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Hangul & Internet in Korea (main part 4/4)

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Archive-name: cultures/korea/hangul-internet/part4
Posting-Frequency: Monthly(3rd Saturday) to home groups and relevant *.answers
and twice a month(1,3th Saturday) to home groups.

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
   Hangul and Internet in Korea FAQ (part 4/4)

31. Where can I get extensive information on Internet in

NCA(Natioanl Computerization Agency) at runs 
KRNIC(Korea Network Information Center) at with a lot
of useful information on the Net in Korea. Especially, contains a lot of useful statistics
about Internet in Korea. There is a mailing list for network information in
Korea( archived at KRNIC mailing list
archive( To subscribe to
the list, send mail to with body as following and empty
subject line 

subscribe netinfo your-email-address

It's linked to Han news group Hangul Internet BBS'(Subject
10)), Hangul newsgroups(Subject 24)) and nationwide on-line service in Korea
accessible via the Internet are other good places to direct your question. 

KII(The Korea Information Infrastructure) at is a
government agency in charge of construction of the national information
infrastructure and may have some information of interest to some of you. 

32. Are there any commercial Internet service providers
(ISP) in Korea? How can I contact them? 

Unix shell account service has been provided since around the end of 1992
and a various forms of Internet services as seen in the U.S. are offered by
several commercial Internet service providers in Korea. The list of
providers and services offered are as following. Similar list including
non-commercial(academic and research) service providers as well (from which
part of following information come) is available at 
KRNIC( KRNIC web page also lists ISPs providing
DNS(domain name service) and virtual web hosting service. 

    o PPP : free during beta service. dial 01410(local) all over the country
      and enter 'cre' at the prompt. 
   For more details, send mail to or see
 o Dacom 
    o Unix Shell account (accessible by local call in most of country) :
      Bora service. 20,000 won / month. 2.4/9.6/14.4/28.8 kbps 
    o PPP with shell account (6 or more large cities and their local calling
      areas) 28.8 kbps. 25,000 won / month 
    o PPP without shell account : 15k won 
    o Pay-per-coonection service(accessible by local call in most of
      country) : Menu-based service offered on Chollian Magicall.
      30won/minute + monthly service charge for Chollian Magic Call (6k
      won/month). Chollian Magicall is also accessible via ISDN line in
    o Roaming service outside Korea 
   For more detail in Hangul, see For English information,
   see or send mail to or You may call
   +82-2-220-5204~6 or send fax to +82-2-220-5329 in unlikely case you
   cannot contact them via the Net. 
 o ELIMnet(Seoul and its local calling area) 
    o PPP+Shell account(28.8kbps) : 22,000 won/month 
    o PPP without shell account : 13k won/month 
   For details, call 3149-4803 in Seoul or its web page at [Contribution by Sim,
 o I-Net Technology (Nuri Net) 
    o PPP with shell account : 14.4k/28.8k dial-up connection in most part
      of the country. (33.6k in Seoul and vicinity)
      01438(dedicated reduced phone rate line for I-Net access) access in 7
      major ciities(Seoul,Pusan,Taegu,Inchon, Keangju,Taejon,and Chonju)
      . ISDN access is planned. 22 k won(student 18k won) for unlimited
    o PPP without shell account 5 k won for up-to 5hours/month. 30
      won/minute for each additional minute (maximum 30 k won). 
    o Unix shell account(accessible by local call in most of country) :
      requires either Nowcom or PosServe account. 33k won /month + Nowcom
      charge(about 11k won /month) 
    o Pay-per-coonection service (accessible by local call in most of
      country) : Menu-based service offered on Nowcom and PosServe : 10-25
      won/minute + monthyl service charge for Nowcom/PosServe 
    o Roaming service outside Korea 
    o Pilot test of access via CA-TV is planned in Yoido, Seoul. 
   For more detail, try or send mail to
   In unlikely case of not being able to contact them on the Net, call
   +82-2-538-6941 or toll-free number(in Seoul), 080-222-6941~2. 
 o Interpia(14 access points nationwide and their local calling areas by
   01414) (taken over by Doosan Information Communication from Hangul &
    o PPP with shell account : Monthly flat rate of 20k won/month (student
      18 kwon) or 6000 won for up to 5 hours/month and 30 won for each
      additional minute(total charge no larger than 30k won/month) 
   For details, see 
 o Ivy Net PPP/SLIP service is planed in early 1997. For details, see or send mail to 
 o KiTel 
    o PPP/SLIP : free 
    o Usenet, Gopher: no account is required 
   One can apply for a free account accessing KiTel via 01410 or 01411.
   [Posted to by] 
 o Korea Internetby Korea Telecom 
    o CO-LAN : sort of dedicated line. Initial installation charge about
      100k won. Monthly charge of 90k won coveres phone charge as well as
      connection charge for CO-LAN and monthly lease for VDM(7k won/month.
      Voice Data Multiplexer?. required for for CO-LAN connection). Suitable
      for heavy users of the network since one doesn't have to worry about
      local phone charge, which is quite expensive in Korea (40 won for
      every 3 minutes). Requires separate Unix shell account service Soback
      costing additional 15k - 25k won/month. For more detail, read this or
      contact KT office in your town. 
    o PPP (nationwide) : 20k won/month(faculty,staff and student of
      educational inst. 12k won). 
    o Access via ISDN line began on Dec. 14,1996 in Seoul and will be
      offered in Jan. 1997 in 25 cities throughout the country. 20k won for
      64kbps and 34k won for 128kbps in addition to telephone charge(about
      40won for every 3 minute) 
    o Pilot test of Internet access via CA-TV will be conducted in
      Yangchon-gu, Seoul. 
   Further details are available in Hangul at You may send mail to or or call them at 766-5900~2,
   725-2727,2300 ,745-1488( in Seoul +82-2) or toll-free 080-023-6111 or
   080-014-1414 within Korea. You may also call 3-digit-local exchange+0000
   in your town. KT Seoul office has opened a web site with details for all
   the services they provided including Internet. See Follow the link to 'Information service' and
   'Mixed service'(instead of 'non-voice service'). 
 o Korea PC Telecom (a subsidy of Korea Telecom and Hanguk Kyongje Shinmun) 
    o Unix shell account : 15k won/month 
    o PPP : 25k won/month for HiTel subscriber and 30k won/month for
      non-subscriber ( local call access in Seoul and its vicinity). For
      more information, contact 
    o Pay-per-coonection service(nationwide) : Menu-based service offered on
      Hitel :30 won/minute(20 won/minute for payment by credit card) +
      monthly service charge for HiTel(10k won/month). 
    o Menu based service offered on HiTel(nationwide) : flat rate(30k
      won/month) + monthly service charge for HiTel(10k won/month) 
   For more details, see You may send
   e-mail to 
 o Korea Trade Net(Seoul and its local calling area) 
    o PPP with shell account : 15 k won 
   You may contact them at +82-2-551-8512(voice) or +82-2-551-2268(fax). See 
 o NetsGo 
    o PPP 
   For more information, refer to the NetsGo web page at or call 080-011-4295(toll-free in Korea) or +82
   (0)2 554-4295. 
 o NexTel(Seoul and its local calling area) 
    o Unix Shell account : 15 k won/month 
    o PPP without shell account : 20 k won/month 
    o PPP with shell account : 25 k won/month 
    o mail only account : 10 k won/month 
   For more information, send mail to inform@nextel.netor try For English information, call +82-2-202-9300 (info.
 o Nowcom(accesible by local call in most of the country and ISDN access in
    o Unix shell account : 15k won/month + Nowcom monthly service charge (10
      k won/month+VAT) 
    o Pay-per-connection service : menu-based service on Nownuri. 2
      hours/month free and 20 won for each additional minute. 
   See or or call 590-3800 in Seoul. 
 o Paradise Net (Seoul) 
    o PPP (with Unix shell account) : 8.8k won/month 
   Call 437 2425 in Seoul for more details. 
 o UniTel run by Samsung Data System 
    o Internet service combined with on-line service : 11 k won/month 
    o Internet roaming service outside Korea 
    o Pilot test of access via CA-TV is planned in Yoido, Seoul. 
   For more detail, see UniTel web pages at or
   telnet to You may also call +82-2-528-0114. 
 o Shinbiro 
    o Unix Shell account 
    o SLIP/PPP : 15 k won / month 
   For more detail, contact Shinbiro( You may
   contact them at +82-2-720-1140. 
 o Taegu Net(Taegu and its vicinity. will expand to other areas) 
    o Free Internet Mail, disk space for web publishing,Usenet News 
    o PPP : free 
   For more details, see 
 o World Net( and its vicinity): joint venture of SDS
   and AT&T. 
    o PPP : 18k won / month, 10k won one-time set-up fee(free in 1997) 
 o Xtel(Taegu and its vicinity) 
    o PPP via public telephone switch : 16.5k(14.5k) won / month, 11k won
      (one-time set up fee. free by Dec. 31,1996) 
    o PPP via 33.6k dedicated line (dynamic IP) : 66k won/month (NO need to
      pay hefty phone charge of 40 won for every 3min.), 55k won one-time
      set up fee(free by Nov. 30,1996) 
    o PPP via 33.6k dedicated line (static IP) : 165k won / month, (NO need
      to pay hefty phone charge of 40 won for every 3min.), 55k won one-time
      set up fee(free by Nov. 30,1996), personal domain name 
   Refer to for details. Moreover, it offers free email
   account and web space (2-3 MB). The interested may refer to 

33.Can I connect to any of nationwide on-line service' in
Korea via the Internet? Does any of them offer outbound
service to the Internet?

There are now 5 nationwide on-line service providers in Korea, HiTel, 
Chollian MagicCall, Nowcom, PosServe, and UniTel. All of them offer
outbounding service to the Net. Besides, Chollian MagicCall, Nowcom, HiTel
and UniTel allow in-bound service from the Net by telnet/rlogin. 

To access Chollian Magicall, telnet/rlogin to For
Nowcom, telnet/rlogin to and telnet/rlogin to or for HiTel. For UniTel, telnet/rlogin to
You may also access UniTel with UniWin, the emulator made for UniTel access
under MS-Windows. 

When telneting to these on-line services, 8bit clean telnet/rlogin and 8bit
clean terminal set up are to be used to enter Hangul. See Subject 16 for

To transfer files to and from these services, you need a telnet client to
support file transfer protocol like zmodem and kermit. Some telnet clients
for MS-Windows/DOS including Netterm, Kermit for Windows95 and MS-Kermit
support either Zmodem or Kermit and for Unix, C-Kermit has built-in Kermit
support. Telnet from BSD 4.2 was modified(and named ztelnet) to enable
zmodem file transfer by ?? at KAIST and is available in /pub/hangul/network
at CAIR archive and its mirrors. It's compiled clean in Sun OS 4.x, but not
in other Unixen because it's based on old BSD source dating back to late
80's when most current flavors of Unix didn't exist. Sun OS 4.x binary,
however, seems to work with Solari 2.4. Linux binary was made by Park,
Myeong Seok at and is available at Kang,Kilsang at modified
SSL-MZtelnet-0.9.1 to support Hangul and Zmodem file transfer and put the
source (SSL-MZtelnet-0.9.1+zh) and Solaris 2.x binaries at This should be more easily compiled on
most Unix than the original ztelnet. 

Mac users may try 5pm term, telnet client/terminal emulator with built-in
zmodem from Whitepine at Also, an extension,TCPserial
may be of interest to Mac users who want to transfer files from on-line
services in Korea. It's available at Info-Mac archive( or In
addition, Hangul NiftyZtelnet 0.5 by
Kim,Jeong-hyun( has support for Zmodem
download(See Subject 18) 

34. Are there any Korean newspapers or magazines
available on the Internet? 

As of July, 1996, there are tens of Korean newspapers and magazines, if not
over a hundred, are on the Web as well as in print. Listed below are only a
part of them. 

 o Han-kyoreh Shinmun, Han-kyoreh 21(weekly) & Cine 21(weekly) at 
 o DongA Ilbo at 
 o Joongang Ilbo at 
 o Chosun Ilbo(Korean/English) & Sports Chosun at 
 o Hankook Ilbo,Korea Times(English), Ilgan Sports,Seoul Economic Daily, all
 o Korea Herald(English) at 
 o Korea Economic Daily at 
 o Taegu Daily News at 
 o Kyonghayng Shinmun at 
 o Seoul Daily News at 
 o Intelligate, Customized Newspaper service at 
 o Daily Trade News of Korea (Ilgan muyeok) at 
 o MBC at : Real time TV and Radio broadcast 
 o KBS at : Real time TV and Radio broadcast 
 o SBS at : Real time TV and Radio broadcast 
 o Internet(monthly) at published by

In addition to these, most newspapers in Korea are available on nationwide
on-line service(See Subject 33). You may read (at least) headlines of major
Korean papers(Hankyoreh,DongAh,etc) at Nowcom by login as 'guest' and typing
'go news' for the list of papers available at the prompt. 

There are now too many newspapers and magazines available on the net for me
to list here. You may use search engines for Korean web sites (see Subject
35) to locate Korean magazines and newspapers on-line. 

35. Where can I find information about WWWservers in
Korea and related to Korea? 

To find how fast WWW and Internet have been growing in Korea (hardly
equalled by other countries), you only have to search Yahoo directory with
keyword Korea. Or try any of following sites. 

Korea has been actively participating in Internet World Expo '96 partly
thanks to Prof. Chon, Kil-nam with CS dept. at KAIST, the founding father of
the Internet in Korea and one of a few witnesses of the birth of the
ARAPnet, precursor of the Internet. Visit Korean part of the Internet Expo
'96 at 

 o Official Korea WWW server list at 
 o Korea WWW server list by Lee, Gangchan at 
 o Sensitive Map of Korean WWW servers at 
 o WWW server directory in Korea by Mach Internet at 
 o Guide to Korea at HanaBBS ( 
 o Very comprehensive directory at 
 o Kka-chi-ne: Korean Web Search Engine at 
 o Kor-Seek: Korean Web Search Engine at http;// 
 o Search Agent:Ms.DaChanni at 
 o Search Engine:Shimmany at 
 o Real Time Search Engine:Wakano at 
 o Korean Yahoo at 
 o Search Engine:Madangbal at 
 o Korea Internet Search Source at 
 o Web dictionary at : Dictionary style
 o Web directory at 
 o CyberKorea A site with a tons of useful information on Korea in the US at 
 o Another site in the US with extensive information about Korea
 o ZIP ! : a web directory maintained by members of Internet Study Forum of 

In addition to these, a number of web pages with list of Korea-related web
sites have popped up within and without Korea including and not limited to
those at,,and 

For more hand-on information, you may as well join the mailing list, WWW-KR
by sending mail to with body as following and with empty

subscribe www-forum your_e-mail_address

WWW-KR mailing list is linked to Han.comp.www and archived automatically by
hyper-mail in HTML at KRNIC mailing list archive You may also be interested
in Korean People
Centter( with the list
of web pages(and/or e-mail address) of Korean people. 

36. How can I view Hangul world wide web (WWW) pages
under Unix /X window?

Under Hangul-capable environment as summarized below and dealt with in depth
above, you should have little problem viewing Hangul Web pages in and
outside Korea. In case further help is necessary, you may post your question
to Hangul USENET Newsgroup(See Subject 24), han.comp.www.browsers, 
hangul.comp.hangul or news groups for each flavor of Unix like Linux,Sun,
and HP listed in Subject 24 

 o Netscape 2.0b2 or later with Hangul Wansung(pre-composed) fonts. See
   below for details. It's the easiest way. 
 o PXHan(Pseudo X for Hangul display) and any web browser(including Netscape)
   for X Window. You may as well set font-style (in Options-Preference menu)
   to Huge in Netscape to get Hangul displayed intact. See Subject 6) and
   reference there for further details. It's left here for historic reason
   ONLY and you're strongly advised NOT to try this any more. 
 o Multi-localized version of Mosaic(L10N Mosaic made at NTT) + Hangul
   fonts(daewoo font or any 'pre-completed font') under most incarnations of
   Unix(?Unices?) and X11 implementations. Input is not allowed. More
   information on L10N Mosaic is found at 
 o Any Web browsers for X dynamically linked to X11 shared library with
   original libX11 replaced by libHanX11(Hangul patched X11 shared library, 
   HanX). Most versions of Mosaics are available with dynamic link(or you
   may compile it yourself if you have Motif library since source for Mosaic
   is avaialbel on the Net) while it's NOT the case with Netscape except on
   SGI Irix 5.2 for which Netscape is known to be dynamically linked with
   X11 shared library.. In case you happen to have a binary of Netscape
   dynamically linked to libX11, it must be possible to read and write
   Hangul in Netscape with HanX. Perhaps,Emacs in W3 mode also allows Hangul
   I/O this way. 
 o Hanterm + any text browsers(e.g. Lynx)(In recent versions of Lynx, you
   have to set Charset to Koearn in Option menu which you can get to by
   pression O 
 o Any terminal emulators for X(e.g. xterm, provided they're dynamically
   linked to X11 shared library),with libHanX11(HanX) installed + any of
   text browsers like Lynx. 
 o Mule(at Extension of Emacs
   v.19),GNU Emacs 20, or Xemacs 20(+mule)(See Subject 3 for more details on
   various versions of Emacs) in W3 mode. See 
 o Hanemacs supports W3 mode and can be used as a Hangul-viewable web
   browser. I tried this with Hemacs2.0beta under Linux and it worked well. 
 o Any terminal emulator under Hangul capable MS-DOS,MS-Windows, and Mac OS
   used to connect to Unix host + text browsers like Lynx. See Subject 4 and
   Subject 5, respectively for Hangul-capable environment for MS-DOS/Windows
   and Mac. 

Netscape 2.0 or higher are able to display Hangul and Hanja in one of two
encodings of KS C 5601 and US-ASCII/KS C 5636, 8bit EUC-KR and 7bit
ISO-2022-KR(See Subject 8 for Hangul code) as long as Hangul
fonts(Wansung-pre-composed- fonts like Daewoo and Hanyang) are installed on
X server(See Subject 6 for Hangul fonts). Here's a quick recipe to view
Hangul in Unix/X version of Netscape. 

1. Get and install Hangul Wansung fonts on your X server or X font server
   See Subject 6 for details on how to install Hangul fonts for X window.
   With X font server feature of X11 R6, Hangul fonts can be made avaiable
   even to X terminal users without the previlege of the system
2. In Options, set Document Encoding(in Netscape 4.03, it's under View
   instead of Options) to Korean(EUC-KR). In Netsacpe 4.0, it's
3. In Options|GeneralPreference|Fonts, set fonts to use with Korean to one
   of Hangul fonts. Choose Korean(ks_c_5601-1987) at 'For the Encoding', and
   set proportional and fixed font to one of Hangul fonts installed in step
   1. Please, note that Korean would not appear if you don't have any Hangul
   fonts(Wansung) on your X server/X font server. You need to install Hangul
   fonts before this step. 
4. To make this change permanent(i.e. make Korean the default encoding), you
   have to save options by choosing Save Options in Options menu (In 4.0,
   choose Set Default Encoding in View | Encoding). 

In case you are satisfied with Hangul properly displayed only in main text
window, you may as well stop here. Other areas where Hangul needs to be
displayed can be classified into two categories. Those of the first category
are all the places where text is displayed (bookmark,mail and news list,etc)
except for the title bar of the window where Netscape is enclosed which
belongs to the second. 

There are a few ways to display Hangul in those areas of depending on
whether Korean locale - either X locale or C library- is available and how
Netscape for that platform is compiled. 

The simplest(?) of them is install HanX (Hangul patched X library) by Oh,
Sung-gyu. HanX is kind of hack with nothing to do with X11 I18N
(Internationalization). It requires no locale support, C library or X and
can be very useful for those abroad where Korean locale is not installed on
their machines. With HanX replacing the original X11 shared library, Hangul
input as well as output in both categories mentioned above is possible even
without Hangul Input Method server (which is usually not available on Unix
machines sold outside Korea with possible exception of Digital Unix). HanX
users may also localize their Netscape (making all menus and messages appear
in Korean) using application default resource files mentioned below. Make
sure that font specifications for ks_c_5601-1987 in all fontList resources
are removed when localizing Netscape where HanX is used. Problem with this
approach is pre-compiled binary for HanX is only available for the limited
set of platforms(Linux, FreeBSD, and Sun OS 4.x) although it's not so hard
to build it from X11 R6.x source tree. See Subject 6 for more information on
HanX and Hangul in Unix/X environment. 

In case Korean locale is supported by C library on your platform and is
installed by your system administrator, you may install Korean version of
Netscape 3.0x with most of Motif messages translated into Korean.Most
versions of Unixen that come with workstations sold in Korea such as
Sun,Digital,HP,IBM,SGI have Korean locale support at the C library level. So
does FreeBSD among free Unixen. Except for Digital Unix, commercial Unixen
sold outside East Asia don't include Korean locale by default and you have
to pay for it separately. Korean version of Netscape is available at Korean version is nothing more than a English
version with modified application default file with Motif resources for
Hangul messages. README file in Korean version says that the file should be renamed Netscape and put in the directory only
system administrator has access to (e.g.
<XROOT>/X11/locale/app-defaults/ko), but that's not actually the case. Your
home diretory,ko or ko_KR.euc in your home directory, the directory named by
the environment variable XRESAPPLDIR(don't forget the trailing '/' when
naming this variable) and ko or ko_KR.euc under it can be used as well. When
running Netscape, the environment variable LC_CTYPE and/or LANG has to be
set for Korean locale(ko and ko_KR.euc). The exact path and the value of
LANG or LC_CTYPE environment variables may vary depending upon the flavor of
Unix,the version of X11 for which Netscape is compiled and the Korean locale
name on the machine. When setting either of two environment variables(LANG,
LC_CTYPE), you need to make sure that the other is left set to non-Korean
value like iso_8859_1 or de,us. 

Some people including Ryu, Byoung Soon at and
Kim,Bum Chul at, independently of Netscape, made a
localized version of netscape by translating messages into Korean and posted
their modifications to Hangul Usenet newsgroup(See Subject 24
)han.sys.linux(now han.comp.os.linux) and han.comp.www(now splitted to
several groups). Choi, Junho at put his translation on
the Web at where
detailed instruction is given. Similar information is available at and 

Choi, Jun-Ho put up a nice web page with gory details on Netscape and Hangul
for Unix/X11 at Especially
noteworthy of this page is it has almost completely(over 95%) localized
version of Netscape 4.07 for Korean. With little modification, it can be
used along with Netscape 4.5 as well. 

You may customize the application default file for your need. For instance,
you may not want Korean messages, but like to see Hangul in menu,bookmark
and mail/news list. The minimum change required in that case is delete
(easier way is replace all the occurences of the string "fontList" with
"DISABLE_fontList" in all the lines with fontList resources in for English version and add the following to it. Other resources
with fontList in their names(e.g. XmLGrid*fontList,
XmTeXTField*fontList,menuBar*fontList) can be modified in a simliar way(i.e.
add a font to be used for KS C 5601 separated by ';' from that for

Netscape*fontList:          -*-helvetica-bold-r-*-*-*-140-*-*-*-*-iso8859-*;\

Resources used by Netscape are well documented in included in
Netscape and their names are quite informative to enable you to tell which
is used where. Alternative to editing the application default resource file
highly dependent on a specific version of Netscape is append ) the lines
above (with "Netscape*" in front of every line if you wish this resources
setting not to be used by other Motif applications) to
.Xdefaults/.Xresources in your home directory or a X resource file named by
the environment variable XENVIRONMENT. Other Hangul font needs to be
specified depending on Hangul fonts installed. 

There are some resources not documented in and not controlled by
setting *fontList resource. I figured out what they are using
editres(available in standard X11 distribution). You may have to add
following resources(at least for Netscape 4.0x) to your Netscape application
default file or .Xdefaults/.Xresources or the file named by XENVIRONMENT
variable. Some resources below are documented in while others
are not. This list is not exhaustive. On the other hand, some of these might
be superfluous. (Please, note that the following examples assumes you have a
set of Web batang fonts modified by the recipe given in Subject 6. You can
use any other Hangul fonts of appropriate size you have, instead). You may
also preceed all the resources name with Netscape to make sure that they're
applied to Netscape. 


According to Choi, Jun-Ho, in Linux and FreeBSD version of Netscape, you
also need to install KS X 1001 GR encoded fonts(of which XLFD name end with 
ksc5601.1987-1 instead of ksc5601.1987-0) to get Hangul displayed
correctly in Form button and to set fonts for the encoding x-ksc5601-11 to
GR encoded fonts. Several sets of GR encoded fonts are available from Mizi
Research(follow the link for hanIM) at and KIMS
distribution(see Subject 6). 

With LANG/LC_CTYPE set to ko/ko_KR.euc on a host where Korean locale is
supported, you will find weired strings(e.g. $(C0!3*4Y $BABC
$(C0!3*4Y ) displayed in the title bar of the window enclosing
Netscape. This belongs to what I calls the second category of places where
Hangul needs to be displayed. It's not under the control of Netscape, but
governed by your Window manager. You need to use either
localized(L10N:Hangul patched) or internationalized(I18N) window manager.
Among them are mwm(motif window manager) included in Motif, fvwm95 and
afterstep patched for Hangul by Choi,Jun-ho at, I18Ned
afterstep,and qvwm(See Subject 6 for more information on I18Nized window

This setting work well on 75 dpi display, but with a monitor of resolution
far off 75 dpi(e.g. 100dpi) , you have to tinker with font size for Hanyang
fonts until you come up with appropriate setting. You have to install 
Hanyang fonts including alias mentioned below to make these resources work.
Otherwise, you would get the error message about resolution of 'FontString'
to font. 

Note that you may NOT use 'Johab' fonts included in Hanterm in Netscape
unless you install and run a hangul xfont server made by Moon Hongsuk(see 
Subject 6 for details) which presents Iyagi Johab fonts as Wansung fonts to
X application. Unfortunately, the source code is not available and only
Linux binary is available. By adding Hangul X fonts(it should be Wansung
type. See Subject 6 for freely available Hangul fonts ) other than Daewoo
fonts(e.g. Hanyang fonts), you may get better Hangul display. When
installing Hanyang fonts, you have to append a file 'aiias' distributed with
Hanyang fonts to a file 'fonts.alias' in the directory you installed them(a
directory under your home directory or system-wide font directory such as
<XROOT>/lib/fonts/misc. For the former, you just have to copy 'alias' to
'fonts.alias'). This file, 'alias' contains font aliases to make Hanyang
fonts(monospace fonts) recognized as 'character-cell fonts' as well. Thus,
without this Hanyang fonts would not be available for propotional fonts menu
in Netscape. 

One may also use the localized application default file for Netscape on a
platform without Korean locale support at the C library level if the X
locale datafile for Korean(X11R6 include it by default and most hosts with
full installation of X11R6 have it) is installed and X server, X shared
library and Netscape are compiled with X_LOCALE defined. Netscape references
X locale instead of C library locale on such a platform. Unfortunately,
there seems to be no such platform. Netscape 3.0 and later for Linux which
is compiled without X_LOCALE defined, however, can be made to make use of
locale files included in X11R6 instead of looking for missing C library
locale files as XF86 server and XF86 shared lib(libX11) for Linux are
compiled with X_LOCALE defined. Kim, Bumchul at
found a following recipe in a Japanese newsgroup to get Netscape under the
impression that C library locale for Korean is installed. It was originally
devised for Japanese, but can be applied to Korean and Chinese for which
locale support at C library level is not available in Linux. 

This recipe might be applied to other flavors of Unixen if you're familiar
with the target platform especially as to what option the linker has to be
given to generate a shared library and how to preload a function in shared
libraries.(defining LD_PRELOAD works in Linux and Sun OS 4.x and 5.x but as
for other Unixen, either the mechanism is not available or you have to
figure out how to). You also have to build X server and libX11 with X_LOCALE
defined out of the source tree if they're built wihtout X_LOCALE defined.
All of these are not trivial tasks at all for most users and it'd be much
easier and more hassle-free to persuade your system administrator to install
the C library locale for Korean. 

1. Compile the source code included below with following command 

      gcc -fPIC -shared -Wl,-rpath=/usr/X11R6/lib,-soname, \
      -o locale.c -L/usr/X11R6/lib -lX11 -lXt

2. Copy to /usr/local/lib/netscape 
3. Get (application default file) for Korean(either from Korean
   Netscape for any flavor of Unix at Netscape ftp/web site or Choi, Junho's
   web site mentioned above) or modify one for English to fit your
   preference as mentioned above. 
4. Copy to <XROOT>/lib/X11/locale/ko/app-defaults/Netscape 
5. Make the following shell script and put it in your search path 
6. Use this script to launch netscape. 

   #the  directory where you put
   #and The latter is only required for Netscape 3.x
   #and not necessary for Netscape 4.0
   export LANG
   export LD_PRELOAD 
   exec $NS_EXE $* 

   ------------  cut locale.c -----------------
   /* locale.c for Linux
      gcc -fPIC -shared -Wl,-rpath=/usr/X11R6/lib,-soname, \
      -o locale.c -L/usr/X11R6/lib -lX11 -lXt

      LD_PRELOAD=/lib/ netscape */

   #include <locale.h>
   #include <X11/Intrinsic.h>
   char *_Xsetlocale (int, const char *);

   #undef setlocale
   char *setlocale (int c, const char *l)
     if ((c == LC_ALL || c == LC_CTYPE) && l != NULL
         && !(*l == 'C' && l[1] == '\0')) {
           XtSetLanguageProc(NULL, NULL, NULL);
           l = NULL;
     return _Xsetlocale(((c == LC_ALL || c == LC_CTYPE) ? 2 : 3), l);
   ------------  cut locale.c -----------------

With this recipe, one may use Byeoroo, free Hangul Input Method Server for
X11 R6 made by Park, Jaihyun at It's in very
early beta stage and there are lots to be improved. Byeoroo can be obtained
at To make Netscape connect to
Byeoroo, you have to add following lines to X resource. A couple of other
public domain Hangul input method servers have been under development so
that sooner or later free Unix users will have a few input method servers to
choose from. 

Netscape*international: True
Netscape*inputMethod: byeoroo

Kim, Bumchul at Trigem Microsystems(quantum@brain.tgmi.cokr) released
KIMS(Korean Input Method Server) for Linux. He also put up a web page with
fine details on how to install and use it, see KIMS is a much maturer program
than byeoroo and it works quite well with Netscape except for the case where
peculiarities of Linux version of Netscpae show up. 

Mizi research released hanIM, another Hangul Input Method Server for Linux
and Solaris 2.5. For details, see and Subject 6. 

FreeBSD users can make use of KIMS binary for Linux as FreeBSD is very good
at emulating Linux. Choi, Jun Ho (at posted an
article to Hangul Usenet newsgroup han.comp.os.freebsd with instruction on
how to use it in FreeBSD. Even if you can't access newsserver carrying han.*
groups, you are able to read his article at Dejanews. Choose power search
and try keywords '~g han.comp.os.freebsd and kims and linux and junker' 

For versions of Netscape (statically) linked to X11 R5(Sun OS 4.x and BSDI.
In case of Linux, version up to 3.0b3), X locale for Korean (ko_KR.euc)
available from X11R5 distribution along with localized application default
resource files(or Motif resources added to ~/.Xdefaults or a file named by
the environment variable XENVIRONMENT) aforementioned enables you to display
Hangul in areas other than main text window when put in the path named by
$XNLSPATH and renamed as 'C'. 

If you can't see Hangul in framed pages in some version of Netscape, set
Language encoding to Korean(EUC-KR) and press 'Save Options' button and
reload the page in question[Contribution by Oum, Sang-il at]. Somehow, just switching Language encoding to
Korean without saving options doesn't work for framed pages in Netscape
while it works fine for non-framed pages. It may be a bug in Netscape. This
problem was resolved sometime between 3.0b3 and 3.0b5. 

Hangul input in Netscape may be possible if it's dynamically linked to X11
library and you have installed HanX(See Subject 6 to replace origianl X11
shared library. It's confirmed for Netscape 3.0beta4(the first Linux version
dynamically linked to X11) under Linux. Even without HanX installed, Hangul
might be entered by copy & paste from Hanterm into Netscape. 

Solaris 2.x, HP/UX, Digital Unix and SGI Irix shipped in Korea may come with
Hangul Input Method for X and/or localized X window in which case you can
input Hangul with Hangul Input Method Server(e.g. htt in Solaris 2.x) 

As of Netscape 2.02(and 3.01), printing Hangul web page under Unix+X window
is not directly supported. Actually, there used to be a bug in Netscape
which made it impossible to print Hangul web page even with Hangul
Postscript printers sold in Korea. At long last,this bug is fixed in
Netscape 3.0b5a and later and Hangul web pages now can be printed if one has
Postscript printer with built-in Hangul PS type 0(composite) fonts in KS C
5601 encoding. 

Unfortunately, this type of printer is not readily available to those
outside Korea, let alone many people in Korea, for whom nhpf made by
Lee,YongJae at SNU( is still only way to print Hangul
web pages. With nhpf, one can print Hangul web page with any PS printer or
any device supported by Ghostscript( e.g. HP LJ series and compatibles,
Epson, HP Deskjet, multitude of Inkjet printers,etc). See for the program,
nhpf and the instruction(the newest is nhpf 1.4.1). Choi, Jun Ho at made another utility to help print out Web pages with
Netscape and Hangul postscript fonts included in HLaTeX 0.9x. See for details. You need to get the
newest version(2.1) for Netscape 4.0x(Netscape is to blame for their
frequent and inconsistent changes in PS output for non-Western European
languages). Detailed instruction for Hangul printing from within Netscape is
found at 

Using Ghostscript 5.0 or higher (with CID-keyed font support compiled in)
and free Hangul CID-keyed fonts from Adobe, one can print Hangul Web pages
without nhppf and nhpf. Choi, Jun Ho came up with this idea and posted the
recipe to Hangul Usenet newsgroup han.comp.hangul. You can retrieve his
article on Dejanews Power search with the search term "~g han.comp.hangul
and ~~a choi and adobe and ghostscript and cmap". On top of that, one can
use any Hangul true type fonts (either in EUC-KR encoding, MS UHC encoding,
or Unicode UCS-2 native encoding) to print web pages if ghostscript 5.10
with hfftype patch is installed. See Subject 21 for hfftype patch. 

With Hangul Type 0/OCF fonts(encoded in EUC-KR) made out of Hangul PS fonts
for HLaTeX 0.96 or later and ghostscript, you can print Hangul web pages
without filters like nhppf and nhpf. Those fonts are available at More detail can be obtained at Also, you
may refer to and 

Users of Solaris 2.4KLE+CDE 1.1 and Solaris 2.5KLE or later reported that
following or similar error messages show up 

       Name :urlText
       Character :'h', not supported in font.Discarded

. According to Kim, Bumchul (, a quick and dirty
(NOT so desirable) workaround is set the environment varilable LANG to
C(make a script for Netscape in which LANG is set to C before calling
netscape). He wrote to me, however, that a much better way is make Netscpae
use fonts other than those from Adobe. One way is move the font path with
fonts from Adobe to the end of your font path or exclude it and the other is
modify Motif resource for TextField to use fonts other than those from Adobe
as shown below. 

Before change

*XmTextField.fontList:         -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-*
*topArea*XmTextField.fontList: -*-courier-medium-r-*-*-*-120-*-*-*-*-iso8859-*

After change, 

*XmTextField.fontList:          -schumacher-clean-medium-r-*-*-*-140-*-*-*-*-iso8859-*
*topArea*XmTextField.fontList: -misc-fixed-medium-r-normal--13-120-75-75-c-70-iso8859-1

Netscape is reported to have a conflict with Motif localized for
Korean(Hangul Motif) as included in Sparc compatibles/clones like Sambo and
Hyundai when LANG is set to korean or ko. As with Solaris KLE, a dirty and
quick solution is set LANG to C, but it's better to kill is(Hangul input
server for Hangul Motif) and run htt (Hangul input server for Openwin) with
LANG set to ko or korean. In this case, you have to copy (symlink would
suffice) Hangul fonts for Openwin to one of directories in font search paths
of Hangul Motif. Both problems(Solaris KLE 2.x and Hangul Motif) are being
worked on. [Contribution by Kim, Bum-Chul at]. 

Lee, SeokChan ( wrote to Usenet newsgroup
han.comp.sys.sun that Solaris 2.6 has more serious conflict with Netscape.
It is also due to Adobe fonts and can be solved by not using Adobe fonts for
both proportional and fixed in Netscape(fixed size Adobe fonts work fine in
Solaris 2.5, but it got worse in Solaris 2.6) . A quick solution(it's also
mentioned above in this document) is use the application default file for
Netscape(the example file is supplied with Netscape) with the
string fontList replaced with DISABLE_fontList and the following line to
designate both English and Hangul fonts for fontList added at the bottom.
You may change fonts as you wish. 

*fontList:          -b&h-lucida-medium-r-*-*-*-140-*-*-*-*-iso8859-*;\

This problem of Solaris 2.5/2.6 has been dealt with by Sun and the patch to
fix it(unfortunately only available for 2.6) is available as Sun patch ID
105633 at SunSolve. [Posted to han.comp.sys.sun by SeokChan Lee. 

The lines above can be added to X resource database (e.g. by adding it
~/.Xdefaults or ~/.Xresources). In that case, it's better to prepend the
first line with Netscape (i.e. it should begin with "Netscape*fontList:")
and you should not install the application default file for Netscape.
Another alternative is get the application default file modified by Lee,
Seokchan available at 

Some hangul web pages appear broken in Netscape(4.06 or earlier) because
they contain erroneous meta header shown below produced by MS Front Page
3.0. MIME charset for Korean(drawn from KS C 5601 character set) mixed with
English (from US-ASCII/KS C 5636 character set) is NOT ks_c_5601-1987 but
EUC-KR. Netscape regards those pages as encoded in unknown MIME charset and
uses fonts for ISO-8859-1 instead of fonts for Hangul to display them. In
order to make their web pages viewable by Netscape users on Unix and Mac,
web masters have to either remove the wrong meta tag or add the correct one

WRONG meta tag
<META HTTP-EQUIV="Content-Type" CONTENT="text/html; CHARSET=ks_c_5601-1987">

CORRECT meta tag
<META HTTP-EQUIV="Content-Type" CONTENT="text/html; CHARSET=EUC-KR">

For more information on I18N(internationalization) features of Netscape,
refer to following pages 


In early October, 1997, Hong, Hunsoo at posted to
Hangul Usenet newsgroup han.comp.hangul a patch to Mosaic 2.7b for Hangul
output. You may read his article at Dejanews by searching with keywords
'hunsoo and ~g han.comp.hangul and mosaic and hanterm'. 

Following recipe for old Netscape (2.0beta) is left for historic reason

   Lee, Yong-jae(at came up with a new way to
   view Hangul with Netscape usually statically linked to libX11, thus
   HanX is of no use with it) without any change under X Window except
   for installation of hangul font(n-byte Hangul font) and addition of a
   entry for Netscape in app-defaults as long as a www server with
   Hangul document satisfies some requirements. See for details. Note that Hangul input is
   not possible with this method,though. 

37. How can I view Hangul world wide web (WWW) pages
on Mac?

Under Hangul-capable environment for each platform as summarized below and
dealt with in depth above, you should have little problem viewing Hangul Web
pages in and outside Korea. Sparcs Home page has another guide of Hangul in
WWW. WWW-KR has made an excellent introductory book on the web, "Gaja, Web-u
Soe-gye-ro" available in Postscript and HLaTeX at CAIR archive. 

 o Netscape/MS IE under Mac OS 8.5 with Multilingual Internet Access kit
   (available free on Mac OS 8.5 CD) installed. 
 o Any Web browsers(including CyberDoc) for Mac under Hangul Talk 
 o Any Web browsers for Mac(including CyberDoc) under Korean Language Kit.
   . Old version of Netscape (for reading Usenet News in Hangul. Other than
   that, it doesn't need patch) and NCSA Mosaic need a little patch(using
   Resource Editor for Hangul). See Hangul and Mosaic and refer to Mac
   Hangul archive for Netscape patch. 
 o Netscape under non-Korean Mac OS 7.5.x or later with World Script II
   extension + Munhwabu fonts (See Subject 5 for Munhwabu fonts). You need
   NOT have Korean Language Kit. This way, you can't input Hangul, but
   viewing Hangul web page works fine. [Contribution by Dennis Hanks at] 
 o Any Web browsers for Mac with Han Korean Kit(Hantorie) 
 o Netscape 3.x and 4.x with Elixir in non-Korean environment. See Subject 5
   for Elixir. 
 o Hangul-transparent(capable) terminal emulators such as
   TeleGraphic,TeleTalk,Hangul patched ZTerm under any of two Hangul-capable
   environments above to run text browsers(e.g. Lynx) on a remost host
   connected to a local machine via serial/dial-up link. See Subject 2) 
 o Hangul-transparent(capable) telnet client like hangul patched NCSA
   Telnet,MacBlueTelnet(it also wors stand-alone without system wide support
   of Hangul i/o) under any of two Hangul-capable environments above 
 o Unix version of Netscape(and other graphic web browsers) to be run as a
   client on a remote host for any X-server with Hangul fonts(See Subject 6)
   for free Hangul fonts for X window and a list of X servers for Mac OS
   including one free server) 
 o Hanterm to be run as a client on a remote host for any X-server with
   Hangul fonts under Mac to use text browsers like Lynx. See Subject 2)
   about this method 
 o Hangul-capable-Emacs in W3 mode to be run as a client on a remote host
   for any X-server with Hangul fonts on a local Mac. 

To display Hangul in Netscape 2.0,3.0 or 4.0, you just have to follow these
simple recipes. 

1. Install one of following Hangul solutions. Details about these are in 
   Subject 5. 
    o Multilingual Internet Access Kit(free) in Mac OS 8.5 
    o Korean Language Kit 
    o Hangul Mac OS 
    o PanAsian Kit 
    o Han Korean Kit(Refer to HKK home page mentioend in Subject 5 for more
    o Mac OS 7.5.x and World Script II extension(optional item found on Mac
      OS CD-ROM and Apple Archive) + Munhwabu fonts. In Mac OS 8, WS II
      extension seems to be installed by default. (display ONLY, NO input) 
2. In Options, set Document Encoding(in Netscape 4.0, it's under View Menu.
   In NS 4.5, it's called Character Set) to Korean(Auto Detect). Optionally,
   you may make it as default with 'Set As Default' menu item. 
3. In Options|General Preference|Font menu(in Netscape 4.0,
   Edit|Preference|Appearance|Font), set fonts to use for Korean encoding to
   Korean fonts(Hanyang Myungjo,Hanyang Dung-gun gothic,
   ShinMyungjo,Munhwa,Tonshing,etc) mentioned in Subject 5. 

Electronic Hangul may or may not be used as underlying system for Hangul web
browsing. Its unique one-byte code requires code conversion from KSC-5601
used in virtually all Hangul web sites and different patch(or original web
browsers with no patch are likely to work) other than mentioned above may be

Korean version(with all menus in Hangul) of Netscape for Mac will be
released soon although it's not yet available as of May 10th. See for update in Hangul. 

WorldScript savvy web authoring tools work fine under Hangul Mac OS,
non-Korean Mac OS + KLK or PanAsianKit. Among them are PageSpinner and 
Golive CyberStudio( [posted to han.sys.mac by Gil, Hojin at] recommended VisualPage for 68k
Mac and GoliveCyberStudio for PPC Mac. 

38. How can I view Hangul world wide web (WWW) pages
under MS-Windows?

Under Hangul-capable environment as summarized below and dealt with in depth
in Subject 4, you should have little problem viewing Hangul Web pages in and
outside Korea. In case further help is necessary, you may post your question
to Hangul USENET Newsgroup(See Subject 24), han.comp.sys.ibmpc, 
han.comp.hangul, or han.comp.www 

 o Any language version of MS Windows 95/NT + Hangul fonts(Unicode-based) +
   Netscape 3.0/4.0 or MS Internet Explorer 3.0/4.0 For freely available
   Hangul fonts, see Subject 4. Also, see Frank Tang's pages mentioned below
   for details on Netscape and CJK fonts. 
 o MS Internet Explorer 3.0 or later or Netscape 4.0 or later for MS Windows
   95/98 and NT 4.0 + int'l extension for Korean(Korean language pack, MS IE
   4.0 add-on for Korean). See for details (or Korean language
   pack(Korean add-on) includes a set of truetype Korean fonts(Gulim and
   Gulimche) to use for Korean web page viewing. In spring of 1998, MS
   released IME(Input Method Editor) for East Asian Languages to work with
   MS IE/OutLook Express. Now, it's renamed global IME with which Hangul
   input is also possible in MS IE 4.0 and MS Outlook Express(but not in
   Netscape) under any lang. version of MS-Windows NT/95/98. Global IME is
   available at 
 o MS Internet Explorer 2.0 or later + International Extension + Korean
   Language support for MS IE 2.0 Int'l extension.( under MS Windows 95 and
   NT 4.0 but not under MS Windows 3.1) 
 o Any Web browsers for Windows under Hangul Windows 3.1/Hangul Windows
 o Any Web browers for Windows + Hanme Hangul for Windows + MS-Windows
   3.1(or Win 95 with HHW for Win95) 
 o Any Web browers for Windows + CJK Union Way + MS-Windows 3.1/95(MS
   Internet Explorer doesn't work with Unionway,yet). 
 o Any Web browers for Windows + several Hangul viewers such as
   NJWin,AsianView,Mview, and AsiaSurf(See Subject 4) + MS-Windows 95/3.1/NT
 o Netscape 3.0 + Accent plug-in for Netscape by AccentSoft( [Contribution by Charles Tustison at] 
 o Multilinguial Web browser Tango under any language version of Windows
   3.1,95/NT. See 
 o WinTerm(hangul-transparent telnet client/terminal emulator for Windows)
   to connect to a host and run text browsers like Lynx either over
   serial/dial-up link or with direct net connection under three
   Hangul-capable Windows environments. 
 o Most terminal emulators for Windows under any of three aforementioned
   Hangul-capable Windows environments to run text browsers such as Lynx
   over serial/dial-up link. 
 o Unix version of Netscape and other graphic web browsers to be run as an
   X-client on a remote host for any X-server (e.g. MI/X which is free and
   Micro-X and eXodus of which demo versions avaialble on the Net. Refer to 
   Subject 6 for details on X servers for MS-Windows. ) with Hangul fonts
   under MS-Windows(3.1/95/NT) on a local host. You have to either install
   Hangul X fonts on MS-Windows box or use font server with Hangul X fonts.
   Refer to Subject 6 for free X hangul fonts. 
 o Hanterm to be run as a client on a remote host for any X-server (e.g.
   Micro-X and eXodus) with Hangul fonts under MS-Windows(3.1/95/NT) on a
   local host to use text browsers like Lynx. 
 o Hangul-capable-Emacs in W3 mode to be run as a client on a remote host
   for any X-server with Hangul fonts under MS-Windows (3.1/95/NT) on a
   local host. 

Korean version of Netscape for MS-Windows 95/NT was released, Please, note
that it doesn't have built-in support for Hangul I/O, but rather depends on
Windows 95/NT for Hangul I/O. Thus, you still need Hangul version of Windows
95/NT or non-Korean Windows 95 + Hangul fonts(as included in MS IE Korean
language pack/int'l extension for Korean, Bitstream hangul font) and/or
Unionway/AsianView/NJWin or Hanme Hangul to view Korean web pages and/or
fill out forms in Korean(see Subject 4 for details on Hangul environment in
MS-Windows 95/NT/3.1) for updates in Hangul. 

MS Internet Explorer 2.0 + International extension and 3.0/4.0 + Int'l
extension(now called language pack) for Windows 95 and NT 4.0 can display
Hangul web pages without support of Hangul on the OS level, so that Hangul
page may be displayed without Hangul MS-Windows 95/NT. (See above for where
to get them). According to Yi, Yeong Deug at, however,
Hangul font (Gulimche) that comes with Hangul add-on(Int'l extension for
Korean) doesn't contain Hanja. (this may not be the case any more with new
Korean language pack). To dislay Hanja, you may make use of fonts of Hanme
Hangul or Unionway if you have them. 

In February, 1998, Microsoft released IME(Input Method Editor) for Korean
and Japanese, which makes it possible to input Korean and Japanese in MS
Internet Explorer 4.0 and MS Outlook Express running under any langauge
version of MS Windows 95/98 and MS Windows NT. You can download it at MS IE
web page at Newer
global IME(downloadable at the same site) supports traditional and
simplified Chinese as well. 

Kang, Kyung-soo has been regularly posting an article in English (as well as
in Korean) explaining how to use Netscape and MS IE(including MS OE) under
non-Korean version of MS-Windows. It has a lot of details not fully
mentioned here so that you may wish to refer to his article. The easiest way
to read his article is go to Dejanews Power Search page and use the search
term ~g han.answers and ~a Kyung-soo 

Installing MS IE Int'l extension for Korean(Korean
language pack) on any version of Windows NT
3.5x,4.0 and Windows 95/98(since it installs
Korean fonts) is reported to enable Netscape and
other browsers to display Hangul web pages. [
Contribution by Lee Kwang-Sug at]. It also enables
Netscape 4.0x to display Hangul under Windows 95
as well as Windows NT according to Han, Seunghun
at Frank Tang at
Netscape has a web page
explaining details on how to use MS Internet
Explorer Korean Extension to view Hangul web page
with Netscape 3.0 under MS Windows NT 3.5/4.0 and
Windows 95, which was kindly passed on to me by
Todd M. Jahng at It
mentions about registry editing to use Unicode,
which may or may not be necessary depending on
which version of MS IE Korean extension you
installed. Moreover, turning 'Use Unicode' ON
might have a side-effect of Unionway, NJWin or
Asianview not working if they don't use Unicode
font. (At least Unionway comes with Unicode fonts
so that it's not supposed to be affected by this).

Frank Tang( also put up quite
useful information on viewing web pages in East
Asian languages with Netscape 4.0 (communicator)
Other page of your interest may be which deals
with Netscape internationalization issues and with
some tips on browsing CJK pages in non-CJK

Whatever program/font(Hanme
Hangul,Unionway,NJWin,AsianView, MS Hangul font
from MS IE Korean extension) you use, you need to
set Document Encoding to Korean in Options(View
menu in Netscape 4.0x. Get Unionway build 1528 or
later for Netscape 4.0x if you want to use
Unionway although it can display Hangul without
Unionway if you have Hangul Unicode fonts as
included in MS Internet Explore Int'l
extension(Korean language pack) or distributed for
free by Bitstream) menu of Netscape and set fonts
for Korean to one of Hangul fonts you have in
in 4.0x) although in some cases Netscape can
display Hangul without these setting mainly due to
font-association feature of Unionway,
NJWin,HanmeHangul, and AsianView. Hanyang
fonts(Batang-che, see below) and Gulimche included
in MS IE Korean extension look pretty good. 

Netscape 4.0x doesn't recognize non-Unicode Hangul
fonts included in Unionway and MS IE Korean
extension (Gulimche) and Hanyang Batangche. A
work-around by Seunghoon Han is set Encoding to
User-Defined in View|Encoding and set font for
User-Defined to one of Hangul fonts in
Edit|Preference|Font[posted to han.comp.hangul by
Han, Seunghoon at]. Problem with
this work-around is, however, header information
in your mail/news message is incorrectly set.
According to Frank Tang, this problem arises
because Netscape 4.0 (communicator) uses Unicode
fonts by default and fonts that comes with some
versions of Unionway and some old versions of MS
IE Korean extension(I think the newest version MS
IE Korean extension has Unicode fonts) and Hanyang
batang are not Unicode fonts. Thus,a much better
work-around than above is turn off an option to
use Unicode fonts as explained at

You may edit registry for Netscape in Windows
95/NT and ini file in Windows 3.1. Look for
following item in registry 

[HKEY_CURRENT_USER\Software\Netscape\Netscape Navigator\INTL]
"Font4"="euc-kr,Times New Roman,12,Courier New,10,129,129"

and change it to 

"Font4"="euc-kr,GulimChe,12,GulimChe,10,0,1" in Non-Korean Windows

"Font4"="euc-kr,GulimChe,12,GulimChe,10,129,0" in Korean Windows

[Posted by Yi, Yeong Deug at
to han.comp.hangul] 

Font association feature of Hangul Windows gets in
the way of reading web pages in Western European
languages like French and German with Netscape.
(i.e. Even if you choose Western(Latin1) in
Options|Document Encoding, fonts for Hangul are
used in place of those for Western(Latin1)
character sets). A work around by Yi, Yeong Deug
is edit registry for font association as shown
below with registry editor. It may break Hangul in
menu of some programs, in which case you may
reverse the change. The same information with a
bit more background details is available at
(put on the web by Frank Tang). 

Before the change

After the change


Windows 95(and possiblely Windows NT) users may
download freely available(but not in public
domain) Hangul fonts for Web page design and web
browsing from Hanyang System at The same set is
available for Unix/X window and they plan to offer
the same set of fonts for Windows 3.1 and Mac. You
may ask Hanyang system for a program to split a
ttc file to component ttf files in case you have
problem with installing ttc font in non-Korean
version of Windows 95/NT. A utility for breaking
ttc is now available at 

See Subject 4 for HanmeHangul,UnionWay and NJWin
which make it possible to read and/or write Hangul
in MS-Windows 3.1 and/or MS-Windows 95(and Windows
NT in case of Unionway Asian Suit for NT 3.51/4.0)

In case Hangul is broken in Java applet or
Javascript of Netscape, you may install patches
available at
[Contribution by Choi, SeongOok at 

Netscape 4.0b1 which claims to have full support
for Unicode 2.0 does NOT support Hangul as
specififed in Unicode 2.0(and KS C 5700). Instead,
it comes with now obsolete Hangul code in Unicode
1.2 that got obsolete with release of KS C 5700
and Unicode 2.0(See Subject 8 for Hangul code).
You may as well send a bug report to get Netscape
fix this grave bug as soon as possible.
[Contribution by Jung, Joowon at] 

According to Kim, Deogtae at, Yoon, Kyung Koo at and Ken Lunde at, Java Development Kit(JDK) 1.1
support Hangul. native2ascii converts Korean in KS
C 5601(actually EUC-KR encoding) to
Unicode(network-byte order assumed). There is a
couple of bugs in conversion to Unicode from KS C
5601(EUC-KR encoding), though while the other way
around it works fine. Ken Lunde at Adobe kindly
informd me of the URL of the web page about JDK
1.1 I18N(
He also asked JavaSoft to support other
encodings(ISO-2022-KR and Johab) for Korean. 

Kim, Do Hyung at has
reported another problem with Hangul support in
JDK. A bug of JDK 1.1 with Hangul input in
TextField and TextArea was fixed in JDK 1.1.1, but
a lot more serious problem has been introduced.
Now in 1.1.1, it's impossible to get Hangul input
using KeyEvent. Java is a relatively new language
still under vigorous revision and development, so
that there is ample room for Hangul support if we
exert conserted efforts. 

Namo Interactive developed a Netsape plug-in for
viewing all Hangul syllabels(old and modern)
defined in KS C 5700. It works with Netscape
running under any language version of MS-Windows.
See for details and
download information. 

Those who use Netscape-Gold to edit Hangul html
documents should be extremely careful not to set
encoding to Western(Latin 1). Html files produced
with encoding set to Western are not legible by
most web browsers including MS Internet Explorer.
You must set encoding to Korean to edit Korean
html files. That's not only for MS IE users, but
is the right thing to do. Otherwise, your html
files would be not only invisible by many people
but also be ballooned to 3-4 times as large as
they would be with the correct setting.
Similarly(according to Kang Sungwon at, NetObject Fusion users
have to turn ON the option "Skip High ASCII Set
Conversion" in Publish|Setting|Modify|HTML
generation menu. 

MS FrontPage put the incorrect meta tag at the
beginning of html files edited with it. This
incorrect header makes your web pages invisible to
Netscape(4.05 or before) running under Mac and
Unix/X (and Netscape under MS-Windows, too if it's
configured to work around font association to
display Western Europeans correctly). You need to
either delete the meta tag in question or correct
it as shown below. In case you have to numerous
html files with this meta tag, you may find it
useful to get a small shell script I posted to
Usenet newsgroup han.comp.www.authoring. The
article can be looked up with the keywords "~g
han.comp.www.authoring and ~a jungshik and sed and
find and frontpage" at Dejanews Power Search 

WRONG meta tag
<META HTTP-EQUIV="Content-Type" CONTENT="text/html; CHARSET=ks

CORRECT meta tag
<META HTTP-EQUIV="Content-Type" CONTENT="text/html; CHARSET=EU

A newer version of MS FrontPage has an option to
avoid this problem. In File|Page Properties, set
'Hangul' to <none> and 'encoding' to auto.[posted

39. How can I view Hangul world wide web (WWW) pages
under OS/2?

I've been gathering information on Hangul
environment for OS/2 including how to view Hangul
web pages, but I haven't written it up, yet. I
wish I'll be able to summarize it before long. For
the time being, here are some ways to view Hangul
web pages under OS/2. You may also post your
question to Hangul USENET Newsgroup(See Subject
24), han.sys.ibmpc or han.comp.www. I would
greatly appreciate any information on Hangul under
OS/2 to add to the FAQ. 

 o Any Web browsers for MS-Windows under Win-OS/2
   which works just like MS-Windows 3.1 + CJK Union
   Way [Contribution by Kim,Junki at IBM Watson
   Research center(] 
 o Hangul OS/2 with built-in DBCS capability sold
   by IBM Korea + any Web browsers for OS/2 
 o Any Web browsers for MS-Windows under Win-OS/2
   which works just like MS-Windows 3.1 + Hanme
   Hangul as confirmed by Charles Tustison at Hanme
   Soft International. According to him, you have
   to turn off Adobe Type Manager. 
 o WinTerm(hangul-transparent telnet
   client/terminal emulator for Windows) running
   under Win-OS/2 to connect to a host and run text
   browsers like Lynx either over serial/dial-up
   link or with direct net connection under three
   Hangul-capable Windows environments. (NOT
   confirmed, yet) 
 o Most terminal emulators for Windows under
   Win-OS/2 + Unionway or Win-OS/2 + Hanme Hangul
   to run text browsers such as Lynx on a Unix host
   over serial/dial-up link. (NOT confirmed,yet) 
 o Netscape 2.0 beta 2 or higher for Unix/X to be
   run as an X client on a remote Unix host for any
   X-server with Hangul fonts under OS/2 on a local
   host (See Subject 36) 
 o Hanterm to be run as an X client on a remote
   host for any X-server with Hangul fonts under
   OS/2 on a local host to use text browsers like 
 o Hangul-capable-Emacs in W3 mode to be run as an
   X client on a remote host for any X-server with
   Hangul fonts under OS/2 on a local host. 

When WarpMate, a program to make possible use of
Korean as well Chinese and Japanese under
non-localized version of OS/2 is released, one
will be able to run any native OS/2 web browsers
to view Hangul web pages. See Subject 4 for more
information on WarpMate. 

40. How can I view Hangul world wide web (WWW) pages
under MS-DOS?

Under Hangul-capable environment as summarized
below and dealt with in depth above, you should
have little problem viewing Hangul Web pages in
and outside Korea. In case further help is
necessary, you may post your question to Hangul
USENET Newsgroup(See Subject 24), han.sys.ibmpc or

 o Software Hangul(See Subject 4) + most emulators
   made for English such as ProComm, MS-Kermit and 
   Telix when accessin Unix shell account over
   dial-up/serial link and running text browsers
   like Lynx. 
 o Software Hangul(See Subject 4) + Hangul
   patched(or 8 bit transparent) Telnet client for
   MS-DOS to connect to a Unix host and run text
   browsers like Lynx on remote host. 
 o Emulators with built-in Hangul capablity like 
   Shinsedae and Iyagi when accessing Unix shell
   account over dial-up/serial link and running
   text browsers like Lynx. 
 o Software Hangul(See Subject 4) + DosLynx when
   connecting to the Net by Ethernet(or other LAN)
   or PPP/SLIP 

41. Is there any place ( Internet cafe, public library, etc) in
Korea where travellers can access the Internet?

There are tens of Internet cafes in Seoul and
other large cities in Korea. Jung, Chan-gyu at visited five of
them(listed first) in Seoul and kindly posted
detailed information about them to Hangul Usenet
newsgroup han.comp.internet. Here's summary of his

    o Phone: +82 (0)2 336 6345 
    o Location: Between Hongik Univ. and Mapo public
      library, Seoul 
    o Facility: 256kbps dedicated link, 1 SGI Indy
      server, 20 Pentium PC, 5 Power Mac 
    o Hour: 10am - 7pm 
    o Rate: 1,000 won for every 10 min. 
Web Space( 
    o Phone: +82 (0)2 313 7671 
    o Location: Between Shinchon rotary and Yonsei
    o Facility: 512kbps dedicated link, 1 server, 19
      Pentium PC,Fax,Printer 
    o Hour: 10am - 12pm 
    o Rate: 5,000 won for the first 2 hours and
      2,000 won for each additional 30 minute. 
Cyber Club 
    o Phone: +82 (0)2 557 7900 
    o Location: Near Exit 1 at Kangnam subway(no. 2
      line) stop, Seoul 
    o Facility: 256kbps dedicated link, 15 Pentium
    o Hour: 10am - 10:30pm 
    o Rate: 2,000 won for admission and 1,000 won
      for every half-hour 
O2 Cyber Cafe( 
    o Phone: +82 (0)2 745 6281(voice), 261-0487(Fax)
    o Location: Between Hyehwa-dong rotary and
      Seong-kyun-kwan Univ. 
    o Facility: 256kbps dedicated link, 13
      PCs(Pentium,Mac, 486) 
    o Hour: open through late night. 
    o Rate: 2,000 won for the first 30min. and 500
      won for each additional 10min. 
    o Phone: +82 (0)2 733 7973 
    o Location: Across Kyo-bo bookstore, Seoul 
    o Facility: 128kbps dedicated link, 11
      PCs(Pentium, 486) 
    o Hour: Mon-Sat ; 10am - 11pm, Sun,holiday; 1pm
      - 10pm 
    o Rate: 1,000 won for every half hour, 20,000
      won per month(member) 
Korea Telecom S/W Plaza 
    o Phone: +82 (0)2 717 0500, +82 (02) 3273 0492 
    o Location: basement of blue Kook-min bank
      building near Yong-san , Seoul electronics
    o Facility: 256kbps dedicated link, 5 PCs, 5
      termianls for HiTel and other on-line service 
    o Hour: Mon-Fri; 9am-7pm, Sat; 9am-6pm 
    o Rate: free of charge(may require membership) 
Intergate Cafe( 
    o Phone: +82 (0)2 393-0500 
    o Location: Near Yonsei Univ., Seoul 
    o Facility: 
    o Hour: 
    o Rate: For membership, 20k won per month for 2
      hour daily use and 
Net Space 
    o Phone: +82 (0)2 
    o Location: Near exit 2 of Seoul Teacher's Univ.
      stop of subway line 2 
    o Facility: 
    o Hour: 10am-12pm 
    o Rate: 
Orange Blue 
    o Phone: +82 (0)2 420-9484 
    o Location: Bet. Chamshil stadium stop and
      Shinchon stop of subway line 2 on Olympic
    o Facility: 128k dedicated line, Pentium PCs,
      Laser Printer 
    o Hour: 
Free Cell 
    o Phone: +82 (0)62 228-0586 
    o Location: Near Chonnam Nat'l Univ. Hospital,
    o Facility: 
    o Hour: 
    o Rate: 
    o Phone: +82 (0)2 546-5677 
    o Location: Near exit 3 of Apgujong stop of
      subway line 3 
    o Facility: 128k dedicated line 
    o Hour: 11am-12pm, Mon-Sat 
    o Rate: 
Net World( 
    o Phone: +82 (0) 
    o Location: Chinju 
    o Facility: 
    o Hour: 
    o Rate: 
Expo Munhwa Kong-gan 
    o Phone: +82 (0)42 489-7227 
    o Location: Across the 3rd government office
      complex, Taejon 
    o Facility: 
    o Hour: 
    o Rate: 2k won for 30min for non-member, 2
      hr/day free for member 
Dream Cafe( 
    o Phone: +82 (0)51 518 2827 
    o Location: Near Pusan Nat'l Univ. main entrance
    o Facility: 
    o Hour: 
    o Rate: 3,000 won per hour 
Surfing Internet 
    o Phone : +82 (0)2 922 2456 
    o Location: Near Sungshin Women's Univ. 
    o Facility: 56kbps dedicated line, 7 Pentium PCs
    o Rate: 3,000 won per hour 
    o Phone : +82 (0)2 325 4563 
    o Location: Shinchon,Seoul 
    o Facility: 5 Pentium PCs 
    o Hour: 10 am - 12 pm 
    o Rate: 1,500 won per hour for non-member and
      30,000 won per month for 1 hour daily use and
      email account 
Web Village 
    o Phone : +82 (0)2 3453-4802 
    o Location: Near Kangnam subway stop,Seoul 
    o Facility: 
    o Hour: 
    o Rate: 2,000 won / 30 min, 5,000 won/day,
      unlimited use for 20,000 won/month 
    o Phone: 
    o Location: Chinju, Kyongnam 
    o Phone: +82 (0)32 862-7799 
    o Location: Inchon 
    o Facility: 128kbps dedicated line, 17 Pentium
    o Phone: 
    o Location: Apgujong-dong, Seoul 
    o Phone: +82 (0)53 943-4800 
    o Location: Near north gate of Kyungpook Nat'l
      University, Taegu 
Inter Plaza 
    o Phone: +82 (0)551 62-0620 
    o Location: 3rd floor, Samil Sanga, Changwon 
    o Facility: 56kbp dedicated line 
    o Rate: 4,500 won per hour 
    o Phone: +82 (0)342 702-4500 
    o Location: Sohyung b/d 3rd Fl., Bundang,
    o Rate: 4,000 won for the 1st hour and 1,000 for
      additional 30min. or 30,000 won for monthly
Now Sarangbang 
    o Phone: +82 (0)2 517-3690 
    o Location: Seoul 
    o Used to be opened exclusively to subscribers
      of Nownuri, but now opened to the public. 
Com-Tong Sesang 
    o Phone: +82 (0)2 725-1881 
    o Location: Near Sisa-English school,Chongno 2 
    o Phone: +82 (0)2 561 2522 
    o Location: Near Grand Dept. store, Seoul 
    o Facilities: T1 line, 30 PCs 

Information on Cybercafe Dream in Pusan was
forwarded to me by Lim, John Hoan(at Information on some of the
listed came from an article in Kyunghyang shinmun.
Cha, Young-min at posted
the info. about InterPlaza in Changwon to Usenet
newsgroup Some cafes were found
using Internet search engines in Korea.
Information on last three entries were posted to 
KIDS, an internet BBS in Korea by happyhan. 

Telebank plans to open a network of Internet cafes
in major cities in Korea. See for details. A list of
Internet cafe(currently listing only 5) can be
found at 

The Korean organization committe of Information
Expo 96 made the net-access facilities at
following places available to the general public.
[Posted by Chungho Park at].
More extensive information on PAP(public access
place) including over 90 public access points as
of May, 1996, is available at 

 o Seoul, Netscape, 02-749-4367 
 o Seoul, Isis Co., 02-516-2891 
 o Seoul, CyberClub 02-557-7900 
 o Seoul,Dacom headquarter 02-220-0220 
 o Kwang-myong, city hall 02-686-0011 
 o Taejon,Chungnam Nat'l Univ. 042-821-6861 
 o Kongju,Kongju Univ. 0416- 50-8712 
 o Chongju,Chungbuk Nat'l Univ. 0431- 61-2773 
 o Chonju,Chonbuk Nat'l Univ. 0652- 70-3509 
 o Kwangju,Chonnam Nat'l Univ. 062-520-7810 
 o Cheju, Cheju Nat'l Univ. 064- 54-2261 
 o Pusan,Pusan Nat'l Univ. 051-510-1860 
 o Chinju,Kyongsang Nat'l Univ. 0591-751-5132 
 o Taegu,Kyongbuk Nat'l Univ. 053-950-6656 
 o Chunchon,Kangwon Nat'l Univ. 0361- 50-8042 

Korea Telecom seems to run some public access
sites throuout the nation. One of them is in
Ilsan(suburb of Seoul). For details, contact According to, some public libraries in
Taegu have open-to-public facilities for Internet

42. Can I send Fax to Korea via Internet e-mail or
WWW? (Is there any Fax mail gateway in Korea? 

Yes, there is one for Seoul and perhaps other
cities as well. Deung-Rim Information &
Technologies offers FAX Internet mail gateway. You
can also send fax to Seoul using its web page. For
more details, see Korea
Telecom began to offer a fax-mail gateway
demo-service See for
details. Interpia announced that it would begin
its FAX-Internet gateway service on Nov. 15. Refer
to for further
information. Korea is also covered by 

43. Can I page my friend in Korea using WWW or
e-mail? Is there any Paging service-Net gateway in
Korea? How about leaving a message on a celluar phone
with text display panel?

Yes, you don't have to make an international call
to page her/him. Quite a number of mobile
telecommunication companies offer Internet to
Pager(and PCS/digital celluar phone) gateway
service. You may find all of them at 

Naray Mobile Telecom has offered mail-pager
gateway service since early October,1996. If your
friend's pager number is 015-300-1234, you can
send text message to her(his) pager via e-mail to You can also page
her(him) on the web at (for
text message. up to 40 Hangul syllables) and for
voice message(up to 250 Hangul syllables). Other
services such as group paging are also available. 

SK Telecom also offers web-pager and web-celluar
phone(with text-display panel) gateway service at If this
link is broken, try, instead. 

Korea Telecom also offers Internet to pager
gateway at 

Please, note that this service might be limited to
those living in Seoul or service areas covered by
Naray mobile telecom and SK Telecom(used to be
Korea mobile telecom). 

44. Is there any way to make Hangul PDF files?

Yes, Kyonghang shinmun reported that Taekyoung
Computer at released
'DocuCom 2.1', Hangul PDF manipulating
tools(DocuMaker, DucuPlus, DocuDriver) in late
1997. Hangul PDF viewer(DocuReader) is available
free of charge while Hangul PDF suit(extractor and
editor) will be priced at 450k won. Evaluation
copy of Hangul PDF suit is available at their web
site. Moreover, the next version of Acrobat suit
will support Korean and Chinese. 

SNI Korea also released Hangul PDF driver for
MS-Windows, SNI98. For more information, see SNI98 manual in PDF
(available on SNI Korea web site) has useful
information on generation of Hangul PDF files in
MS-Windows(using SNI98 or Adobe PDFWriter) 

Adobe finally released Acrobat 4.0 suit which
support Korean and Chinese in addition to Western
European languages and Japanese supported in 3.0.
Now with Distiller and PDFWriter, you can produce
Korean PDF files. Font embedding feature is only
available in Distiller. Adobe also released Korean
font pack to use with free PDF viewer Acroread
4.0. [Contribution by Charles Tustison at] Quite a lot of
information on using Korean(and Chinese and
Japanese) in PDF in general and in Acrobat in
particular is avaialbe at Adobe web site. Usenet
newsgroup han.comp.text and comp.text.pdf and are also good places to
seek advice and information. 

According to, 
WorldTech plans to release a Korean equivalent of
Acrobat Capture Plugin, which extracts Hangul text
out of Hangul PDF files. 

Moreover, as suggested by Choi, Jun Ho at, Ghostscript 5.0 or
later(you'd better get the newest 5.10) allows you
to convert PS files produced with Hangul LaTeX
(see Subject 11) to PDF files. Of course, in this
case you can't make use of such advanced features
of PDF as offered in PDF Writer of Adobe (e.g.
embedding hyperlinks in the document and fill-out
forms) Adding hyperlinks might be possible if you
install HyperTeX(PDF/hyperlink-related TeX
packages) or PDFLaTeX and related tools(DVIwares
and PS viewers modified to work with HyperTeX)
available at e-print archive(
and CTAN. 

Karnes Kim <> put up an excellent
web page at
on generating Hangul PDF files using HLaTeX 0.9x
along with PDFLaTeX(and other two options). 

Likewise, one can use Adobe Distiller to convert a
Hangul Postscript file (obtained by printing to a
file with PS printer selected in such programs as
Hangul MS-Word and HWP) to a PDF file. Park, Won
Ho( reported that he
succeeded with this method. Ghostscript can be
used for the same purpose as well. 

Kim, Yong-Woon at conducted an
extensive test of converting to PDF PS files
generated from Hangul MS-Word and HWP with DocuCom
suit and Ghostscript 5.x. There are several
difference cases. 

 o Hangul MS-Word 
    o Hangul in PDF files generated with DocuMakeit
      as a printer driver is not visible in Unix
      acroread even font-embedding is turned on. 
    o PDF files converted(with DocuMaker) from PS
      files generated by printing to file feature of
      MS-Word have no such problem. Hangul text is
      selectable and can be pasted with mouse in
      Unix acroread. 
    o Ghostscript 5.10(ps2pdf) can also convert PS
      files produced by Hangul MS-Word to PDF files.
      Hangul is treated as text and
      pastable/selectable in Unix acroread. 
 o HWP(Arae-ah Hangul) 
    o Hangul in PDF files generated with DocuMakeit
      as a printer driver is displayed properly in
      Unix acroread, but not selectable and pastable
      as text. 
    o DocuMaker has no problem converting PS files
      generated by printing to file feature of
      HWP(it's much more cumbersome to print to a
      file in HWP, but it's possible. Look up the
      manual) to PDF files. Hangul in PDF files made
      this way is shown well in Unix acroread. 
    o Ghostscript 5.10(ps2pdf) can convert PS files
      from HWP to PDF files, but the same problem it
      has with PDF files made with DocuMaker, namely
      Hangul can't be selected and pastable as text.


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