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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

Map of Portugal

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Portugal
Definition Field Listing
Following its heyday as a world power during the 15th and 16th centuries, Portugal lost much of its wealth and status with the destruction of Lisbon in a 1755 earthquake, occupation during the Napoleonic Wars, and the independence in 1822 of Brazil as a colony. A 1910 revolution deposed the monarchy; for most of the next six decades repressive governments ran the country. In 1974, a left-wing military coup installed broad democratic reforms. The following year Portugal granted independence to all of its African colonies. Portugal entered the EC (now the EU) in 1985.
   Geography    Portugal
Definition Field Listing
Southwestern Europe, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, west of Spain
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
39 30 N, 8 00 W
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
total: 92,391 sq km
land: 91,951 sq km
note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands
water: 440 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Indiana
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,214 km
border countries: Spain 1,214 km
Definition Field Listing
1,793 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
contiguous zone: 24 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
Definition Field Listing
maritime temperate; cool and rainy in north, warmer and drier in south
Definition Field Listing
mountainous north of the Tagus River, rolling plains in south
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Ponta do Pico (Pico or Pico Alto) on Ilha do Pico in the Azores 2,351 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
fish, forests (cork), tungsten, iron ore, uranium ore, marble, arable land, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 20.57%
permanent crops: 7.74%
other: 71.69% (1999 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
6,320 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
Azores subject to severe earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
soil erosion; air pollution caused by industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution, especially in coastal areas
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Environmental Modification, Nuclear Test Ban
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
Azores and Madeira Islands occupy strategic locations along western sea approaches to Strait of Gibraltar
   People    Portugal
Definition Field Listing
10,084,245 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 16.9% (male 875,485; female 827,670)
15-64 years: 67.3% (male 3,324,215; female 3,463,301)
65 years and over: 15.8% (male 644,761; female 948,813) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.18% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
11.5 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
10.21 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.07 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.84 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 76.14 years
female: 79.87 years (2002 est.)
male: 72.65 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.48 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.74% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
36,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
280 (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Portuguese (singular and plural)
adjective: Portuguese
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
homogeneous Mediterranean stock; citizens of black African descent who immigrated to mainland during decolonization number less than 100,000; since 1990 East Europeans have entered Portugal
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 94%, Protestant (1995)
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 87.4%
male: NA%
female: NA%
   Government    Portugal
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Portuguese Republic
conventional short form: Portugal
local long form: Republica Portuguesa
local short form: Portugal
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
parliamentary democracy
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
18 districts (distritos, singular - distrito) and 2 autonomous regions* (regioes autonomas, singular - regiao autonoma); Aveiro, Acores (Azores)*, Beja, Braga, Braganca, Castelo Branco, Coimbra, Evora, Faro, Guarda, Leiria, Lisboa, Madeira*, Portalegre, Porto, Santarem, Setubal, Viana do Castelo, Vila Real, Viseu
Definition Field Listing
1143 (independent republic proclaimed 5 October 1910)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Portugal Day, 10 June (1580)
Definition Field Listing
25 April 1976, revised 30 October 1982, 1 June 1989, 5 November 1992, and 3 September 1997
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
civil law system; the Constitutional Tribunal reviews the constitutionality of legislation; accepts compulsory ICJ jurisdiction, with reservations
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Jorge SAMPAIO (since 9 March 1996)
note: there is also a Council of State that acts as a consultative body to the president
head of government: Prime Minister Jose Manuel DURAO Barroso (since 6 April 2002)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 14 January 2001 (next to be held NA January 2006); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president
election results: Jorge SAMPAIO reelected president; percent of vote - Jorge SAMPAIO (Socialist) 55.8%, Joaquim FERREIRA Do Amaral (Social Democrat) 34.5%, Antonio ABREU (Communist) 5.1%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Assembly of the Republic or Assembleia da Republica (230 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: last held 17 March 2002 (next to be held NA 2006)
election results: percent of vote by party - PSD 40.1%, PS 37.8%, PP 8.7%, PCP/PEV 6.9%, The Left Bloc 2.7%; seats by party - PSD 105, PS 96, PP 14, PCP/PEV 12, The Left Bloc 3
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Supremo Tribunal de Justica (judges appointed for life by the Conselho Superior da Magistratura)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
The Greens or PEV [no leader]; Popular Party or PP [Paulo PORTAS]; Portuguese Communist Party/The Greens or PCP/PEV [Carlos CARVALHAS]; Portuguese Socialist Party or PS [Eduardo Ferro RODRIGUES]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [Jose Manuel DURAO Barroso]; United Democratic Coalition or CDU [leader NA]; The Left Bloc [no leader]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Pedro Manuel Dos Reis Alves CATARINO
consulate(s): Los Angeles, New Bedford (Massachusetts), Providence (Rhode Island)
consulate(s) general: Boston, New York, Newark (New Jersey), and San Francisco
FAX: [1] (202) 462-3726
telephone: [1] (202) 328-8610
chancery: 2125 Kalorama Road NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador John N. PALMER
embassy: Avenida das Forcas Armadas, 1600-081 Lisbon, Apartado 4258, 1507 Lisboa CODEX
mailing address: PSC 83, APO AE 09726
telephone: [351] (21) 727-3300
FAX: [351] (21) 727-9109
consulate(s): Ponta Delgada (Azores)
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
two vertical bands of green (hoist side, two-fifths) and red (three-fifths) with the Portuguese coat of arms centered on the dividing line
   Economy    Portugal
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Portugal has become a diversified and increasingly service-based economy since joining the European Community in 1986. Over the past decade, successive governments have privatized many state-controlled firms and liberalized key areas of the economy, including the financial and telecommunications sectors. The country qualified for the European Monetary Union (EMU) in 1998 and began circulating its new currency, the euro, on 1 January 2002 along with 11 other EU member economies. Economic growth has been above the EU average for much of the past decade, but fell back in 2001-02. GDP per capita stands at 75% of that of the leading EU economies. A poor educational system, in particular, has been an obstacle to greater productivity and growth. Portugal has been increasingly overshadowed by lower-cost producers in Central Europe and Asia as a target for foreign direct investment. The new coalition government faces tough choices in its attempts to boost Portugal's economic competitiveness and to keep the budget deficit within the 3% EU ceiling.
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $182 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.8% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $18,000 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 4%
industry: 29%
services: 68% (2001)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 28% (1995 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
36 (1994-95 )
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
3.7% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
5.1 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
services 60%, industry 30%, agriculture 10% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
4.7% (2002 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $45 billion
expenditures: $48 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
textiles and footwear; wood pulp, paper, and cork; metalworking; oil refining; chemicals; fish canning; wine; tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.5% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
43.242 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 70%
hydro: 26%
other: 4% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
41.146 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
3.767 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
4.698 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
grain, potatoes, olives, grapes; sheep, cattle, goats, poultry, beef, dairy products
Definition Field Listing
$25.9 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
clothing and footwear, machinery, chemicals, cork and paper products, hides
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
EU 79.7% (Germany 19.2%, Spain 18.6%, France 12.6%, UK 10.3%, Benelux 5.4%), US 5.8% (2001)
Definition Field Listing
$39 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum, textiles, agricultural products
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
EU 74.2% (Spain 26.5%, Germany 13.9%, France 10.3%, Italy 6.7%, UK 5.0%), US 3.8%, Japan 1.9% (2001)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$13.1 billion (1997 est.)
Economic aid - donor:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $271 million (1995) (1995)
Definition Field Listing
euro (EUR); Portuguese escudo (PTE)
note: on 1 January 1999, the European Monetary Union introduced the euro as a common currency to be used by financial institutions of member countries; on 1 January 2002, the euro became the sole currency for everyday transactions within the member countries
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
euros per US dollar - 1.1324 (January 2002), 1.1175 (2001), 1.0854 (2000), 0.9386 (1999); Portuguese escudos per US dollar - 180.10 (1998), 175.31 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Portugal
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
5.3 million (yearend 1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
3,074,194 (1999)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: undergoing rapid development in recent years, Portugal's telephone system, by the end of 1998, achieved a state-of-the-art network with broadband, high-speed capabilities and a main line telephone density of 53%
domestic: integrated network of coaxial cables, open wire, microwave radio relay, and domestic satellite earth stations
international: 6 submarine cables; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean), NA Eutelsat; tropospheric scatter to Azores; note - an earth station for Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region) is planned
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 47, FM 172 (many are repeaters), shortwave 2 (1998)
Definition Field Listing
3.02 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
62 (plus 166 repeaters)
note: includes Azores and Madeira Islands (1995)
Definition Field Listing
3.31 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
16 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
4.4 million (2002)
   Transportation    Portugal
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,850 km
broad gauge: 2,576 km 1.668-m gauge (623 km electrified; 426 km double-tracked)
narrow gauge: 274 km 1.000-m gauge (2001)
Definition Field Listing
total: 68,732 km
paved: 59,110 km (including 797 km of expressways)
unpaved: 9,622 km (1999)
Definition Field Listing
820 km
note: relatively unimportant to national economy, used by shallow-draft craft limited to 300 metric-ton or less cargo capacity
Definition Field Listing
crude oil 22 km; petroleum products 58 km; natural gas 700 km
note: the secondary lines for the natural gas pipeline that will be 300 km long have not yet been built
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Aveiro, Funchal (Madeira Islands), Horta (Azores), Leixoes, Lisbon, Porto, Ponta Delgada (Azores), Praia da Vitoria (Azores), Setubal, Viana do Castelo
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 140 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 1,001,440 GRT/1,519,701 DWT
ships by type: bulk 10, cargo 71, chemical tanker 17, container 10, liquefied gas 8, multi-functional large-load carrier 1, petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 6, short-sea passenger 4, vehicle carrier 2
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belgium 1, British Virgin Islands 1, Cyprus 1, Denmark 6, Germany 20, Greece 1, Iceland 1, Italy 16, Lebanon 1, Liberia 1, Monaco 2, Norway 5, Panama 5, Spain 22, Switzerland 8, United Kingdom 1, Virgin Islands (UK) 1 (2002 est.)
Definition Field Listing
67 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 40
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 9
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 7 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 26
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 25 (2002)
   Military    Portugal
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy (PON) (includes Marines), Air Force, Republican Guard (includes Fiscal Guard)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
20 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,525,848 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,024,526 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 71,404 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$1.286 billion (FY99/00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
2.2% (FY99/00)
   Transnational Issues    Portugal
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
gateway country for Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market; transshipment point for hashish from North Africa to Europe; consumer of Southwest Asian heroin

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

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