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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

Map of Uzbekistan

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Uzbekistan
Definition Field Listing
Russia conquered Uzbekistan in the late 19th century. Stiff resistance to the Red Army after World War I was eventually suppressed and a socialist republic set up in 1924. During the Soviet era, intensive production of "white gold" (cotton) and grain led to overuse of agrochemicals and the depletion of water supplies, which have left the land poisoned and the Aral Sea and certain rivers half dry. Independent since 1991, the country seeks to gradually lessen its dependence on agriculture while developing its mineral and petroleum reserves. Current concerns include insurgency by Islamic militants based in Tajikistan and Afghanistan, a nonconvertible currency, and the curtailment of human rights and democratization.
   Geography    Uzbekistan
Definition Field Listing
Central Asia, north of Afghanistan
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
41 00 N, 64 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
total: 447,400 sq km
water: 22,000 sq km
land: 425,400 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly larger than California
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 6,221 km
border countries: Afghanistan 137 km, Kazakhstan 2,203 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,099 km, Tajikistan 1,161 km, Turkmenistan 1,621 km
Definition Field Listing
0 km (doubly landlocked); note - Uzbekistan includes the southern portion of the Aral Sea with a 420 km shoreline
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
none (doubly landlocked)
Definition Field Listing
mostly midlatitude desert, long, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid grassland in east
Definition Field Listing
mostly flat-to-rolling sandy desert with dunes; broad, flat intensely irrigated river valleys along course of Amu Darya, Syr Darya (Sirdaryo), and Zarafshon; Fergana Valley in east surrounded by mountainous Tajikistan and Kyrgyzstan; shrinking Aral Sea in west
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Sariqarnish Kuli -12 m
highest point: Adelunga Toghi 4,301 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
natural gas, petroleum, coal, gold, uranium, silver, copper, lead and zinc, tungsten, molybdenum
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 10.8%
permanent crops: 0.91%
other: 88.29% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
42,810 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
shrinkage of the Aral Sea is resulting in growing concentrations of chemical pesticides and natural salts; these substances are then blown from the increasingly exposed lake bed and contribute to desertification; water pollution from industrial wastes and the heavy use of fertilizers and pesticides is the cause of many human health disorders; increasing soil salination; soil contamination from buried nuclear processing and agricultural chemicals, including DDT
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
along with Liechtenstein, one of the only two doubly landlocked countries in the world
   People    Uzbekistan
Definition Field Listing
25,563,441 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: 35.5% (male 4,617,110; female 4,457,065)
15-64 years: 59.8% (male 7,567,510; female 7,726,753)
65 years and over: 4.7% (male 482,137; female 712,866) (2002 est.)
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.62% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
26.09 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
7.98 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-1.94 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.68 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2002 est.)
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
71.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 63.9 years
female: 67.6 years (2002 est.)
male: 60.38 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.03 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
less than 100 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
less than 100 (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Uzbek(s)
adjective: Uzbek
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Uzbek 80%, Russian 5.5%, Tajik 5%, Kazakh 3%, Karakalpak 2.5%, Tatar 1.5%, other 2.5% (1996 est.)
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 88% (mostly Sunnis), Eastern Orthodox 9%, other 3%
Definition Field Listing
Uzbek 74.3%, Russian 14.2%, Tajik 4.4%, other 7.1%
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (yearend 1996)
   Government    Uzbekistan
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Uzbekistan
conventional short form: Uzbekistan
local short form: Ozbekiston
former: Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic
local long form: Ozbekiston Respublikasi
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
republic; authoritarian presidential rule, with little power outside the executive branch
Definition Field Listing
Tashkent (Toshkent)
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
12 provinces (viloyatlar, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous republic* (respublika), and 1 city** (shahar); Andijon Viloyati, Buxoro Viloyati, Farg'ona Viloyati, Jizzax Viloyati, Namangan Viloyati, Navoiy Viloyati, Qashqadaryo Viloyati (Qarshi), Qaraqalpog'iston Respublikasi* (Nukus), Samarqand Viloyati, Sirdaryo Viloyati (Guliston), Surxondaryo Viloyati (Termiz), Toshkent Shahri**, Toshkent Viloyati, Xorazm Viloyati (Urganch)
note: administrative divisions have the same names as their administrative centers (exceptions have the administrative center name following in parentheses)
Definition Field Listing
1 September 1991 (from Soviet Union)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 1 September (1991)
Definition Field Listing
new constitution adopted 8 December 1992
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
evolution of Soviet civil law; still lacks independent judicial system
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age; universal
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President Islom KARIMOV (since 24 March 1990, when he was elected president by the then Supreme Soviet)
head of government: Prime Minister Otkir SULTONOV (since 21 December 1995)
cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president with approval of the Supreme Assembly
election results: Islom KARIMOV reelected president; percent of vote - Islom KARIMOV 91.9%, Abdulkhafiz JALALOV 4.2%
elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (previously was a five-year term, extended by constitutional ammendment in 2002); election last held 9 January 2000 (next to be held NA 2007); prime minister and deputy ministers appointed by the president
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral Supreme Assembly or Oliy Majlis (250 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - 2002 ammendment to the constitution creates a second chamber to be established via elections in 2004
election results: percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - NDP 48, Self-Sacrificers Party 34, Fatherland Progress Party 20, Adolat Social Democratic Party 11, MTP 10, citizens' groups 16, local government 110, vacant 1
note: not all seats in the last Supreme Assembly election were contested; all parties in the Supreme Assembly support President KARIMOV
elections: last held 5 December and 19 December 1999 (next to be held NA December 2004)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court (judges are nominated by the president and confirmed by the Supreme Assembly)
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Adolat (Justice) Social Democratic Party [Anwar JURABAYEV, first secretary]; Democratic National Rebirth Party (Milly Tiklanish) or MTP [Aziz KAYUMOV, chairman]; People's Democratic Party or NDP (formerly Communist Party) [Abdulkhafiz JALOLOV, first secretary]; Self-Sacrificers Party or Fidokorlar National Democratic Party [Ahtam TURSUNOV, first secretary]; note - Fatherland Progress Party merged with Self-Sacrificers Party
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Birlik (Unity) Movement [Abdurakhim POLAT, chairman]; Erk (Freedom) Democratic Party [Muhammad SOLIH, chairman] was banned 9 December 1992; Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Abdumannob POLAT, chairman]; Independent Human Rights Society of Uzbekistan [Mikhail ARDZINOV, chairman]; Ezgulik [Vasilia Inoyatova]
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Shavkat HAMRAKULOV
FAX: [1] (202) 293-6804
consulate(s) general: New York
telephone: [1] (202) 887-5300
chancery: 1746 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador John Edward HERBST
embassy: 82 Chilanzarskaya, Tashkent 700115
mailing address: use embassy street address; US Embassy Tashkent, Department of State, Washington, DC 20521-7110
telephone: [998] (71) 120-5450
FAX: [998] (71) 120-6335
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
three equal horizontal bands of blue (top), white, and green separated by red fimbriations with a white crescent moon and 12 white stars in the upper hoist-side quadrant
   Economy    Uzbekistan
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Uzbekistan is a dry, landlocked country of which 11% consists of intensely cultivated, irrigated river valleys. More than 60% of its population lives in densely populated rural communities. Uzbekistan is now the world's second largest cotton exporter, a large producer of gold and oil, and a regionally significant producer of chemicals and machinery. Following independence in December 1991, the government sought to prop up its Soviet-style command economy with subsidies and tight controls on production and prices. The state continues to be a dominating influence in the economy and has so far failed to bring about much-needed structural changes. The IMF suspended Uzbekistan's $185 million standby arrangement in late 1996 because of governmental steps that made impossible fulfillment of Fund conditions. Uzbekistan has responded to the negative external conditions generated by the Asian and Russian financial crises by emphasizing import substitute industrialization and by tightening export and currency controls within its already largely closed economy. Economic policies that have repelled foreign investment are a major factor in the economy's stagnation. A growing debt burden, persistent inflation, and a poor business climate led to disappointing growth in 2001. However, in December 2001 the government voiced a renewed interest in economic reform, seeking advice from the IMF and other financial institutions.
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $62 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $2,500 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 33%
industry: 24%
services: 43% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 3%
highest 10%: 25% (1993) (1993)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
33 (1993)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
23% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
11.9 million (1998 est.)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 44%, industry 20%, services 36% (1995) (1995)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
10% plus another 20% underemployed (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $4 billion
expenditures: $4.1 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
textiles, food processing, machine building, metallurgy, natural gas, chemicals
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.5% (2000 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
44.075 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 87%
hydro: 13%
other: 0% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
41.89 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
4.1 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
5 billion kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
cotton, vegetables, fruits, grain; livestock
Definition Field Listing
$2.8 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
cotton 41.5%, gold 9.6%, energy products 9.6%, mineral fertilizers, ferrous metals, textiles, food products, automobiles (1998 est.)
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Russia 16.7%, Switzerland 8.3%, UK 7.2%, Ukraine 4.7%, South Korea 3.3%, Kazakhstan 3.1% (2000)
Definition Field Listing
$2.5 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment 49.8%, foodstuffs 16.4%, chemicals, metals (1998 est.)
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Russia 15.8%, South Korea 9.8%, US 8.7%, Germany 8.6%, Kazakhstan 7.3%, Ukraine 6.1% (2002)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$5.1 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
approximately $150 million from the US (2001)
Definition Field Listing
Uzbekistani sum (UZS)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Uzbekistani sums per US dollar - 687.0 (January 2002), 325.0 (January 2001), 141.4 (January 2000), 111.9 (February 1999), 110.95 (December 1998), 75.8 (September 1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year
   Communications    Uzbekistan
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
1.98 million (1999)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
130,000 (2003)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: antiquated and inadequate; in serious need of modernization
domestic: the domestic telephone system is being expanded and technologically improved, particularly in Tashkent and Samarqand, under contracts with prominent companies in industrialized countries; moreover, by 1998, six cellular networks had been placed in operation - four of the GSM type (Global System for Mobile Communication), one D-AMPS type (Digital Advanced Mobile Phone System), and one AMPS type (Advanced Mobile Phone System)
international: linked by landline or microwave radio relay with CIS member states and to other countries by leased connection via the Moscow international gateway switch; after the completion of the Uzbek link to the Trans-Asia-Europe (TAE) fiber-optic cable, Uzbekistan will be independent of Russian facilities for international communications; Inmarsat also provides an international connection, albeit an expensive one; satellite earth stations - NA (1998)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 20, FM 7, shortwave 10 (1998)
Definition Field Listing
10.8 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
4 (plus two repeaters that relay Russian programs), 1 cable rebroadcaster in Tashkent; approximately 20 stations in regional capitals (2003)
Definition Field Listing
6.4 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
42 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
100,000 (2002)
   Transportation    Uzbekistan
Definition Field Listing
total: 3,656 km
broad gauge: 3,656 km 1.520-m gauge (618 km electrified) (2000)
Definition Field Listing
total: 81,600 km
paved: 71,237 km (includes some all-weather gravel-surfaced roads)
unpaved: 10,363 km (these roads are made of unstabilized earth and are difficult to negotiate in wet weather) (1990)
Definition Field Listing
1,100 km (1990)
Definition Field Listing
crude oil 250 km; petroleum products 40 km; natural gas 810 km (1992)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Termiz (Amu Darya)
Definition Field Listing
267 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 10
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
under 914 m: 2 (2002)
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 257
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 8
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 222 (2002)
   Military    Uzbekistan
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Air and Air Defense Forces, National Guard, Security Forces (internal security and border troops)
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 6,747,221 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 5,478,766 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 274,602 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$200 million (FY97)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
2% (FY97)
   Transnational Issues    Uzbekistan
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
dispute over access to Sokh and other Uzbek enclaves in Kyrgyzstan mars progress on international boundary delimitation; Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Uzbekistan wrestle with sharing limited water resources; Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan contend with the regional environmental degradation caused by the shrinking Aral Sea; the border with Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan is mined in certain sections, continuing to cause civilian casualties
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of cannabis and small amounts of opium poppy for domestic consumption; poppy cultivation almost wiped out by government crop eradication program; transit point for heroin precursor chemicals bound for Afghanistan

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

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