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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

Map of Nigeria

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Nigeria
Definition Field Listing
Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The president faces the daunting task of rebuilding a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, the OBASANJO administration must defuse longstanding ethnic and religious tensions, if it is to build a sound foundation for economic growth and political stability.
   Geography    Nigeria
Definition Field Listing
Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
10 00 N, 8 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
total: 923,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km
land: 910,768 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly more than twice the size of California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 4,047 km
border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km
Definition Field Listing
853 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
Definition Field Listing
varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
Definition Field Listing
southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
natural gas, petroleum, tin, columbite, iron ore, coal, limestone, lead, zinc, arable land
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 30.96%
permanent crops: 2.79%
other: 66.25% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
2,330 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
periodic droughts; flooding
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
the Niger enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea
   People    Nigeria
Definition Field Listing
note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality and death rates, lower population and growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 43.6% (male 28,503,211; female 28,156,976)
15-64 years: 53.6% (male 35,418,119; female 34,179,802)
65 years and over: 2.8% (male 1,832,682; female 1,844,121) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.54% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
39.22 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
14.1 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.27 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.99 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
72.49 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 50.59 years
female: 50.6 years (2002 est.)
male: 50.58 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.49 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
5.06% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
2.7 million (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
250,000 (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Nigeria, which is Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
Definition Field Listing
English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.1%
male: 67.3%
female: 47.3% (1995 est.)
   Government    Nigeria
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form: Nigeria
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic transitioning from military to civilian rule
Definition Field Listing
Abuja; note - on 12 December 1991 the capital was officially transferred from Lagos to Abuja; most federal government offices have now made the move to Abuja
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Abuja Federal Capital Territory*, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nassarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
Definition Field Listing
1 October 1960 (from UK)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
Definition Field Listing
new constitution adopted May 1999
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on English common law, Islamic Shariah law (only in some northern states), and traditional law
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Olusegun OBASANJO (since 29 May 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Olusegun OBASANJO (since 29 May 1999); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Federal Executive Council
elections: president is elected by popular vote for no more than two four-year terms; election last held 27 February 1999 (next to be held 19 April 2003)
election results: Olusegun OBASANJO elected president; percent of vote - Olusegun OBASANJO (PDP) 62.8%, Olu FALAE (APP-AD) 37.2%
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral National Assembly consists of Senate (109 seats, three from each state and one from the Federal Capital Territory; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and House of Representatives (360 seats, members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
elections: Senate - last held 20-24 February 1999 (next to be held 13 April 2003); House of Representatives - last held 20-24 February 1999 (next to be held 13 April 2003)
election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - PDP 58%, APP 23%, AD 19%; seats by party - PDP 67, APP 23, AD 19; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDP 58%, APP 30%, AD 12%; seats by party - PDP 221, APP 70, AD 69
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (judges appointed by the President); Federal Court of Appeal (judges are appointed by the federal government on the advice of the Advisory Judicial Committee)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
All People's Party or APP [leader NA]; Alliance for Democracy or AD [Alhaji Adamu ABDULKADIR]; People's Democratic Party or PDP [Audu OGBEH]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Jibril AMINU
consulate(s) general: Atlanta and New York
FAX: [1] (202) 775-1385
telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400
chancery: 1333 16th Street NW, Washington, DC 20036
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Howard Franklin JETER
embassy: 7 Mambilla Drive, Abuja
mailing address: P. O. Box 554, Lagos
telephone: [234] (9) 523-0916/0906/5857/2235/2205
FAX: [234] (9) 523-0353
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green
   Economy    Nigeria
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
The oil-rich Nigerian economy, long hobbled by political instability, corruption, and poor macroeconomic management, is undergoing substantial economic reform under the new civilian administration. Nigeria's former military rulers failed to diversify the economy away from overdependence on the capital-intensive oil sector, which provides 20% of GDP, 95% of foreign exchange earnings, and about 65% of budgetary revenues. The largely subsistence agricultural sector has failed to keep up with rapid population growth, and Nigeria, once a large net exporter of food, now must import food. Following the signing of an IMF stand-by agreement in August 2000, Nigeria received a debt-restructuring deal from the Paris Club and a $1 billion credit from the IMF, both contingent on economic reforms. The agreement was allowed to expire by the IMF in November 2001, however, and Nigeria appears unlikely to receive substantial multilateral assistance in 2002. Nonetheless, increases in foreign oil investment and oil production should push growth over 4% in 2002.
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $105.9 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.5% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $840 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 39%
industry: 33%
services: 28% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
45% (2000 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 41% (1996-97)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
51 (1996-97 )
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
14.9% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
66 million (1999 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 70%, industry 10%, services 20% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.28% 28% (1992 est.) (1992 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $3.4 billion
expenditures: $3.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Definition Field Listing
crude oil, coal, tin, columbite, palm oil, peanuts, cotton, rubber, wood, hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.3% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
15.9 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 64%
hydro: 36%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
14.768 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
19 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cocoa, peanuts, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
Definition Field Listing
$20.3 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
US 46%, Spain 11%, India 6%, France 5%, Brazil (2000)
Definition Field Listing
$13.7 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
UK 11%, US 9%, France 9%, Germany 7%, China (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$32 billion (2000 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
ODA $250 million (1998) (1998)
Definition Field Listing
naira (NGN)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
nairas per US dollar - 115 (January 2002), 101.697 (2000), 92.338 (1999), 21.886 (1998), 21.886 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Nigeria
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
500,000 (2000 est)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
200,000 (2001)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: an inadequate system, further limited by poor maintenance; major expansion is required and a start has been made
domestic: intercity traffic is carried by coaxial cable, microwave radio relay, a domestic communications satellite system with 19 earth stations, and a coastal submarine cable; mobile cellular facilities and the Internet are available
international: satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean); coaxial submarine cable SAFE (South African Far East)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 83, FM 36, shortwave 11 (2001)
Definition Field Listing
23.5 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
3 (the government controls 2 of the broadcasting stations and 15 repeater stations) (2002)
Definition Field Listing
6.9 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
11 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
100,000 (2000)
   Transportation    Nigeria
Definition Field Listing
total: 3,557 km
narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge
standard gauge: 52 km 1.435-m gauge
note: years of neglect of both the rolling stock and the right-of-way have seriously reduced the capacity and utility of the system; a project to restore Nigeria's railways is now underway (2001)
Definition Field Listing
total: 193,200 km
paved: 59,892 km (including 1,194 km of expressways)
note: many of the roads reported as paved may be graveled; because of poor maintenance and years of heavy freight traffic - in part the result of the failure of the railroad system - much of the road system is barely usable (2001)
unpaved: 133,308 km
Definition Field Listing
8,575 km
note: consisting of the Niger and Benue rivers and smaller rivers and creeks
Definition Field Listing
crude oil 2,042 km; petroleum products 3,000 km; natural gas 500 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Calabar, Lagos, Onne, Port Harcourt, Sapele, Warri
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 43 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 331,094 GRT/614,171 DWT
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Bulgaria 1, Greece 1, Norway 1, Pakistan 1, Togo 1, United States 1 (2002 est.)
ships by type: bulk 1, cargo 7, chemical tanker 4, petroleum tanker 29, roll on/roll off 1, specialized tanker 1
Definition Field Listing
70 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 36
over 3,047 m: 7
2,438 to 3,047 m: 10
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 3 (2002)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 10
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 34
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 18 (2002)
Definition Field Listing
1 (2002)
   Military    Nigeria
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy, Air Force, Police Force
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 30,808,598 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 17,698,911 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 1,375,112 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$374.9 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
1% (FY01)
   Transnational Issues    Nigeria
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Nigeria disputes several villages with Benin along the Okpara River, and only 35 km of their common boundary are demarcated; the Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint remains undemarcated; Lake Chad Basin Commission urges signatories Cameroon, Chad, Niger, and Nigeria to ratify delimitation treaty over lake region, the site of continuing armed clashes; oral arguments on the land and maritime boundary disputes between Cameroon and Nigeria were presented to the ICJ; disputes center around Bakasi Peninsula, where armed clashes continue, Bouram Island on Lake Chad, and the maritime boundary and economic zone dispute in the Gulf of Guinea, which also involves Equatorial Guinea; Nigeria requests and Chad rejects redemarcation of boundary, which lacks clear demarcation in sections and has caused several cross-border incidents
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
a transit point for heroin and cocaine intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets; safehaven for Nigerian narcotraffickers operating worldwide; major money-laundering center; massive corruption and criminal activity, along with unwillingness of the government to address the deficiencies in its anti-money-laundering regime make money laundering a major problem

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

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