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[l/m 4/12/2007] Information on bears: Distilled Wisdom (17/28) XYZ

( Part1 - Part2 - Part3 - Part4 - Part5 - Part6 - Part7 - Part8 - Part9 - Part10 - Part11 - Part12 - Part13 - Part14 - Part15 - Part16 - Part17 - Part18 - Part19 - Part20 - Part21 - Part22 - Part23 - Part24 - Part25 - Part26 - Part27 - Part28 )
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TABLE OF CONTENTS of this chain:

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
17/ Information about bears			 <* THIS PANEL *>
18/ Poison ivy, frequently ask, under question
19/ Lyme disease, frequently ask, under question
20/ "Telling questions" backcountry Turing test (under construction)
21/ AMS
22/ Babies and Kids
23/ A bit of song (like camp songs)
24/ What is natural?
25/ A romantic notion of high-tech employment
26/ Other news groups of related interest, networking
27/ Films/cinema references
28/ References (written)
1/ DISCLAIMER
2/ Ethics
3/ Learning I
4/ learning II (lists, "Ten Essentials," Chouinard comments)
5/ Summary of past topics
6/ Non-wisdom: fire-arms topic circular discussion
7/ Phone / address lists
8/ Fletcher's Law of Inverse Appreciation / Rachel Carson / Foreman and Hayduke
9/ Water Filter wisdom
10/ Volunteer Work
11/ Snake bite
12/ Netiquette
13/ Questions on conditions and travel
14/ Dedication to Aldo Leopold
15/ Leopold's lot.
16/ Morbid backcountry


VOUS etes au pays des ours

        Les ours sont des animaux sauvages qui ont droit a votre
respect.  Ils sont forts agiles.  Ils vont se defendre, ainsi que
leurs petits et leur territoire, s'ils se sentent menaces.
        La connaissance de certains faits et un etat de vigilance
vous aideront a eviter une rencontre avec les ours.
        Les ours peuvent tous etre dangereux.  Leur comportement
est imprevisible et ils peuvent causer des blessures serieuses. Il
ne faut JAMAIS s'approcher d'un ours.  Pour votre protection et
la leur, il est illegal d'attirer ou de nourrir les ours dans les parcs
nationaux.

Les ours noirs et les grizzlis

        L'ours noir s'adapte facilement au voisinage del'homme et
peut etre vu plus soucent que le grizzli. Il prefere a l'annee les
boises denses et les buissons.  Le grizzli se rencontre surtout dans
la zone alpine en fin d'ete et au debut de l'automne, tandis qu'au
printemps et a le fin l'automne, il vit dans les vallees.  La
promesse de ravitaillement facile peut aussi attirer le grizzli dans
le voisinage des hommes.

Suggestions pour camper en toute securite

* Rangez soigneusement provisions et dechets -- Les
ours sont attires par les odeurs.  Gardez votre campement propre
et ne laissez pas de nourriture, dechets, glacieres, chaudrons ou
ustensiles a la traine.  Rangez les provisions dans le coffre de
votre vehicule ou suspendez-les a 4 m du sol, entre deux arbres.
Des supports ou des caches en camping.  Les ours qui apprenennent a
associer visiteurs et nourriture perdent leur crainte de l'homme
et peuvent finir par etre dangereux.  Ils devront peut-etre meme
etre tues.

* Ne cuisinez pas et ne mangez pas dans votre tente --
ou votre tente-roulette -- Les odeurs sont une invitation.
Immediatement apre le repas, nettoyez le tout et deposez les
dechets dans les contenants.  Faites attention aux odeurs de
cuisine sur votre sac de couchage ou vos vetements.  Changez-
vous avant de vous coucher.

* Servez-vous d'une lampe de poche la nuit -- Plusieurs
animaux chassent la nuit et une lampe de poche les avertira de
votre presence.

Suggestions pour des excursions sans danger

* Les ours peuvent se sentir menaces s'ils sont surpris --
Marchez donc en groupe et faites du bruit, avec un sifflet, des
clochettes ou des cailloux dans une boite de conserve.  La plupart
des ours s'eloigneront alors.  Restez en terrain degage et gardez
les enfants tout pres de vous.

* Soyez encore plus prudent si vous marchez contre le
vent -- dans les buissons et pres des ruisseaux, car l'ours ne sera
peut-etre averti de votre presence.

* Evitez les carcasses et les buisson de petits fruits --
ou les ours peuvent se nourrir.  La presence de corneilles et
corbeaux indique parfois une carcasse.  Si vous en rencontrez
une, dites-le aux gardes de parc.

* Soyez alert pour les signes du passage d'un ours --
pistes, crottes, marques de griffes.

* Ne vous approchez pas d'un ours et encore moins d'un
ourson -- car l'ourse n'est jamais loin et elle attaquera pour
defendre son petit.

* Laissez votre chien a la maison --  La vue, l'odeur et le
comportement d'un chien peuvent irriter un ours et le porter a
attaquer l'animal qui reviendra alors vers vous.

Pour camper en toute securite dans l'arriere-pays

* Utilisez un terrain de camping designe -- S'il n'y en a
pas, choisissez un endroit loin des sentiers d'excursions, des
pistes d'animaux et du bruit de l'eau courante mais pres d'un
arbre ou vous pourrez grimper au besoin.

* Si vous remarquez les traces recentes du passage d'un
ours -- allez ailleurs.

* Evitez les aliments a senteur forte -- L'odeur 
d'aliments frais comme la viande ou le poisson peut attirer les
ours.  Les aliments secs ou froids sont recommandes.

* Cachez vos provisions loin de votre tente -- Utilisez
les contenants a cet effet s'il y en a ou suspendez vos provisions
entre deux arbres a plus de 4 m du sol et a 1 m des troncs, si
possible.  Utilisez des contenants scelles.

* Remportez les dechets -- Ne les enfouissez pas car les
ours ont le nez fin et ils peuvent les deterrer.  Ils pourront alors
presenter un danger pour les autres campeurs.  Si vous brulez les
restes de nourriture, il faut le faire jusqu'a la cendre.

* Evitez les parfums dans le savon, les cosmetiques, etc.

* Les femmes doivent faire particulierement attention
pendant leurs menstruations.  Une mesure de precaution est
l'usage de tampons qu'il faudra ensuite placer dans un sac de
plastic scelle.

Confrontation

        Malgre toutes ces precautions, vous recontrerez peut-etre
un ours.

* Faites un grand detour ou quitez les lieux. --Si c'est
impossible, attendez que l'ours s'eloigne et laissez-lui toujours
un passage pour le faire.

* Ne courez pas -- La plupart des ours sont aussi rapides
qu'un cheval de course.  Des mouvements rapides ou des cris
peuvent provoquer une attaque.

* N'agacez pas un ours en lancant des pierres ou des
batons.

* Surveillez l'ours pour des signes d'agressivite --
comme des claquements de machoires, un son "whoof", la tete
baissee avec les oreilles vers l'arriere.  Tout ours qui avance doit
etre considere comme agressif.  S'il ne le parait pas, parlez-lui
d'un ton monotone et reculez lentement. S'il se dresse sur ses
pattes de derriere et renifle, c'est qu'il essaie de vous identifier.
Ne bougez pas et parlez doucement.

* Restez calme er essayez d'evaluer la situation -- Il n'y
a pas de methode garantie pour faire face sans danger a un ours
agressif mais un comportement calme est un atout.

L'ours fait parfois semblant d'attaquer -- pour se tirer
d'une situation dangereuse et se detourne a la derniere minute.
Reculez lentement, ne courez pas.

S'il y a un arbre facile a grimper tout grimper tout pres -- n'y
courez pas.  Parlez doucement et reculez lentement.  Enlevez
votre sac a dos et deposez-le sur le sol pour distraire l'animal.
Grimpez ensuite aussi haut que possible.  Les grizzlis ne
grimpent pas, en general, mais ils peuvent facilement etirer une
patte jusqu'au 4 m de hauteur (13 pi).  Restez dans l'arbre
jusqu'au depart de l'ours puis rendez-vous le plus vite possible
au debut du sentier.

        Par contre, les ours noirs sont de bons grimpeurs.

Attaques par les ours

        L'ours noirs et le grizzli peuvent tous deux se montrer
agressifs.  La plupart des attaques ont lieu si l'ours est surpris, si
le visiteur s'interpose entre une femelle et son petit, ou entre
l'animal et sa nourriture.  Parce que chaque situation est
differente, on ne peut offrir que des conseils generaux.

S'il s'agit d'un grizzli -- Faire semblant d'etre mort --sur le sol,
roule en boule et protegeant visage, cou et abdomen - peut
tromper l'animal.  Il faut rester sans bouger jusqu'a ce qu'il
s'eloigne.  Combattre l'attaque en augmente d'habitude
l'intensite mais peut aussi forcer l'animal a s'eloigner.

S'il s'agit d'un ours noir -- Faire semblant d'etre mort n'est pas
appropprie.  Il faut plutot trouver un abri, dans une voiture, un
batiment, ou un arbre mais en se rappelant qu'un ours peut
grimper.  En cas echeant, essayer d'intimider l'animal avec
n'importe quel objet disponible, ceci peut prevenir une autre
attaque.

Les produits chimiques sont encore au stage experimental.  Il
faut rapporter aux gardes tout usage de produit chimique et tout
comportement aggressif d'un ours.

Les ours, les hommes et les parcs nationaux

        Les ours jouent un role important dans l'ecosysteme du
parc et ils ont droit a notre protection.  Voir un ours est pour bien
des visiteurs, un souvenir inoubliable de leur voyage.
        Les parcs nationaux existent pour la protection de notre
patrimoine naturel sans pourtant negliger la securite des
visiteurs.  Votre cooperation permettra aus hommes et aus ours
de vivre cote a cote.  SVP, gardez propres les sentiers et les
terrains de camping.  Rapportez la presence d'ours ou de
carcasses d'animaux aux bureaux des gardes ou aux centres de
renseignements.


        Pour une information a jour sur les ours, contactez le
personnel aux centre de renseignements ou au bureau des gardes.


L'OURS NOIR (Ursus americanus Pallas)
couleur:        generalement noir, bien qu'il existe des variations tirant
                sur le brun; souvent, une tache blanche marque la
                poitrine ou le dessous de la gorge
hauteur:        environ 90 cm a l'epaule
longueur:       environ 1.5 m
poids:          de 57 a 270 kg environ. Le femelle est plus petite.
sens:           la vue est faible; l'ouie et l'odorat sont developpes.
profil:         l'ours noir est le plus petit des ours de l'Amerique du
                Nord.  Il a en general un profil pluot rectiligne, un
                museau pointu et des naseaus allonges.  Il a des pattes
                plates aus griffes courbes.  Il est plus petit que le grizzli.
                Son port de tete est plus haut, la ligne est entre les epaules
                et la croupe est plus droite.

L'OURS GRIZZLI (Ursus arctos horribilis Ord)
couleur:        varie entre noir, brun et blond; les extremites des poils,
                souvent de couleur blanche, lui donnent une apparence
                grisonnante.
hauteur:        environ 1.1 m a l'epaule; lorqu'il se tient debout sur ses
                pattes de derriere, il mesure de 1.8 m a 2 m.
poids:          200 kg en moyenne; quelques-uns pesent 450 kg.  En
                general les femelles sont plus petites que les males.
profil:         au niveau des epaules, le grizzli possede une bosse formee
                par les muscles de ses pattes d'avant imposantes.  La
                croupe est plus basse que les epaules tandis que le port de
                tete est bas, au museau concave.  Les griffes sont longues
                et courbees.

Il est difficile de distinguer un petit grizzli d'un grand our noir.
Soyez donc prudent a l'egard de TOUS les ours.

You have made it this far.

People ask for information about bears.  Here it is.
Why is it in this form?  For two reasons: 1) to help out
those who speak French, but also to intentionally 2) stir you
up a bit.  To cause some confusion, because the natural world
isn't the world of man.  The "natural world" is not necessarily
a humanistic, rational world.  The language is slightly different.
At times it is confusing, disorienting for some.
You can find plenty of writings about in paper (this one was).
Opinions change.  You should get the current opinion.
One should not bring urban thinking into this environment.
Writing this in a foreign language should give you a bit of
pause to consider that bears "don't speak your language."

P.S. A lot of people like this post.  Gives them a chance to practice their
French.  PPS: take a look at the soc.culture.french FAQ: nice bilingual FAQ.
side by side format.

-----
Long-term effects of drugging and handling free-ranging polar bears; J.
  Wildl. Manage. 50(4):619-26 (1986).
Immobilization of grizzly bears with tiletamine hydrochloride and
zolazepam hydrochloride; J. Wildl. Manage. 53(4):978-81 (1989).

AU  McRae, Bill.
TI  Are we creating crazed bears?
SO  Outdoor Life  177:56-7+ Jan '86
AB Grizzly bears are attacking humans with greater frequency.  Though
still rare, the attacks are sensationalized by the media.  Their
causes are largely misunderstood.  Reports have suggested that many
attacks can be traced to the use of Sernylan, a brand of tranquilizer
better known to the drug culture as "PCP" or "angel dust."  The theory
holds that the drug elicits the same violent behavior in grizzlies as
it does in people.  Evidence suggests that bears do not react
violently when treated with Sernylan.  Another theory holds that
bears, being highly intelligent, are getting even with researchers and
other people who encroach on their domain, but such encounters
reinforce bears' fear of man.  Bear attacks can, however, be traced to
human encroachment.  Campers and others who give grizzlies access to
garbage--sometimes intentionally--erode the bear's fear of man and
encourage attacks.  Grizzlies, an endangered species, must be protected.

-----

Yell 467
Information Paper BMO7  Kerry A. Gunther
Bear Management Office  Wildlife Biologist
Yellowstone National Park  March 1994
 
BEARS AND MENSTRUATING WOMEN
 
On the evening of 13 August 1967, two women were attacked and killed by
grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) in separate incidents within
Glacier National Park (GNP). Following these incidents, there was
speculation that due to odors associated with menstruation, women may be
more prone to attack by bears than are men (Rogers 1991).
 
The objective of this paper is to present the data available on this
subject so that women can make an informed choice when deciding whether or
not to hike and/or camp in bear country during their menstrual period.
 
Polar Bears In a study designed to test the hypothesis that bears are
attracted to the odors of menstruation, Cushing (1983) reported that when
presented with a series of different odors (including seal scents, other
food scents, nonmenstrual human blood, and used tampons), four captive
polar bears (Ursus maritimus) elicited a strong behavioral response only
to seal scents and menstrual odors (used tampons). Cushing (1983) also
reported that freeranging polar bears detected and consumed food scent
samples and used tampons, but ignored nonmenstrual human blood and unused
tampons. This suggests that polar bears are attracted to odors associated
with menstrual blood.
 
Grizzly Bears Herrero (1985) analyzed the circumstances of hundreds of
grizzly bear attacks on humans, including the attacks on the two women in
Glacier National Park, and concluded that there was no evidence linking
menstruation to any of the attacks. The responses of grizzly bears to
menstrual odors has not been studied experimentally.
 
Black Bears Rogers (1991) recorded the responses of 26 freeranging black
bears (Ursus americanus) to used tampons from 26 women and the responses
of 20 free ranging black bears to four menstruating women at different
days of their flow. Menstrual odors were essentially ignored by black
bears of all sex and age classes. In an extensive review of black bear
attacks across North America, no instances of black bears attacking or
being attracted to menstruating women was found (Cramond 1981, Herrero
1985, Rogers 1991).
 
Yellowstone National Park BearCaused Human Injury Statistics Over 32
million people visited Yellowstone National Park (YNP) during the 13 year
period from 1980 through 1992. These visitors spent over 7 million use
nights camping in developed area campgrounds and over 500 thousand use
nights camping in backcountry areas within the Park. Although actual
statistics are unavailable, many menstruating women undoubtedly hike
and/or camp within YNP each year. During the 19801992 time period, 17
people were injured by bears within the Park, an average of only 1.3
bearcaused human injuries per year (Gunther 1993). Of these 17 injuries,
11 (65%) were men, and 6 (35%) were women. Most (82%) of these injuries
involved sudden, close encounters between bears and hikers and were
therefore probably unrelated to menstruation. Of the 3 (18%) incidents
where people were injured while camping, two of the injured people were
male and one was female. The woman was not menstruating at the time of the
attack. There was no evidence linking menstruation to any of these 17 bear
attacks.
 
It is difficult to accurately compare the ratio of males to females that
are injured by bears because the Park does not keep records of visitor use
of the Park by gender. However, the injury data for the Park does not
suggest that females are more likely to be attacked by bears than are
males.
 
Precautions Although there is no evidence that grizzly and black bears are
overly attracted to menstrual odors more than any other odor, certain
precautions should be taken to reduce the risks of attack.
 
The following precautions are recommended:
 
1. Use premoistened, unscented cleaning towelettes.
 
2. Use internal tampons instead of external pads.
 
3. Do not bury tampons or pads (pack it in  pack it out). A bear may smell
buried tampons or pads and dig them up. By providing bears a small food
"reward", this action may attract bears to other menstruating women.
 
4. Place all used tampons, pads and towelettes in double ziploc baggies
and store them unavailable to bears, just as you would store food. This
means hung at least 10 feet above the ground and 4 feet from the tree
trunk.
 
5. Tampons can be burnt in a campfire, but remember that it takes a very
hot fire and considerable time to completely burn them. Any charred
remains must be removed from the fire pit and stored with your other
garbage. Also, burning of any garbage is odorous and may attract bears to
your campsite.
 
6. Many feminine products are heavily scented. Use only unscented or
lightly scented items. Cosmetics, perfumes, and deodorants are unnecessary
and may act as an attractant to bears.
 
7. Follow food storage regulations and recommendations so that you can
avoid attracting a bear into your camp with other odors. All odorous items
that may attract bears including food, cooking and food storage gear,
toiletries, and garbage must be kept secured from bears. Proper methods
for storing bear attractants include: 1.) in a vehicle (the trunk of a car
or cab of a truck), 2.) in a solid camping trailer that is constructed of
nonpliable material (never in a tent or tent trailer), 3.) in a bearproof
food storage box (provided at some campgrounds), or 4.) suspended at least
l0 feet above the ground and 4 feet horizontally from the tree trunk.
 
The question whether menstruating women attract bears has not been
completely answered (Byrd 1988). There is no evidence that grizzlies are
overly attracted to menstrual odors more than any other odor and there is
no statistical evidence that known bear attacks have been related to
menstruation (Byrd 1988). However, Park visitors have been injured and
killed by bears. If you are uncomfortable hiking and camping in bear
country for any reason, you should probably choose another area for your
recreational activities.
 
Literature Cited
Byrd, C.P. 1988. Of bears and women: Investigating the hypothesis that
menstruation attracts bears. M.S. Thesis, Univ. Montana, Missoula. 129pp.
 
Cramond, M. 1981. Killer bears. Outdoor Life Books. Charles Scribner's
Sons, New York, N.Y. 301pp.
 
Cushing, B. 1983. Responses of polar bears to human menstrual odors. Int.
Conf. Bear Res. and Manage. 5:270274.
 
Gunther, R.A. 1993. Yellowstone National Park bearrelated
injuries/fatalities. Inf. Pap. No. BMO1. U.S. Dep. Inter., Natl. Park
Serv., Yellowstone National Park. 2pp.
 
Herrero, S.M. 1985. Bear attacks  their causes and avoidance. Winchester
Press, New Century Publishers, Inc., Piscataway, N.J. 287pp.
March 18, 2003

[Addednum:
Bear Attacks Their Causes and Avoidance -- Stephen Herrero  - revised edition

United States and Canada 1990's 
29 people killed by bears
18 -- grizzly bears
11 -- black bears

Perspective -- 1977-1998
250 people killed by dogs]

 
Rogers, L.L., and S.S. Scott. 1991. Reaction of black bears to human
menstrual odors. J. Wildl. Manage. 55(4):632634.


-----
Mothballs
Herrero
Page 142:

"Of the many chemical compounds such as mothballs, ammonia, and mace
that have been tested as bear repellents, those containing capsaicin,
an active ingredient of cayenne peppers, have shown the most promise.
....

"Another commerically available chemical repellent which has shown
promise with limited testing on BLACK bears is called "Skunker". It
uses the active ingredient which skunks spray to defend themselves.
   The current limitations of all chemical repellents are the
preliminary nature of testing, their short range, the difficulty of
accurate delivery if a person is excited, and their potential for abuse.
Their seven-to-thirty-foot range means last-minute delivery to
a bear and this would have to be done under very difficult conditions
if a bear were charging full out. Wind could aid to severly deflect
the spray.  Chemical repellents are NO SUBSTITUTE for avoid
bear confrontations, but they may be useful in repelling curious bears,
especially black bears, that might become aggressive if not repelled."




Subject: USGS biblio memo on bear literature
Keywords: ursan biology, field safety,

Report typos by email (the scan's editors have found several).
Annotations, excepting 1, are the memo's authors.


		B E A R S
	ECOLOGY, BEHAVIOR, and ENCOUNTERS WITH PEOPLE
		- selected references -


William C. Butler and Doug J. Nesslage
United States Geological Survey
POB 25046, Denver, CO. 80225

		May, 1993
----------------------------------------------------------------------

Alekseenko, E.A., 1968, The cult of the bear among the Ket (Yenisei
Ostyaks), in Dioszegi, V., editor, Popular beliefs and folklore
tradition in Siberia: Bloomington, IN., Indiana University, p. 175-191.

Annabel, Russell, 1937, Plenty of bear, in Field and Stream.

Beck, Thomas, 1991, Black bears of West-central Canada: Denver, CO.,
Colorado Division of Wildlife, Technical Publication 39.

Barbeau, M., 1945, Bear mother: Journal of American Folklore, v. 59,
n. 231, p. 1-12.

Barrett, Peter, 1961, True fishing and hunting yearbook: New York, NY.,
Fawcett Publications.

Bauer, Erwin, 1985, Erwin Bauer's bear in their world: Outdoor Life
Books, 254 p. [great photography]

Beebe, B.F., and Johnson, J.R., 1965, American Bears: New York, NY.,
David McKay Publishers.

Bledsoe, Thomas, 1987, Brown bear summer, Life among Alaska's giants:
New York, NY., Truman Talley Books/E.P. Dutton.

Bray, O.E., and Barnes, V.G., 1967, A literature review on black bear
populations and activities: National Park Service and Colorado
Cooperative Wildlife Research Unit.

Bromley, Marianne, 1985, Safety in bear country: A reference manual:
Yellowknife, Canada, Northwest Territories Department of Renewable Resources.

Bromley, Marianne, 1988, The status of the barren ground grizzly bear
(Ursus arctos horribilis) in Canada: unpublished report, Yellowknife,
Northwest Territories, Canada, Northwest Territories Department of
Renewable Resources.

Bromley, Marianne, editor, 1989, Bear-people conflicts: Proceedings of a
symposium on management strategies, April 6-10, 1987, Yellowknife,
Northwest Territories, Canada: Yellowknife, Canada, Northwest Territories
Department of Renewable Resources, 246 p.
(a valuable reference for anyone studying bears --
some of the Proceedings articles are referenced individually on this list)

Brown, David, 1985, The grizzly in the Southwest: Norman, OK., The
University of Oklahoma Press.

Burke, Dale, editor, The black bear in modern North America, in
Proceedings of 1977 Symposium: New York, KY., The Boone and Crockett
Club and the Camp Fire Club of America.

Carey, Alan, 1986, In the path of the grizzly: Flagstaff, AZ., Northland Press.

Carr, H.D., 1989, Distribution, numbers, and mortality of grizzly bears
in and around Kananaskis Country, Alberta: Alberta Forestry, Lands and
Wildlife Management Branch, Wildlife Research Series no. 3.

Chadwick, D.E., 1986, "Grizz": Of men and the great bear: National
Geographic, v. 169, v. 2, p. 182-213.

Chester, J.M., 1980, Factors influencing human-grizzly bear interactions
in a backcountry setting, in Bear Biology Association Conference Series,
n. 3, p. 351-357.

Cicnjak, Lidija, and Ruff, R.L., 1990, Human-bear conflicts in
Yugoslavia: University of Wisconsin at Madison, Department of Wildlife
Ecology, in Transactions Congress International Union of Game
Biologists, v. 19, n. 2, p. 573-580.

Clarkson, P.L., 1989, The twelve gauge shotgun: A bear deterrent and
protective weapon, in Bromley, Marianne, editor, Bear-people conflicts:
Proceedings of a symposium on management strategies, April 6-10, 1987,
Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada: Yellowknife, Northwest
Territories Department of Renewable Resources, p. 55-60.

Clarkson, P.L., and Liepins, I., 1989, Inuvialuit wildlife studies,
grizzly bear research, progress report, 1988-1989: Wildlife Management
Advisory Council, Northwest Territories, Technical Report no. 8.

Colorado Division of Wildlife, 1992 or 1993, Living with wildlife in
bear country: Denver, CO., 10-page fold-out brochure.

Contreras, Glen and Evans, Keith, compilers, 1986, Proceedings --
Grizzly Bear Habitat Symposium, Ogden, UT., Intermountain Research Station.

Cottingham, D., and Langshav, R., 1981, Grizzly bear and man in Canada's
mountain parks, Banff, Alta., Summerthought Publishers.

Craighead, Frank, 1979, Track of the grizzly: San Francisco, CA., Sierra
Club Books.

Craighead, J.J., and Craighead, Frank, 1972, Grizzly bear prehibernation
and denning activities as determined by radiotracking: Washington, D.C.,
The Wildlife Society, Wildlife Monograph 32.

Craighead, J.J., and Mitchell, i.A., 1982, Grizzly bear - Ursus arctos,
in Chapman, J.A., and Feldhamer, G.A., editors, Wild mammals of North
America: Biology, management, economics: Baltimore, MD., Johns
Hopkins University Press, p. 515-556.

Craighead, J.J., Sumner, J., and Scaggs, G., 1982, A definitive system
for analysis of grizzly bear habitat and other wilderness resources:
Missoula, MT., Wildlife-Wildlands Institute Monograph no. 1.

Cramond, Mike, 1965, Big game hunting in the West: Vancouver, British
Columbia, Mitchell Press, Ltd.

Cramond, Mike, 1981, Killer bears: New York, NY., Outdoor Life Books,
Charles Scribner's Sons Publishers.
[not as good as S. Herrero's 1985 book -- see below]

Cramond, Mike, 1986, Of bears and man: Norman, OK., University of Oklahoma
Press, 433 p.

Cushing, B.S., 1983, Responses of polar bears to human menstrual odors:
International Conference on Bear Research and Management, v. 5,
p. 270-274.

Dalle-Molle, John, Coffey, M.A., and Werner, H.W., 1986, Evaluations of
bear-resistant food containers for backpackers: U.S. Forest Service
General Technical Report INT-212, p. 209-214.

Davids, R.C., 1982, Lords of the Arctic: A journey among the polar bears:
New York, NY., Macmillan Publishing Company.

Dean, F.C., and others, 1986, Observations of intraspecific killing by
brown bears, Ursus arctos: Canadian Field Naturalist, v. 100, v. 2, p. 208-211.

DeHart, Don, 1971, All about bears: Boulder, CO., Johnson Publishing Company.

Dembeck, H., 1965, Animal and men: Garden City, NY., Natural History Press.

Dillon, Richard, 1966, The legend of Grizzly Adams: California's
greatest mountain man: New York, NY., Coward, McCann, and Geohegan
Publishers or Coward-McCann, Inc..

Domico, T., 1988, Bears of the world: New York, NY., Facts on File, v.
48, Orlofsky, Stephen, editor.

Dorson, R.M., 1972, Bloodstoppers and bearwalkers: Cambridge, MA.,
Harvard University Press.

Dufresne, Frank, 1966, No room for bears: London, England, George Allen
and Unwin, Ltd.  Publishers.  Also listed as Dufresne, Frank, 1965,
Holt, Rinehart and Winston, New York, NY.

Dusel-Bacon, Cynthia, 1979, "Come quick!  I'm being eaten by a bear!"
Alaska, The Magazine of Life on the Last Frontier, Feb., v. 45, n. 2, 5 p.

Edsman, C.M., 1987, Bears, in Eliade, M., editor, The encyclopedia of
religion, vol. 2: New York, NY., The Macmillan Company, p. 86-89.

Elgmork, K., 1978, Striking blows by the brown bear: Fauna, v. 31, n. 3,
p. 157-164.

Erickson, Albert, Nellor, J., and Petrides, G., 1964, The black bear in
Michigan: Ann Arbor, MI., Michigan State University Agriculture
Experiment State, Research Bulletin 4.

Ewers, J.C., 1955, The bear cult among the Assiniboin and their
neighbors of the northern plains: Southwestern Journal of Anthropology,
v. 11, n. 1, p. 1-14.

Feazel, C.T., 19xx, White bear: Encounters with the master of the Arctic ice:
New York, NY., Henry Holt Publishing Company, 240 p.

Fish, Chet, editor, The Outdoor Life bear book: Harrisburg, PA., Outdoor
Life Books/Stackpole Books.

Fitz, Grancel, 1957, North American head hunting: New York, NY., Oxford
University Press.

Fleck, Susan, and Herrero, Stephen, 1989, Polar bear conflicts with
humans, in Bromley, Marianne, Bear-people conflicts: Proceedings of a
Symposium on Management Strategies, April 6-10, 1987, Yellowknife,
Northwest Territories, Canada: Yellowknife, Northwest Territories
Department of Renewable Resources, p. 201-202.

Flowers, Ralph, 1974, The education of a bear hunter: New York, NY.,
Winchester Press.

Ford, Barbara, 1981, The black bear: The spirit of the wilderness:
New York, NY., Houghton Mifflin Company.

Genow, P.W., and Wanev, J.I., 1992, Reports of brown bear (Ursus arctos 1.)
attacks on domestic animals and bee hives in Bulgaria: Sofia,
Bulgaria, Institute Zoology, Bulgarischen Akad., Zeitschrift fuer
Jagdvissenschaft, v. 38, n. 1, p. 1-8.

Graham, Ada, and Graham, Frank, 1981, Bears in the wild:.  New York,
NY., Delacorte Press.

Halfpenny, James, 1986, A field guide to mammal tracking: Boulder, Co.,
Johnson Books, 163 p. [has a good section on scatology]

Hallowell, A.I., 1926, Bear ceremonialism in the northern hemisphere:
American Anthropologist, v. 28, n. 1, p. 1-75.

Hanna, Warren, 1978, The grizzlies of Glacier: Missoula, MT., Mountain Press.

Hanson, R.G., 1989, Dangerous bear policy and the establishment of bear
response teams in Alberta (abst.), in Bromley, Marianne, editor,
Bear-people conflicts: Proceedings of a symposium on management
strategies, April 6-10, 1987, Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada:
Yellowknife, Northwest Territories Department of Renewable Resources, p. 73.

Harms, D.R., 1980, Black bear management in Yosemite National Park., in
Bear Biology Association Conference Series, n. 3, p. 205-212.

Hastings, B.C., Gilbert, B.K., and Turner, D.L., 1986, Black bear
aggression in the backcountry of Yosemite National Park, in Proceedings
of Sixth International Conference on Bear Research and Management, p. 145-149.

Hastings, B.C., Pelton, M.R., and Petko-Seus, P.A., 1987, Use of
backcountry visitor areas by problem bears in Great Smoky Mountains
National Park, in Signer, F.J., editor, Proceedings of Conference on
Scientific Research in the National Parks, volume 2, Wildlife Management
and Habitats: U.S. National Park Service, p. 82-88.

Haynes, Bessie, and Haynes, Edgar, 1966, The grizzly bear: Portraits
from life: Norman, OK., The University of Oklahoma Press.

Herrero, Stephen, 1970, Human injury inflicted by grizzly bears:
Science, v. 170, p. 593-598.

Herrero, Stephen, editor, 1972, Bears -- Their biology and management,
in Proceedings of the Second International Conference on Bear
Research and Management, Morges, Switzerland, November, 1970:
University of Calgary: International Union for the Conservation of
Nature Publications, new series no. 23.

N.B. International Conferences on Bear Research and Management have been
held in 1970, 1974, 1977, 1980, 1983, 1986, 1989, and 1992, and the
proceedings have been published by International Union for the
Conservation of Nature.

Herrero, Stephen, 1978a, A comparison of some features of the evolution,
ecology and behavior of black and grizzly/brown bears: Carnivore, v. 1,
n. 1, p. 7-17.

Herrero, Stephen 1978b, People and grizzly bears: The challenge of
coexistence, in Kirkpatrick, C.M., editor, Wildlife and people, The
1978 John S. Wright Forestry Conference, Purdue Research
Foundation, West Lafayette, IN., p. 167-179.

Herrero, Stephen, 1985, Bear attacks: Their causes and avoidance:
Piscataway, NJ., Nick Lyon Books, Winchester Press, 287 p.
[an excellent scientific book]
[Addednum:
Bear Attacks Their Causes and Avoidance -- Stephen Herrero  - revised edition

United States and Canada 1990's 
29 people killed by bears
18 -- grizzly bears
11 -- black bears

Perspective -- 1977-1998
250 people killed by dogs]

Herrero, Stephen, 1989, The role of learning in some fatal grizzly bear
attacks on people, in Bromley, Marianne, editor, Bear-peple conflicts:
Proceedings of a Symposium on Management Strategies, April 6-10, 1987,
Yellowknife, Northwest Territories, Canada: Yellowknife, Northwest
Territories Department of Renewable Resources, p. 9-14.

Herrero, Stephen, and Hamer, D., 1977, Courtship and copulation of a
pair of grizzly bears, with comments on reproductive plasticity and
strategy: Journal of Mammalogy, v. 58, n. 3, p. 441-444.

Herrero, Stephen, McCrory, Wayne, and Pelchat, Brian, 1986, Using.
grizzly bear habitat evaluations to locate trails and campsites in
Kananaskis Provincial Park, in Proceedings of the Sixth International
Conference on Bear Research and Management, p. 187-193.

Heyland, J.D., and Hay, Keith, 1976, An attack by a polar bear on a
juvenile beluga: Arctic, v. 29, n. 1, March, p. 56-57.

Hibben, Grank, 1950, Hunting American bears: Philadelphia, PA., J.B.
Lippincott Company Publishers.

Hinshaw, Dorothy, 1980.  Bears of the world: New York, NY., Holiday House.

Hittell, Theodore, 1860, The adventures of James Capen Adams,
Mountaineer and grizzly bear hunter of California: San Francisco, CA.,
Towne and Bacon Publishers.

Holzworth, John, 1930, The wild grizzlies of Alaska: New York, NY.,
G.P. Putnam's Sons. [a classic]

Hoshino, Michio, 1987, Grizzly: San Francisco, CA., Chronicle Books.

Householder, Robert, 1966, The grizzly bear in Arizona: Phoenix, AZ.,
published by the author.

Hubbard, W.P., and Harris, Seale, 1960, Notorious grizzly bears:
Chicago, IL., The Swallow Press.

Hummel, M., editor, 1989, Endangered species: The future for Canada's
wilderness: Toronto, Canada, Key Porter Publishers.

Hunt, C.L., 1984, Behavioral responses of bears to tests of repellents,
deterrents, and aversive conditioning: unpublished M.S. thesis,
University of Montana.

Interagency Grizzly Bear Committee, 1987, Grizzly bear compendium:
Missoula, MT., U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Grizzly Bear
Recovery-Coordinator.

Interagency Grizzly Bear Committee, 1989, Bear-resistant containers:
Minimum design and structural standards inspection and testing
methodology: Ogden, UT., U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest
Service, Intermountain Region, 35 p.

Jonkel, Charles, and Cowan, I.M., 1971, The black bear in the spruce-fir
forest: Washington, D.C., The Wildlife Society, Wildlife Monograph 27.

Jope, K.L., 1982a, Interactions between grizzly bears and hikers in
Glacier National Park, Montana: unpublished M.S. thesis, Oregon State
University.

Jope, K.L., 1982b, Interactions between grizzly bears and hikers in
Glacier National Park, Montana: U.S. National Park Service, Cooperative
Park Studies Unit Report 82-1, 61 p.

Jope, K.L., 1985, Implications of grizzly bear habituation to hikers:
Wildlife Society Bulletin, v. 13, n. 1, p. 32-37.

Kaniut, Larry, 1983, Alaska bear tales: Anchorage, AK., Alaska
Northwest Publishing Company.

Kellyhouse David, and Hardy, David, 1979, The bears and you: Alaska, The
magazine of Life on the Last Frontier, Feb., V. 45, n. 2,

Knight, R.R., and Eberhardt, L.L., 1985, Population dynamics of
Yellowstone grizzly bears: Ecology, v. 66, n. 2, p. 323-334.

Kurten, Bjorn, 1976, The cave bear story: Life and death of a vanished
animal: New York, NY., Columbia University Press.

Larsen, Thor, 1978, The world of the polar bear: New York, NY., Hamlyn
Publishers.

Laycock, George, 1986, The wild bears: Harrisburg, PA., Outdoor Life
Book Club, Stackpole Books. [a good popularly-written book]

Mace, Richard, Aune, Keith, Kasworn, Wayne, Klaver, Robert, and Claar,
James, 1987, Incidence of human conflicts by research grizzly bears:
Wildlife Society Bulletin, v. 15, n. 2, p. 170-173.

Macey, A., 1979, Status report on grizzly bear Ursus arctos horribilis
in Canada: Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada.

March, K.S., 1980, Deer, bears and blood: A note on nonhuman animal
response to menstrual odor: American Anthrology, v. 82, n. 1, p. 125-127.

Martin, Martha, 1954, Home on the bear's domain: New York, NY.,
The MacMillan Company.

Martinka, C.J., 1982, Keeping people and bears apart - People management
in Glacier Park: Western Wildlands, v. 8, n. 1, p. 8-11.

Martinka, C.J., and McArthur, K.L., editors, 1980, Bears -- Their
biology and management, in Proceedings of the Fourth International
Conference on Bear Research and Management, Kalispell,
Montana: Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing office and
the Bear Biology Association.

Matson, J.R., 1967, The adaptable black bear: Philadelphia, PA.,
Dorrance and Company.

McArthur, K.L., 1980, Methods in the study of grizzly bear behavior in
relation to people in Glacier National Park, in Proceedings of the
Second Conference on Scientific Research in the National Parks, Nov.
26th-30th, 1979, San Francisco, CA.: U.S. National Park Service and
Institute of Biological Sciences, p. 234-247. [see also references by
McArthur listed under Jope]

McCracken, Harold, 1931, Alaska bear trails: Garden City, KY.,
Doubleday, Doran and Company.

McCracken, Harold, 1943, The biggest bear on earth: Philadelphia, PA.,
Stokes Publishers.

McCracken, Harold, 1955, The beast that walks like man: The story of the
grizzly bear: Garden City, NJ., Hanover House Publishers.

McCrory, Wayne, and Herrero, S., 1987, Preservation and management of
the grizzly bear in British Columbia provincial parks - the urgent
challenge: unpublished report, British Columbia Parks and Outdoor
Recreation Division.

McCrory, Wayne, Herrero, Stephen, and Whitfield, Phil, 1986, Using
grizzly bear habitat information to reduce human-grizzly bear conflicts
in Kokanee Glacier and Valhalla Provincial Parks, British Columbia: U.S.
Forest Service, General Technical Report INT-207, p. 24-30.

McCrory, Wayne, and Mallum, E., 1988, Evaluation of the Khuzeymateen
Valley as a grizzly bear sanctuary: unpublished report, Victoria,
British Columbia, Canada, Friends of Ecological Reserves.

McCullough, D.R., 1982, Behavior, bears, and humans: Wildlife Society
Bulletin, v. 10, n. 1, p. 27-33.

McGee, Senator Dale, 1977, Senate hearing before the Committee on
Appropriations, proposed critical habitat area for grizzly bears:
Washington, D.C., U.S. Government Printing Office.

McNamee, Thomas, 1984, The grizzly bear: New York, NY., Alfred A. Knopf,
Inc. [a good, thorough book]

Meehan, W.R., and Thilenius, J.F., 1983, Safety in bear country:
Protective measures and bullet performance at short range:
U.S. Department of Agriculture, U.S. Forest Service,
General Technical Report PNW-152, 18 p.

Merrill, E.H., 1978, Bear depredations at backcountry campgrounds in
Glacier National Park: Wildlife Society Bulletin, v. 6, n. 3, p. 123-127.

Meslow, E.C., editor, 1983, Bears -- Their biology and management in
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Bear Research and
Management, February, 1980, Madison, VI.: West Glacier, International
Association for Bear Research and Management.

Meyer, Jerry, 1983, Bear hunting: Harrisburg, PA., Stackpole Books.

Miles, Hugh, and Salisbury, Mike, 1986, Kingdom of the ice bear:
Austin, TX., University of Texas Press.

Miller, Joaquin, 1900, True bear stories: Chicago, IL., Rand McNally and
Company.

Miller, S.D., and Ballard, W.B., 1982, Homing of transplanted Alaskan
brown bears: Journal of Wildlife Management, v. 46, n. 4, p. 869-876.

Mills, Enos, 1919, The grizzly, Our greatest wild animal: Boston, MA.,
Houghton Mifflin Company.

Morey, Walt, 1965, Gentle Ben: New York, NY., E.P. Dutton and Company,Inc.

Mundy, K.R.D., and Flook, D.R., 1973, Background for managing
grizzly bears in the national parks of Canada: Canadian Wildlife Service
Report Series no. 22.

Murie, Adolph, 1981, The grizzlies of Mt.  McKinley: U.S. National Park
Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, Special Scientific Monograph
Series, no. 14, p. 1-251.
[published posthumously - old fashioned but educational]

Nero, Robert, 1971, The great white bears: Winnipeg, Canada, Winnipeg
Department of Mines, Resources and Environmental Management.

O'Connor, Jack, and Goodwin, G.G., 1961, The big game animals of North
America: New York, NY., E.P. Dutton and Company, Inc., 264 p.

Olsen, Jack, 1967, Night of the grizzlies: New York, NY., G.P. Putnam's Sons.

Ormond, Claude, 1961, Bear!  Harrisburg, PA., Stackpole Books.

Palmer, J.F., 1958, Kodiak bear hunt: New York, NY.,
Doubleday and Company, Inc.

Pearson, A.M., 1975, The northern interior grizzly bear Ursus arctos:
Ottawa, Canada, Canadian Wildlife Service Report Series no. 34.

Peek, J.M., and others, 1987, Grizzly bear conservation and management:
A review: Wildlife Society Bulletin, v. 15, n. 2, p. 160-169.

Pelton, M.R., Lenfer, Jack, and Folk, G.E., editors, 1976, Bears --
Their biology and management, in Proceedings of the Third International
Conference on Bear Research and Management, Binghamton, NY., and Moscow,
U.S.S.R., June, 1974: Morges, Switzerland, International Union for the
Conservation of Nature Publications, New Series no. 40.

Perry, R., 1966, The world of the polar bear: Seattle, VA., University
of Washington Press.

Perry, R., 1970, Bears: London, England, Arthur Barker Publishers.

Poelker, Richard, and Hartwell, Harry, 1973, Black bear of Washington:
Its biology, natural history and relationship to forest regeneration:
Olympia, VA., Washington State Game Department Biological Bulletin no. 14.

Prodgers, Jeanette, 1986, The only good bear is a dead bear:
Helena, WA., Falcon Press.
	[WA or MT, typo?]

Rennicke, Jeff, 1987, Bears of Alaska in life and legend: Boulder, Co.,
Roberts Rinehart Publishers, in cooperation with the Alaska Natural
History Association.

Rogers, L.L., 1990, Great American bear: North Word Publishers.

Rogers, L.L., Wilker, G.A., and Scott, S.S., 1991, Reactions of black
bears to human menstrual odors: Ely, MN., U.S. Forest Service,
Journal of Wildlife Management, v. 55, n. 4, p. 632-634.

Roosevelt, Theodore, 1983, American bears: Selections from the Writings
of Theodore Roosevelt, Schullery, Paul, editor: Boulder, CO., Colorado
Associated University Press and the Outdoor Life Book Club.

Russell, Andy, 1967, Grizzly country: New York, NY., Alfred A. Knopf Inc.
[a classic]

Samson, Jack, editor, 1979, Man and bear: Adventures in the wild:
Clinton, NJ., The Amwell Press, 238 p.

Savage, Candace, 1990, Grizzly bears: San Francisco, CA.,
Sierra Club Books, 164 p.

Schaller, George, Jinchu, Hu, Wenshi, Pan, and Jing, Zhu, 1985,
The giant pandas of Wolong: Chicago, IL., University of Chicago Press.
[the panda is not a true bear.... reference included for its good science and
for comparison purposes]

Schmidt, D.R., 1982, A brown bear (Ursus arctos)-human encounter in the
Brooks Range, Alaska: Canadian Field Naturalist, v. 96, n. 3, p. 347.

Schneider, William, 1977, Where the grizzly walks: Missoula, MT.,
Mountain Press Publishing Company.

Schoen, J.W., Miller, S.D., and Reynolds, H.V., III, 1987,
Last stronghold of the grizzly: Natural History, v. 96, p. 50-60.

Schoonmaker, W.J., 1968, The world of the grizzly bear: Philadelphia, PA.,
J.B. Lippincott Company.

Schullery, Paul, 1980, The bears of Yellowstone: Yellowstone Park, WY.,
The Yellowstone Library and Museum Association; revised edition 1986,
Boulder, CO., Roberts Rinehart.

Schullery, Paul, 1988, The bear hunter's century: Harrisburg, PA.,
Stackpole Books, 252 p.

Seton, B.T., 1900, The biography of a grizzly: New York, NY.,
Grosset and Dunlap, Inc.

Shepard, Paul, and Sanders, Barry, 1985, The sacred paw: The bear in
nature, myth, and literature: New York, NY., The Viking Press, Inc./
Penguin Books, Inc.

Singer, F.J., and Bratton, S.P., 1980, Black bear/human conflicts in the
Great Smoky Mountains National Park, in Bear Biology Association
Conference Series n. 3, p. 137-139.

Skinner, M.P., 1925, Bears in the Yellowstone: Chicago, IL.,
A.C. McClurg and Company.

Smith, R.B., Barnes, V.G., Jr., and Van Darle, L.J., 1989, Brown
bear-human conflicts in the Kodiak Archipelago, AK., in Bromley,
Marianne, Bear-people conflicts: Proceedings of a Symposium on
management Strategies, April 6-10, 1987, Yellowknife, Northwest
Territories, Canada: Yellowknife, Northwest Territories Department of
Renewable Resources, p. 111-114.

Speck, F.G., and Moses, J., 1945, The celestial bear comes down to
earth: The bear sacrific ceremony of the Munsee-Mahican in Canada as
related by Nekateit: Reading, PA., Public Museum and Art Gallery
Sciences Publication no. 7.

Spencer, Howard, Jr., 1961, The black bear and its status in Maine:
Augusta, ME., State of Maine Department of Inland Fisheries and Game.

Stehsel, D.L., 1965, Hunting the California black bear: Arcadia, CA.,
published by the author.

Stevens, Montague, 1943, Meet Mr. Grizzly: A saga on the passing of the
grizzly: Albuquerque, NM., University of New Mexico Press, reprinted
1987, San Lorenzo, NM., High-Lonesome Books, 281 p.

Steward, J.H., 1932, A Uintah Ute bear dance, March 1931: American
Anthropologist, v. 34, p. 263-273.

Stirling, Ian, 1988, Polar bears: Ann Arbor, MI., University of Michigan Press.

Stonorov, D., 1972, Protocol at the annual brown bear fish feast: 11
Natural History, v. 81.

Storer, T.I., and Tevis, L.P., Jr., 1955, California grizzly: Berkeley, CA.,
University of California Press.  Available also from the University
of Nebraska Press, Lincoln, NB. [a classic]

Struzik, E., 1988, Seeking sanctuary: Nature Canada, v. 17, n. 1, p. 13-20.

Stuart, T.W., 1977, Multiobjective analysis of wilderness travel in
grizzly bear habitat using parametric linear programming: unpublished
Ph.D. dissertation, University of California at Berkeley, 252 p.

Tate, Jane, 1080, Aggression in human-bear interactions: The influence
of setting, in Proceedings of the Second Conference on Scientific
Research in The National Parks, n. 6, p. 221-233.

Tate, Jane, and Pelton, M.R., 1983, Human-bear interactions in
Great Smoky Mountains National Park, in Proceedings of-the Fifth International
Conference on Bear Research and Management, v. 5, p. 312-321.

Tracy, Diane, Dean, Frederick, Anderson, Candy, and Jordan, Teresa,
1982, Brown bear bibliography: Fairbanks, AK., Alaska Cooperative Park
Studies Unit.

Underwood, W.L., 1921, Wild brother, strangest of true stories from the
north woods: Boston, MA., Atlantic Monthly Press.

United States Fish and Wildlife Service, 1982, Grizzly bear recovery
plan, prepared in conjunction with the Montana Department of Fish,
Wildlife, and Parks.

Utley, F.L., Bloom, L.Z., and Kinney, A.F., editors, 1964, Bear, man,
and God: Eight approaches to 'William Faulkner's "The Bear": New York,
NY., Random House Publishers.

Van Wormer, Joseph, 1966, The world of the black bear: Philadelphia,
PA., J.B. Lippincott Company. (a good introduction to bears)

Wentworth, James, 1958, The Kodiak bear: Harrisburg, PA., Stackpole Books.

Willey, Charles, 1978,-The Vermont black bear: Montpelier, VT.,
Vermont Fish and Game Department.

Williams, Jay, 1952, Alaskan adventure: Harrisburg, PA., Stackpole Books.

Wilman, E.A., Pierre, N.V.T., and Kerr, W.A., 1987, Of bears and people:
Close encounters in the national parks: Journal of Environmental
Management, v. 24, n. 2, p. 181-200.

Wooldridge, D.R., and Belton, Peter, 1980, Natural and synthesized
aggressive sounds as polar bear repellents, in Bear Biology Association
Conference Series, n. 3, p. 85-91.

Wright, W.H., 1909, The grizzly bear: The narrative of a
hunter-naturalist: New York, NY., Charles Scriber's Sons.

Wright, W.H., 1910, Ben, the black bear: New York, NY., Charles Scriber's Sons.

Young, F.M., and Buyers, Coralie, 1980, Man meets grizzly, Encounters in
the wild from Lewis and Clark to modern times: Boston, MA.,
Houghton Mifflin Company.

Young, Ralph, 1981, Grizzlies don't come easy: Tulsa, OK., Winchester Press.

Zager, P., editor, 1985, Bears -- Their biology and management, in
Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Bear Research and
Management, Grand Canyon, AZ., February, 1983.

Zager, P., editor, 1987, Bears - Their biology and management, in
Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on Bear Research and
Management, Williamsburg, VA., and Plitvice Lakes, Yugoslavia, February
and March, 1987.


Video tapes
Staying Safe in Bear Country
and
Working in Bear Country
Magic Lantern Communication, Toronto, CA
http://www.magiclantern.ca/orderindex.htm
1-800-667-1500



Lastly, Humor
-------------

In the middle of a forest, there was a hunter who was suddenly confronted by a
huge, mean bear. In his fear, all attempts to shoot the bear were unsuccessful.
Finally, he turned and ran as fast as he could.

The hunter ran and ran and ran, until he ended up at the edge of
a very steep cliff. His hopes were dim.

Seeing no way out of his predicament, and with the bear closing in rather
quickly, the hunter got down on his knees, opened his arms, and exclaimed,
"Dear God! Please give this bear some 'religion!'"

The sky darkened and there was lightning in the air. Just a few feet short of
the hunter, the bear came to abrupt stop, and glanced around, somewhat confused.
Suddenly, the bear looked up into the sky and said, "Thank you, God, for the
food I'm about to receive...."




A whining yuppy is mauled horribly by a bear and the bear has eaten the
yuppy's arm. The paramedics are astounded at the yuppy, who is whining
about all the blood on his new Gore-Tex parka. One paramedic says,
"How can you whine about your parka when you have lost your arm?" The yuppy
looks down to where his arm used to be and whines, "Oh my God! My Rolex!".....



-----

"How about you?  You still on earth?  Or on the ship with me?
It doesn't make very much difference because sooner or later
we'll all of us be on the menu.  All of us."

Serling:
The recollections of one Michael Chambers, with appropriate flashbacks and 
soliloquy.  Or more simply stated, the evolution of man, the cycle of going 
from dust to dessert, the metamorphosis from being the ruler of a planet to 
an ingredient in someone's soup.  It's tonight's bill of fare on the
Twilight Zone.

"To Serve Man" written by Rod Serling based on a story from Damon Knight


We begged and we pleaded, "Oh, please won't you stay
And give it a rest, at least for one day?"
But the bears all came in, and they took him away.
Now, he's dancing with pandas, and he can't understand us.
And the bears all demand at least one dance a day.

Chorus
He goes wa- wa- wa- waltzing with bears.
Raggy bears, baggy bears, shaggy bears, too!
There's nothing on earth Uncle Walter won't do.
So he can go waltzing, wa- wa- wa- waltzing
So he can go waltzing, waltzing with bears.

-- 

Looking for an H-912 (container).

 bears.

-- 

Looking for an H-912 (container).

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