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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

Map of Togo

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Togo
Definition Field Listing
French Togoland became Togo in 1960. General Gnassingbe EYADEMA, installed as military ruler in 1967, is Africa's longest-serving head of state. Despite the facade of multiparty elections instituted in the early 1990s, the government continues to be dominated by President EYADEMA, whose Rally of the Togolese People (RPT) party has maintained power almost continually since 1967. In addition, Togo has come under fire from international organizations for human rights abuses and is plagued by political unrest. Most bilateral and multilateral aid to Togo remains frozen.
   Geography    Togo
Definition Field Listing
Western Africa, bordering the Bight of Benin, between Benin and Ghana
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
8 00 N, 1 10 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
total: 56,785 sq km
water: 2,400 sq km
land: 54,385 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,647 km
border countries: Benin 644 km, Burkina Faso 126 km, Ghana 877 km
Definition Field Listing
56 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 30 NM
Definition Field Listing
tropical; hot, humid in south; semiarid in north
Definition Field Listing
gently rolling savanna in north; central hills; southern plateau; low coastal plain with extensive lagoons and marshes
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mont Agou 986 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
phosphates, limestone, marble, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 41.37%
permanent crops: 1.84%
other: 56.79% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
70 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
hot, dry harmattan wind can reduce visibility in north during winter; periodic droughts
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation attributable to slash-and-burn agriculture and the use of wood for fuel; water pollution presents health hazards and hinders the fishing industry; air pollution increasing in urban areas
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
the country's length allows it to stretch through six distinct geographic regions; climate varies from tropical to savanna
   People    Togo
Definition Field Listing
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 45.1% (male 1,195,052; female 1,187,014)
15-64 years: 52.4% (male 1,351,345; female 1,420,617)
65 years and over: 2.5% (male 56,270; female 75,203) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.48% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
36.11 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
11.3 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
69.32 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 54.02 years
female: 56.07 years (2002 est.)
male: 52.03 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.14 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.98% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
130,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
14,000 (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Togolese (singular and plural)
adjective: Togolese
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
native African (37 tribes; largest and most important are Ewe, Mina, and Kabre) 99%, European and Syrian-Lebanese less than 1%
Definition Field Listing
indigenous beliefs 51%, Christian 29%, Muslim 20%
Definition Field Listing
French (official and the language of commerce), Ewe and Mina (the two major African languages in the south), Kabye (sometimes spelled Kabiye) and Dagomba (the two major African languages in the north)
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 51.7%
male: 67%
female: 37% (1995 est.)
   Government    Togo
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Togolese Republic
conventional short form: Togo
local short form: none
former: French Togoland
local long form: Republique Togolaise
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic under transition to multiparty democratic rule
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
5 regions (regions, singular - region); De La Kara, Des Plateaux, Des Savanes, Centrale, Maritime
Definition Field Listing
27 April 1960 (from French-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 27 April (1960)
Definition Field Listing
multiparty draft constitution approved by High Council of the Republic 1 July 1992; adopted by public referendum 27 September 1992
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
French-based court system
Definition Field Listing
NA years of age; universal adult
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA (since 14 April 1967)
head of government: Prime Minister Koffi SAMA (since 29 June 2002)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and the prime minister
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 21 June 1998 (next to be held June 2003); prime minister appointed by the president
election results: Gnassingbe EYADEMA reelected president; percent of vote - Gnassingbe EYADEMA 52.13%, Gilchrist OLYMPIO 34.12%, other 13.75%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly (81 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 27 October 2002 (next NA 2006)
note: two opposition parties boycotted the election, the Union of the Forces for Change, and the Action Committee for Renewal
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - RPT 72, RSD 3, UDPS 2, Juvento 2, MOCEP 1, independents 1
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Court of Appeal or Cour d'Appel; Supreme Court or Cour Supreme
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Action Committee for Renewal or CAR [Yawovi AGBOYIBO]; Coordination des Forces Nouvelles or CFN [Joseph KOFFIGOH]; Democratic Convention of African Peoples or CDPA [Leopold GNININVI]; Party for Democracy and Renewal or PDR [Zarifou AYEVA]; Patriotic Pan-African Convergence or CPP [Edem KODJO]; Rally of the Togolese People or RPT [President Gen. Gnassingbe EYADEMA]; Union of Forces for Change or UFC [Gilchrist OLYMPIO (in exile), Jean Pierre FABRE, general secretary in Togo]; Union of Independent Liberals or ULI [Jacques AMOUZOU]
note: Rally of the Togolese People or RPT, led by President EYADEMA, was the only party until the formation of multiple parties was legalized 12 April 1991
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Akoussoulelou BODJONA
FAX: [1] (202) 232-3190
telephone: [1] (202) 234-4212
chancery: 2208 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Karl HOFMANN
embassy: Angle Rue Kouenou and Rue 15 Beniglato, Lome
mailing address: B. P. 852, Lome
telephone: [228] 221 29 91 through 221 29 94
FAX: [228] 221 79 52
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
five equal horizontal bands of green (top and bottom) alternating with yellow; there is a white five-pointed star on a red square in the upper hoist-side corner; uses the popular pan-African colors of Ethiopia
   Economy    Togo
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
This small sub-Saharan economy is heavily dependent on both commercial and subsistence agriculture, which provides employment for 65% of the labor force. Some basic foodstuffs must still be imported. Cocoa, coffee, and cotton generate about 40% of export earnings, with cotton being the most significant cash crop despite falling prices on the world market. Political unrest, including private and public sector strikes throughout 1992 and 1993, jeopardized the reform program, shrunk the tax base, and disrupted vital economic activity. The 12 January 1994 devaluation of the XOF currency by 50% provided an important impetus to renewed structural adjustment. In the industrial sector, phosphate mining is by far the most important activity. Togo is the world's fourth largest producer, and geological advantages keep production costs low. The recently privatized mining operation, Office Togolais des Phosphates (OTP), is slowly recovering from a steep fall in prices in the early 1990's, but continues to face the challenge of tough foreign competition, exacerbated by weakening demand. Togo serves as a regional commercial and trade center. It continues to expand its duty-free export-processing zone (EPZ), launched in 1989, which has attracted enterprises from France, Italy, Scandinavia, the US, India, and China and created jobs for Togolese nationals. The government's decade-long effort, supported by the World Bank and the IMF, to implement economic reform measures, encourage foreign investment, and bring revenues in line with expenditures has stalled. Progress depends on following through on privatization, increased openness in government financial operations, progress towards legislative elections, and possible downsizing of the military, on which the regime has depended to stay in place. Lack of large-scale foreign aid, deterioration of the financial sector, energy shortages, and depressed commodity prices continue to constrain economic growth. The takeover of the national power company by a Franco-Canadian consortium in 2000 should ease the energy crisis.
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $7.6 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.2% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $1,500 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 42%
industry: 21%
services: 37% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
32% (1989 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
2.3% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
1.74 million (1996) (1996)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 65%, industry 5%, services 30% (1998 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $232 million
expenditures: $252 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1997 est.)
Definition Field Listing
phosphate mining, agricultural processing, cement; handicrafts, textiles, beverages
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
97 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 98%
other: 0% (2000)
hydro: 2%
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
525.21 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
435 million kWh
note: electricity supplied by Ghana (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, cocoa, cotton, yams, cassava (tapioca), corn, beans, rice, millet, sorghum; livestock; fish
Definition Field Listing
$306 million f.o.b. (2001)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, phosphates, coffee, cocoa
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Benin 12%, Nigeria 9%, Belgium 5%, Ghana 4% (2000)
Definition Field Listing
$420 million f.o.b. (2001)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Ghana 26%, France 11%, China 7%, Cote d'Ivoire 7% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$1.5 billion (1999) (1999)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$201.1 million (1995) (1995)
Definition Field Listing
Communaute Financiere Africaine franc (XOF); note - responsible authority is the Central Bank of the West African States
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 741.79 (January 2002), 733.04 (2001), 711.98 (2000), 615.70 (1999), 589.95 (1998), 583.67 (1997); note - from 1 January 1999, the XOF is pegged to the euro at a rate of 655.957 XOF per euro
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Togo
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
25,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
2,995 (1997)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: fair system based on a network of microwave radio relay routes supplemented by open-wire lines and a mobile cellular system
domestic: microwave radio relay and open-wire lines for conventional system; cellular system has capacity of 10,000 telephones
international: satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) and 1 Symphonie
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 2, FM 9, shortwave 4 (1998)
Definition Field Listing
940,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
3 (plus two repeaters) (1997)
Definition Field Listing
73,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
3 (2001)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
50,000 (2002)
   Transportation    Togo
Definition Field Listing
total: 525 km
narrow gauge: 525 km 1.000-m gauge (2001)
Definition Field Listing
total: 7,520 km
paved: 2,376 km
unpaved: 5,144 km (1996)
Definition Field Listing
50 km (Mono river)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Kpeme, Lome
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,603 GRT/2,800 DWT
ships by type: specialized tanker 1
note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Greece 1 (2002 est.)
Definition Field Listing
9 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 2 (2002)
   Military    Togo
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy, Air Force, Gendarmerie
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,220,758 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 640,280 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$21.9 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
1.8% (FY01)
   Transnational Issues    Togo
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Benin accuses Togo of moving boundary markers and stationing troops in its territory
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transit hub for Nigerian heroin and cocaine traffickers; money laundering not a significant problem

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

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