Top banner
The World Factbook 2002 Banner

Flag of Kyrgyzstan
Click to enlarge
Categories Banner
  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

Map of Kyrgyzstan

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Kyrgyzstan
Definition Field Listing
A Central Asian country of incredible natural beauty and proud nomadic traditions, Kyrgyzstan was annexed by Russia in 1864; it achieved independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. Current concerns include: privatization of state-owned enterprises, expansion of democracy and political freedoms, interethnic relations, and combating terrorism.
   Geography    Kyrgyzstan
Definition Field Listing
Central Asia, west of China
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
41 00 N, 75 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
total: 198,500 sq km
water: 7,200 sq km
land: 191,300 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly smaller than South Dakota
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 3,878 km
border countries: China 858 km, Kazakhstan 1,051 km, Tajikistan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,099 km
Definition Field Listing
0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (landlocked)
Definition Field Listing
dry continental to polar in high Tien Shan; subtropical in southwest (Fergana Valley); temperate in northern foothill zone
Definition Field Listing
peaks of Tien Shan and associated valleys and basins encompass entire nation
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Kara-Daryya (Karadar'ya) 132 m
highest point: Jengish Chokusu (Pik Pobedy) 7,439 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
abundant hydropower; significant deposits of gold and rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 7.04%
permanent crops: 0.39%
note: Kyrgyzstan has the world's largest natural growth walnut forest (1998 est.)
other: 92.57%
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
10,740 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
water pollution; many people get their water directly from contaminated streams and wells; as a result, water-borne diseases are prevalent; increasing soil salinity from faulty irrigation practices
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Air Pollution, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
landlocked; entirely mountainous, dominated by the Tien Shan range; many tall peaks, glaciers, and high-altitude lakes
   People    Kyrgyzstan
Definition Field Listing
4,822,166 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 34.4% (male 838,224; female 821,230)
15-64 years: 59.4% (male 1,403,328; female 1,459,914)
65 years and over: 6.2% (male 113,861; female 185,609) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.45% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
26.11 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
9.1 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-2.51 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
75.92 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 63.56 years
female: 67.98 years (2002 est.)
male: 59.35 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.16 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
less than 100 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Kyrgyzstani(s)
adjective: Kyrgyzstani
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Kyrgyz 52.4%, Russian 18%, Uzbek 12.9%, Ukrainian 2.5%, German 2.4%, other 11.8%
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 75%, Russian Orthodox 20%, other 5%
Definition Field Listing
Kyrgyz - official language, Russian - official language
note: in December 2001, the Kyrgyzstani legislature made Russian an official language, equal in status to Kyrgyz
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97%
male: 99%
female: 96% (1989 est.)
   Government    Kyrgyzstan
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Kyrgyz Republic
conventional short form: Kyrgyzstan
local short form: none
former: Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic
local long form: Kyrgyz Respublikasy
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
7 provinces (oblastlar, singular - oblasty) and 1 city* (shaar); Batken Oblasty, Bishkek Shaary*, Chuy Oblasty (Bishkek), Jalal-Abad Oblasty, Naryn Oblasty, Osh Oblasty, Talas Oblasty, Ysyk-Kol Oblasty (Karakol)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Definition Field Listing
31 August 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 31 August (1991)
Definition Field Listing
adopted 5 May 1993; note - amendment proposed by President AKAYEV and passed in a national referendum on 10 February 1996 significantly expands the powers of the president at the expense of the legislature
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on civil law system
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Askar AKAYEV (since 28 October 1990)
head of government: Prime Minister Nikolay TANAYEV (since 22 May 2002); note - Prime Minister Kurmanbek BAKIYEV resigned on 22 May 2002 when five demonstrators were killed in clashes with the police
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister
election results: Askar AKAYEV reelected president; percent of vote - Askar AKAYEV 74%, Omurbek TEKEBAYEV 14%, other candidates 12%; note - election marred by serious irregularities
elections: president reelected by popular vote for a five-year term; elections last held 29 October 2000 (next to be held November or December 2005); prime minister appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
bicameral Supreme Council or Zhogorku Kenesh consists of the Assembly of People's Representatives (70 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms) and the Legislative Assembly (35 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)
election results: Assembly of People's Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA%; percent of vote by party - NA; and Legislative Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NA; note - total seats by party in the Supreme Council were as follows: Union of Democratic Forces 12, Communists 6, My Country Party of Action 4, independents 73, other 10
note: the legislature became bicameral for the 5 February 1995 elections; the 2000 election results include both the Assembly of People's Representatives and the Legislative Assembly
elections: Assembly of People's Representatives - last held 20 February and 12 March 2000 (next to be held NA February 2005); Legislative Assembly - last held 20 February and 12 March 2000 (next to be held NA February 2005)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (judges are appointed for 10-year terms by the Supreme Council on the recommendation of the president); Constitutional Court; Higher Court of Arbitration
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Agrarian Labor Party of Kyrgyzstan [Uson S. SYDYKOV]; Agrarian Party of Kyrgyzstan [Arkin ALIYEV]; Ata-Meken or Fatherland [Omurbek TEKEBAYEV]; Banner National Revival Party or ASABA [Chaprashty BAZARBAY]; Democratic Movement of Kyrgyzstan or DDK [Jypar JEKSHEYEV]; Democratic Women's Party of Kyrgyzstan [T. A. SHAILIYEVA]; Dignity Party [Feliks KULOV]; Erkin Kyrgyzstan Progressive and Democratic Party [Tursunbay Bakir UULU]; Justice Party [Chingiz AYTMATOV]; Movement for the People's Salvation [Jumgalbek AMAMBAYEV]; Mutual Help Movement or Ashar [Jumagazy USUPOV]; My Country of Action [Almazbek ISMANKULOV]; National Unity Democratic Movement or DDNE [Yury RAZGULYAYEV]; Party of Communists of Kyrgyzstan or KCP [Absamat M. MASALIYEV]; Party of the Veterans of the War in Afghanistan [leader NA]; Peasant Party [leader NA]; People's Party [Melis ESHIMKANOV]; Republican Popular Party of Kyrgyzstan [J. SHARSHENALIYEV]; Social Democratic Party or PSD [J. IBRAMOV]; Union of Democratic Forces (composed of Social Democratic Party of Kyrgyzstan or PSD [J. IBRAMOV], Economic Revival Party, and Birimdik Party
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Council of Free Trade Unions; Kyrgyz Committee on Human Rights [Ramazan DYRYLDAYEV]; National Unity Democratic Movement; Union of Entrepreneurs
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Bakyt ABDRISAYEV
FAX: [1] (202) 338-5139
consulate(s): New York
telephone: [1] (202) 338-5141
chancery: 1732 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador John M. O'KEEFE
embassy: 171 Prospect Mira, 720016 Bishkek
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [996] (312) 551-241, (517) 777-217
FAX: [996] (312) 551-264
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
red field with a yellow sun in the center having 40 rays representing the 40 Kyrgyz tribes; on the obverse side the rays run counterclockwise, on the reverse, clockwise; in the center of the sun is a red ring crossed by two sets of three lines, a stylized representation of the roof of the traditional Kyrgyz yurt
   Economy    Kyrgyzstan
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Kyrgyzstan is a small, poor, mountainous country with a predominantly agricultural economy. Cotton, wool, and meat are the main agricultural products and exports. Industrial exports include gold, mercury, uranium, and electricity. Kyrgyzstan has been one of the most progressive countries of the former Soviet Union in carrying out market reforms. With fits and starts, inflation has been lowered to an estimated 7% in 2001. Much of the government's stock in enterprises has been sold. Drops in production had been severe since the breakup of the Soviet Union in December 1991, but by mid-1995 production began to recover and exports began to increase. Growth was held down to 2.1% in 1998 largely because of the spillover from Russia's economic difficulties, but moved ahead to 3.6% in 1999, 5% in 2000, and 5% again in 2001. Despite these gains, poverty indicators are no better in 2001 than in 1996. On the positive side, the government and the international financial institutions have embarked on a comprehensive medium-term poverty reduction and economic growth strategy. In November 2001, with financing assurance from the Paris Club, the IMF Board approved a three-year, $93 million Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility.
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $13.5 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
5% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $2,800 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 38%
industry: 27%
services: 35% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
55% (2001 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 32% (1997) (1997)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
41 (1997)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
7% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
2.7 million (2000)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 55%, industry 15%, services 30% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
7.2% (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $207.4 million
expenditures: $238.7 million, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.) (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
small machinery, textiles, food processing, cement, shoes, sawn logs, refrigerators, furniture, electric motors, gold, rare earth metals
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
6% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
14.677 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 8%
hydro: 92%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
9.818 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
4.153 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
321 million kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
tobacco, cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits and berries; sheep, goats, cattle, wool
Definition Field Listing
$475 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, wool, meat, tobacco; gold, mercury, uranium, hydropower; machinery; shoes
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Germany 28.7%, Uzbekistan 17.7%, Russia 12.9%, China 8.7%, Kazakhstan 6.6% (2000)
Definition Field Listing
$420 million f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
oil and gas, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Russia 23.9%, Uzbekistan 13.5%, Kazakhstan 10.3%, US 9.7%, Turkey 4.8% (2000)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$1.6 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$50 million from the US (2001)
Definition Field Listing
Kyrgyzstani som (KGS)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
soms per US dollar - 47.972 (January 2002), 48.378 (2001), 47.704 (2000), 39.008 (1999), 20.838 (1998), 17.362 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Kyrgyzstan
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
351,000 (1997)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: poorly developed; about 100,000 unsatisfied applications for household telephones
domestic: principally microwave radio relay; one cellular provider, probably limited to Bishkek region
international: connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and with other countries by leased connections with Moscow international gateway switch and by satellite; satellite earth stations - 1 Intersputnik and 1 Intelsat; connected internationally by the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic line
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 12 (plus 10 repeater stations), FM 14, shortwave 2 (1998)
Definition Field Listing
520,000 (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
NA (repeater stations throughout the country relay programs from Russia, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Turkey) (1997)
Definition Field Listing
210,000 (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
51,600 (2001)
   Transportation    Kyrgyzstan
Definition Field Listing
total: 370 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines
broad gauge: 370 km 1.520-m gauge (1990)
Definition Field Listing
total: 30,300 km (including 140 km of expressways)
paved: 22,600 km (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads)
unpaved: 7,700 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)
Definition Field Listing
600 km (1990)
Definition Field Listing
natural gas 200 km
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Balykchy (Ysyk-Kol or Rybach'ye)
Definition Field Listing
50 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 4
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 46
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 32 (2002)
   Military    Kyrgyzstan
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Air and Air Defense, Security Forces, Border Troops
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,234,457 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 1,001,274 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 50,590 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$19.2 million (FY01)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
1.4% (FY01)
   Transnational Issues    Kyrgyzstan
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
territorial dispute with Tajikistan on southwestern boundary in Isfara Valley area; dispute over access to Sokh and other Uzbek enclaves in Kyrgyzstan mars progress on boundary delimitation; disputes over provision of water and hydroelectric power to Kazakhstan; periodic target of Islamic insurgents from Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Afghanistan
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and opium poppy for CIS markets; limited government eradication of illicit crops; transit point for Southwest Asian narcotics bound for Russia and the rest of Europe

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

Bottom Banner