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  Transnational Issues

In general, information available as of 1 January 2002
was used in the preparation of The World Factbook 2002.

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

Map of Indonesia

Legend: Definition Definition Field Listing Field Listing
   Introduction    Indonesia
Definition Field Listing
The world's largest archipelago, Indonesia achieved independence from the Netherlands in 1949. Current issues include: alleviating widespread poverty, implementing IMF-mandated reforms of the banking sector, effecting a transition to a popularly-elected government after four decades of authoritarianism, addressing charges of cronyism and corruption, holding the military and police accountable for human rights violations, and resolving growing separatist pressures in Aceh and Irian Jaya. On 30 August 1999 a provincial referendum for independence was overwhelmingly approved by the people of Timor Timur. Concurrence followed by Indonesia's national legislature, and the name East Timor was provisionally adopted. On 20 May 2002, East Timor was internationally recognized as an independent state.
   Geography    Indonesia
Definition Field Listing
Southeastern Asia, archipelago between the Indian Ocean and the Pacific Ocean
Geographic coordinates:
Definition Field Listing
5 00 S, 120 00 E
Map references:
Definition Field Listing
Southeast Asia
Definition Field Listing
total: 1,919,440 sq km
water: 93,000 sq km
land: 1,826,440 sq km
Area - comparative:
Definition Field Listing
slightly less than three times the size of Texas
Land boundaries:
Definition Field Listing
total: 2,830 km
border countries: East Timor 228 km, Malaysia 1,782 km, Papua New Guinea 820 km
Definition Field Listing
54,716 km
Maritime claims:
Definition Field Listing
measured from claimed archipelagic baselines
exclusive economic zone: 200 NM
territorial sea: 12 NM
Definition Field Listing
tropical; hot, humid; more moderate in highlands
Definition Field Listing
mostly coastal lowlands; larger islands have interior mountains
Elevation extremes:
Definition Field Listing
lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Puncak Jaya 5,030 m
Natural resources:
Definition Field Listing
petroleum, tin, natural gas, nickel, timber, bauxite, copper, fertile soils, coal, gold, silver
Land use:
Definition Field Listing
arable land: 9.9%
permanent crops: 7.2%
other: 82.9% (1998 est.)
Irrigated land:
Definition Field Listing
48,150 sq km (1998 est.)
Natural hazards:
Definition Field Listing
occasional floods, severe droughts, tsunamis, earthquakes, volcanoes, forest fires
Environment - current issues:
Definition Field Listing
deforestation; water pollution from industrial wastes, sewage; air pollution in urban areas; smoke and haze from forest fires
Environment - international agreements:
Definition Field Listing
party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Marine Life Conservation
Geography - note:
Definition Field Listing
archipelago of 17,000 islands (6,000 inhabited); straddles Equator; strategic location astride or along major sea lanes from Indian Ocean to Pacific Ocean
   People    Indonesia
Definition Field Listing
231,328,092 (July 2002 est.)
Age structure:
Definition Field Listing
0-14 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA
Population growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
1.54% (2002 est.)
Birth rate:
Definition Field Listing
21.87 births/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Death rate:
Definition Field Listing
6.28 deaths/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Net migration rate:
Definition Field Listing
-0.21 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2002 est.)
Sex ratio:
Definition Field Listing
at birth: NA
under 15 years: NA
15-64 years: NA
65 years and over: NA
total population: NA
Infant mortality rate:
Definition Field Listing
39.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2002 est.)
Life expectancy at birth:
Definition Field Listing
total population: 68.63 years
female: 71.13 years (2002 est.)
male: 66.24 years
Total fertility rate:
Definition Field Listing
2.54 children born/woman (2002 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:
Definition Field Listing
0.05% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:
Definition Field Listing
52,000 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths:
Definition Field Listing
3,100 (1999 est.)
Definition Field Listing
noun: Indonesian(s)
adjective: Indonesian
Ethnic groups:
Definition Field Listing
Javanese 45%, Sundanese 14%, Madurese 7.5%, coastal Malays 7.5%, other 26%
Definition Field Listing
Muslim 88%, Protestant 5%, Roman Catholic 3%, Hindu 2%, Buddhist 1%, other 1% (1998)
Definition Field Listing
Bahasa Indonesia (official, modified form of Malay), English, Dutch, local dialects, the most widely spoken of which is Javanese
Definition Field Listing
definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 83.8%
male: 89.6%
female: 78% (1995 est.)
   Government    Indonesia
Country name:
Definition Field Listing
conventional long form: Republic of Indonesia
conventional short form: Indonesia
local long form: Republik Indonesia
former: Netherlands East Indies; Dutch East Indies
local short form: Indonesia
Government type:
Definition Field Listing
Definition Field Listing
Administrative divisions:
Definition Field Listing
27 provinces (propinsi-propinsi, singular - propinsi), 2 special regions* (daerah-daerah istimewa, singular - daerah istimewa), and 1 special capital city district** (daerah khusus ibukota); Aceh*, Bali, Banten, Bengkulu, Gorontalo, Jakarta Raya**, Jambi, Jawa Barat, Jawa Tengah, Jawa Timur, Kalimantan Barat, Kalimantan Selatan, Kalimantan Tengah, Kalimantan Timur, Kepulauan Bangka Belitung, Lampung, Maluku, Maluku Utara, Nusa Tenggara Barat, Nusa Tenggara Timur, Papua, Riau, Sulawesi Selatan, Sulawesi Tengah, Sulawesi Tenggara, Sulawesi Utara, Sumatera Barat, Sumatera Selatan, Sumatera Utara, Yogyakarta*; note - with the implementation of decentralization on 1 January 2001, the 357 districts (regencies) have become the key administrative units responsible for providing most government services
note: following the 30 August 1999 provincial referendum for independence which was overwhelmingly approved by the people of Timor Timur and the October 1999 concurrence of Indonesia's national legislature, the name East Timor was adopted as a provisional name for the political entity formerly known as Propinsi Timor Timur; East Timor gained its formal independence on 20 May 2002
Definition Field Listing
17 August 1945 (proclaimed independence; on 27 December 1949, Indonesia became legally independent from the Netherlands)
National holiday:
Definition Field Listing
Independence Day, 17 August (1945)
Definition Field Listing
August 1945, abrogated by Federal Constitution of 1949 and Provisional Constitution of 1950, restored 5 July 1959
Legal system:
Definition Field Listing
based on Roman-Dutch law, substantially modified by indigenous concepts and by new criminal procedures code; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction
Definition Field Listing
17 years of age; universal and married persons regardless of age
Executive branch:
Definition Field Listing
chief of state: President MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri (since 23 July 2001) and Vice President Hamzah HAZ (since 26 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
head of government: President MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri (since 23 July 2001) and Vice President Hamzah HAZ (since 26 July 2001); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government
cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president
elections: president and vice president elected separately by the People's Consultative Assembly or MPR for five-year terms; selection of president last held 23 July 2001); selection of vice president last held 26 July 2001; next election to be held NA 2004; in accordance with constitutional changes, the election of the president and vice president will be by direct vote of the citizenry
note: the People's Consultative Assembly (Majelis Permusyawaratan Rakyat or MPR) includes the House of Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat or DPR) plus 195 indirectly selected members; it meets every five years to elect the president and vice president and to approve broad outlines of national policy and also has yearly meetings to consider constitutional and legislative changes; constitutional amendments adopted in 2001 and 2002 provide for the MPR to be restructured in 2004 and to consist entirely of popularly-elected members who will be in the DPR and the new House of Regional Representatives (Dewan Perwakilan Daerah or DPD); the MPR will no longer formulate national policy
election results: MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri elected president, receiving 591 votes in favor (91 abstentions); Hamzah HAZ elected vice president, receiving 340 votes in favor (237 against)
Legislative branch:
Definition Field Listing
unicameral House of Representatives or Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat (DPR) (500 seats; 462 elected by popular vote, 38 are appointed military representatives; members serve five-year terms)
election results: percent of vote by party - PDI-P 37.4%, Golkar 20.9%, PKB 17.4%, PPP 10.7%, PAN 7.3%, PBB 1.8%, other 4.5%; seats by party - PDI-P 154, Golkar 120, PPP 58, PKB 51, PAN 35, PBB 14, other 30; note - subsequent to the election, there has been a change in the distribution of seats; the new distribution is: PDI-P 153, Golkar 120, PPP 58, PKB 51, PAN 35, PBB 13, other 32
elections: last held 7 June 1999 (next to be held NA 2004)
Judicial branch:
Definition Field Listing
Supreme Court or Mahkamah Agung (justices appointed by the president from a list of candidates approved by the legislature); note - the Supreme Court is preparing to assume administrative responsibility for the federal court system, previously run by the executive
Political parties and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
Crescent Moon and Star Party or PBB [Yusril Ihza MAHENDRA, chairman]; Federation of Functional Groups or Golkar [Akbar TANDJUNG, general chairman]; Indonesia Democracy Party-Struggle or PDI-P [MEGAWATI Sukarnoputri, chairperson]; National Awakening Party or PKB [Alwi SHIHAB, chairman]; National Mandate Party or PAN [Amien RAIS, chairman]; United Development Party or PPP (federation of former Islamic parties) [Hamzah HAZ, chairman]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
Definition Field Listing
International organization participation:
Definition Field Listing
Diplomatic representation in the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador SOEMADI Brotodiningrat
chancery: 2020 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, and San Francisco
FAX: [1] (202) 775-5365
telephone: [1] (202) 775-5200
Diplomatic representation from the US:
Definition Field Listing
chief of mission: Ambassador Ralph L. BOYCE
embassy: Jalan Medan Merdeka Selatan 4-5, Jakarta 10110
mailing address: Unit 8129, Box 1, APO AP 96520
telephone: [62] (21) 3435-9000
FAX: [62] (21) 385-7189
consulate(s) general: Surabaya
Flag description:
Definition Field Listing
two equal horizontal bands of red (top) and white; similar to the flag of Monaco, which is shorter; also similar to the flag of Poland, which is white (top) and red
   Economy    Indonesia
Economy - overview:
Definition Field Listing
Indonesia, a vast polyglot nation, faces severe economic development problems, stemming from secessionist movements and the low level of security in the regions, the lack of reliable legal recourse in contract disputes, corruption, weaknesses in the banking system, and strained relations with the IMF. Investor confidence will remain low and few new jobs will be created under these circumstances. In November 2001, Indonesia agreed with the IMF on a series of economic reforms in 2002, thus enabling further IMF disbursements. Keys to future growth remain internal reform, the build-up of the confidence of international donors and investors, and a strong comeback in the global economy.
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $687 billion (2001 est.)
GDP - real growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.3% (2001 est.)
GDP - per capita:
Definition Field Listing
purchasing power parity - $3,000 (2001 est.)
GDP - composition by sector:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture: 17%
industry: 41%
services: 42% (2001 est.)
Population below poverty line:
Definition Field Listing
27% (1999)
Household income or consumption by percentage share:
Definition Field Listing
lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 27% (1999)
Distribution of family income - Gini index:
Definition Field Listing
32 (1999)
Inflation rate (consumer prices):
Definition Field Listing
11.5% (2001 est.)
Labor force:
Definition Field Listing
99 million (1999)
Labor force - by occupation:
Definition Field Listing
agriculture 45%, industry 16%, services 39% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate:
Definition Field Listing
8% (2001 est.)
Definition Field Listing
revenues: $26 billion
expenditures: $30 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (2000 est.)
Definition Field Listing
petroleum and natural gas; textiles, apparel, and footwear; mining, cement, chemical fertilizers, plywood; rubber; food; tourism
Industrial production growth rate:
Definition Field Listing
3.5% (2001 est.)
Electricity - production:
Definition Field Listing
92.575 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - production by source:
Definition Field Listing
fossil fuel: 81%
hydro: 14%
other: 5% (2000)
nuclear: 0%
Electricity - consumption:
Definition Field Listing
86.095 billion kWh (2000)
Electricity - exports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Electricity - imports:
Definition Field Listing
0 kWh (2000)
Agriculture - products:
Definition Field Listing
rice, cassava (tapioca), peanuts, rubber, cocoa, coffee, palm oil, copra; poultry, beef, pork, eggs
Definition Field Listing
$56.5 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Exports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
oil and gas, electrical appliances, plywood, textiles, rubber
Exports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Japan 23.4%, US 13.8%, Singapore 10.7%, South Korea 7%, China 4.5%, Malaysia 3.2% (2000 est.)
Definition Field Listing
$38.1 billion f.o.b. (2001 est.)
Imports - commodities:
Definition Field Listing
machinery and equipment; chemicals, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners:
Definition Field Listing
Japan 16.3%, Singapore 11.4%, US 10.2%, South Korea 6.3%, China 6.1%, Australia 5.1% (2000 est.)
Debt - external:
Definition Field Listing
$135 billion (2001 est.)
Economic aid - recipient:
Definition Field Listing
$43 billion from IMF program and other official external financing (1997-2000)
Definition Field Listing
Indonesian rupiah (IDR)
Currency code:
Definition Field Listing
Exchange rates:
Definition Field Listing
Indonesian rupiahs per US dollar - 10,377.3 (January 2002), 10,260.9 (2001), 8,421.8 (2000), 7,855.2 (1999), 10,013.6 (1998), 2,909.4 (1997)
Fiscal year:
Definition Field Listing
calendar year; note - previously was 1 April - 31 March, but starting with 2001, has been changed to calendar year
   Communications    Indonesia
Telephones - main lines in use:
Definition Field Listing
5,588,310 (1998)
Telephones - mobile cellular:
Definition Field Listing
1.07 million (1998)
Telephone system:
Definition Field Listing
general assessment: domestic service fair, international service good
domestic: interisland microwave system and HF radio police net; domestic satellite communications system
international: satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Pacific Ocean)
Radio broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
AM 678, FM 43, shortwave 82 (1998)
Definition Field Listing
31.5 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations:
Definition Field Listing
41 (1999)
Definition Field Listing
13.75 million (1997)
Internet country code:
Definition Field Listing
Internet Service Providers (ISPs):
Definition Field Listing
24 (2000)
Internet users:
Definition Field Listing
4.4 million (2002)
   Transportation    Indonesia
Definition Field Listing
total: 6,458 km
narrow gauge: 5,961 km 1.067-m gauge (101 km electrified; 101 km double-track); 497 km 0.750-m gauge (2001)
Definition Field Listing
total: 342,700 km
paved: 158,670 km
unpaved: 184,030 km (1997)
Definition Field Listing
21,579 km total
note: Sumatra 5,471 km, Java and Madura 820 km, Kalimantan 10,460 km, Sulawesi (Celebes) 241 km, Irian Jaya 4,587 km
Definition Field Listing
crude oil 2,505 km; petroleum products 456 km; natural gas 1,703 km (1989)
Ports and harbors:
Definition Field Listing
Cilacap, Cirebon, Jakarta, Kupang, Makassar, Palembang, Semarang, Surabaya
Merchant marine:
Definition Field Listing
total: 668 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 2,969,281 GRT/4,043,526 DWT
note: includes some foreign-owned ships registered here as a flag of convenience: Greece 1, Hong Kong 2, India 1, Japan 2, Malaysia 1, Monaco 3, Panama 1, Philippines 1, Singapore 11, South Korea 1, Switzerland 1, UK 2, US 1 (2002 est.)
ships by type: bulk 41, cargo 392, chemical tanker 12, container 32, liquefied gas 3, livestock carrier 1, passenger 8, passenger/cargo 14, petroleum tanker 126, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 15, short-sea passenger 8, specialized tanker 9, vehicle carrier 6
Definition Field Listing
490 (2001)
Airports - with paved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 153 156
over 3,047 m: 4 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12 13
914 to 1,523 m: 48 48
under 914 m: 43 45 (2002)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 46 46
Airports - with unpaved runways:
Definition Field Listing
total: 478 339
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 27
under 914 m: 3 309 (2002)
Definition Field Listing
9 (2002)
   Military    Indonesia
Military branches:
Definition Field Listing
Army, Navy (including marines and naval air arm), Air Force
Military manpower - military age:
Definition Field Listing
18 years of age (2002 est.)
Military manpower - availability:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 65,013,184 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - fit for military service:
Definition Field Listing
males age 15-49: 37,942,329 (2002 est.)
Military manpower - reaching military age annually:
Definition Field Listing
males: 2,263,706 (2002 est.)
Military expenditures - dollar figure:
Definition Field Listing
$1 billion (FY98/99)
Military expenditures - percent of GDP:
Definition Field Listing
1.3% (FY98/99)
   Transnational Issues    Indonesia
Disputes - international:
Definition Field Listing
Sipadan and Ligitan islands dispute with Malaysia remains with the ICJ for arbitration since 1998; East Timor-Indonesia Boundary Committee meets to survey and delimit land boundary; Indonesia seeks resolution of East Timor refugees in Indonesia; Australia-East Timor-Indonesia are working to resolve maritime boundary and sharing of seabed resources in "Timor Gap"
Illicit drugs:
Definition Field Listing
illicit producer of cannabis largely for domestic use; possible growing role as transshipment point for Golden Triangle heroin

This page was last updated on 19 March 2003

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