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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

Map of Croatia

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Croatia
Definition Field Listing
In 1918, the Croats, Serbs, and Slovenes formed a kingdom known after 1929 as Yugoslavia. Following World War II, Yugoslavia became an independent communist state under the strong hand of Marshal TITO. Although Croatia declared its independence from Yugoslavia in 1991, it took four years of sporadic, but often bitter, fighting before occupying Serb armies were mostly cleared from Croatian lands. Under UN supervision the last Serb-held enclave in eastern Slavonia was returned to Croatia in 1998.
   Geography    Croatia
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Europe, bordering the Adriatic Sea, between Bosnia and Herzegovina and Slovenia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
45 10 N, 15 30 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
total: 56,542 sq km
water: 128 sq km
land: 56,414 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than West Virginia
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,197 km
border countries: Bosnia and Herzegovina 932 km, Hungary 329 km, Serbia and Montenegro (north) 241 km, Serbia and Montenegro (south) 25 km, Slovenia 670 km
Definition Field Listing
5,835 km (mainland 1,777 km, islands 4,058 km)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
territorial sea: 12 NM
Definition Field Listing
Mediterranean and continental; continental climate predominant with hot summers and cold winters; mild winters, dry summers along coast
Definition Field Listing
geographically diverse; flat plains along Hungarian border, low mountains and highlands near Adriatic coastline and islands
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Adriatic Sea 0 m
highest point: Dinara 1,830 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
oil, some coal, bauxite, low-grade iron ore, calcium, natural asphalt, silica, mica, clays, salt, hydropower
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 23.55%
permanent crops: 2.24%
other: 74.21% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
30 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
destructive earthquakes
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air pollution (from metallurgical plants) and resulting acid rain is damaging the forests; coastal pollution from industrial and domestic waste; landmine removal and reconstruction of infrastructure consequent to 1992-95 civil strife
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
controls most land routes from Western Europe to Aegean Sea and Turkish Straits
   People    Croatia
Definition Field Listing
4,390,751 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 18.3% (male 411,847; female 390,797)
15-64 years: 66.3% (male 1,461,305; female 1,448,973)
65 years and over: 15.4% (male 252,970; female 424,859) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.12% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
12.8 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
11.31 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
9.72 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
7.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 74.13 years
female: 77.96 years (2002 est.)
male: 70.52 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.93 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.02% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
350 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Croat(s), Croatian(s)
adjective: Croatian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Croat 78.1%, Serb 12.2%, Bosniak 0.9%, Hungarian 0.5%, Slovene 0.5%, Czech 0.4%, Albanian 0.3%, Montenegrin 0.3%, Roma 0.2%, others 6.6% (1991)
Definition Field Listing
Roman Catholic 76.5%, Orthodox 11.1%, Muslim 1.2%, Protestant 0.4%, others and unknown 10.8% (1991)
Definition Field Listing
Croatian 96%, other 4% (including Italian, Hungarian, Czech, Slovak, and German)
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 99%
female: 95% (1991 est.)
   Government    Croatia
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Croatia
conventional short form: Croatia
local short form: Hrvatska
local long form: Republika Hrvatska
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
presidential/parliamentary democracy
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
20 counties (zupanije, zupanija - singular) and 1 city* (grad - singular); Bjelovarsko-Bilogorska Zupanija, Brodsko-Posavska Zupanija, Dubrovacko-Neretvanska Zupanija, Istarska Zupanija, Karlovacka Zupanija, Koprivnicko-Krizevacka Zupanija, Krapinsko-Zagorska Zupanija, Licko-Senjska Zupanija, Medimurska Zupanija, Osjecko-Baranjska Zupanija, Pozesko-Slavonska Zupanija, Primorsko-Goranska Zupanija, Sibensko-Kninska Zupanija, Sisacko-Moslavacka Zupanija, Splitsko-Dalmatinska Zupanija, Varazdinska Zupanija, Viroviticko-Podravska Zupanija, Vukovarsko-Srijemska Zupanija, Zadarska Zupanija, Zagreb*, Zagrebacka Zupanija
Definition Field Listing
25 June 1991 (from Yugoslavia)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Statehood Day, 25 June (1991)
Definition Field Listing
adopted on 22 December 1990
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal (16 years of age, if employed)
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Stjepan (Stipe) MESIC (since 18 February 2000)
head of government: Prime Minister Ivica RACAN (since 27 January 2000); Deputy Prime Ministers Goran GRANIC (since 27 January 2000), Ante SIMONIC (since NA July 2002), Slavko LINIC (since 27 January 2000)
cabinet: Council of Ministers named by the prime minister and approved by the House of Representatives
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 7 February 2000 (next to be held NA 2005); prime minister nominated by the president in line with the balance of power in the Assembly
note: government coalition - SDP, HSLS, HSS, LP, HNS; a fifth party, the Istrian Democratic Assembly (IDS), withdrew in June 2001
election results: Stjepan MESIC elected president; percent of vote - Stjepan MESIC (HNS) 56%, Drazen BUDISA (HSLS) 44%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Assembly or Sabor (151 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms); note - House of Counties was abolished in March 2001
election results: Assembly (then referred to as the House of Representatives) - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - HDZ 46, SDP 44, HSLS 24, HSS 17, HSP/HKDU 5, IDS 4, HNS 2, independents 4, minority representatives 5
elections: Assembly - last held 2-3 January 2000 (next to be held in the fall of 2003)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court; Constitutional Court; judges for both courts appointed for eight-year terms by the Judicial Council of the Republic, which is elected by the House of Representatives
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Alliance of Croatian Coast and Mountains Department or PGS [Luciano SUSANJ]; Croatian Christian Democratic Union or HKDU [Marko VESELICA]; Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ [Ivo SANADER]; Croatian Party of Rights or HSP [Dobroslav PARAGA]; Croatian Peasant Party or HSS [Zlatko TOMCIC]; Croatian People's Party or HNS [Vesna PUSIC]; Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS [Drazen BUDISA]; Croatian True Revival Party or HIP [Miroslav TUDJMAN]; Independent Democratic Serb Party or SDSS [Vojislav STANIMIROVIC]; Istrian Democratic Assembly or IDS [Ivan JAKOVCIC]; Liberal Party or LP [leader NA]; Social Democratic Party of Croatia or SDP [Ivica RACAN]
note: the Social Democratic Party or SDP and the Croatian Social Liberal Party or HSLS formed a coalition as did the HSS, HNS, LP, and IDS, which together defeated the Croatian Democratic Union or HDZ in the 2000 lower house parliamentary election; the IDS subsequently left the governing coalition in June 2001 over its inability to win greater autonomy for Istria
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Ivan GRDESIC
FAX: [1] (202) 588-8936
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, New York
telephone: [1] (202) 588-5899
chancery: 2343 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Lawrence G. ROSSIN
embassy: Andrije Hebranga 2, Zagreb 10000
mailing address: use street address
telephone: [385] (1) 661-2200
FAX: [385] (1) 661-2373
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
red, white, and blue horizontal bands with Croatian coat of arms (red and white checkered)
   Economy    Croatia
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Before the dissolution of Yugoslavia, the Republic of Croatia, after Slovenia, was the most prosperous and industrialized area, with a per capita output perhaps one-third above the Yugoslav average. The economy emerged from its mild recession in 2000 with tourism the main factor, but massive structural unemployment remains a key negative element. The government's failure to press the economic reforms needed to spur growth is largely the result of coalition politics and public resistance, particularly from the trade unions, to measures that would cut jobs, wages, or social benefits. As a result, the country is likely to experience only moderate growth without disciplined fiscal and structural reform.
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $38.9 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $8,800 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 9%
industry: 33%
services: 58% (2002 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 23% (1998)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
29 (1998)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
4% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
1.7 million (2001)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture NA%, industry NA%, services NA%
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
20.2% (2002 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $8.6 billion
expenditures: $9 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
chemicals and plastics, machine tools, fabricated metal, electronics, pig iron and rolled steel products, aluminum, paper, wood products, construction materials, textiles, shipbuilding, petroleum and petroleum refining, food and beverages; tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.8% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
10.578 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 45%
hydro: 55%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
12.638 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
900 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
3.7 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
wheat, corn, sugar beets, sunflower seed, barley, alfalfa, clover, olives, citrus, grapes, soybeans, potatoes; livestock, dairy products
Definition Field Listing
$5.1 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
transport equipment, textiles, chemicals, foodstuffs, fuels
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Italy 23.7%, Germany 14.8%, Bosnia and Herzegovina 12%, Slovenia 9.1%, Austria 5.7%, France 3.5 (2001)
Definition Field Listing
$9.7 billion c.i.f. (2002)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery, transport and electrical equipment, chemicals, fuels and lubricants, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 17.1%, Italy 16.9%, Slovenia 7.9%, Russia 7.2%, Austria 7%, France 4.4% (2001)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$16.5 billion (2001)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
ODA $66 million (2000)
Definition Field Listing
kuna (HRK)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
kuna per US dollar - 8.452 (January 2002), 8.340 (2001), 8.277 (2000), 7.112 (1999), 6.362 (1998), 6.101 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Croatia
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
1,721,139 (2000)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
1.3 million (2001)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: NA
domestic: reconstruction plan calls for replacement of all analog circuits with digital and enlarging the network; a backup will be included in the plan for the main trunk
international: digital international service is provided through the main switch in Zagreb; Croatia participates in the Trans-Asia-Europe (TEL) fiber-optic project which consists of two fiber-optic trunk connections with Slovenia and a fiber-optic trunk line from Rijeka to Split and Dubrovnik; Croatia is also investing in ADRIA 1, a joint fiber-optic project with Germany, Albania, and Greece (2000)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 16, FM 98, shortwave 5 (1999)
Definition Field Listing
1.51 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
36 (plus 321 repeaters) (September 1995)
Definition Field Listing
1.22 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
9 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
480,000 (2001)
   Transportation    Croatia
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,726 km
standard gauge: 2,726 km 1.435-m gauge (NA electrified) (2000)
Definition Field Listing
total: 28,009 km
paved: 23,695 km (including 330 km of expressways)
unpaved: 4,314 km (2001)
Definition Field Listing
785 km
note: (perennially navigable; large sections of Sava blocked by downed bridges, silt, and debris)
Definition Field Listing
crude oil 670 km; petroleum products 20 km; natural gas 310 km (1992)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Dubrovnik, Dugi Rat, Omisalj, Ploce, Pula, Rijeka, Sibenik, Split, Vukovar (inland waterway port on Danube), Zadar
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 49 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 681,465 GRT/1,076,315 DWT
note: includes a foreign-owned ship registered here as a flag of convenience: Hong Kong 1 (2002 est.)
ships by type: bulk 14, cargo 13, chemical tanker 1, combination bulk 5, container 1, multi-functional large-load carrier 3, passenger 1, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 2, roll on/roll off 4, short-sea passenger 3
Definition Field Listing
67 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 22
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 8 (2002)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 45
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 37 (2002)
Definition Field Listing
1 (2002)
   Military    Croatia
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Ground Forces (Hrvatska Vojska, HV), Naval Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
19 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,086,578 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 860,497 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 30,037 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$520 million (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
2.39% (2002 est.)
   Transnational Issues    Croatia
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina continue discussions on the disputed boundary in the Una River near Kostajnica, Hrvatska Dubica, and Zeljava; Bosnia and Herzegovina also protests Croatian claim to the tip of the Klek Peninsula and several islands near Neum; Hungary opposes Croatian plan to build a hydropower dam on the boundary stream Drava; Slovenia and Croatia have not obtained parliamentary ratification of 2001 land and maritime boundary treaty which cedes villages on the Dragonja River and Sveta Gera (Trdinov Peak) to Croatia, and most of Pirin Bay to Slovenia, but restricts Slovenian access to the open sea; Croatia and Serbia and Montenegro continue to discuss disputed Prevlaka Peninsula and control over the Gulf of Kotor despite imminent UN intention to withdraw observer mission (UNMOP); Croatia and Italy are still trying to resolve bilateral property and ethnic minority rights dating from World War II
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transit point along the Balkan route for Southwest Asian heroin to Western Europe; has been used as a transit point for maritime shipments of South American cocaine bound for Western Europe

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

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