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Hangul & Internet in Korea (main part 2/4)

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Archive-name: cultures/korea/hangul-internet/part2
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See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
   Hangul and Internet in Korea FAQ (part 2/4)

7. What kind of word processors are available for Hangul?

On MS-DOS machine, Arae-ah Hangul(HWP) by Hangul & Computer is the most
popular in Korea. Up to v.1.51, it had separate programs for laser printer
and dot-matrix printer. In v.2.0, they were merged into a single program.
There are two different v.2.0,however, one for professional user(200,000 won
or so) and the other for ordinary user (about 100,000 won?). The newest
version of HWP is 3.0 for DOS and 3.0b for MS-Windows 3.1/95. Windows
version includes separates "Hangul-module" so that it runs either under
MS-Windows or under Hangul MS-Windows while most other Hangul W/Ps for
Windows depend on Hangul MS-Windows 3.1/95 to implement Hangul I/O. Hangul &
Computer has developmed X window version of HWP for a while, but in late
1997, its development was handed off to Mizi research which will continue to
develop it with the license from Hangul & Computer. (according to the
article posted to han.comp.os.linux by Seo, Young-jin at
For purchase in the US, see Subject 23) and contact Hangul & Computer. 

Hangul version of MS-Word, Word Perfect, Hun-min-jong-um and other Hangul
word processors are also available in Korea. All of these require Hangul
MS-Windows to run. 

Hangul MS-Word to be run under Hangul MS-Windows can read in HWP 2.0,2.1 and
2.5 format documents. Refer to Microsoft Korean pages at 

Korean version of famous DTP(desk top publishing) and graphics programs such
as PageMaker,Quark Xpress,Photoshop and Illustrator for Mac and/or
MS-Windows(dealt in by BBcom at in Korea) are available
through Korean s/w vendors in the US(See Subject 23). Besides, Human
Computer( makes Mun-bang-Sa-woo, Korean DTP program,
a few different kinds of Hangul font collections(True Type and Postscript)
and FontMania (Hangul font rendering program). 

VADA and SAN are small editor/word processors in public domain. See subject

Under MS-DOS with s/w Hangul( DANSI or DKBI:See Subject 4) ) or h/w Hangul
card, it's possible to use W/P made for English users. 

A public domain w/p for MS-Windows 3.1. Mo-dun-gul is available. See Subject
3). Kunsaram at released Iyagi 7.3, a
terminal emulator with built-in Hangul for MS-Windows 3.1/95 includes a
Hangul editor(or simple word processor). For more information, contact
directly Kunsaram. With Hangul MS-Windows 3.1/95 or Hanme Hangul for Windows
2.5 + MS-Windows 3.1/95, (See Subject 4)) one may use Hangul in most W/Ps
made for MS-Window 3.1/95. 

For viewing HWP or Hangul MS-Word without HWP or MS-Word, refer to Subject

On Mac, NISUS and Word Perfect work fine with Hangul Talk 7.1 and KLK(Korean
Language Kit). Other popular w/p like MS-Word have trouble with Hangul Talk
7.1. Under KLK, Word Perfect,Nisus, ClarisWork and several other
wordprocessors work fine. Unlike earlier version of MS-Word, a newever
version of MS-Word is WS-savvy and known to work well with World Script II
in general and KLK in particular. WorldWrite is less expensive than Nisus
and seems to support KLK well(it's claimed to even support vertical
writing). (Info. on WorldWrite is due to Michael ? at Moreover, there are several localized
(for Korean) version of word processors. Nisus Korean version(specifically
geared for Korean word processing) is sold by BBCom( Unicorn
editor mentioned in Subject 3 is also known to work well with KLK or Hangul
Talk. See KLK data sheet mentioned in Subject 5 for more on compatibility of
KLK and other softwares. Besides,Hangul & Computer announced that it would
release Mac version of its famous HWP(Arae-Ah Hangul) in early 1997. One may
find it useful to have HWP to Mac format converter available at 

Hantori and Electronic Hangul(EH) are said to work well with most programs
for Mac including word processors. 

HanMac Word(HM Word) is a word processor developed in Korea and its demo
version is available at Mac Hangul archive. A shareware version of HanMac
word for those outside Korea is available for $35 shareware fee. It's said
to be a full-fledged word processor with powerful features rarely found in
word processor but included only with DTP software such as QuarkXpress.
Hanmac software also offers a number of Hangul-related extensions to
QuartXpress. For more infomation on Han Mac Word, contact HanMac at 

See Subject 5) for more on Hangul environment on Mac. 

Mun-bang-sa-wu/UX1.1 is a word processor for SUN compatible workstations and
it requires 6MB memory and 10MB disk space. A demo version without file
related functionalities is available at CAIR archive and its mirrors 

Hangul & Computer(the vendor of Arae-Ah Hangul) was recently reported to
have developed AraeAh Hangul for X Window. HWP 2.5 for X is now available
from Hangul & Computer. HWP 3.0/X was released in Sep. 1995 and the most
recent demo version(3.0.2 released in May,1996) for several flavor of Unix
including Linux,SCO/Unix, and HP/UX are available at In early 1998, Mizi
research took over the development of HWP/X from Hangul & Computer. Mizi
released HWP/X 4.0 demo versions for several flavors of Unix including
Linux. For further details, refer to FreeBSD users
may try Linux version along with Linux compatibility library for FreeBSD.
The following document explains how to use Linux version of HWP/X under
FreeBSD : 

OpenHWP is an open source/free software project to build a HWP-compatible
word processor. It was initiated by a group of people who determined to save
HWP(the most famous word processor in Korea) from fallling a prey to the
hands of Microsoft. Up-to-date information is available at You may consider joining the team. 

Chinese Power 3.0 by Jun Yei at is a word processor for
Unix/X window(with Motif 1.2) supporting Korean as well as Chinese and
Japanese. It can handle a number of encodings including EUC-KR(Korean 8bit
encoding), EUC-JP(Japanese), HZ,EUC-CN, and Big5(for Chinese)
"Unicode-native-encoding",UTF7 and UTF8 (for Unicode). [Posted to Usenet
newsgroup han.comp.hangul by Gilbert Yun at You can
get it at You need to have
Motif 1.2 libraries and header files to compile it. My attempt to compile it
with lesstif(free Motif clone) under Linux succeeded, but the compiled
binary doesn't work well.(It sort of worked, but not very much usable). 

According to W. Choi at and information posted at, HWP for OS/2 will be released, soon.
Demo version of HWP for OS/2 is available in e:/mirror/hncpm at 

8. What are KS X 1001(KS C 5601) and other Hangul

In 1997, Korean standard body made a rather drastic change in the naming
scheme of standards for information exchange and processing. What used to be
refered to as KS C 56xx - KS C 59xx were renamed as KS X xxxx. The following
summarizes the change. [Posted by Prof. Kim, Kyongsok at to han.comp.hangul] 

 o KS C 5601 -> KS X 1001 
 o KS C 5657 -> KS X 1002 : additional characters for information exchange 
 o KS C 5636 -> KS X 1003 : Korean version of ISO 646/US-ASCII 
 o KS C 5620 -> KS X 1004 : ISO/IEC 2022 
 o KS C 5700 -> KS X 1005-1 : Unicode 2.0/ISO-10646 
 o KS C 5697 -> KS X 1023 : ISO 2375 
 o KS C 5861 -> KS X 2901 : Korean Unix environment 

The most widely used coded character set (CCS. For the sake of clarity, I
adopt the terms defined in RFC 2130 and RFC 2278) for Korean(Hangul,Hanja
and symbols) is KS X 1001(used to be KS C 5601)(Wansunghyung. For English
translation of KS C 5601-1987, see KS X 1003(used to be KS C 5636
:a Korean equivalent of US-ASCII/ISO 646) and KS X 1001 are two coded
character sets for EUC-KR(Korean EUC. See KS X 2901 which used to be refered
to as KS C 5861 and RFC 1557) encoding(Character set Encoding Scheme : CES)
used on all three major platforms, Mac OS, Unix, and MS-DOS/MS-Windows. In
mid 1980s when IBM compatible PCs were introduced in Korea, a few variants
of Johab encoding(CES) were used and one of them is still used in some
programs under MS-DOS(please, note that it is all but impossible(at least
hard) to be used in Unix and Internet because it's not compliant to ISO
2022). Besides, there's one minor encoding, N-byte code(de-facto Unix
standard code until mid 1980's). [Contribution by Choi,Woohyung] 

Drawbacks of KS X 1001 include: only 2,350 Hangul syllables out of 11,172(19
x 21 x (27+1) ) syllables in modern Korean are included and its way of
enumerating 2,350 syllables doesn't reflect the unique characteristic of
Hangul(composing syllables out of 2 to 5 jamos). For these reasons, a number
of people opposed adopting it as the national standard and insists that
Johab encoding(by which I mean 'Sang-yong Johab encoding' as used in MS-DOS)
which can encode all of 11172 syllables be used instead. Taking into account
the fact that it's virtually impossible(or very hard) to use 'Sang-yong
Johab encoding' in Internet and Unix, adoptation of ISO-2022 compliant KS C
5601 as CCS and the most natural encoding of it along with US-ASCII/KS X
1003(KS C 5636), EUC-KR was near-best compromise. Moreover, KS X 1001(KS C
5601-1992 : updated version of KS C 5601-1987) does have an provision on
how to represent 8822 syllables not included in a set of the precomposed
syllables(2350) with 8byte sequence. In this light, it's NOT the standard
BUT those who didn't implement the standard to the fullest who are to blame.

KS X 1001 (KS C 5601-1992) lists in Annex 3 Johab encoding, but my
understanding is it's only for the sake of reference. 

EUC-KR is an 8bit encoding(CES) of KS X 1001(KS C 5601-1987) coded character
set and KS X 1003(KS C 5636:Korean version of US-ASCII)/US-ASCII coded
character set based on AT&T Extended Unix Code scheme and is widely used in
Unix,MS-DOS,MS-Windows, and Mac. MS-DOS/Windows and Mac use slightly
different encodings with platform-specific extensions. MS added an ad-hoc
extension in Korean MS-Windows 95/98 to represent additional 8822 Hangul
syllables and came up with Unified Hangul Code or CP949(Windows-949). For
Korean MacOS extension, see
Other encodings of KS X 1001(KS C 5601-1987) and KS X 1003(KS C 5636)
include ISO-2022-KR(7bit. Korean Mail Exchange Standard;See Subject 9 and 
RFC 1557), 7bit ISO-2022(Refer to CJK.inf), and ISO-2022-JP-2(which deals
with not only KS C 5601 but also Chinese and Japanese character sets. See 
RFC 1554 and CJK.inf mentioned below) For most people, EUC-KR(encoding/CES)
is interchangeable with KS C 5601(coded character set/CCS) and US-ASCII/KS C
5636 as they're in most cases (actually only exceptions are use of 7bit
ISO-2022-KR encoding/CES in mail exchange Emacs/Mule which uses another
encoding based on code switching technique specified in ISO-2022. X11
Compound Text encoding is similar to what's used by Emacs/Mule) encoded in
8bit EUC-KR although they MUST be distinguished from each other when
working on internet and national standard. Making it more confusing to some
people is use of EUC-KR and ISO-2022-KR as the value for charset
parameter in MIME Content-Type header. However, this usage is justified
because the definition of charset in MIME is almost identical to that of CES
as defined in RFC 2130 as long as Korean and Chinese/Japanese encodings(CES)
and coded character sets(CCS) are concerned. Accordingly, use of
ks_c_5601-1987(the name of coded character set) as the value of MIME charset
parameter as in some internet applications(most notably MS FrontPage 3.0 or
later) should be avoided at all cost. I'm not an expert on this
subject(distinction between character set and encoding) by any means and my
explanation is bound to have misleading statements and even downright
mistakes. I'd be very grateful for any correction and comment. A good
reference for terminology involving code and character set is RFC 2130
available at Internic( and other national information
centers (e.g. 

In December, 1995, Korean standard body officially published a new Korean
standard character set, KS C 5700(it's renamed as KS X 1005-1 in 1998) ,
which is based on ISO.IEC 10646-1 and Unicode 2.0. KS X 1005-1 and Unicode
2.0 or later are different from ISO 10646-1:1993 in that they contain all of
pre-composed Hangul syllables in modern Korean(11,172) instead of subset of
them(6,656) in ISO 10646-1:1993 and Unicode 1.1. Moreover, KS X 1005-1(KS C
5700) contains all of hangul phonetic alphabets(240 HANGUL JAMOs) in antique
as well as modern Korean for 'Ch'ot-ga-kkut'(combinational Hangul) code, and
94 phonetic alphabets for compatibility with KS X 1001(KS C 5601). 

To convert EUC-KR encoded text to and from one of Unicode encodings (Unicode
Transformation Format, UTF-8,UTF-7, and "Unicode-native" encoding,
UCS-2/UTF-16.), one can use tcs, a utility made by Plan9 team at Bell
laboratories and uniconv(included in yudit, Unicode editor. See Subject 3).
I found uniconv superior to tcs in that it supports UTF-7 (not supported by
tcs) as well as UTF-8 and UCS-2/UTF-16(Big endian, Little endian). On the
other hand, tcs supports more national encodings than uniconv. tcs is
available in As of Nov.,1997, tcs
doesn't support Unicode 2.0/KS X 1005-1. To make it compliant to Unicode
2.0(as far as Korean is concerned), you have to replace ksc.c in the
original with mine available at
before compiling it. You may also wish to replace ex08.ok(UTF8 encoded
version of ex08.src) in the original tcs source with mine at to prevent regress (check up
script included in tcs) from complaining. Unicode archive (at has a set of C routines and mapping tables one can
use to build converter between various Unicode transformation
format/encoding(UTF8,UTF7,UTF16,etc) and ISO-2022-based encoding such as
EUC-KR. Mapping tables for CJK are in /Public/MAPPINGS/EASTASIA and C
routines are in /Public/PROGRAMS. You need to note, however, that
KSC5601.TXT in Unicode ftp archive and Unicode 2.0 CD-ROM is actually UHC/MS
Code Page 949/Windows 949(see below) to Unicode 2.0 mapping table instead of
KS X 1001(KS C 5601-1992) to Unicode mapping table as it claims to be. The
correct mapping table for KS X 1001(KS C 5601-1992) and Unicode 2.0 is
available at I also
prepared the mapping table between JOHAB encoding and Unicode 2.0 at 

Microsoft Korea came up with its own Hangul encoding, UHC(Unified Hangul
Code: MS Code Page 949, Windows-949) stripping Hangul of its unique metit as
'phonetically-combined-writing' system and treating it just like Chinese
letters, use it in Hangul Windows 95 and Windows NT (in case of Korean
Windows NT 4.0, all internal processings are done in Unicode, but on the
surface, it used UHC) despite repeated advices by Korean government to adopt
ISO-10646. UHC is upward compatible with EUC-KR(Korean EUC) and assigns
Hangul syllables not covered by KS X 1001(KS C 5601-1987) (11,172 - 2,350)
to code points in CR range(in ISO-2022) and some empty slots not used by
EUC-KR. Unlike EUC-KR, the second octet of two octet sequence to represent a
Hangul syllable may be in GL range(0x21-0x7e), which makes it harder to tell
characters drawn from KS X 1001(and Annex 3) from characters belonging to

For more details on Hangul code, refer to following documents: 

 o Unicode and Hangul (at by Jung, Joowon 
 o Han Soft home page(the vendor of Hantorie a Hangul solution for Mac. 
 o CJK Information page by Ken Lunde( of Adobe. Among
   many documents listed there are cjk.inf at with very
   extensive (although heavily tilted toward Chinese and Japanese and not
   up-to-date about Korean software) information on issues arising from
   implementation of Korean,Chinese,and Japanese supports including and not
   limited to Hangul code and coding system of Chinese and Japanese and CJK
   character set server at 
 o Another very extensive document concerning Korean as well as Chinese and
   Japanese coding system is found at 
 o Lee, Sanglo has collected a very extensive set of information about
   Hangul code including many of pages mentioned in this page and KS X
   1001(KS C 5601) and KS X 1005-1(KS C 5700) table at The identical information is
   available at 
 o Prof. Kim, Kyeong-seok of Pusan National Univ. has pages with extensive
   information on Hangul code at 
 o Roman Czyborra put up an excellent web page on Unicode and character
   sets/encodings with a number of fonts,sample documents, tables and many
   other useful links at 
 o The most technically oriented may want to refer to following pages 
    o KS X 1001(KS C 5601-1987)(summary) as submitted to the ISO(in English)
      is available at along with
      North Korean(KPS 9566-97),Japanese and Chinese standards. (Erik van
      der Poel of Netscape posted this info. to a newsgroup). Other graphic
      and control coded character sets can also be obtained at 
    o A number of the original ISO standard documents including ISO-2022 are
      available (free of charge) in PDF and MS-Word format at ISO-2022 is refered to as ECMA 35. This precious
      piece of information was passed along to me by Werner Lemberg at 
    o The international standardization subcommittee for coded character
    o The Guide to Open System Specification(European Union) : 
    o The technical committee for the multilingual and multicultural Europe
 o Lee, Jaekil has made an excellent page regarding Hangul code(and true
   type fonts) especially geared for Windows NT/95 at It's a must for Windows 95/NT
   programmers(and users as well). 
 o Inside Macintosh has a very brief but very clear explanation for EUC-KR
   and other encodings. Online version is at
 o Kosta Kostis' collection of information on Unicode and translator among
   many different character sets and encodings is found at 

Conversion table among several Hangul codes mentioned above are available at
following locations 

 o for
   11,172 pre-combined Hangul syllables 
 o for
   5,874 non-hangul characters in KS X 1001(KS C 5601-1992) (4,888 hanja and
   986 symbols) 

HCODE is a Hangul code conversion program written by June-Yub Lee at It can deal with ISO-2022-KR encoded code (de
facto standard for hangul mail exchange), KS X 1001-Extension, Sambo(Trigem)
Johab, and Hangul Romanization code as agreed upon by both Koreas. The
newest version is hcode 2.1-mailpatch2(patches by me to fix some glitches in
handling ISO-2022-KR and B/Q encoded header of Hangul Mail as specified in
RFC 1557) available in /pub/hangul/code/hcode at CAIR archive and its
mirrors. HCODEis fast,small,and most importantly it's flexible so that it's
very easy to add new code such as one's own Romanization code and Unicode(as
adopted in KS X 1005-1). MS-DOS binary of the newest version of
hcode(2.1-mailpatch2) (hcode21m.exe compiled with old Turbo C 3.0) was
uploaded to /incoming/hangul of CAIR archive and /incoming of HanaBBS
archive. It'll be moved to /hangul/code/hcode at CAIR archive. 

A set of Hangul code converters(Johab,Wansung,two coding systems included in
KS X 1005-1) is included in a word processor(MS-DOS) for ancient Korean
developed at Pusan Nat'l Univ.. It's available at [Posted by Prof. Kim, Kyongsok to Hangul
Usenet newsgroup, han.comp.hangul] 

GNU recode has been in the middle of rewritting to use Unicode (more exactly
one of its encodings) as the central encoding to convert among multitude of
coded character sets(CCS)/character set encoding schemes(CES). 

In addition, I wrote a simple-minded code converter between ISO-2022-KR and
EUC-KR(8bit encoding of KS X 1001+KS X 1003/US-ASCII), hmconv, which is
available in /hangul/code/hmconv at CAIR archive.It doesn't have glitches of
hcode mentioned above and works well as a filter for Hangul mail exchange.
See Subject 9 for more on how to use it in Hangul mail exchange. Binaries
for MS-DOS(compiled by me with Turbo C 3.0) and MS-Windows binary (compiled
by Yi, Yeong-deug. No GUI, but requires MS-Windows to run) along with a
brief document was uploaded to /incoming/hangul of CAIR archive and will be
moved to /hangul/code/hmconv. 

According to Lee Q-Young at, MS-Windows NT users can
convert documents in EUC-KR(8bit encoding of KS X 1001 + KS X 1003/US-ASCII)
to KS X 1005-1 (Unicode: I'm not sure which encoding is used in NT,
Unicode-with network byte order: ISO-10646 BMP?- or UTF8) by loading them
into notepad and choosing "Save in Unicode" when saving them back in
different names. 

CHAMEL is a code converter for IBM-PC, and it can convert files between
Johab and KS codes. It's author is not reachable from Internet.
[Contribution by Choi,Woohyung] 

Ken Lunde ( informed me that North Korean recently published
KPS 9566-97. It's similar to KS C 5601-1987(in that it's conformant to
ISO-2022) and contains 2,679 Hangul syllables and 4653 Hanja(Chinese
ideograms used in Korea). One funny thing about it is it put aside separate
code points for 6 syllables which make up the names of their iron-fist

9. How can I exchange Hangul Mails?

Before reading further, please take a note that what follows does not
address how you view Hangul in your environment. It's assumed that you have 
no problem viewing and entering Hangul text in your environment although
you have some difficulty deciphering some cryptic jargons (e.g. encoding,
MIME, base64, charset, etc) required for standard-compliant exchange of
Hangul messages. As for reading and writing Hangul in your platform, you
need to refer to other parts of the FAQ. Of particular relevance to them are
Subject 2(Hangul terminal emulators), Subject 3(Hangul editors), Subject
4(MS-DOS/Windows Hangul environment), Subject 5(Mac Hangul environment) and 
Subject 6(Unix Hangul environment). You may also wish to read Subject 36, 37
,and 38 on viewing Hangul web pages. 

Internet mail exchange protocol, SMTP(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) as
specified in STD 10 (RFC 821) is not '8bit clean' and a number of installed
implementations of SMTP - Mail Transport Agents(MTA) like sendmail,
smail,and mmdf - did not transparently pass 8bit characters such as used in
EUC-KR(8bit encoding of Hangul standard coded character sets,KS X 1001(KS C
5601) and KS X 1003(KS C 5636)/US-ASCII) and ISO-8859-x(European char.)
although increasing number of MTAs become 8bit transparent and some of
them(e.g. sendmail 8.7 and later) faithfully implement ESMTP ( RFC 1869 and 
RFC 1652). Hence, need for some form of encoding conversion/transfer
encoding(to use only lower 7bits) existed in the past and still exist in
some cases. Listed below are a few transfer encoding/encoding conversion
methods widely used. 

Please, note that a new Korean mail exchange standard(which has been already
in wide use for a couple of years) will be announced sooner or later. One of
the most notable changes will be ISO-2022-KR/7bit won't be used any more in
outbound messages. Over a 8bit transparent transport channel, EUC-KR/8bit
will be used exclusively and EUC-KR/Base64 (or EUC-KR/QP) over a 7bit
transport channel. When the official announcement is made, I'll revise this
part of the FAQ to reflect the new standard. 

   8bit encoding - compliant to EUC(Extended Unix Code) spec. by AT&T - of
   Korean standard coded character set for Hangul,Hanja,and special
   characters KS X 1001(KS C 5601)(which will be phased out and superceded
   by KS X 1005-1(KS C 5700) See Subject 8) and US-ASCII/KS X 1003(KS C
   5636: Korean equivalent of US-ASCII with backslash replaced by Korean
   currency sign). As mentioned above, many MTAs nowadays are 8bit
   transparent so that they have little trouble transmitting messaage in
   8bit encodings(MIME charsets) like EUC-KR. EUC-KR will be the default
   encoding to use in Korean mail exchange and 8bit will be the
   content-transfer-encoding for 8bit transparent path. For 7bit only
   path(more exactly all the paths not confirmed to be 8bit clean), either
   Base64 or Quoted-Printable should be used in accordance with RFC 1652. 
   used to be standard for Hangul mail exchange specified in RFC 1557. Still
   a number of mails from Korea and sent using Netscape 4.x are in
   ISO-2022-KR(header is B encoded with charset name EUC-KR following RFC
   2047). See below for detail. Programs supporting ISO-2022-KR are

    o OLD Hangul Sendmail : MTA-level implementation of RFC 1557 by one of
      authors of RFC 1557, Choi,Woohyung. Automatically converts EUC-KR to
      and from ISO-2022-KR with B encoded header. Hangul sendmail 8.6.x has
      several bugs as well as serious security holes associated with
      sendmail 8.6. You should install NEW Hangul sendmail 8.8.8H2 by
      Roh, Jungsuck(sp?) or another NEW Hangul sendmail (8.8.8Ha) by Suh,
      Sang yong, instead. New Hangul Sendmail converts incoming 7bit
      iso-2022-kr back to 8bit euc-kr, but doesn't convert outgoing euc-kr
      to iso-2022-kr. The former is available at and the latter at To install either of them, you need to have the
      root previlege on a Unix host. However, I strongly recommend you not
      use Hangul sendmail, old or new as it violates several Internet mail
      standard(RFC 1652, RFC 2047). To be interoperable with MA(Mail Agent)s
      still following old standard(RFC 1557), you are infinitely much better
      off using procmail(with appropriate recipe) as the MDA (Mail Delivery
      Agent) for MTA(sendmail and others) given below and at 
    o Cubic Mail for Java : Choi, Hee-chang at released a
      truly excellent Hangul mail client(POP3/IMAP4 client) in pure Java. It
      can be run on any platform where Java application can be run as it's
      written in pure Java. With bulit-in Hangul input/output, it enables
      you to read and write Hangul mail in any language version of any OS as
      long as you can run Java application. You can get it at Please, note that it's not a freeware
      but a shareware, but I think it's a lot more than worth shareware fee.
    o Procmail with appropriate procmailrc (automatic decoding only) which
      can be installed by either ordinary users or by system admin. as a
      Mail Delivery Agent(MDA= local mailer) along with the original
      sendmail 8.8. See below and for detail. It can
      be used whatever program(netscape,eudora,pine,elm,etc) you use to read
      your mail on whatever platform(Unix,Mac,MS-Windows). 
    o KESMPRE( Sendmail Preprocessor for Hangul Mail Exchange): Sitting in
      place of sendmail 8.8, it converts outgoing Hangul messages in EUC-KR
      into ISO-2022-KR before handing them over to real sendmail. Made by
      Park, Jae-hyon in Physics Dept. of KAIST. When installed by the system
      administrator along with procmail+code converter to deal with incoming
      mail in ISO-2022-KR, it would make unnecessary patching every Mail
      User Agents(MUA) and POP3/IMAP4 clients users wish to use for Hangul
      mail handling. Further information is available at 
    o Hangul Mail 1.0.2 : Control panel for automatic encoding conversion in
      Hangul mail exchange on Mac by Jeong-hyun Kim at : available at Mac Hangul Archive1 (
      /pub/mac/internet-sw),CAIR archive and its mirrors and UCSD archive. 
    o MS Internet Mail and MS Exchange : support ISO-2022-KR with some
      problems depending on what version you use.(See below). Note, however,
      that Korean MS Internet Mail only works with Korean(and Chinese and
      Japanese) version of MS Windows 95/NT. MS Internet Mail for Hangul MS
      Windows 3.1 was also released in December,1996. 
    o Netscape 4.03 or later(early betas such as 4.0b2 have some problems,
      but those bugs have been fixed in the final release) supports
      automatic detection and conversion of messages in ISO-2022-KR to
      EUC-KR . For outgoing messages, it always uses ISO-2022-KR in message
      body regardless of MIME/QP is turned on or off in mail setting. Next
      release of Netscape will use EUC-KR in place of ISO-2022-KR to be
      compliant new Korean mail exchange standard. 
    o MS Outlook Express and Outlook97: inbound messages in ISO-2022-KR is
      properly displayed(with some patches for old version. See below) and
      outbound messages are sent out EUC-KR/8bit. Korean versions of these
      two programs might not work under non-East-Asian version of MS-Windows
      95/NT. However, there's a report that it works in English and French
      version of MS-Windows NT/95 as long as displaying the body of the
      message is concerned. It still used to require external programs for
      Hangul input. With the release of Korean IME(Input Method Editor),
      this is not the case any more. You can compose Korean messages in any
      language version of MS Windows 95/NT by installing Korean IME
      available at MS IE web page at Korean
      version also offers Unicode(UTF-7 and UTF-8) encoding,but one needs to
      be very careful NOT to choose either of these in Format(O)-Language(G)
      of the message composition window as most people can't handle UTF-7 or
      UTF-8, yet. 
    o HanMail 96 : MUA for MS-Windows that comes bundled with HWP Pro 96 by
      Hangul & Computer. The first release is very buggy. 
    o Hangul-patched mail programs(MUA) for Unix : mutt and elm(old one. may
      not be available any more). 
    o encoding converters : hcode, hmconv for Unix and MS-DOS and Hangul
      Mail Converters for Mac. 
    o decoder : hdcod for Unix, cvt8.exe for MS-Windows and 
      Netscape-mail-folder decoder for MS-Windows. 
    o Pine 3.94/3.95/3.96K + encoding converter : See below and refer to 
      pine.html at for
    o Mule and GNU Emacs 20/XEmacs 20 : multilinguial extension of emacs(of
      which features have been incorporated into Emacs 20), supports both
      ISO-2022-KR and EUC-KR, so that mule(and emacs mail packages like
      Rmail,VM, and MH-E) users should have little problem with reading
      ISO-2022-KR-encoded Hangul mail. However, care should be taken not to
      encode Hangul apperaing in mail header in ISO-2022-KR. A recipe to
      avoid this problem is mentioned below. 
    o KUMailer(Free POP3 client for MS-Windows 95) : Cho Soohyun at released a flexible(in terms of user
      control over which transfer encoding and/or MIME charset to use) POP3
      client. It's available at
    o AsianView for MS-Windows 3.1/95,Unionway for MS-Windows 3.1/95/NT,and
      NJWin for 3.1/95/NT (See Subject 4) automatically detect and display
      ISO-2022-KR. The original NJWin 1.20 has some problem with converting.
      You need to get and install bug-fixed DLL files( njdbcs.dll and
      njtext16.dll) available at Bug-fixed DLL
      file for AsianView is also available at the same place. [Contribution
      by Yi, Yeong Deug at]. You need to get the newest
      build of Unionway(the one available via download has a bug and doesn't
      decode ISO-2022-KR) by following the link to membership at 
    o ISO-2022-KR to EUC-KR conversion page at 

   In addition,most Unix mail programs(e.g. Pine 3.92 or later,
   elm,mail,mailx,and Rmail and mh-e for emacs) along with encoding
   converters can be configured to convert Hangul as necessary for Hangul
   mail exchange automatically or semi-automatically as described below. By
   converting your outgoing Hangul mail to ISO-2022-KR, you will make life
   of your correspondents who use HiTel and Nownuri in Korea easier. In case
   Hangul MTA(Hangul sendmail) is installed on one's SMTP(mail) server(which
   is often the case in Korea), one has to turn OFF 'enable QP' in Eudora(it
   has a serious problem with Hangul mail, though) and choose 'Allow 8bit'
   in Netscape-Mail(up to 3.0) to make outgoing mail properly encoded in
   more economical than QP for Hangul mail exchange. Supported by Pine,
   Elm(read-only in most versions with metamail. Some recent variants of Elm
   seem to support MIME attachment as well) and any MIME-aware MUAs under
   Unix and several MUA/POP/IMAP clients for Mac/MS-Windows such as Netscape
   mail. mmencode included in metamail package can be used for manual code
   conversion to/from Base64 and QP in Unix. In MS-Windows, wincode can be
   used the same way. 
   Unix community and nowadays with explosive growth of the Net, Mac and
   MS-DOS/Windows as well, have used a pair of encoder/decoder,
   uuencode/uudecode to exchange binary data(requiring all 8bits) via e-mail
   and Usenet News. uuencode, however, will be phased out and replaced by
   Base64(one of MIME standard encoding). Chollian MagiCall users seem to
   have choice of sending their outgoing mail either in ISO-2022-KR or
   encoding in uuencode.You had beeter avoid using uuencode for any purpose
   including Hangul mail and binary file exchange because uuencode has
   several different implementations(thus incompatible with each other) and
   uuencoded messages get broken when passed over to hosts with charset
   different from US-ASCII(e.g. EBCDIC),which led to a new encoding scheme,
EUC-KR/QP(Quoted Printable) 
   the most suitable for ISO-8859-1(West European character sets with small
   fraction of 8bit characters), but can be used for Hangul mail(in EUC-KR)
   exchange as well. Supported by Pine,Elm (with metamail installed) and any
   MIME-aware MUAs(Mail User Agent) under Unix and a number of MUA/POP/IMAP
   clients including Netscape mail,Agent and Eudora on
   Mac/MS-Windows.Currently, for POP3 client users(on Mac/MS-Windows)
   outside Korea on whose mail/pop3 server Hangul sendmail cannot be
   installed, this, along with Base64, is the most convenient and certain
   option to send out Hangul mail although recipents in Korea without
   MIME-compatible MUAs may have difficulty decoding QP-encoded messages. To
   encode your outgoing messages in QP/Base64, turn on 'May use QP' in
   Eudora,check 'MIME'(instead of 'Allow 8bit') in Netscape 3.0
   (Options|Mail&News|Composition menu) in MS Outlook express (see below for
   details on configuring MS Outlook Express) Please, note that Netscape
   4.0, unlike Netscape 3.0, sends outgoing messages in ISO-2022-KR
   regardless of whether MIME is selected or not if Encoding is set to

In case you think this document is too difficult to understand and you never
use Unix to read and send mail, you may refer to Yi,Yeong Deug's Hangul Mail
FAQ available at Kang, Kyung-soo at posted a series of articles to Usenet newsgroup
han.answers,han.comp.mail and han.comp.hangul explaining how to configure MS
outlook Express and Netscape for Hangul mail exchanges in very
easy-to-understand manner.(It's a must for those using Internet under
MS-Windows) You can view his articles on Dejanews Power search with the
search term "~g han.answers and ~a Kyung-soo" or you may try Hitel Q&A
section at Lee, June Young at also has put up on the web an excellent
information on Hangul mail exchange with MS Outtlook Exprees. His page is
found at When using MS
OE, you need to make sure that the language is set to Korean(rather than
Unicode) in Format(O) - Language(G) menu of the message composition Window.
Another very good site about Hangul mail with extensive information on
sendmail and Hangul code has been put on the web by Lee, Sanglo at 

Hangul mail has been widely spread since 1992 when Choi, Woohyung suggested
a ISO-2022 conformant encoding method, and made a pilot implementation for
ELM(still available at major Hangul archive). Later, he modified
sendmail(the most widely used MTA-Mail Transfer Agent- under Unix) for
automatic encoding conversion between EUC-KR and ISO-1022-KR in message body
and B(base64) encoding in message header. As mentioned above, however,
sendmail 8.6.12h2(old Hangul sendmail) has several bugs and security
holes(found in the original sendmail 8.6) and all the sites with this
version of sendmail must upgrade to sendmail 8.8/8.9(the newest is 8.9.0 as
of June, 1998)+ procmail or sendmail 8.8.8h1/ sendmail 8.8.8Ha (new Hangul

With Hangul Sendmail(old and new) or sendmil+procmail (procmail solution can
be used together with MTA other than smail,qmail and mmdf as well)
installed, any user level mail program(MUA:Mail User Agent ; e.g.
pine,elm,mh,xmh,mailx,mail) can be used to transparently exchange Hangul
mail. Users of POP3 clients for MS-Windows and Mac(MS Outlook Express,
Netscape mail,Claris Emailer.etc) are relieved of inconvenience of encoding
conversion with Hangul Sendmail on their POP3 server and SMTP(mail) server.
(In this case, 'Quoted Printable' should be turned off - equivalently 'Allow
8bit' is to be turned on- in POP3 client. Charset should be set to EUC-KR
or Korean whenever possible. This is crucial especially in Mac version of
Netscape and Forte Agent for MS-Windows. In Netscape for Mac, setting
charset to one other than Korean results in completely gobbled-message. See 
Subject 24 for Forte Agent). Eudora as is released by Qualcomm has a serious
problem with Hangul mail exchange does NOT offer any means to set charset to
EUC-KR. There's a perfect work-around for Mac version of Eudora. MS-Windows
version of Eudora doesn't even have a room for such work-around although Yi
Yeong Deug came up with a work-around that works for text/plain type
messaeg(i.e. message without attachment). The same is true of Hangul Mail
1.0.2 for Mac with code-conversion for outgoing message turned on. 

Technical details on Hangul mail exchange is described in 
RFC-1557( submitted to IETF by Choi, Woohyung and Prof.
Chon, Kilnam( with CS dept. at KAIST and Park, HJ
( at Solvit Chosun Media. Information on old Hangul
Sendmail are found at Documents mentioned there
include Hangul mail guide in /pub/hangul/mail at CAIR archive and mirrors
and Hangul Sendmail.FAQ by Choi, Woohyung at Please, be
aware that these documents got very much out-of-date with recent
developments in Hangul mail exchange standard (on which virtually every
party involved agreed that ISO-2022-KR/7bit not be used any more and EUC-KR
be the default encoding for Hangul mail exchange) 

Unfortunately, Hangul Sendmail and Procmail as MDA are to be installed by
root (system administrator), so that most people outside Korea (except for
those with root previlege to install Hangul Sendmail) have to figure out how
to do what Hangul Sendmail does, encoding conversion: convert a message in
whatever Hangul code you use locally into ISO-2022-KR before sending out(the
new Hangul sendmail doesn't do this any more. Neither does the original
sendmail(+procmail), needless to say) and convert incoming mail (from Korea)
in ISO-2022-KR to your local code(usually EUC-KR). 

In HCODE distribution, you may find a document for Hangul mailing with hcode
v.2.1. It's for Berkeley mail ,but you should be able to do the same for
other mail programs once you understand what it does for Berkeley mail.
hcode 2.1 has a few glitches in code conversion for mail exchange (
-ki,-ik,-dk,-kd options. e.g. See Subject 8) The newest patched version, 
hcode2.1-mailpatch2 available in /pub/hangul/code/hcode of CAIR archive
solves all of these incompatibilities, so that you have to get this one to
avoid complaints from your correspondents in Korea. MS-DOS binary of hcode
2.1-mailpatch2 (hcode21m.exe compiled with old Turbo C 3.0) can be obtained
in /hangul/code/hcode of CAIR archive. 

I wrote a simple code/encoding converter between EUC-KR and ISO-2022-KR,
hmconv available in /hangul/code/hmconv of CAIR archive. The newest one
(which now works with Pine 3.93 or later in Solaris 2.x where it used to
have a problem) is packaged together with Hangul patch for Pine 3.96 in 
pine396k2.patch.tar.gz which also contain detailed instruction on how to use
it to completely automate Hangul mail exchange and is now available in
separate package hmconv1.0pl3.tar.gz at CAIR archive. MS-DOS binary of
hmconv compiled by Yi, Yeogn Deug is available at his archive MS-DOS binary can be used for manual encoding
conversion for Hangul messages. MS-DOS and MS-Windows(no GUI) binary of
hmconv with a brief document are available in a package in
/hangul/incoming of CAIR archive 

ELM users should read README.elm(at for configuration to
automate Hangul mail exchange with hmconv and ELM. I found Pine 3.93 or
later with displayfilter and sendingfilter very convenient for Hangul mail
without Hangul sendmail and strongly recommend it, whose source and binaries
for virtually all flavors of Unix' are available at As binaries are available, you don't need
to compile it(you have to compile it if you wish to apply Hangul patch. See
below) and you can install it in your home directory without root permission
in most flavors of Unix. 

I patched Pine 3.95(the newest as of Aug. 12,1996) to remove a couple of
incompatibilities with RFC 1557 and Hangul MTA. The newest patch against
Pine 3.96(pine396k2.patch) is available at pine 395k.patch.tar.gz
(available in /hangul/mail/Others of CAIR archive) contains an improved
version of encoding converter, hmconv 1.0pl3 and detailed instructions to
compile Pine 3.95k and to configure it for Hangul mail exchange. I tried it
in Linux 2.0,Solaris 2.5, and Sun OS 4.1.x and it worked fine. Linux binary
for Hangul patched Pine 3.96(the newest) is available at Instructions for Pine
configuration is also available here as pine.html (at Pine395k.patch can be applied
without any problem to Pine 3.96 announced by Univ. of Washington in March,
1997. Pine source ported to FreeBSD is available at According to Jonghwan
Park at, Pine 3.95 Hangul patch works fine with
FreeBSD port as well. 

Some of you who want to post-process mail folders using tools like
sed,awk,perl, and grep find it inconvenient to handle mail folders in
ISO-2022-KR. I came up with an efficient way to convert mail folders in
ISO-2022-KR(+ B encoded header) to EUC-KR. It requires procmail and its
accompanying utilities(formail) along with hmconv and hcode. Detailed
instruction is found In
case procmail and formail are not available, you may use a simple(but much
slower) perl script I made and hcode to convert mail folders in ISO-2022-KR
to EUC-KR. It converts not only message body but header information as well.
The script is available at 
hmconv can be also used to convert mail folder in ISO-2022-KR(with multiple
Hangul messages in ISO-2022-KR) back to EUC-KR. Please, note that hmconv
doesn't change header information and accordingly mail folders converted
using it have header information inconsitent with encoding and/or charset
used in message body. 

Similar automation is possible even with the simplest mail user agent, mail
or mailx available in most, if not all, varionts of Unixen. Following recipe
is given by Kim, Daeshik at Add following lines to .mailrc in
your home directory 

set crt=1
set VISUAL=hmailedit
set PAGER=mpager

where hmailedit is a shell script listed below and mpager is another script
with following lines. 

hmconv -u | less 

hdcod 0.3, a decoder for ISO-2022-KR,QP and Base64 with automatic detection
of encoding type, by Park, Myeong-seok at can be
used similary. hdcod 0.3 is available at Automatic detection of
encoding type is pretty handy in case you don't have MIME-aware mail program
and don't want to be bothered with figuring out which encoding is used in
mail you received although it's not hard at all. In Mule 2.3, including the
following line in ~/.emacs would make your outgoing mesage in EUC-KR. 

(define-program-coding-system nil ".*mail.*" *euc-kr*)

In Mule 19.33, ISO-2022-KR is automatically detected and displayed
accodingly. You have to add, however, this line to avoid your outgoing mail
encoded in 7bit ISO-2022,default coding system in Mule. 
coding-system-euc-korea needs to be replaced with euc-kr in
Mule 19.34.31 and Emacs 20.x(See Subject 3) 

;; This line is NOT necessary in Emacs 20.x if you
;; include (set-language-environment 'korean) in your ~/.emacs file
;; (See Subjet 3)
(setq sendmail-coding-system 'coding-system-euc-korea)

;; Three lines below are optional MIME header
;; You don't need this if you use one of MIME tools for
;; Emacs/Mule(e.g Semi/TM)
(setq mail-default-headers "MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=EUC-KR
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit\n")

If you want to send outgoing message in 7bit ISO-2022-KR, you may add
following lines, instead.(This is NOT recommended any more) Be aware that
Mule puts Hangul in header as well as in body into ISO-2022-KR, which is a
violation of RFC 1557 and makes your message unreadable by non-Mule users.
Hence, you should not enter Hangul in header if you include lines below. One
workaround is encode(in RFC 2047-style) message header with Hangul with 
'hcode -kd' and 'shell-command-on-region' before sending
it out. Un, Koaunghi figured out how to automate this. See below. 

(setq sendmail-coding-system 'coding-system-iso-2022-kr)
;; In Emacs 20, use the following lines with the leading semi-colones
;; removed, instead
;; (setq sendmail-coding-system 'iso-2022-kr)
;; (add-hook 'mail-mode-hook
;; (function (lambda ()
;;              (setq buffer-file-coding-system sendmail-coding-system))))

;; This is OPTIONAL to make your message compliant to
;; RFC 1557
(setq mail-default-headers "MIME-Version: 1.0
Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-2022-KR
Content-Transfer-Encoding: 7bit\n")


Similar setting should be possible for mh-e and other mailers for Mule. 

The author of HLaTeX, Un, Koaunghi came up with a much better way to make
outgoing Hangul mail compliant to RFC 1557(now NOT necessary any more as
EUC-KR is so widely used). It uses a modifield send-mail-function along with
a couple of shell scripts,hmconv, and hcode2.1-mailpatch2. For details,
refer to his posting to Hangul Usenet newsgroup han.comp.mail I made
available at You don't
have to change rmail-movemail-program in case you install procmail to
convert incoming hangul message back to EUC-KR. 

Some MUAs(Mail User Agent:user mail reading program) allow users to select
PAGER to display message in mailbox. For instance, in elm, you may set, in
'option' menu or by editing .elm/elmrc in your home directory, 'pager' to 

hmconv -u | more


hmconv -u | less

. In pine 3.91 and elm, you may press "|" (Pipe to a Unix command) while
viewing incoming Hangul message encoded in ISO-2022-KR(thus illegible) and
give following command to display it in EUC-KR. 

hmconv -u

. pine 3.93 has an option for 'displayfilter' which is very useful for
viewing Hangul messages in ISO-2022-KR. Set 'displayfilter' to ""
hmconv -u. 

In case elm on your system supports MIME and metamail at is installed on your system, you may want
to add following lines, instead of changing pager shown above, to .mailcap
in your home directory. 'hmconv -u %s | more' can be replaced by 'mpager %s'
if you put 'mpager'(shell script listed above) in your search path(e.g.
~/bin). 'less' can replace 'more', here. For environment variable setting to
display Hangul text with 'less', see Subject 16 

text/plain; hmconv -u %s | more ; test=test "`echo %{charset} | tr '[A-Z]' '[a-z]'`" = iso-2022-kr
text/plain; hmconv -u %s | more ; test=test "`echo %{charset} | tr '[A-Z]' '[a-z]'`" = euc-kr
text/plain; hmconv -u %s | more ; test=test "`echo %{charset} | tr '[A-Z]' '[a-z]'`" = iso-8859-1

A much(infinitely) better way is write mail filter to convert back to EUC-KR
and redirect to separate mail folder in your home directory incoming Hangul
mail in ISO-2022-KR. A easy way to tell if message is in ISO-2022-KR is
match the designator sequence of ISO-2022-KR( ESC$)C where ESC stands for
ASCII 27) at the beginning of any line. I guess a popular mail filter,
procmail has pretty robust file-locking scheme to reduce,if not eliminate,
the danger of losing incoming mail. (Refer to for step-by-step
instruction to install procmail to convert incoming Hangul message
automatically. Please, note that this is the most handy for those who use
POP3 clients like Netscape-Mail,Eudora,non-Hangul version of MS-Internet
Mail which cannot handle ISO-2022-KR and who can still access their mail box
via Unix shell account). For instance, you can put into .forward in your
home directory(Be aware that the example below doesn't work on all hosts and
that the exact content of .forward depends on mail related configuration
of your system. On hosts where procmail is a local mailer/MDA (mail delivery
agent), .foward is not necessary at all. Read procmail.html
aforementioned for more details) 

"|IFS=' ' && exec /full/path/procmail -f- || exit 75 #your-login-name"

and in .procmailrc(note that this is the simplest recipe. For a much better
recipe, refer to procmail.html mentioned above) 

:0 fw
|hcode -dk -m

With this set-up properly, you don't have to worry about encoding
conversion, as far as incoming Hangul message is concerned. In case MMDF is
used instead of sendmail or smail as MTA on your host, you need
~/.maildeliver with following instead of ~/.forward. 

default - | A "/full/path/hcode -dk >> /full/path/system/mailbox"

With procmail(which is much better), .maildelivery can be 

default - | A "/full/path/procmail -f-"

Not having used MMDF, I'm not sure this really works. It might or might not
work. It would be great if anyone using MMDF (The default MTA of SCO Unix is
MMDF) try what I wrote above and give me some feedback(success or failure
story and fix if necessary). 

If your site uses smail as the MTA instead of sendmail, you can still use
procmail by invoking it from .forward or ~/.procmailrc if it's designated as
the local mailer. You system admin should be able to answer this. You may
wish to ask her/him to install procmail as the local mailer. Park, Chu-yeon
at posted the following procedure to Usenet newsgroup

1. Edit transports file (/etc/smail/transports in Debian Linux) as

   # Using procmail as local mailer(MDA)
   local:  driver=pipe,
           cmd="/full/path/procmail -d $($user$)"

2. Edit the global procmailrc as outlined in 
3. Restart smail 

qmail is another MTA which has gained a lot of popularity recently. If your
site uses qmail as MTA and procmail is not a local mailer(ask your system
admin about this), you can put the following line to .qmail in your home
directory to use procmail to filter incoming mail. 

   | preline /full/path/procmail

Please, note that you need to compile procmail 3.11pre7 with MAILSPOOLHOME
in src/authenticate.c set to .mail. (It's relative to each user's home
directory). The problem was dealt with in a thread in qmail and procmail
mailing list. You may read all the articles in the thread at 

Alternatively, superuser(system admin.) can configure procmail as the system
wide local mailer by invoking qmail with the following command 

  qmail-start '|preline /full/path/procmail' splogger qmail &

insetead of 

  qmail-start ./Mailbox splogger qmail &

Still another alternative is get procmail 3.11pre7 patched to work better
with the mail delivery model of qmail. It's available at 

Besides, Hanterm can display Hangul messages in ISO-2022-KR strictly
following RFC 1557 and 'metamail' may be made use of for some (usually from
ill-configured Hangul mail program)Hangul message by setting mailcap and
mime.types appropriately. 

Park,Myeok-Seok at patched a version of
mutt(elm-like MUA with built-in MIME handling) for Hangul mail exchange
conformant to RFC 1557 either with or WITHOUT Hangul MTA(Hangul sendmail).
Those without root previliege on their hosts to install Hangul MTA may get
it to be relieved of hassle of code conversion in Hangul mail exchange. Note
that it may still need permission of system admin. to install 'mutt'
depending on flavor of Unix. Hangul mutt is available at and in /pub/hangul/Others at CAIR
archive. Mutt is an excellent mail program and can be used for Hangul mail
exchange even without Hangul patch if you have your incoming mail
automatically filtered by procmail as mentioned above. Those who are
reluctant to switch to Pine from Elm may find it a very good replacement for
Elm with a lot of goodies not available in Elm(far superior MIME support,
PGP support, mouse support in xterm, etc). For more information, see Mutt
home page at When configuring mutt, you
have to give '--enable-locales-fix' option. The globabl configuration
file(Muttrc) or personal configuration file(~/.muttrc) should contain the
following lines[posted by Park, Chong-Dae at 

set allow_8bit
set use_8bitmime
set charset="EUC-KR"
set ascii_chars

For those who use POP client like Eudora and Netscape mail(up to 3.01) under
MS-DOS/Windows or Mac OS, the most convenient way to handle incoming
ISO-2022-KR encoded message, set up a mail filter like procmail on a Unix
host where incoming mail is saved to convert automatically ISO-2022-KR back
to EUC-KR. See procmail.html(at for how to install
procmail. In case one may not access Unix host with incoming mail box,
Hangul code converters like iso2ks/ks2iso and hcode 2.10 available at CAIR
and major Hangul archives have been ported to MS-DOS. Besides, Lee, Jun Hee
at made a decoder/converter for MS-Windows 95/3.1, 
cvt8pac.exe in /hangul/incoming (along with cvt8.doc available in
/pub/hangul/code) at CAIR archive, which supports converting/decoding
ISO-2022-KR,QP(Quoted Printable), and uuencode. Cha,Jae Choon at made a mail-folder converter(ISO-2022-KR to EUC-KR)
for Netscape Inbox which is availbable at Still another and more
convenient way is install either NJWin, Unionway or Asianview capable of
automatically detecting and displaying ISO-2022-KR. See Subject 38 for more
details on these programs. 

For Mac users, Kim,Jeong-hyun ( made a
control-panel called 'Hangul Mail' 1.0.2 which automatically converts
incoming Hangul mail encoded in ISO-2022-KR back to EUC-KR on its way to a
local Mac(on which POP clients like Netscape and Eudora run) from POP3
server where your mail box is. Moreover, it converts outgoing message in
EUC-KR into ISO-2022-KR on its way to SMTP(mail) server. It superceded 0.5b2
which worked only for receiving(ISO-2022-KR to EUC-KR convertion) mail.
It's, however, still a beta so that you're encouraged to try it and report
bugs to the author. Besides, it's found by Park, Seungwoo that it doesn't
work with Netscape and Claris Emailer on Power Mac running OpenTransport
intead of MacTCP although it works with Eudora Light 3.x on both Power Mac
and Netscape,Claris Emailer, and Eudora on 680x0-based Mac. Kim, Jeong-hyun
has been looking into it, but the problem is non-trivial and it may take him
very long to come up with fix. (In the meantime, those PowreMac and Netscape
usres need to switch to Eudora Light 3.x available free at or use Procmail-based solution described above.
Another alternative is do manual code conversion with Hangul Mail Converter
mentioned below). With this nice tool, you're completely relieved of manual
code conversion. Eudora and Claris Emailer users have to get
Resource-patched versions for proper handling of outgoing Hangul mail with
Hangul Mail 1.0.2. Hangul-patched Eudora Light and Hangul patch for Eudora
Light and Pro and Claris Emailer are avaliable /pub/mac/internet-sw at Mac
Hangul Archive 1 and UnderB archive. It can be used not only with KLK
+English Mac OS and Hangul Talk but also with Hangul Korean Kit(Hantorie)
and English Mac OS with display font set to TerminalHan-KS. Netscape users
should make sure Document Encoding in Options menu is set to Korean to avoid
MacLatin -> ISO-8859-1 charset conversion which leads to completely gobbled
messages. You may still want to get Hangul Mail Converter for ISO
2022-KR(ks2iso/iso2ks), Hangul-Mail-Converters.hqx by the author. Both of
them are available in /pub/mac/internet-sw at Mac Hangul Archive 1.
'Hangul_Mail_Converter.hqx' contains a nice document to help you better
understand Hangul mail exchange. See also a nice web page by Jeong-hyun Kim

According to Daniel NK Lee of Microsoft at, Hangul
Exchange under Hangul Windows 95(+Hangul Plus!) implements RFC 1557 at MUA
level so that it can be used for Hangul mail exchange following RFC 1557
without localized MTA like 'Hangul sendmail'. Note, however, that Hangul
MS-Exchnage has some glitches in implementation of RFC1557 and a little
incompatibility with other implementation of RFC 1557(Hangul sendmail and
code converters like hmconv,hcode). These bugs are known to be being worked
on by Microsoft. Microsoft Internet Mail (Hangul version) also has a bug
with ISO-2022-KR although it works better than Hangul Exchange. In MS
Internet Mail, MIME encoding type should be set to 'NONE' and language(or
character set) to Korean. It should be noted that Korean MS Internet Mail
does NOT work with non-Korean version of MS Windows 95/NT even with Hanme
Hangul or Unionway.(although it sort of work with Japanese version of MS
Windows NT/95) as posted to han.comp.hangul by Yi, Young-deug, Soh, Jaeshin
and Lee, Jae-ho. 

As noted earlier, many users outside Korea have trouble reading messages in
ISO-2022-KR while they can read messages in 8bit EUC-KR or Base64/QP encoded
EUC-KR, unfortunately MS-Internet Mail doesn't allow this by default. (On
the other hand, MS Outlook Express and Outlook 97 send Hangul message in
EUC-KR/8bit by default. You'd better upgrade as soon as possible.) Yi,Yeong
Deung, however, came up with a clever work-around to send messages in
EUC-KR(or Base64 encoded EUC-KR) which can be read by those without means to
automatically convert ISO-2022-KR encoded message back to EUC-KR. Using your
favorite plain-text editor, make following file and save it as 'EUC-KR.reg'
and put the icon for the file in a convenient location(StartUp menu or


[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Microsoft\Internet Mail and News\Mail]
"Default Charset"="EUC-KR"

If you wanna send Base64 encoded EUC-KR message, double click the icon
before launching MS Internet Mail, choose MIME and Base64 as the encoding

Like MS-Internet News, Korean MS-Internet Mail is overly sensitive to
charset information in mail header, by which it determines which font to use
to display messages. A lot of Hangul messages (especially those sent by
ill-configured Netscape and Eudora) have incorrect MIME-header and wrong
fonts(those for Western European charsets) are used by MS Internet Mail to
display them and Hangul is illegible, in which case you can double-click on
the message in question, open 'detailed-view' window where you have to
choose 'Korean' for language in 'view' menu. (You can also use AsianView
mentioned above on top of Hangul MS Windows to avoid this problem). Another
complication arises when replying to those messages with incorrect header.
In detailed-view window, use 'forward' instead of 'reply' and manually put
the address of the recipient (and change 'Fwd:' in Subject to 'Re:').
Otherwise, Hangul will not be visible in composing window for reply.
[Contribution by Lee,Jae-ho at and Yi,Yeong-Deug at] 

Newer versions of mail clients from Microsoft such as those included in MS
Internet Explorer 4.0(OutLook Epxress) and MS-Office Pro 7.0(MS Outlook 97)
are reported not to have the problem of solely depending on the value of
charset parameter of Content-Type header to determine what font to use in
displaying Hangul news articles and to be able to handle incorrectly labeled
(as ISO-8859-1 instead of correct EUC-KR) articles posted by Netscape users.
To enable this feature in MS Outlook Express, iso-8859-1 needs to be
configured to converted to Korean in Tools|Options|Read|International
Setting. You also have to turn off EUC-KR to UTF-7 and UTF-8 conversion.
(UTF-7/UTF-8 are not widely supported, yet and UTF-7/UTF-8 encoded messages
are NOT readable by most other people) Outlook 97 users might have to
download available at" and put
kor2022.trn, inetfe32.dll, and euckr.trn into Windows\System directory.
[Posted to han.comp.hangul by Yi, Yeong-deug at] 

Subject 24 explains how to configure MS Outlook Express for Hangul Usenet
news posting. The same procedure can be taken for Hangul mail except that
you should NOT turn on 'Use 8bit characters in header' for Hangul mail. It's
a grave violation of Internet mail standard to send raw 8bit characters
without proper encoding. Some broken(non-MIME compliant) mail
clients(Eudora, non-MIME version of Elm,Berkelely /bin/mail) and mail
gateways (such mail-web gateway as HotMail and RocketMail) have difficulty
with RFC 2047-style encoded mail headers.(see below where the flaw of Eudora
is explained for the example of the header encoded following RFC 2047).
Rather than breaking the standard, you may as well ask those correspondents
of yours to get a more decent (MIME compliant) mail client. As mentioned
above, Kang, Kyungsoo and Lee, Jun Young have truly great web pages about
Hangul mail configurations for MS Outlook Express and Netscape Communicator.
They're at 


In Usenet newsgroup, Lee JunYoung (
explained how to configure MS Outlook Express for Hangul Usenet newsgroup
posting. (as mentioned above, it's in Subject 24) Below is the summary of
his posting a little modified for Hangul mail. Please, note that internet
mail and usenet news have similar but not identical convention and/or

1. On the Tools menu, select Options 
2. Click on the Send tab 
3. Under Mail sending format, choose plain text (never choose HTML unless
   you're sure your correspondents can read HTML formated messages) and
   click Apply or OK. 
4. In the dialog box for plain text configuration, check MIME(for text
   posting, uuencode doesn't make much difference, but putting the proper
   MIME header is better) 
5. Set text encoding to None. In case this doesn't work for some
   correspondents, try again with this set to Base64(MIME). You would leave
   this set to NONE and wouldn't have to tinker with this option if MS
   Outlook Express and all MAs(mail agents) in-between abided by Internet
   Mail Standard. Unfortunately, MS Outlook Express violates RFC 1652 as
   does some MTAs pretty widely deployed in Korea(Hangul sendmail 8.8) 
6. Turn OFF 'Use 8bit characters in header' and press OK button. If your
   correspondent is one of the unfortunate to rely on such broken mail
   services as RocketMail and HotMail, you may wish to turn this ON. 

Additionally, you may want to get it to use English header when replying in
Tools|Options|Read|International Settings. 

Netscpae 4.0x(aka Communicator) mail supports display of messages in
ISO-2022-KR. Using it relieves many users with very little knowledge of
Hangul code and encoding of trouble of manually converting Hangul message in
ISO-2022-KR or setting up procmail to do automatic conversion. Korean should
be selected in Options|Document Encoding for automatic conversion of
messages in ISO-2022-KR back to EUC-KR. HTML composition should be turned
OFF(in Edit|Preference|Mail&Groups|Messages) unless you want to send some
hypertext documents. It's a waste of precious network resource and
annoyiance to your correspondents without means to read HTML message to send
plain text message in both html and plain text format as is the case when
HTML composition is turned ON in Netscape 4.0 

The final release version of Netscape 4.0x solved most of problems in 4.0b1
and b2 related with Hangul. There are some points to keep in mind using
netsape 4.0 for Hangul mail and News. Hangul MS-windows users and English
MS-windows users with Unionway must make sure that Encoding is set to
Korean(autodetect) in View|Encoding. Many people make a mistake of setting
this option to Western (Latin1) which is for Western European languages.
This results in the following header inappropriate for Korean mail and news

Content-Type: text/plain; charset=iso-8859-1

The correct header for Korean news article and mail message(in EUC-KR) is 

Content-Type: text/plain; charset=EUC-KR

and that for Korean mail message(in ISO-2022-KR) is 

Content-Type: text/plain; charset=ISO-2022-KR

Eudora made by Qualcomm which will collect 350 millon dollars of royalty
from Korea for its CDMA technology over next 5 years does not support Korean
mail in that it doesn't decode RFC 2047-compliant header encoding with
EUC-KR(Korean MIME charset) as shwon below. MS-Windows version of Eudora
users may be able to view RFC 2047 style headers by installing AsianView or
Unionway(AsianSuite). Refer to Subject 4 and 38 for more information on
these products. 


Only MIME charset recognized by Eudora is ISO-8859-1 for Western Euroepean
languages. Accordingly, there's no way to put EUC-KR in the charset
parameter of Content-Type header which is necessary to properly identify
that messages are in Korean. Work-around has been made for Mac version by
eudora users whose native languages are not covered by ISO-8859-1
(Swede,Greek,Russian as well as Korean and Chinese) and can be obtained at The information was kindly
forwarded to me by Andreas Prilop at 

Yi, Yeong-Deug also came up with a work-around for the probleem of Eudora
for MS-Windows which puts ISO-8859-1 in Content-Type header regardless of
actual charset used. Header information can be adjusted for Korean mail
exchange using sort of psuedo-SMTP server for Windows 95 and NT 4.0,
maillita available at For details on how to
configure it for Korean mail exchange with Eudora and other mail programs
which don't allow charset name other than ISO-8859-1 that is Western
European charset, see Yi, Yeong-Deug's Hangul Mail FAQ page aforementioned

MS-Exchange treats messges in 8bit EUC-KR(with Content-Type text/plain;
charset=EUC-KR and Content-Transfer-Encoding: 8bit) as atteachment. It can
be displayed by double-clicking and choosing Korean as the language. More
convenient is copy a file below to system directory in the directory
where Windows is installed(e.g. C:\windows\system) after
uudecoding.[Contribution by Yi,Yeong Deung at] 

begin 600 euckr.trn
M+4M2*$)!4T4V-"D``````````````````````````````````! 0`0`!`@,$
M!08'" D*"PP-#@\0$1(3%!46%Q@9&AL<'1X?("$B(R0E)B
MN;J[O+V^O\#!PL/$Q<;'R,G*R\S-SL_0T=+3U-76U]C9VMOKK[.WN[_#Q\O/T]?;W^/GZ^_S]_O]N=! !``$"`P0%!@<("0H+# T.
M#Q 1$A,4%187&!D:&QP='A\@(2(C)"4F)R@I*BLL+2XO,#$R,S0U-C'EZ>WQ]?G\_/RP_/S\_/UX_/S\_/S\_/R+CY.7FY^CIZNOL[>[O

When sending messages to Korean online service, Unitel, one has to be very
careful to avoid their messages encoded in Base64 or Quoted-Printable as
Unitel can't handle Base64/QP encoded messages although it's specified in
RFC 2045(to be a Internet Standard) and is supported by numerous other
programs. Those abroad using POP3 clients like Netscape 3.0 and Eudora, and
Forte Agent with their mail servers faithfully conformant to RFC 1652 CANNOT
avoid this unless their mail programs allow them to send Hangul messages in
ISO-2022-KR/7bit. (Netscape 4.0, Pine 3.9x + hmconv, Korean version of
MS-Internet Mail, HanMutt are a few examples of those programs). The best
way to solve the problem is urge Unitel to support the standard and decode
incoming Internet mail in Base64/QP to 8bit by installing the newest version
of sendmail(sendmail 8.8.8 as of December, 1997). 

If you think all of these configurations are too much hassle, you may wish
to get an account at web-based Hangul mail services in Korea and ask your
friends to direct Hangul mail there. One of them is Kebi Web mail at 

Usenet Newsgroup han.comp.mail is a good place to post your questions
regarding Hangul mail exchange. 

10. Is there any Hangul Internet BBS?

Yes, there are three of them widely known and two more mainly used within
KAIST but also open to everyone. 

   the oldest one, it has stopped its service for long time because of
   hacker's attack and resumed it recently. Eventually, it will be replaced
   by VVS(Virtual Village System) like Freenet at Case Western Reserve Univ.
   according to the sysop of ARA BBS( 
   It started as a BBS in Chong-ju for dial-up connection only. Now, it
   allows Internet connection as well. It has the most recent news on Hangul
   s/w for personal computers(MS-DOS and Mac).It's one of the first Internet
   BBS' accessible with WWW in Korea. 
   (Login as 'kids'): Run by Korea Telecom and dial-up access is possible.
   It offers various services of interest to Koreans abroad including Today
   Korea board for news in Korea. One can save some money by electronically
   corresponding with one's family in Seoul. Currently, it's difficult to
   get a new account,but one may get a account on ARA BBS that can be
   reached by 'routing' from KIDS with 'guest' account. Dial-up access in
   Seoul is also possible. (526-5533(9 lines) for 9.6/14.4/28.8kbps and
   526-5539 for 2.4kbps) 
Under BBS ( 
   The oldest Hangul BBS in America. Originally run at Caltech, now at U. of
   Maryland by Kim,Daeshik. You may meet a lot of Koreans and Korean
   Americans here. 
Hana BBS ( 
   Run at the same host as HanaBBS archive. Meeting place for a lot of
   Koreans abroad and in Korea. Among its distinct features are Hangul
   Romanization when accessed via telnet and gif-mapped rendering of Hangul
   when viewed via WWW for those without Hangul facility. 
Madang BBS 
   One of first Web BBS' in Korea by Kwon, Do-gyun at Dacom. It's
   temporarily out of service as of Sep. 5th. 

In Korea, all three of them may be reached by dial-up connection. See 
Subject 24 and Subject 25 for more detail. 

There are now tens of Hangul Internet BBS' in Korea. Some of them are 
Uri-Maul, Hoo-nam's home, Lily. 

When telneting to these BBS', 8bit clean telnet/rlogin and 8bit clean
terminal set up are to be used to enter Hangul. See Subject 16. 

11. What is hlatex and how can I use it?

A few different versions of Hangul LaTeX' are available. Hangul TeX
development was originally taken up by Prof. Ko, Ki Hyoung with dept. of
mathematics at KAIST in late 80's. Several students in mathematics and 
computer science dept. at KAIST took part in his effort. ..... See for a history of Hangul (La)TeX developement at
KAIST and Germany, which you might have to read with a grain of salt as
suggested by its author. 

CTAN(Comprehensive TeX Archive Network) mentioned often below consists of
three main sites in the UK(,Germany ( and US ( and tens of sites all over the world mirroring main
archives. A full mirror of CTAN is available at KREONET archive at Partial mirrors in Korea include Sunsite Korea at and You'll get the list of
participating sites elsewhere by finger -l
TUG(TeX User Group) web page at should be the best source
of information on TeX/LateX. 

The first version widely spread outside Korean mathematics community is
two-pass Hangul LaTeX by Choi, Woohyung, Baek, Yun-ju, and Lee, Sang-hoon.
It consists of preprocessing module(htex) to convert Hangul in EUC-KR(See 
Subject 8 for EUC-KR) to LaTeX macro, a shell script(hlatex), and several
style files. 

According to Choi, Woohyung, PK fonts are not part of hlatex distribution
since they're derived from Hangul postscript fonts for Mac copyrighted by 
Elex which agreed to allow distribution of them at KAIST and outside Korea,
but which prohibited their distribution to non-KAIST sites in Korea. Thus,
you can use it at overseas sites but you should not redistribute it to
Korean sites outside KAIST. However, there are freely redistributable
METAFONT sources to the equivelent pk files at CAIR archive. It was
automatically generated from GNU fontutils 0.4(with some patchs). All of
these and new fonts are archived at CAIR archive and its mirrors (in

I installed HLaTeX and it was a nice program. One good thing about HLaTeX is
that you need not download Hangul fonts to the laser printer to print out
Hangul which is the case with Hangul Printing using hpscat to be mentioned
below. It(including Hangul fonts) takes about 1MB, of which I'm not sure. 

HLaTeX is also used for Hangul to PS translation. See Subject 21) on Hangul

Un, Koaunghi( and Baek, Yun-ju
( made a one-pass version(no need for
preprocessor) based on LaTeX2e, HLaTeX0.92e. It consists of Hangul and Hanja
fonts(pre-compiled pk files for 300 dpi and 600 dpi printers.), Hangul/Hanja
font defintion files (Uhangul.fd, Uhanja.fd) and LaTeX2e packages
(hfont.sty,hangul.sty,hfont.tex) to enable you to use Hangul and Hanja in
your TeX documents. To use this version of Hangul LaTeX, you need to have a
complete implementation of LaTeX2e (rathen than 2.09) and TeX 3.14x (such as
NTeX and teTeX) installed on your computer. Another notable feature of this
version is it can handle Hanja(Chinese letter) as well as Hangul. 0.92 is
available at major Hangul archives. 

HLaTeX 0.92 is huge(no smaller than 20 Mega bytes compared with 1-2 MBs of
two-pass Hangul LaTeX. Most of space is taken by Hanja fonts)when fully
installed. You may save some space by installing only what you need(e.g.
installing a set of fonts you really want to use - or not installing Hanja
fonts - would save you a great deal of space, which is especially expedient
if your disk quota is very small, something like a few Mega bytes and you
cannot persuade your system administrator to install HLaTeX 0.92 for you). 

The latest version of HLaTeX is 0.98 and was uploaded to German CTAN archive
at and is also available at German Korean archive(See Subject 1).
The most notable changes in 0.98 is that all 11,172 Hangul syllables can be
typeset. 0.97 fixed problems with checksum mismatches in some Hangul fonts.
Other notable change in 0.97 include new hangul font selection method
(compliant to NFSS) and a new option/command for separation of English and
Hangul index(and glossary) when producing index with makeindex. 0.96 and
later have many improvements over 0.95 including several new Hangul fonts,
changes in font names compliant to ISO9660 file system, use of web2c-7.0 to
allow up to 2000 fonts in a single TeX document, and automatic selection of
'Josa' depending on preceding syllable. 

While trying to preview some PS files made by HLaTeX and nh2ps with
ghostscript 5.10, I stumbled upon a trouble which I initially though was
caused by a newly introduced bug in ghostscript 5.10 because the same file
had no problem with 4.03. After filing a bug report, I was told by the
author of Aladin ghostscript, L. Peter Deutsch( that it's
not ghostscript 5.10 but fonts that's to blame. That is, a couple of hangul
fonts included in HLaTeX 0.97 are not compliant to Adobe Postscript
Specificiation. The author of HLaTeX kindly fixed the bug and uploaded the
fixed fonts to ftp://ftp.linguistik.uni-erlangen/pub/HLaTeX/updates. You
need to get fixed fonts to avoid unexpected failures of postscript files
generated by HLaTeX. Several articles posted to Usenet newsgroup,
han.comp.text on this issue are available at 

In January, 1996, HLaTeX 0.93 was released by Un, Koaunghi
( Font mapping in HLaTeX 0.93 is
completely different from that used in HLaTeX 0.92 and it should be
considered major change contrary to what small change in version number
implies. Fonts used in 0.93 is mapped according to KS C 5601 code while in
0.92 Wansung-Johab mixed mapping was used. pk fonts for 300dpi(4 Hangul,2
Hanja and 1 symbol: compiled pk images are not available any more on CTAN.
You have to generate pk images from meta font source available at CTAN)
require about 150 MB of disk space(metafonts take 100MB of disk space, so
that it's not of much help in saving disk space to install meta fonts
instead of pk fonts especially taking into account that compilation of meta
font to pk font is very time-consuming). 0.93 is not for those with little
disk space to spare. Compiled pk image at 300dpi is now available in
/incoming/hangul of CAIR archive thanks to 

In February, HLaTeX 0.94 was uploaded to CTAN archive, which can be used
with old 'Johab-Wansung mixed encoding' Hangul fonts as used in HLaTeX
0.92(and new hLaTeXp and old two-pass hlatex) as well as with KS C
5601-mapped 'Wansung' fonts. As of Feb. 22nd, Un,Koaunghi kindly made
available old 'Johab-Wansung mixed encoding' fonts(for those with small disk
space) and PS and metafont sources for all Wansung fonts included in
HLaTeX0.93 or later. Thus, one may download only PS fonts and vf/tfm/afm
files instead of making pk images from meta font source. Before deciding to
use PS fonts, please note that some dvi drivers(e.g. xdvi in Unix/X window)
may need some change/recompilation to deal with dvi files containing PS

In April, HLaTeX 0.95 was released, which contains a lot of improvement over
previous versions in Hangul handling (e.g. You can now use Hangul label with
bibtex). It's now available at German CTAN site( and in
/tex-archive/language/korean at CTAN archive sites all over the world. It's
also available at home of HLaTeX(also German mirror of CAIR archive) at
Univ. of Erlangen and CAIR archive. 

Those who have difficulty with installing HLaTeX on top of teTeX, the most
popular TeX/LaTeX distribution for Unix(actually, it's not hard at all) may
try sort of preconfigured package at
For information on using HLaTeX with TeX implementation under
MacOS(OZtex,Texture),MS-DOS(emtex), and MS-Windows(MikTex), refer to Subject

Cha,Jae Choon( announced a new Hangul (La)TeX,
hLaTeXp, developed in math department at KAIST, where Hangul (La)TeX project
originated in late 80's. It came with 31 sets of Hangul fonts,2 sets of
Hanja fonts, 1 set of symbols defined in KS C 5601 and (localized) TeX
compiler modified for better Hangul handling(Hangul text not broken in error
message and log file,more natural line-breaking suitable for Hangul,
appropriate 'Jo-sa' substitution after references of chapter and section
names, use of Hangul with bibtex and makeindex and so forth). Hangul TeX
compiler, called hTeXp and hangul fonts and style files are available at and /pub/hangul/tex/htex at CAIR archive. Currently,
hTeXp is available only in binary for Sun(I don't know whether it's for Sun
OS 4.x or 5.x),Linux(a.out and ELF),HP/UX, and Windows NT/95/3.1. 

You can use hLaTeXp in TeX/LaTeX without hTeXp (localized TeX compiler), in
which case some Hangul related improvements(e.g. Hangul text shown intact in
(La)TeX error message and log file) of hTeXp are not avaiable, but other
than that, you would have no problem using Hangul in (La)TeX only with the
rest of hLaTeXp package - Hangul fonts, font definition and style files - on
top of any complete implementation of LaTeX2e on any platform. Crucial in
installing hTeXp/hLaTeXp is redumping TeX format files with TeX compiler you
intend to use whether it's hTeXp(localized TeX compiler) or TeX compiler
you've been using. In the former case(hTeXp), you have to redump all TeX
format files(plain,latex, hLaTeXp, etc) with hTeXp while in the latter(using
installed non-localized TeX compiler), you only have to dump format files
included in hLaTeXp. 

Detailed instruction on installing and using hTeXp/hLaTeXp is available at 

By using hTeXn plug-in(dvi viewer plug-in) for Netscape by Cha,
Jae-choon,one may utilize Hangul true type fonts included in Hangul
MS-Windows and a true type variant of CM fonts, CT font to produce better
looking documents with hTeXp/hLaTeXp and offer high quality documents(with
hyperlink) on the web. For more details, see 

According to Park, Chong-Dae(at, another version
of Hangul LaTeX will be released next January. It's named yahtex for Yet
Another Hangul TeX. It's said to be 30% faster than HLaTeX0.92 and to
include a program to convert Hangul fonts for MS-Windows into (pk) fonts for
TeX. Moreover, it includes a set of fonts for all symbols defined in KS C

Still another Hangul-capable TeX is CJK-TeX by Werner Lemberg at supporting Chinese and Japanese as well as
Korean. It's avalialble at CTANarchive. 

12. I'd like to install hlatex, but I don't have enough

In case of old version of HLaTeX(preprocessing or two-pass version), you can
set environment variables so that your tex compiler will be able to find the
hlatex files in your library path. 

Add following to .cshrc/.tcshrc or .login in csh/tcsh, 

    setenv PATH       "your htex bin dir":$PATH
    setenv TEXFONTS   "your htex pk dir":"your latex tfmdir":$TEXFONTS
    setenv TEXINPUTS  "your htex input dir":$TEXINPUTS
    setenv TEXFORMATS "your htex format dir":$TEXFORMATS
    setenv XDVIFONTS  "your htex/pk dir":$XDVIFONTS # for XDVI
    setenv TEXPKS     $XDVIFONTS                       # for DVIPS 

In sh/ksh/ bash, add following to .profile 

    PATH="your htex bin dir":$PATH
    TEXFONTS="your htex pk dir":"your latex tfmdir":$TEXFONTS
    TEXINPUTS="your htex input dir":$TEXINPUTS
    TEXFORMATS="your htex format dir":$TEXFORMATS
    TEXDVIFONT="your htex/pk dir":$XDVIFONTS # for XDVI
    TEXPKS=$XDVIFONTS                       # for DVIPS 

Contributions from Sang K. Cha(chask@CS.Stanford.EDU) 

Some TeX previewers or drivers does not allow user fonts which are not
placed at system TeX font path. I use xdvi and dvips and they allow me to
define my local font paths. 

hlatex script has some variables such as LATEX and HTEX. You should change
that variables to fit your local environment. For HLaTeX 0.92e or later, see
the document included in the distribution and consult your local TeX guru or
your system administrator as different implementations of LaTeX2e(e.g. NTeX
and teTeX) tend to have different directory structures from each other 

13. Are there Hangul TeX packages running on
Macintosh or IBM-PC?

There is a version of Hangul LaTeX(two-pass version) for PC running with
emTeX. It's available at CAIR archive and other hangul archives as and in /pub/hangul/tex Please read readme.1st to
find more information. [Contribution by Choi,Woohyung] 

HLaTeX 0.92e and later and hLaTeXp, new Hangul TeX package from math dept.
of KAIST should work with any complete implementation of LaTeX2e for
MS-DOS(e.g emTeX) or MS-Windows(e.g. miktex for Windows 95/NT and ), in
principle. All you have to install Hangul LaTeX over one of these
implementations is figure out where to put Hangul style files,font
definition files and Hangul fonts (tfm,pk,metafont source,ps,and vf files:
not all of them) following directory structure(refer to TDS documents in tds
directory of any CTAN archives for details) of a LaTeX implementation. In
case of hTeXp, you have to do format dump.Refer to hTeXp/hLaTeXp documents
for details. 

Karnes Kim put up web pages with very detailed instruction on using HLaTeX
0.9x with MikTeX for MS-Windows at You may also find
it very useful to refer to Cho, Jin-Hwan's TeX Archive at 

Besides, Hangul & Computer released a commercial version of Hangul LaTeX for
MS-Windows (LaTeX plus MS-Windows GUI interface) developed in mathematics
department at KAIST. According to C. Shin at, LG
Software made available in public domain another Hangul LaTeX for MS-Windows
archived in /hangul/tex/misc/LGwlatex at CAIR archive. It used to be also
available at and This appeares to
requires Hangul MS-Windows, but I'm not certain. 

As mentioned before, HLaTeX(old two pass/pre-processor version) consists of
Hangul fonts and EUC-KR to TeX macro(understood by native TeX and LaTeX)
translator. Thus, just installing Hangul fonts in HLaTeX distribution and
compiling code translator source(htex.c) with one of popular C compilers on
Mac(such as Think C, Semantac C) results in everything you need. Make Hangul
tex files(in EUC-KR) and convert it to a file(with Hangul replaced by tex
macro) with the translator, which , in turn , can be fed into (La)TeX for
Mac like OzTeX to generate dvi file. It worked out well according to 
Choi,Dongseok at 

New HLaTeX 0.92e or later work with newer Mac (La)TeX implemention of LaTeX
2e. In principle, it should work assuming you have a fully functional
implementation of LaTeX2e such as OzTeX, CMacTeX, and Texture(sp?) on your
Mac and put HLaTeX0.92e(or later) files in appropriate folders for
particular implementation of LaTeX2e(no compilation of preprocessor in C is
necessary in HLaTeX2e unlike old two pass version). I've tested HLaTeX 0.92e
with OzTeX and it worked fine. One thing you have to do is increase default
size of memory allocated in OzTeX in configuration file for OzTeX because
HLaTeX appears to require more memory than allocated in default
configuration for OzTeX. New Hangul TeX package(hLaTeXp) by math. dept. at
KAIST should also work on top of any complete LaTeX2e implementaion for Mac.
Note that hTeXp(TeX compiler geared for Hangul in hLaTeXp package) currently
available for Sun OS,Linux,HP/UX, and Windows NT/95/3.1 is NOT required in
using hLaTeXp package. For using hLaTeXp wiht OzTeX, refer to, which should be also of
help in installing HLaTeX2e on top of OzTeX and other (La)TeX distributions
under Mac OS and other OS. 

pk images for HLaTeX 0.94e are not available at CTAN any more and you need
metafont program(compiler) for your platform(Mac/DOS/Windows) to generate pk
images from metafont source. Usually, metafont compiler is included in TeX
implementation. Mac users might need a utility to convert fonts in pfb to
pfa format depending on implementation of TeX in order to use PS fonts for 
HLaTeX 0.94e. As of Sep. 1996, pk images of Hangul fonts for HLaTeX 0.9xe at
300dpi are available at so that you
don't have to bother with generating PK images for yourself. 

14. Are there mailing lists for Hangul stuffs?

Here is the list of Hangul mailing lists in Korea. [Contribution by Dr.
Suh,Sang-yong at] 

list-name        request-name     host-name                remarks
------------     ------------     ----------------         -------
crayers          Majordomo
geology          Majordomo
hana-tech        Majordomo             Moderated
hangul           Majordomo
hp-help          Majordomo
linux-help       Majordomo
mac              Majordomo
netinfo          Majordomo
serv-list        Majordomo
yebadong         yebadong-request         human controlled
www-forum        Majordomo

newsgroup           list-address                      gateway
----------------    -------------------------------   -----------------

You can subscribe to one of them by sending mail to 'request-name@
host-name' with message body 'subscribe list-name' and empty subject
line. For instance, in Unix, to subscribe to "hangul" mailing list, do

$ echo subscribe hangul | mail

Similarly, a message sent to 'request-name@host-name' with empty subject
and 'unsubscribe list-name' as the body will get you off the list. Instead
of joining mailing lists(in case mailing lists are linked to newsgroups as
are the case for some lists), you may prefer to read the same set of
articles on Usenet newsgroup. For Hangul Usenet newsgroups, see Subject 24. 

Articles posted to some of mailing list/newsgroups(mac,www-kr,netinfo) are
archived by KRNIC and available at KRNIC gopher
(gopher:// Other newsgroups/ mailing
lists , I guess, are archived at their hosting sites listed above. 

15. I've got a software "foo" from an archive, but it
doesn't work.

First, check if you retrieved it with binary mode enabled. If not, you must
have probably got a corrupted file. [Contribution by Choi,Woohyung 

16. I've downloaded a Hangul terminal emulator and
installed it, but I can't enter Hangul characters.

Please check if you have a 8-bit clean tty with 'stty' command (See manual
page of 'stty' for what options mean). On BSD compatible systems "stty
-istrip cs8" will make tty 8bit clean and on SunOS4.X, try executing "stty
pass8". On System V Unix(Solaris 2.x, Irix 5.x), you may have to execute
'stty -istrip -parenb cs8'. To make it executed everytime you log in, add
what follows to .cshrc/.tcshrc or .login in your home directory for csh/ 

  if ( $?prompt) then
     stty   -istrip -parenb cs8
     # put here other commands for interactive shell 
  setenv  LC_CTYPE  iso_8859_1 # or LATIN_1 in place of iso_8859_1 
  setenv  LESSCHARDEF "8bcccbcc18b95.33b95.b" #to display Hangul text with less
  setenv  NOREBIND  # in tcsh only

Bourn shell and its variants(descendants) like ksh and bash users have to
add to .profile or .bashrc(bash only) in their home directory 

  case $- in 
      stty -istrip -parenb cs8
      # put here other commands for interactive shell
  LESSCHARDEF="8bcccbcc18b95.33b95.b" # display Hangul text with less

Note that the line with 'stty' may have to be changed accordingly depending
on flavor of Unix as mentioned above. [Contribution by Choi,Woohyung
( and Kim, Daeshik(]. The value for
LC_CTYPE may be different under different flavor of Unixen. For instance, in
HP/UX, en_US.iso88591(the default value may work if you're not in the US or
UK since most European languages require 8bit characters and the default
should be set as such) is to be used instead of iso_8859_1 or LATIN1. In
case(not so likely outside Korea) Korean locale is available to you, the
environment variable LANG can be set to Korean (or KOREAN,ko, etc) or the
environment varialble LC_CTYPE to ko_KR.euc-kr(the exact name varies from
Unix to Unix. Check with 'locale' command or consult your system admin). 

Even with this set up, you may not able to enter Hangul when connection to
Hangul Internet BBS or on-line service in Korea. That's because your
telnet/rlogin is not 8bit clean. Try rlogin or telnet with '-8'
option('rlogin -8'). Not all variants of telnet/rlogin support this option.
Some telnet honors 'set bin' in ~/.telnetrc so that you may add to
~/.telnetrc lines below. If not, you may escape back to 'telnet>' prompt at
which you can give 'set bin' to make it 8bit clean.  # address of host you want to connect 8bit-clean
 set bin

By compiling tcsh with '8bit' and 'kanji' option(kanji option may not be
necessary depending on which variant of Unixen you use and whether it
supports Korea locale), you may even use Hangul at command line and in file
name tcsh. The safest bet for those abroad using Unix with locale/NLS
support but without Korean locale appears to be compiling tcsh with '8bit'
and 'kanji' option enabled and 'nls' option disabled. (Be careful not to
turn 'nokanji' option on. Keep it OFF for Hangul input. It's OFF by default
if kanji option is used at compile-time, so don't bother to play with it.)
Echoing the shell variable version(echo $version) shows you
compile-time options used for your tcsh binary. Below is the result on my
Linux box. 

% echo $version 
tcsh 6.06.00 (Cornell) 1995-05-13 (i386-unknown-linux) options 8b,dl,al,kan 

Hangul can be used at command lines in bash compiled for Hangul available at This binary is for Linux only. Bash users may add
following lines to .inputrc in home directory. These options for ordinary
bash(not patched for Hangul) enable you to enter Hangul at command line and
use in file name. 

set  meta-flag On
set convert-meta Off
set output-meta On
set editing-mode vi
set  show-all-if-ambiguous on

17. I have an ethernet card on my PC, and installed a
software Hangul for MS-DOS. I still can't write and see
Hangul characters when connecting to remote host with
telnet-client(e.g. NCSA Telnet).

You missed a point, check out your telnet client if it can support "8bit
transparent" environment. That's to say, your telnet client should support
8-bit clean connection. If it doesn't, you'll have to change your software
to MS-Kermit 3.1 or later(supporting TCP/IP as well as serial connection) or
Hangul patched NCSA telnet by Baek,Yunju at
.[Contribution by Choi,Woohyung] Another version of Hangul patched NCSA
Telnet, htel2306 was made by Cheon-Yong Park( at
KARI(Korea Aeronautics and Space Res. Inst.?). Both are available at Hana
BBSArchive and elsewhere. 

Note that 'Hangul patched' does not mean having ability to display Hangul on
the screen but passing Hangul code through. Therefore, you have to have
Hangul facility on your PC, whether hardware Hangul card or s/w hangul like

Many telnet clients for MS-Windows(Ewan,SimpleTerm,Netterm among others) are
8bit clean, but some of them don't. With these telnet clients, you are not
able to read(and write) even if you're in Hangul-capable-Windows
environments(See Subject 4)). You have to tinker with font setting (usually
terminal font doesn't work for hangul,but Courier works well) to display
Hangul properly. You may try WinTerm, Hangul telnet client/terminal emulator
mentioned in Subject 2) 

To enter Hangul after connecting to a Unix host, you have to set terminal
8bit clean. See Subject 16 for terminal(stty) setting in Unix. 


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