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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

Map of Georgia

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Georgia
Definition Field Listing
Georgia was absorbed into the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Independent for three years (1918-1921) following the Russian revolution, it was forcibly incorporated into the USSR until the Soviet Union dissolved in 1991. Ethnic separation in Abkhazia and South Ossetia, poor governance, and Russian military bases deny the government effective control over the entirety of the state's internationally recognized territory. Despite myriad problems, progress on market reforms and democratization support the country's goal of greater integration with Western political, economic, and security institutions.
   Geography    Georgia
Definition Field Listing
Southwestern Asia, bordering the Black Sea, between Turkey and Russia
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
42 00 N, 43 30 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
total: 69,700 sq km
water: 0 sq km
land: 69,700 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than South Carolina
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,461 km
border countries: Armenia 164 km, Azerbaijan 322 km, Russia 723 km, Turkey 252 km
Definition Field Listing
310 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
warm and pleasant; Mediterranean-like on Black Sea coast
Definition Field Listing
largely mountainous with Great Caucasus Mountains in the north and Lesser Caucasus Mountains in the south; Kolkhet'is Dablobi (Kolkhida Lowland) opens to the Black Sea in the west; Mtkvari River Basin in the east; good soils in river valley flood plains, foothills of Kolkhida Lowland
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Black Sea 0 m
highest point: Mt'a Shkhara 5,201 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
forests, hydropower, manganese deposits, iron ore, copper, minor coal and oil deposits; coastal climate and soils allow for important tea and citrus growth
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 11.21%
permanent crops: 4.09%
other: 84.7% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
4,700 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
air pollution, particularly in Rust'avi; heavy pollution of Mtkvari River and the Black Sea; inadequate supplies of potable water; soil pollution from toxic chemicals
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
strategically located east of the Black Sea; Georgia controls much of the Caucasus Mountains and the routes through them
   People    Georgia
Definition Field Listing
4,960,951 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 19% (male 481,669; female 462,966)
15-64 years: 68.2% (male 1,631,351; female 1,752,230)
65 years and over: 12.8% (male 246,663; female 386,072) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.55% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
11.48 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
14.61 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-2.39 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.91 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
51.81 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 64.67 years
female: 68.32 years (2002 est.)
male: 61.19 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.48 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
less than 500 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Georgian(s)
adjective: Georgian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Georgian 70.1%, Armenian 8.1%, Russian 6.3%, Azeri 5.7%, Ossetian 3%, Abkhaz 1.8%, other 5%
Definition Field Listing
Georgian Orthodox 65%, Muslim 11%, Russian Orthodox 10%, Armenian Apostolic 8%, unknown 6%
Definition Field Listing
Georgian 71% (official), Russian 9%, Armenian 7%, Azeri 6%, other 7%
note: Abkhaz is the official language in Abkhazia
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 100%
female: 98% (1989 est.)
   Government    Georgia
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Georgia
local short form: Sak'art'velo
former: Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic
local long form: none
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
9 regions, (mkharebi, singular - mkhare), 9 cities* (k'alak'ebi, singular - k'alak'i), and 2 autonomous republics** (avtomnoy respubliki, singular - avtom respublika); Abkhazia or Ap'khazet'is Avtonomiuri Respublika** (Sokhumi), Ajaria or Acharis Avtonomiuri Respublika** (Bat'umi), Chiat'ura*, Gori*, Guria, Imereti, Kakheti, K'ut'aisi*, Kvemo Kartli, Mtskheta-Mtianeti, P'ot'i*, Racha-Lechkhumi and Kvemo Svaneti, Rust'avi*, Samegrelo and Zemo Svaneti, Samtskhe-Javakheti, Shida Kartli, T'bilisi*, Tqibuli*, Tsqaltubo*, Zugdidi*
note: the administrative centers of the 2 autonomous republics are shown in parentheses
Definition Field Listing
9 April 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 26 May (1918); note - 26 May 1918 is the date of independence from Soviet Russia, 9 April 1991 is the date of independence from the Soviet Union
Definition Field Listing
adopted 17 October 1995
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Eduard Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE (previously elected chairman of the Government Council 10 March 1992; Council has since been disbanded; previously elected chairman of Parliament 11 October 1992; president since 26 November 1995); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President Eduard Amvrosiyevich SHEVARDNADZE (previously elected chairman of the Government Council 10 March 1992; Council has since been disbanded; previously elected chairman of Parliament 11 October 1992; president since 26 November 1995); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers
election results: Eduard SHEVARDNADZE reelected president; percent of vote - Eduard SHEVARDNADZE 80%
elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 9 April 2000 (next to be held NA 2005)
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Supreme Council (commonly referred to as Parliament) or Umaghiesi Sabcho (235 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party - CUG 41.85%, AGUR 25.65%, IWSG 7.8%, all other parties received less than 7% each; seats by party - CUG 130, AGUR 58, IWSG 15, Abkhaz (government-in-exile) deputies 12, independents 17, other 3
elections: last held 31 October and 14 November 1999 (next to be held NA 2003)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (judges elected by the Supreme Council on the president's recommendation); Constitutional Court
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Citizen's Union of Georgia or CUG [Zarab ZHVANIA]; Georgian People's Front [Nodar NATADZE]; Georgian United Communist Party or UCPG [Panteleimon GIORGADZE]; Greens [Giorgi GACHECHILADZE]; Industry Will Save Georgia or IWSG [Georgi TOPADZE]; Labor Party [Salva NATELASHVILI]; National Democratic Party or NDP [Irina SARISHVILI-CHANTURIA]; New National Movement [Mikheil SAAKASHVILI]; New Rightists [Levaii GACHECHILADZE]; Republican Party [David BERDZENISHVILI]; "Revival" Union Party or AGUR [Alsan ABASHIDZE]; Socialist Party or SPG [Irakli MINDELI]; Traditionalists [Akaki ASATIANI]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Georgian independent deputies from Abkhazia (Abkhaz faction in Georgian Parliament); separatist elements in the breakaway region of Abkhazia; supporters of the late ousted President Zviad GAMSAKHURDYA remain a source of opposition
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Levan MIKELADZE
chancery: Suite 300, 1615 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009
FAX: [1] (202) 393-6060
telephone: [1] (202) 387-2390
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Richard MILES
embassy: #25 Atoneli Street, T'bilisi 380026
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [995] (32) 989-967/68
FAX: [995] (32) 933-759
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
maroon field with small rectangle in upper hoist side corner; rectangle divided horizontally with black on top, white below
   Economy    Georgia
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Georgia's main economic activities include the cultivation of agricultural products such as citrus fruits, tea, hazelnuts, and grapes; mining of manganese and copper; and output of a small industrial sector producing alcoholic and nonalcoholic beverages, metals, machinery, and chemicals. The country imports the bulk of its energy needs, including natural gas and oil products. Its only sizable internal energy resource is hydropower. Despite the severe damage the economy has suffered due to civil strife, Georgia, with the help of the IMF and World Bank, has made substantial economic gains since 1995, achieving positive GDP growth and curtailing inflation. However, the Georgian government suffers from limited resources due to a chronic failure to collect tax revenues. Georgia also suffers from energy shortages; it privatized the T'bilisi distribution network in 1998, but collection rates are low, making the venture unprofitable. The country is pinning its hopes for long-term growth on its role as a transit state for pipelines and trade. The start of construction on the Baku-T'bilisi-Ceyhan oil pipeline and the Baku-T'bilisi-Erzerum gas pipeline will bring much-needed investment and job opportunities in 2003.
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $15 billion (2002 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
4% (2002 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $3,100 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 20%
industry: 25%
services: 55% (2002 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
54% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 28% (1996)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
37 (1996)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
5.2% (2002 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
2.1 million (2001 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
industry 20%, agriculture 40%, services 40% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
17% (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $499 million
expenditures: $554 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
steel, aircraft, machine tools, electrical appliances, mining (manganese), chemicals, wood products, wine
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3% (2000)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
7.404 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 21%
hydro: 79%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
7.886 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
200 million kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
1.2 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
citrus, grapes, tea, vegetables, potatoes; livestock
Definition Field Listing
$515 million (2002 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
scrap metal, machinery, chemicals; fuel reexports; citrus fruits, tea, wine
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Russia 23.0%, Turkey 21.5%, Azerbaijan 3.3%, US 3.0%, Germany 2.5% (2001)
Definition Field Listing
$750 million (2002 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
fuels, machinery and parts, transport equipment, grain and other foods, pharmaceuticals
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Turkey 15.3%, Russia 13.3%, Azerbaijan 10.7%, Germany 10.1%, US 4.1% (2001)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$1.7 billion (2001)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
ODA $150 million (2000 est.)
Definition Field Listing
lari (GEL)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
lari per US dollar - 2.1888 (January 2002), 2.0730 (2001), 1.9762 (2000), 2.0245 (1999), 1.3898 (1998), 1.2975 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Georgia
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
620,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
185,500 (2000)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: NA
domestic: local - T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi have cellular telephone networks; urban telephone density is about 20 per 100 people; rural telephone density is about 4 per 100 people; intercity facilities include a fiber-optic line between T'bilisi and K'ut'aisi; nationwide pager service is available
international: Georgia and Russia are working on a fiber-optic line between P'ot'i and Sochi (Russia); present international service is available by microwave, landline, and satellite through the Moscow switch; international electronic mail and telex service are available
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 7, FM 12, shortwave 4 (1998)
Definition Field Listing
3.02 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
12 (plus repeaters) (1998)
Definition Field Listing
2.57 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
6 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
25,000 (2002)
   Transportation    Georgia
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,583 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines
broad gauge: 1,546 km 1.520-m gauge
narrow gauge: 37 km 0.912-m gauge (2000 est.)
Definition Field Listing
total: 33,900 km
paved: 29,500 km (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads)
unpaved: 4,400 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
crude oil 370 km; refined products 300 km; natural gas 440 km (1992)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Bat'umi, P'ot'i, Sokhumi
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 64 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 210,620 GRT/288,565 DWT
ships by type: bulk 5, cargo 46, container 5, petroleum tanker 7, roll on/roll off 1
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Belize 1, Bulgaria 1, Cyprus 1, Ecuador 1, Egypt 4, Gibraltar 1, Greece 5, Jordan 1, Latvia 1, Liberia 1, Malta 1, Panama 9, Romania 8, Russia 4, Saint Kitts and Nevis 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 3, Saudi Arabia 2, Syria 5, Turkey 2, Ukraine 7, United Arab Emirates 11, United Kingdom 1, United States 1 (2002 est.)
Definition Field Listing
31 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 16
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 3 (2002)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
under 914 m: 6 (2002)
914 to 1,523 m: 4
Transportation - note:
Definition Field Listing
transportation network is in poor condition resulting from ethnic conflict, criminal activities, and fuel shortages; network lacks maintenance and repair
   Military    Georgia
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Ground Forces (includes National Guard), combined Air and Air Defense Forces, Naval Forces, Republic Security and Police Forces (internal and border troops)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,300,259 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,027,407 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 41,561 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$23 million (FY00)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
0.59% (FY00)
Military - note:
Definition Field Listing
a CIS peacekeeping force of Russian troops is deployed in the Abkhazia region of Georgia together with a UN military observer group; a Russian peacekeeping battalion is deployed in South Ossetia
   Transnational Issues    Georgia
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Chechen and other insurgents transit Pankisi Gorge to infiltrate Akhmeti region; boundary with Russia has been largely delimited, but not demarcated; several small, strategic segments remain in dispute
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
limited cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy, mostly for domestic consumption; used as transshipment point for opiates via Central Asia to Western Europe and Russia

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

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