Hungary 366 km, Italy 430 km, Liechtenstein 35 km, Slovakia 91 km, Slovenia 330 km, Switzerland 164 km
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Definition Field Listing
temperate; continental, cloudy; cold winters with frequent rain in lowlands and snow in mountains; cool summers with occasional showers
Definition Field Listing
in the west and south mostly mountains (Alps); along the eastern and northern margins mostly flat or gently sloping
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Neusiedler See 115 m
highest point: Grossglockner 3,798 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
iron ore, oil, timber, magnesite, lead, coal, lignite, copper, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 16.89%
permanent crops: 0.99%
other: 82.12% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
457 sq km (2000 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
landslides; avalanches; earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
some forest degradation caused by air and soil pollution; soil pollution results from the use of agricultural chemicals; air pollution results from emissions by coal- and oil-fired power stations and industrial plants and from trucks transiting Austria between northern and southern Europe
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; strategic location at the crossroads of central Europe with many easily traversable Alpine passes and valleys; major river is the Danube; population is concentrated on eastern lowlands because of steep slopes, poor soils, and low temperatures elsewhere
   People    Austria
Definition Field Listing
8,169,929 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 16.4% (male 686,205; female 652,840)
15-64 years: 68.2% (male 2,814,866; female 2,756,777)
65 years and over: 15.4% (male 484,313; female 774,928) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.23% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
9.58 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
9.73 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.45 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.39 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 78 years
female: 81.31 years (2002 est.)
male: 74.85 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.4 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.1% (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
843 (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
8 (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Austrian(s)
adjective: Austrian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
German 88%, non-nationals 9.3% (includes Croatians, Slovenes, Hungarians, Czechs, Slovaks, Roma), naturalized 2% (includes those who have lived in Austria at least three generations)
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 78%, Protestant 5%, Muslim and other 17%
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98%
male: NA%
female: NA%
   Government    Austria
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Austria
conventional short form: Austria
local short form: Oesterreich
local long form: Republik Oesterreich
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
federal republic
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
9 states (Bundeslaender, singular - Bundesland); Burgenland, Kaernten, Niederoesterreich, Oberoesterreich, Salzburg, Steiermark, Tirol, Vorarlberg, Wien
Definition Field Listing
1156 (from Bavaria)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
National Day, 26 October (1955); note - commemorates the State Treaty restoring national sovereignty and the end of occupation and the passage of the law on permanent neutrality
Definition Field Listing
1920; revised 1929 (reinstated 1 May 1945)
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
civil law system with Roman law origin; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Court; separate administrative and civil/penal supreme courts; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal; compulsory for presidential elections
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Thomas KLESTIL (since 8 July 1992)
head of government: Chancellor Wolfgang SCHUESSEL (OeVP)(since 4 February 2000); Vice Chancellor Herbert HAUPT (since 28 February 2003)
cabinet: Council of Ministers chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a six-year term; presidential election last held 19 April 1998 (next to be held in the spring of 2004); chancellor traditionally chosen by the president from the plurality party in the National Council; in the case of the current coalition, the chancellor was chosen from another party after the plurality party failed to form a government; vice chancellor chosen by the president on the advice of the chancellor
note: government coalition - OeVP and FPOe
election results: Thomas KLESTIL reelected president; percent of vote - Thomas KLESTIL 63%, Gertraud KNOLL 14%, Heide SCHMIDT 11%, Richard LUGNER 10%, Karl NOWAK 2%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Federal Assembly or Bundesversammlung consists of Federal Council or Bundesrat (64 members; members represent each of the states on the basis of population, but with each state having at least three representatives; members serve a four- or six-year term) and the National Council or Nationalrat (183 seats; members elected by direct popular vote to serve four-year terms)
election results: National Council - percent of vote by party - OeVP 42.3%, SPOe 36.9%, FPOe 10.2%, Greens 9%; seats by party - OeVP 79, SPOe 69, FPOe 19, Greens 16
elections: National Council - last held 24 November 2002 (next to be held in the fall of 2006)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Judicial Court or Oberster Gerichtshof; Administrative Court or Verwaltungsgerichtshof; Constitutional Court or Verfassungsgerichtshof
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Austrian People's Party or OeVP [Wolfgang SCHUESSEL]; Freedom Party of Austria or FPOe [Susanne RIESS-PASSER]; Social Democratic Party of Austria or SPOe [Alfred GUSENBAUER]; The Greens Alternative or GA [Alexander VAN DER BELLEN]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Austrian Trade Union Federation (primarily Socialist) or OeGB; Federal Economic Chamber; OeVP-oriented League of Austrian Industrialists or VOeI; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action; three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP representing business, labor, and farmers
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Peter MOSER
chancery: 3524 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008-3035
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
FAX: [1] (202) 895-6750
telephone: [1] (202) 895-6700
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador William Lee LYONS BROWN, Jr.
embassy: Boltzmanngasse 16, A-1091, Vienna
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [43] (1) 31339-0
FAX: [43] (1) 3100682
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of red (top), white, and red
   Economy    Austria
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Austria, with its well-developed market economy and high standard of living, is closely tied to other EU economies, especially Germany's. Membership in the EU has drawn an influx of foreign investors attracted by Austria's access to the single European market and proximity to EU aspirant economies. Slowing growth in Germany and elsewhere in the world held the economy to only 1.2% growth in 2001 and 0.6% in 2002. To meet increased competition from both EU and Central European countries, Austria will need to emphasize knowledge-based sectors of the economy, continue to deregulate the service sector, and lower its tax burden.
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $226 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.6% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $27,700 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 2%
industry: 33%
services: 65% (2002 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 23% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
31 (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
1.8% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
4.3 million (2001)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
services 67%, industry and crafts 29%, agriculture and forestry 4% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.8% (2002 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $53 billion
expenditures: $54 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
construction, machinery, vehicles and parts, food, chemicals, lumber and wood processing, paper and paperboard, communications equipment, tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.8% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
60.285 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 28%
hydro: 69%
other: 3% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
54.764 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
15.11 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
13.809 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
grains, potatoes, sugar beets, wine, fruit; dairy products, cattle, pigs, poultry; lumber
Definition Field Listing
$70 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, motor vehicles and parts, paper and paperboard, metal goods, chemicals, iron and steel; textiles, foodstuffs
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
EU 63% (Germany 35%, Italy 9%, France 5%), Switzerland 5%, US 5%, Hungary 4% (2000)
Definition Field Listing
$74 billion c.i.f. (2001)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, motor vehicles, chemicals, metal goods, oil and oil products; foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
EU 68% (Germany 42%, Italy 7%, France 5%), US 6%, Switzerland 3%, Hungary 2% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$12.1 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $410 million (2000)
Definition Field Listing
euro (EUR); Austrian schilling (ATS)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by the financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Austrian schillings per US dollar - 11.86 (January 1999), 12.91 (1999), 12.379 (1998), 12.204 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Austria
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
4 million (consisting of 3,600,000 analog main lines plus 400,000 Integrated Services Digital Network connections); in addition, there are 100,000 Asymmetric Digital Services lines (2001)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
6 million (2001)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: highly developed and efficient
domestic: there are 48 main lines for every 100 persons; the fiber optic net is very extensive; all telephone applications and Internet services are available
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) and 1 Eutelsat; in addition, there are about 600 VSAT (very small aperture terminals) (2002)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 2, FM 160 (plus several hundred repeaters), shortwave 1 (2001)
Definition Field Listing
6.08 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
45 (plus more than 1,000 repeaters) (2001)
Definition Field Listing
4.25 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
37 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
3.7 million (2002)
   Transportation    Austria
Definition Field Listing
total: 6,095.2 km (3,643.3 km electrified)
standard gauge: 5,564.2 km 1.435-m gauge (3,521.2 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 33.9 km 1.000-m gauge (28.1 km electrified); 497.1 km 0.760-m gauge (94 km electrified) (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
total: 133,361 km
paved: 133,361 km (including 1,613 km of expressways)
unpaved: 0 km (1998)
Definition Field Listing
358 km (1999)
Definition Field Listing
crude oil 777 km; natural gas 840 km (1999)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Enns, Krems, Linz, Vienna
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 10 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 46,563 GRT/59,278 DWT
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 6, combination bulk 1, container 2 (2002 est.)
Definition Field Listing
55 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 24
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 14 (2002)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 31 31
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 1 27 (2002)
Definition Field Listing
1 (2002)
   Military    Austria
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Land Forces (KdoLdSK), Air Forces (KdoLuSK)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
19 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,092,623 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,728,191 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 50,580 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$1,497.1 million (FY01/02)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
0.8% (FY01/02)
   Transnational Issues    Austria
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
minor disputes with Czech Republic and Slovenia continue over nuclear power plants and post-World War II treatment of German-speaking minorities
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for Western Europe

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

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