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ZyXEL modem FAQ List v4.2, Nov 20 1995, Part 3 of 5 [Technical FAQs]
Section - T.2 In which countries are ZyXEL modems certified to operate?

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Top Document: ZyXEL modem FAQ List v4.2, Nov 20 1995, Part 3 of 5 [Technical FAQs]
Previous Document: T.1E What does one do with the latest ROMs?
Next Document: T.3 What are known country codes?
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Every country has telecommunication laws that prohibit the connection of 
unapproved telecommunication devices, including modems to the phone line.  
Approval by a country's telecommunications regulatory agency may entail 
hardware/firmware modifications to the modem in order to comply with 
telecommunication laws.  This could include modifications for radio-frequency
interference, pulse dial make/break ratios, redial capabilities, etc.

The words "approved for use in country XYZ" mean that the modem *ITSELF* has 
been modified to comply with the telecommunication laws of that country.  
This means that an American FCC approved modem imported to Germany would not 
be a legal telecommunications device in Germany.  The actual modem was 
FCC approved to work in the USA, but not BZT approved to work in Germany.

No one can prevent the above scenario from occurring in any country.
Possession of an unapproved device is usually not illegal.  Attachment of the 
device, however, usually is illegal.  It may result in confiscation of the 
device and/or financial penalties.  [Non-approved ZyXELs have apparently been 
confiscated before in Germany.  You are now cognicent of the albeit slim risks.
Don't say that you were not warned.]

[Rob MacKinnon (robmack@bsc.no) adds that is is illegal to import unapproved 
telecommunications devices into Norway.  Apparently the customs authorities
will send the unapproved device back to the originator if it is found in 
the mail.  If you happen to own an unapproved device, the state acting on 
behalf of Norske Telecom has the right to enter your house and confiscate
the device because it is illegal to own one in Norway, not just use one.]

[Tor Rune Skoglund (torrunes@idt.unit.no) adds:
It is in fact illegal to IMPORT, SELL and USE non-certified modems here 
[in Norway]. Usually, the customs just skim through the invoice to see if there 
any word thats looks like "modem", and then they will refuse to deliver it.]

Aside from the possible legal problems due to using an unapproved device, there
are also some practical problems.  Each ZyXEL modem operating its approved 
country has certain hardware modifications.  These allow the modem to function
better in the telecommunications environment for which it was approved.  For
example:  German ZyXELs have a filter that eliminates the German cost-counting
impulses.  Polish ZyXELs have a reduced ring detector sensitivity that 
prevents voltage spikes from accidentally activating the modem.

Should problems be encountered using an unapproved/uncertified ZyXEL modem,
finding help may be difficult.  The local vendor/distributor would be
reluctant to help, as the product was not purchased from them.  The original
vendor/distributor might be difficult to reach.  ZyXEL Inc. itself may not
be too forthcoming, as product support costs are shifted to the parent
company AND it encourages distributors to export product into another 
distributor's market (distributor turf-wars).

Thus a ZyXEL modem operating in the country (for which it was approved) will 
work better than than an unapproved/uncertified ZyXEL modem.  (Of course,
your milage may vary.)

Below is a list of countries in which ZyXEL modems have been approved for use.
This list is *NOT* complete, nor exhaustive.  If your country is not listed in 
this section, your modem may be approved for use in your country.  This list is
by no means definitive.

Australia, AUSTEL approved

Austria, OePTV (Oesterreichische Post- und Telegraphenverwaltung)
Klaus J. Rusch (k.rusch@ieee.org) writes:
OePTV has approved the 1496E(+) ZyXEL modems, suffixed with the letter
'A' for Austria, for use as data modems. Fax and voice capabilities,
as well as fax/data detection, are available yet not approved in the
Austria models. The modems come with 3 meter TDO cables, ZFAX software
and 220 V 50 Hz power supplies.

Similar to Germany's 1496EG(+), the 1496EA(+) must establish a connection
within twelve tries. Failure to do so causes the modem to block, and
require a manual reset (power off/on). Any request to connect (ATD)
is answered with 'STOP !'. Note: Setting the country code to 233
has the same effect with the 1496E+ model.

Czech Republic, Czech Telecom
The Zyxel U-1496E has been approved on September 16, 1994 for operation on
telephone lines of Czech Telecom.  The certification number is 15579/94.

Canada, Department of Communications (DOC) approved
        Model Name      Certificate No.         Certification No.  Load No.
        U-1496          9165                    1817 4783 AB       11
        U-1496E         9166                    1817 4783 AB       11
        U-1496B         9167                    1817 4783 AB       11
        U-1496R         9168                    1817 4783 AB       11


Germany, (BZT)
Eelco H. Essenberg (essenber@dutiws.twi.tudelft.nl) writes:
I just read the september issue of the German computer magazine c't.
It appears ZyXEL has obtained BZT certification for a model called
"U-1496EG Plus". This basically is the E+ with a metal housing.
Pulses for pulse-dialing are no longer generated by a relays, but
electronically.  A filter eliminates the german cost-counting impulses.
Automated redialing has been changed (suppressed) according to german
telecom rules. 

[Minimum time between 1st and 2nd try: 5secs;
  "       "     "     2nd  "  3rd try: 60secs;
No more than 12 tries to the same number if no answering tone is
received;
After 12 failed tries, a minimum waiting time of 1 hour before attempting
the same number.]

Sufficient changes have been made so that this beast will only accept ROM 
updates specially designed for it: no chance of reversing the redial disability
this way :-(. Also, the second RJ11 jack, the one in which you connect your 
phone, has been removed.  Worst: while the normal E+ costs around DM900, this 
thing is expected to cost close to DM1400.

In Germany one can buy the 1496EG+, the telecom-certified version of the 1496E+
which has some diffences to the original 1496E:
*The case is metallic
*There is a mechanism implemented which delays and stops redialing after
 several unsuccessful dials.
*ROM-Updates are allowed, but only with certified releases.
*Impulse-dialing is _much_ more silent 
*It's much more expensive (around 1350.- DM) 


Japan, Japan Approvals institute for Telecommunications Equipment (JATE)
Japanese PTT approval is now underway.


New Zealand,
U-1496S, PTC 211/92/035
Alan Brown (alan@papaioea.manawatu.gen.nz) adds:
In New Zealand, a "Telepermit" is issued to the *importer*. If another importer
decides to start carrying an item, even if it's factory modified for NZ, it must 
be resubmitted by the new importer.

On the flipside, "Telepermits" are cheap - NZ$2000 (~US$1050) and include all 
laboratory test costs.


Poland, Ministry of Communications
U-1496E, Polish homologation certificate no. 421/93
U-1496S+, Polish homologation certificate no. 513/93

ZyXEL is probably the only, reasonably priced modem capable of coping with 
the mediocre Polish telephone lines. That comes with a price, however.
ZyXEL modems sold in Poland are a bit different than FCC version, and of 
course more expensive.

Changes:
1) Reduced sensitivity of ringer detector, so no accidental spikes in 
   telephone lines will activate the modem. 
2) Higher input impedance, as required by the telecommunications regulations.
3) Considerably higher DTMF level (than in the FCC model).

While the third modification is relatively easy to implement, through the
replacement of the ROM(s), the other two require significant hardware
change. Scientific [a Polish dealer of ZyXEL and Zoom modems] is authorized 
by ZyXEL to make such changes, including ROMs replacement as well.


Switzerland, Federal Office for Telecommunication (BAKOM)
The present homologation status is shown below.  Any modification 
(technical characteristica, hardware, firmware, etc.) requires 
re-certification.
  Model      Speed     HW       SW      BAKOM #
  U-1496     14.4K     ?      V+      92.1148.D.N
  U-1496B    14.4K   Rev-5A   V5.02   93.0076.D.N
  U-1496E    14.4K     ?      V4.09   92.1149.D.N
  U-1496E+   16.8K   Rev-B2   V5.04   93.0155.D.N
  U-1496E+   16.8K     ?        ?     93.0204.D.N  *
  * this modem was submitted by another importer which no longer sells it

A general note : voice functions are not agreed by BAKOM 


USA, Federal Communication Commission (FCC) approved
        Model Name      FCC number              REN#    Class
        U-1496          1ROTAI-18563-MD-E       1.1B    A
        U-1496B         1ROTAI-18518-MD-E       0.8B    A
        U-1496E         1ROTAI-65020-MD-E       0.5B    B
                           FCC# I88U1496E

Denmark 
Finland   
Hong Kong 
Iceland   
Indonesia
Ireland   
Russia   
Singapore     
Sweden  
Thailand 
Turkey   


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Top Document: ZyXEL modem FAQ List v4.2, Nov 20 1995, Part 3 of 5 [Technical FAQs]
Previous Document: T.1E What does one do with the latest ROMs?
Next Document: T.3 What are known country codes?

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