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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

Map of Tanzania

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Tanzania
Definition Field Listing
Shortly after independence, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the nation of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule came to an end in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition have led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities.
   Geography    Tanzania
Definition Field Listing
Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
6 00 S, 35 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
total: 945,087 sq km
note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar
water: 59,050 sq km
land: 886,037 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3,861 km
border countries: Burundi 451 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 459 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km
Definition Field Listing
1,424 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
Definition Field Listing
varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
Definition Field Listing
plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 4.24%
permanent crops: 1.02%
other: 94.74% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
1,550 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Nuclear Test Ban
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
Kilimanjaro is highest point in Africa; bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa in the southwest
   People    Tanzania
Definition Field Listing
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 44.6% (male 8,338,764; female 8,247,789)
15-64 years: 52.5% (male 9,674,951; female 9,847,084)
65 years and over: 2.9% (male 483,760; female 595,591) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.6% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
39.12 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
13.02 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.08 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
77.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 51.7 years
female: 52.67 years (2002 est.)
male: 50.76 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.33 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
8.09% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
1.3 million (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
140,000 (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Tanzanian(s)
adjective: Tanzanian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
mainland - native African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, native African, mixed Arab and native African
Definition Field Listing
mainland - Christian 30%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 35%; Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim
Definition Field Listing
Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguju (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages
note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources, including Arabic and English, and it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic
total population: 67.8%
male: 79.4%
female: 56.8% (1995 est.)
   Government    Tanzania
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form: Tanzania
former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
Dar es Salaam; note - legislative offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which is planned as the new national capital; the National Assembly now meets there on regular basis
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
25 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Iringa, Kagera, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Lindi, Mara, Mbeya, Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pemba North, Pemba South, Pwani, Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Singida, Tabora, Tanga, Zanzibar Central/South, Zanzibar North, Zanzibar Urban/West
Definition Field Listing
26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent 9 December 1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became independent 19 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania 29 October 1964
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar), 26 April (1964)
Definition Field Listing
25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23 November 1995); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Prime Minister Frederick SUMAYE (since NA) does not function as the head of government
head of government: President Benjamin William MKAPA (since 23 November 1995); Vice President Dr. Ali Mohammed SHEIN (since 5 July 2001); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government; Prime Minister Frederick SUMAYE (since NA) does not function as the head of government
note: Zanzibar elects a president who is head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; Amani Abeid KARUME was elected to that office on 29 October 2000
cabinet: Cabinet ministers, including the prime minister, are appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly
election results: Benjamin William MKAPA reelected president; percent of vote - Benjamin William MKAPA 71.7%, Ibrahim Haruna LIPUMBA 16.3%, Augustine Lyatonga MREME 7.8%, John Momose CHEYO 4.2%
elections: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by popular vote for five-year terms; election last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2005); prime minister appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (274 seats - 232 elected by popular vote, 37 allocated to women nominated by the president, five to members of the Zanzibar House of Representatives; members serve five-year terms); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives to make laws especially for Zanzibar (the Zanzibar House of Representatives has 50 seats, directly elected by universal suffrage to serve five-year terms)
election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CCM 244, CUF 16, CHADEMA 4, TLP 3, UDP 2, Zanzibar representatives 5; Zanzibar House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - CCM 34, CUF 16
elections: last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held NA October 2005)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Permanent Commission of Enquiry (official ombudsman); Court of Appeal (consists of a chief justice and four judges); High Court (consists of a Jaji Kiongozi and 29 judges appointed by the president; holds regular sessions in all regions); District Courts; Primary Courts (limited jurisdiction and appeals can be made to the higher courts)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo or CHADEMA [Bob MAKANI, chairman]; Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM (Revolutionary Party) [Benjamin William MKAPA, chairman]; Civic United Front or CUF [Ibrahim LIPUMBA, chaiman]; Democratic Party (unregistered) [Reverend Christopher MTIKLA]; National Convention for Construction and Reform or NCCR [James MBATIA, secretary general]; Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine Lyatonga MREMA, chairman]; Union for Multiparty Democracy or UMD [leader NA]; United Democratic Party or UDP [John CHEYO]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Andrew Mhando DARAJA
chancery: 2139 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Robert V. ROYALL
embassy: 140 Msese Road, Kinondoni District, Dar es Salaam
mailing address: P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam
telephone: [255] (22) 2666-010 through 2666-015
FAX: [255] (22) 2666-701, 2668-501
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
divided diagonally by a yellow-edged black band from the lower hoist-side corner; the upper triangle (hoist side) is green and the lower triangle is blue
   Economy    Tanzania
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Tanzania is one of the poorest countries in the world. The economy is heavily dependent on agriculture, which accounts for half of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs 80% of the work force. Topography and climatic conditions, however, limit cultivated crops to only 4% of the land area. Industry is mainly limited to processing agricultural products and light consumer goods. The World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's deteriorated economic infrastructure. Growth in 1991-2001 featured a pickup in industrial production and a substantial increase in output of minerals, led by gold. Natural gas exploration in the Rufiji Delta looks promising and production could start by 2002. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private sector growth and investment. Continued donor support and solid macroeconomic policies should support steady real GDP growth of 5% in 2002 and 2003.
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $22.1 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
5% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $610 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 48%
industry: 17%
services: 35% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
51% (1991 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 30% (1993)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
38 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
5% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
13.495 million
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 80%, industry and services 20% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $1.01 billion
expenditures: $1.38 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (FY00/01 est. )
Definition Field Listing
primarily agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine), diamond and gold mining, oil refining, shoes, cement, textiles, wood products, fertilizer, salt
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
8.4% (1999 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
2.765 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 18%
hydro: 82%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
2.616 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
45 million kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves (Zanzibar), corn, wheat, cassava (tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Definition Field Listing
$827 million f.o.b. (2001)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton (2000)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
UK 22.0%, India 14.8%, Germany 9.9%, Netherlands 6.9% (2000)
Definition Field Listing
$1.55 billion f.o.b. (2001)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
South Africa 11.5%, Japan 9.3%, UK 7.0%, Australia 6.2% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$6.8 billion (2000 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$963 million (1997) (1997)
Definition Field Listing
Tanzanian shilling (TZS)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Tanzanian shillings per US dollar - 924.70 (January 2002), 876.41 (2001), 800.41 (2000), 744.76 (1999), 664.67 (1998), 612.12 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
1 July - 30 June
   Communications    Tanzania
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
127,000 (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
30,000 (1999)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: fair system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service; VSAT (very small aperture terminal) system under construction
domestic: trunk service provided by open wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 12, FM 11, shortwave 2 (1998)
Definition Field Listing
8.8 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
3 (1999)
Definition Field Listing
103,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
6 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
300,000 (2002)
   Transportation    Tanzania
Definition Field Listing
total: 3,569 km
narrow gauge: 2,600 km 1.000-m gauge; 969 km 1.067-m gauge
note: the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA), which operates 1,860 km of 1.067-m narrow gauge track between Dar es Salaam and Kapiri Mposhi in Zambia (of which 969 km are in Tanzania and 891 km are in Zambia) is not a part of Tanzania Railways Corporation; because of the difference in gauge, this system does not connect to Tanzania Railways (2001)
Definition Field Listing
total: 85,000 km
paved: 4,250 km
unpaved: 80,750 km (2001)
Definition Field Listing
note: Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa are principal avenues of commerce between Tanzania and its neighbors on those lakes
Definition Field Listing
crude oil 982 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Bukoba, Dar es Salaam, Kigoma, Kilwa Masoko, Lindi, Mtwara, Mwanza, Pangani, Tanga, Wete, Zanzibar
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 8 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 21,987 GRT/27,121 DWT
ships by type: cargo 2, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 2, roll on/roll off 1, short-sea passenger 1 (2002 est.)
Definition Field Listing
125 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 11
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 112
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18
914 to 1,523 m: 60
under 914 m: 34 (2002)
   Military    Tanzania
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Tanzanian People's Defense Force (including Army, Navy, and Air Force), paramilitary Police Field Force Unit (including Police Marine Unit and Police Air Wing), territorial militia
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 8,636,817 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 4,997,257 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$19 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
0.2% (FY01)
   Transnational Issues    Tanzania
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Tanzania and Malawi maintain a largely dormant dispute over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and current location of historical boundary in the meandering Songwe River
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
growing role in transshipment of Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and South American cocaine destined for South African, European, and US markets and of South Asian methaqualone bound for Southern Africa; money laundering remains a problem

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

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