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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

Map of Azerbaijan

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Azerbaijan
Definition Field Listing
Azerbaijan - a nation with a Turkic and majority-Muslim population - regained its independence after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. Despite a 1994 cease-fire, Azerbaijan has yet to resolve its conflict with Armenia over the Azerbaijani Nagorno-Karabakh enclave (largely Armenian populated). Azerbaijan has lost 16% of its territory and must support some 800,000 refugees and internally displaced persons as a result of the conflict. Corruption is ubiquitous and the promise of widespread wealth from Azerbaijan's undeveloped petroleum resources remains largely unfulfilled.
   Geography    Azerbaijan
Definition Field Listing
Southwestern Asia, bordering the Caspian Sea, between Iran and Russia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
40 30 N, 47 30 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
total: 86,600 sq km
note: includes the exclave of Naxcivan Autonomous Republic and the Nagorno-Karabakh region; the region's autonomy was abolished by Azerbaijani Supreme Soviet on 26 November 1991
water: 500 sq km
land: 86,100 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than Maine
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,013 km
border countries: Armenia (with Azerbaijan-proper) 566 km, Armenia (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 221 km, Georgia 322 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-proper) 432 km, Iran (with Azerbaijan-Naxcivan exclave) 179 km, Russia 284 km, Turkey 9 km
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked); note - Azerbaijan borders the Caspian Sea (800 km, est.)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Definition Field Listing
dry, semiarid steppe
Definition Field Listing
large, flat Kur-Araz Ovaligi (Kura-Araks Lowland) (much of it below sea level) with Great Caucasus Mountains to the north, Qarabag Yaylasi (Karabakh Upland) in west; Baku lies on Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) that juts into Caspian Sea
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Caspian Sea -28 m
highest point: Bazarduzu Dagi 4,485 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, nonferrous metals, alumina
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 19.31%
permanent crops: 3.04%
other: 77.65% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
14,550 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
local scientists consider the Abseron Yasaqligi (Apsheron Peninsula) (including Baku and Sumqayit) and the Caspian Sea to be the ecologically most devastated area in the world because of severe air, soil, and water pollution; soil pollution results from oil spills, from the use of DDT as a pesticide, and from toxic defoliants used in the production of cotton
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
both the main area of the country and the Naxcivan exclave are landlocked
   People    Azerbaijan
Definition Field Listing
7,798,497 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 28.3% (male 1,122,340; female 1,082,355)
15-64 years: 64.3% (male 2,441,830; female 2,577,109)
65 years and over: 7.4% (male 228,735; female 346,128) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.38% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
18.84 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
9.61 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-5.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
82.74 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 63.06 years
female: 67.53 years (2002 est.)
male: 58.8 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.29 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
less than 500 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Azerbaijani(s)
adjective: Azerbaijani
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Azeri 90%, Dagestani 3.2%, Russian 2.5%, Armenian 2%, other 2.3% (1998 est.)
note: almost all Armenians live in the separatist Nagorno-Karabakh region
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 93.4%, Russian Orthodox 2.5%, Armenian Orthodox 2.3%, other 1.8% (1995 est.)
note: religious affiliation is still nominal in Azerbaijan; percentages for actual practicing adherents are much lower
Definition Field Listing
Azerbaijani (Azeri) 89%, Russian 3%, Armenian 2%, other 6% (1995 est.)
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 99%
female: 96% (1989 est.)
   Government    Azerbaijan
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Azerbaijan
conventional short form: Azerbaijan
local short form: none
former: Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic
local long form: Azarbaycan Respublikasi
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
Baku (Baki)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
59 rayons (rayonlar; rayon - singular), 11 cities* (saharlar; sahar - singular), 1 autonomous republic** (muxtar respublika); Abseron Rayonu, Agcabadi Rayonu, Agdam Rayonu, Agdas Rayonu, Agstafa Rayonu, Agsu Rayonu, Ali Bayramli Sahari*, Astara Rayonu, Baki Sahari*, Balakan Rayonu, Barda Rayonu, Beylaqan Rayonu, Bilasuvar Rayonu, Cabrayil Rayonu, Calilabad Rayonu, Daskasan Rayonu, Davaci Rayonu, Fuzuli Rayonu, Gadabay Rayonu, Ganca Sahari*, Goranboy Rayonu, Goycay Rayonu, Haciqabul Rayonu, Imisli Rayonu, Ismayilli Rayonu, Kalbacar Rayonu, Kurdamir Rayonu, Lacin Rayonu, Lankaran Rayonu, Lankaran Sahari*, Lerik Rayonu, Masalli Rayonu, Mingacevir Sahari*, Naftalan Sahari*, Naxcivan Muxtar Respublikasi**, Neftcala Rayonu, Oguz Rayonu, Qabala Rayonu, Qax Rayonu, Qazax Rayonu, Qobustan Rayonu, Quba Rayonu, Qubadli Rayonu, Qusar Rayonu, Saatli Rayonu, Sabirabad Rayonu, Saki Rayonu, Saki Sahari*, Salyan Rayonu, Samaxi Rayonu, Samkir Rayonu, Samux Rayonu, Siyazan Rayonu, Sumqayit Sahari*, Susa Rayonu, Susa Sahari*, Tartar Rayonu, Tovuz Rayonu, Ucar Rayonu, Xacmaz Rayonu, Xankandi Sahari*, Xanlar Rayonu, Xizi Rayonu, Xocali Rayonu, Xocavand Rayonu, Yardimli Rayonu, Yevlax Rayonu, Yevlax Sahari*, Zangilan Rayonu, Zaqatala Rayonu, Zardab Rayonu
Definition Field Listing
30 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Founding of the Democratic Republic of Azerbaidzhan, 28 May (1918)
Definition Field Listing
adopted 12 November 1995
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Heydar ALIYEV (since 18 June 1993)
head of government: Prime Minister Artur RASIZADE (since 26 November 1996)
cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly
elections: president elected by popular vote to a five-year term; election last held 11 October 1998 (next to be held NA October 2003); prime minister and first deputy prime ministers appointed by the president and confirmed by the National Assembly
election results: Heydar ALIYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Heydar ALIYEV 77.6%, Etibar MAMEDOV 11.8%, Nizami SULEYMANOV 8.2%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral National Assembly or Milli Mejlis (125 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
elections: last held 4 November 2000 (next to be held NA November 2005)
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NAP and allies 108, APF "Reform" 6, CSP 3, PNIA 2, Musavat Party 2, CPA 2, APF "Classic" 1, Compatriot Party 1
note: PNIA, Musavat, and APF "Classic" parties refused to take their seats
note: 100 members of the curent parliament were elected on the basis of single mandate constituencies, while 25 were elected based on proportional balloting; as a result of a 24 August 2002 national referendum on changes to the constitution, all 125 members of the next parliament will be elected from single mandate constituencies
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Azerbaijan Popular Front or APF [Ali KARIMLI, leader of "Reform faction"; Mirmahmud MIRALI-OGLU, leader of "Classic" faction]; Civic Solidarity Party or CSP [Sabir RUSTAMKHANLY]; Civic Union Party [Ayaz MUTALIBOV]; Communist Party of Azerbaijan or CPA [Ramiz AHMADOV]; Compatriot Party [Mais SAFARLI]; Democratic Party for Azerbaijan or DPA [Rasul QULIYEV, chairman]; Justice Party [Ilyas ISMAILOV]; Liberal Party of Azerbaijan [Lala Shvkat HACIYEVA]; Musavat [Isa GAMBAR, chairman]; New Azerbaijan Party or NAP [Heydar ALIYEV, chairman]; Party for National Independence of Azerbaijan or PNIA [Etibar MAMMADLIV, chairman]; Social Democratic Party of Azerbaijan or SDP [Zardust ALIZADE]
note: opposition parties regularly factionalize and form new parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Sadval, Lezgin movement; self-proclaimed Armenian Nagorno-Karabakh Republic; Talysh independence movement
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Elmar MAMEDYAROV
FAX: [1] (202) 337-5911
telephone: [1] (202) 337-3500
chancery: 2741 34th Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Ross L. WILSON
embassy: 83 Azadliq Avenue, Baku 370007
mailing address: American Embassy Baku, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7050
telephone: [9] (9412) 98-03-35, 36, 37
FAX: [9] (9412) 90-66-71
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), red, and green; a crescent and eight-pointed star in white are centered in red band
   Economy    Azerbaijan
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Azerbaijan's number one export is oil. Azerbaijan's oil production declined through 1997 but has registered an increase every year since. Negotiation of production-sharing arrangements (PSAs) with foreign firms, which have thus far committed $60 billion to oilfield development, should generate the funds needed to spur future industrial development. Oil production under the first of these PSAs, with the Azerbaijan International Operating Company, began in November 1997. Azerbaijan shares all the formidable problems of the former Soviet republics in making the transition from a command to a market economy, but its considerable energy resources brighten its long-term prospects. Baku has only recently begun making progress on economic reform, and old economic ties and structures are slowly being replaced. An obstacle to economic progress, including stepped up foreign investment in the non-energy sector, is the continuing conflict with Armenia over the Nagorno-Karabakh region. Trade with Russia and the other former Soviet republics is declining in importance while trade is building with Turkey and the nations of Europe. Long-term prospects will depend on world oil prices, the location of new pipelines in the region, and Azerbaijan's ability to manage its oil wealth.
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $27 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
6.1% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $3,300 (2002 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 20%
industry: 33%
services: 47% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
49% (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 28% (1995)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
36 (1995)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
2.6% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
3.7 million (1997) (2001)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture and forestry 41%, industry 7%, services 53% (1997) (2001)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
16% (official rate is 1.1% for 2002) (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $786 million
expenditures: $807 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001)
Definition Field Listing
petroleum and natural gas, petroleum products, oilfield equipment; steel, iron ore, cement; chemicals and petrochemicals; textiles
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
6% (2002 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
17.6 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 91%
hydro: 9%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
16.7 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
900 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
1.25 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, grain, rice, grapes, fruit, vegetables, tea, tobacco; cattle, pigs, sheep, goats
Definition Field Listing
$2 billion f.o.b. (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
oil and gas 90%, machinery, cotton, foodstuffs
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Italy 57.2%, Israel 7.1%, Georgia 4.5%, Russia 3.4%, Turkey 2.9% (2001)
Definition Field Listing
$1.8 billion f.o.b. (2002)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment, oil products, foodstuffs, metals, chemicals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 16.1%, Russia 10.7%, Turkey 10.4%, Kazakhstan 7.0%, Germany 5.1% (2001)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$1.4 billion (2002)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
ODA, $140 million (1996) (2000 est.)
Definition Field Listing
Azerbaijani manat (AZM)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Azerbaijani manats per US dollar - 4,804 (11 February 2002), 4,656.58 (2001), 4,474.15 (2000), 4,120.17 (1999), 3,869 (1998), 3,985.38 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Azerbaijan
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
865,000 (2002)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
800,000 (2002)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: inadequate; requires considerable expansion and modernization; teledensity of 10 main lines per 100 persons is low (2002)
domestic: the majority of telephones are in Baku and other industrial centers - about 700 villages still without public telephone service; satellite service connects Baku to a modern switch in its exclave of Naxcivan
international: the old Soviet system of cable and microwave is still serviceable; a satellite connection to Turkey enables Baku to reach about 200 additional countries, some of which are directly connected to Baku by satellite providers other than Turkey (1997)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 10, FM 17, shortwave 1 (1998)
Definition Field Listing
175,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
2 (1997)
Definition Field Listing
170,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
2 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
25,000 (2002)
   Transportation    Azerbaijan
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,125 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines
broad gauge: 2,125 km 1.520-m gauge (1,278 km electrified) (1993 est.)
Definition Field Listing
total: 36,700 km
paved: 31,800 km (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads)
unpaved: 4,900 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
crude oil 1,130 km; petroleum products 630 km; natural gas 1,240 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Baku (Baki)
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 54 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 246,051 GRT/306,756 DWT
ships by type: cargo 12, petroleum tanker 40, roll on/roll off 2 (2002 est.)
Definition Field Listing
52 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 9
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 43
1,524 to 2,437 m: 7
914 to 1,523 m: 8
under 914 m: 28 (2002)
   Military    Azerbaijan
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy, Air and Air Defense Forces
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 2,131,331 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,706,325 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 77,099 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$121 million (FY99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
2.6% (FY99)
   Transnational Issues    Azerbaijan
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Armenia supports ethnic Armenian secessionists in Nagorno-Karabakh and militarily occupies about one-sixth of Azerbaijan - Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) continues to mediate dispute; Azerbaijan signed bilateral agreements with Russia delimiting the Caspian seabed, but littoral states are far from multilateral agreement on dividing the waters and seabed regimes - Iran insists on division of Caspian Sea into five equal sectors while Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Turkmenistan have generally agreed upon equidistant seabed boundaries; Iran threatens to conduct oil exploration in Azerbaijani-claimed waters, while interdicting Azerbaijani activities; Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan await ICJ decision to resolve sovereignty dispute over oilfields in the Caspian Sea
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for CIS consumption; small government eradication program; transit point for Southwest Asian opiates bound for Russia and to a lesser extent the rest of Europe

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

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