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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

Map of Romania

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Romania
Definition Field Listing
Soviet occupation following World War II led to the formation of a Communist "peoples republic" in 1947 and the abdication of the king. The decades-long rule of dictator Nicolae CEAUSESCU and his Securitate police state became increasingly oppressive and draconian through the 1980s. CEAUSESCU was overthrown and executed in late 1989. Former communists dominated the government until 1996 when they were swept from power by a fractious coalition of center-right parties. Currently, the Social Democratic Party forms a nominally minority government, which governs with the support of the opposition Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania. Much economic restructuring remains to be carried out before Romania can achieve its hope of joining the European Union.
   Geography    Romania
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Black Sea, between Bulgaria and Ukraine
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
46 00 N, 25 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
total: 237,500 sq km
land: 230,340 sq km
water: 7,160 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Oregon
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,508 km
border countries: Bulgaria 608 km, Hungary 443 km, Moldova 450 km, Serbia and Montenegro 476 km, Ukraine (north) 362 km, Ukraine (east) 169 km
Definition Field Listing
225 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
contiguous zone: 24 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Definition Field Listing
temperate; cold, cloudy winters with frequent snow and fog; sunny summers with frequent showers and thunderstorms
Definition Field Listing
central Transylvanian Basin is separated from the Plain of Moldavia on the east by the Carpathian Mountains and separated from the Walachian Plain on the south by the Transylvanian Alps
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Moldoveanu 2,544 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum (reserves declining), timber, natural gas, coal, iron ore, salt, arable land, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 40.57%
permanent crops: 2.4%
other: 57.03% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
28,800 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
earthquakes, most severe in south and southwest; geologic structure and climate promote landslides
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
soil erosion and degradation; water pollution; air pollution in south from industrial effluents; contamination of Danube delta wetlands
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
controls most easily traversable land route between the Balkans, Moldova, and Ukraine
   People    Romania
Definition Field Listing
22,317,730 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 17.4% (male 1,992,505; female 1,898,122)
15-64 years: 68.8% (male 7,618,801; female 7,726,300)
65 years and over: 13.8% (male 1,274,881; female 1,807,121) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.21% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
10.81 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
12.27 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
18.88 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 70.39 years
female: 74.39 years (2002 est.)
male: 66.62 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.35 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.02% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
7,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
350 (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Romanian(s)
adjective: Romanian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Romanian 89.5%, Hungarian 6.6%, Roma 2.5%, Ukrainian 0.3%, German 0.3%, Russian 0.2%, Turkish 0.2%, other 0.4% (2002)
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Orthodox (including all sub-denominations) 87%, Protestant 6.8%, Catholic 5.6%, other (mostly Muslim) 0.4%, unaffiliated 0.2% (2002)
Definition Field Listing
Romanian, Hungarian, German
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 98%
female: 95% (1992 est.)
   Government    Romania
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Romania
local short form: Romania
local long form: none
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
41 counties (judete, singular - judet) and 1 municipality* (municipiu); Alba, Arad, Arges, Bacau, Bihor, Bistrita-Nasaud, Botosani, Braila, Brasov, Bucuresti*, Buzau, Calarasi, Caras-Severin, Cluj, Constanta, Covasna, Dimbovita, Dolj, Galati, Gorj, Giurgiu, Harghita, Hunedoara, Ialomita, Iasi, Ilfov, Maramures, Mehedinti, Mures, Neamt, Olt, Prahova, Salaj, Satu Mare, Sibiu, Suceava, Teleorman, Timis, Tulcea, Vaslui, Vilcea, Vrancea
Definition Field Listing
9 May 1877 (independence proclaimed from Turkey; independence recognized 13 July 1878 by the Treaty of Berlin; kingdom proclaimed 26 March 1881; republic proclaimed 30 December 1947)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Unification Day (of Romania and Transylvania), 1 December (1918)
Definition Field Listing
8 December 1991
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
former mixture of civil law system and communist legal theory; is now based on the constitution of France's Fifth Republic
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Ion ILIESCU (since 20 December 2000)
elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term; election last held 26 November 2000, with runoff between the top two candidates held 10 December 2000 (next to be held NA November/December 2004); prime minister appointed by the president
head of government: Prime Minister Adrian NASTASE (since 29 December 2000)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister
election results: percent of vote - Ion ILIESCU 66.84%, Corneliu Vadim TUDOR 33.16%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Parliament or Parlament consists of the Senate or Senat (140 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms) and the Chamber of Deputies or Adunarea Deputatilor (345 seats; members are elected by direct, popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 26 November 2000 (next to be held in the fall of 2004); Chamber of Deputies - last held 26 November 2000 (next to be held in the fall of 2004)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PDSR 37.1%, PRM 21.0%, PD 7.6%, PNL 7.5%, UDMR 6.9%; seats by party - PDSR 65, PRM 37, PD 13, PNL 13, UDMR 12; Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - PDSR 36.6%, PRM 19.5%, PD 7.0%, PNL, 6.9%, UDMR 6.8%; seats by party - PDSR 155, PRM 84, PD 31, PNL 30, UDMR 27, ethnic minorities 18
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court of Justice (judges are appointed by the president on the recommendation of the Superior Council of Magistrates)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Democratic Party or PD [Traian BASESCU]; Democratic Union of Hungarians in Romania or UDMR [Bela MARKO]; National Liberal Party or PNL [Valeriu STOICA]; Romania Mare Party (Greater Romanian Party) or PRM [Corneliu Vadim TUDOR]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Adrian NASTASE], formerly known as the Party of Social Democracy in Romania or PDSR
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
various human rights and professional associations
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
ACCT, Australia Group, BIS, BSEC, CCC, CE, CEI, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, G- 9, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MONUC, NAM (guest), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNIKOM, UNMEE, UNMIBH, UNMIK, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Sorin Dumitru DUCARU
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, and New York
FAX: [1] (202) 232-4748
telephone: [1] (202) 332-4846, 4848, 4851
chancery: 1607 23rd Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Michael GUEST
embassy: Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9, Bucharest
mailing address: American Embassy Bucharest, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-5260 (pouch)
telephone: [40] (21) 210-4042
FAX: [40] (21) 210-0395
branch office(s): Cluj-Napoca
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal vertical bands of blue (hoist side), yellow, and red; the national coat of arms that used to be centered in the yellow band has been removed; now similar to the flag of Chad, also resembles the flags of Andorra and Moldova
   Economy    Romania
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Romania, one of the poorest countries of Central and Eastern Europe, began the transition from Communism in 1989 with a largely obsolete industrial base and a pattern of output unsuited to the country's needs. Over the past decade economic restructuring has lagged behind most other countries in the region. Consequently, living standards have continued to fall - real wages are down perhaps 40%. The country emerged in 2000 from a punishing three-year recession thanks to strong demand in EU export markets, and despite the global slowdown in 2001, strong domestic activity in construction, agriculture, and consumption led to 4.8% growth. A standby agreement with the IMF - covering the period October 2001 to March 2003 - provides a key opportunity for vigorous privatization, regulatory reform, deficit reduction, and the curbing of inflation. The government in the past has not been able to fully implement IMF agreements; its degree of success in this case will affect prospects for joining the EU.
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $152.7 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.8% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $6,800 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 15%
industry: 30%
services: 55% (2000)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
45% (2000)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 23% (1994)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
31 (1997)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
34.5% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
9.9 million (1999 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 40%, industry 25%, services 35% (1998)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
9.1% (2001)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $11.7 billion
expenditures: $12.4 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
textiles and footwear, light machinery and auto assembly, mining, timber, construction materials, metallurgy, chemicals, food processing, petroleum refining
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
6.5% (2001)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
49.787 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 53%
hydro: 37%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 10%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
45.677 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
1.4 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
775 million kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, potatoes, grapes; eggs, sheep
Definition Field Listing
$11.5 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
textiles and footwear 26%, metals and metal products 15%, machinery and equipment 11%, minerals and fuels 6% (1999)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Italy 22%, Germany 16%, France 7%, Turkey 6%, US (2000)
Definition Field Listing
$14.4 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment 23%, fuels and minerals 12%, chemicals 9%, textile and products 19% (1999)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Italy 19%, Germany 15%, Russia 9%, France 6% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$11.6 billion (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
leu (ROL)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
lei per US dollar - 35,052.0 (January 2002), 29,060.8 (2001), 21,708.7 (2000), 15,332.8 (1999), 8,875.6 (1998), 7,167.9 (1997); note - lei is the plural form of leu
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Romania
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
3.777 million (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
645,500 (1999)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: poor domestic service, but improving
domestic: 90% of telephone network is automatic; trunk network is mostly microwave radio relay, with some fiber-optic cable; about one-third of exchange capacity is digital; roughly 3,300 villages have no service
international: satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat; new digital, international, direct-dial exchanges operate in Bucharest; note - Romania is an active participant in several international telecommunication network projects (1999)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 40, FM 202, shortwave 3 (1998)
Definition Field Listing
7.2 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
48 (plus 392 repeaters) (1995)
Definition Field Listing
5.25 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
38 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
1 million (2002)
   Transportation    Romania
Definition Field Listing
total: 11,385 km (3,888 km electrified)
standard gauge: 10,898 km 1.435-m gauge
narrow gauge: 427 km 0.760-m gauge (2001)
broad gage: 60 km 1.524-m gauge
Definition Field Listing
total: 153,359 km
paved: 103,671 km (including 133 km of expressways)
unpaved: 49,688 km (1998 est.)
Definition Field Listing
1,724 km (1984)
Definition Field Listing
crude oil 2,800 km; petroleum products 1,429 km; natural gas 6,400 km (1992)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Braila, Constanta, Galati, Mangalia, Sulina, Tulcea
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 70 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 561,470 GRT/754,836 DWT
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Greece 1, Italy 5 (2002 est.)
ships by type: bulk 11, cargo 47, passenger 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 4, railcar carrier 2, roll on/roll off 4
Definition Field Listing
61 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 25
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 37
under 914 m: 23 (2002)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 12
Definition Field Listing
1 (2002)
   Military    Romania
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces (AMR), Paramilitary Forces, Civil Defense, Border Guards
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
20 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 5,906,601 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 4,970,496 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 179,951 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$985 million (2002)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
2.47% (2002)
   Transnational Issues    Romania
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Romania and Ukraine have yet to resolve claims over Ukrainian-administered Zmiyinyy (Snake) Island and delimitation of Black Sea maritime boundary, despite 1997 bilateral treaty to find a solution in two years and numerous talks; because of a shift in the Danube course since the last correction of the boundary in 1920, a joint Bulgarian-Romanian team will recommend sovereignty changes to several islands and redefine the boundary
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
major transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin transiting the Balkan route and small amounts of Latin American cocaine bound for Western Europe

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

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