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Hangul & Internet in Korea (main part 1/4)

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Archive-name: cultures/korea/hangul-internet/part1
Posting-Frequency: Monthly(3rd Saturday) to home groups and relevant *.answers
and twice a month(1,3th Saturday) to home groups.

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
   Hangul and Internet in Korea FAQ (part 1/4)

1. Where can I get Hangul programs in public domain? Is
there any anonymous FTP archive for them?

Yes, there are several anonymous FTP archives in Korea and the US with
public domain hangul progams mentioned below. For commercial s/w, see 
Subject 23) 

CAIR Archive( or 
   The most extensive archive of Hangul programs run by CAIR at KAIST. Also
   primary archive for WWW-KR (non-profit organization for WWW in Korea).
KREONET archive( 
   Run at SERI. Mirrors Hangul programs at CAIR archive and has vast amount
   of files other than Hangul programs. It should be a bit faster for users
   outside KAIST than CAIR archive because it's on the backbone of KREONET
   while CAIR archive is a slightly off the KREONET backbone(a FDDI link
   apart). You may try experimental web interface at 
   http://Yellow.KREONet.Re.KR/ftp/ and http://Yellow.KREONet.Re.KR/pub/. 
Sunsite Korea( 
   mirrors CAIR hangul archive along with many other archives(e.g.
   CTAN,RTFM) over the Net. It uses oversea links different than those for
   CAIR archive and KREONET archive, so that it's a good alternative if both
   of them with the same oversea link are inaccessible or slow. 
I-Net Archive( 
   A mirror of CAIR Archive hangul programs. Uses different oversea link
   from those for CAIR archive and other mirrors and may be a good
   replacement along with SunSite Korea and Kornet archive if CAIR archive
   is slow or inaccessible. 
Kornet Archive ( 
   A mirror of CAIR Archive hangul programs with separate oversea link(in
   fact, faster than all other Korean backbone networks, KREONET,KREN,and
   several commericial ISPs) Also, mirrors Usenet FAQs at 
Hangul archive in
   Run by Un,Koaunghi(at Home of 
   HLaTeX and German mirror of CAIR Hangul archive. It's in the middle of
   the recovery from the crash so that there may be missing files. You might
   try, instead. 
HanaBBS Archive( 
   used to be the first spot to look for Hangul programs before trying
   archives in Korea run by Moon,Jeong-hoon at Hana BBS
   as well as Hangul IRC server is run here. Formerly located at Also a very extensive source of information about
   Korea and network in Korea when accessed via Web. Unfortunately, there
   seems to have been either disk crash or some major change and none of
   Hangul programs is left. 
UCSD Hangul archive( 
   Han,Jeong-gwan collected a lot of useful Hangul programs especially for
   Mac and MS-DOS/Windows and sorted and arranged them very nicely. A must
   for those tired of a little bit confusing arrangement at Stanford
HiTel Archive 
   One of nationwide on-line service(See Subject 33) in Korea,HiTel has made
   its archive accessible via Web at There are a number of
   useful Hangul related programs not yet available on the Net. 
Mac Hangul Archive 1( 
   Most hangul stuffs for Mac including small utilities for Korean Language
   Kit(KLK) (DaBoine,etc) and a new Input Method(Aram IM) can be found here.
   The newest Hangul patches for programs made for English(e.g.
   Netscape,MS-Explorer, Eudora,IRCle, Anarchie,Fetch,NCSA
   Telnet,NiftyTelnet) are archived. Run by Kim, Jeong-hyun at KAIST.
   Sometimes, it's faster to use its mirrors in /pub/hangul/mac at CAIR
   archive and its mirrors at KREONET,Sunsite Korea, and I-Net. Web
   interface to this archive running at PB 520c(Jeong-hyun Kim's) is
   available (but not always) at 
Mac Archive 3( 
   Home page of Kim,Song Jong (a developer of many Mac sharewares in Korea)
   at rather than an archive accesible by FTP. Link for 
   Sejong Input method 1.54 and other sharewares are available here.
   [Contribution by Kim, Jung-gyum (]. 
Hangul Mail Archive ( 
   Hangul Sendmail and other hangul mail related programs are archived here.
   maintained by Choi, Woohyung 
Caltech Korea Archive( 
   used to be a nice archive of Hangul programs. It seems to have been
   undergoing massive changes and as of Sep. 23, no file is available. 

In case you can't find what you're looking for in /pub/hangul, look into
/incoming(or /pub/hangul/incoming) as more often than not, /incoming
directory of archives have the newest programs. 

An excellent(far better organized and much friendlier than this FAQ list)
guide to the Internet including use of Hangul on the Net by Jo,Sanku at
TAMU(former sysop of KIDS,the first Internet BBS in Korea) is available at You should find it of great help in
understanding Internet in general and using Hangul on the Net in particular.
Note that it's in Hangul, so that you have to view it with Hangul-capable
web browsers. See Subject 36 (Unix/X window), Subject 37(Mac), Subject 38(MS
Windows), Subject 39(OS/2), and Subject 40(MS-DOS) for Hangul web browsing. 

A similarly excellent and comprehensive coverage geared for Mac users is
offered by Gil, Hojin( at 

Comprehensive coverage of multilinguial computing with emphasis put on
CJK(Chinese,Japanese, and Korean) is provided by Ken Lunde of Adobe at where you can find
numerous links to pages on multilinguial computing. 

Other extensive source of information (geared particularly for Mac but with
much useful information to other platforms users such as Hangul keyboard
layout) is Hantorie (Han Korean Kit) for Mac(See Subject 5) home page at 

Other archives include 


2.What kind of Hangul terminal emulators are avaiable?

See Subject 16) for terminal setting to write Hangul when you connect to a
Unix host with any of following terminal emulators/telnet clients. 

Hanterm is a terminal emulator(Korean xterm) running on X Window System,
which can be used to display and input Hangul. It supports
EUC-KR(Wansung-hyung), Johap encoding and UTF-8(8bit file-system-safe
encoding of UCS-2 plus surrogates). (See Subject 8 for Hangul character sets
and encodings) Two types of keyboards(2-byol-shik and 3-byol-shik) are
supported. The newest version is always available at the Hanterm Developers'
web site Any contribution to newly
vigorated development effort(thanks to Moon Won Seok's initiative). It has
been tested over following platforms and perhaps a lot more. [Contributed by

 o Sun OS 4.x with X11 R5 or Open Windows 2.x and 3.0 
 o OS/SMP 4.0D,OS/MP 4.0C with X11R4 
 o Solaris 2.x(a.k.a Sun OS 5.x) 
 o Linux on 386 or higher PC and perhaps on DEC Alpha and other platforms
   where linux is ported. 
 o HP-UX 8.x,9.x,10.x (may require tinkering with Makefile if imake is not
   available. 3.04beta6 was compiled out of box under HP/UX 10.10 with
   X11R6.1). Binary of 3.03 is available at and
   3.04beta3 binary is at
   The latter is statically compiled by Park, Jaeho at 
 o SGI IRIX 4.x,5.x,6.x(If you have difficulty compiling it under IRIX 6.3,
   you may try a patched version(by Weon, Seyeon at at 
 o Digital Unix 3.2a(with X11R5) as confirmed by Park,Jaeho at I confirmed that Digital Unix 4.0 has no
   problem with Hanterm. 
 o Ultrix 4.3a (and 4.5) with X11R5 as confirmed by Shin, Jae Ho at 
 o DGUX 5.4.2 with X11R5 on Data GeneralAviion Workstation and server (DGUX
   = AT&T SYS5.4.2 +BDSish + POSIX) contributed by Daeshik Kim(
 o Unixware : 3.0.2 binary by Daeshik Kim is available as 
   /Hangul/hanterm/hanterm302.unixware.bin.gz at Stanford archive 
 o IBM AIX 3.2 and 4.1(and perhaps other versions): DECkeysym.h and DECXK*
   in input.c might have to be commented out. 
 o FreeBSD : a binary is available at [ported by
   Ryu, Hyunseog at] 
 o Solaris x86 with GCC and Openwin 
 o NetBSD 1.2 for Mac : According to Yun, Aaram at,
   3.04beta3 get compiled almost out of box except that a couple of lines
   have to be commented out in 3.04beta3 source. This should be the case for
   NetBSD 1.2 for other platforms(Amiga and Atari). 

Hanterm was originally writen by Song,Jae-kyung (formely at KAIST) Hanterm
1.x was written from the scratch and 2.x and later were based on xterm(X11
R5) source. The newest one by the original author is Hanterm 3.0.2 on which
a few variations are based. 

Kim,Dae-shik( recently released Hanterm 3.0.4beta3 incoporating
all those features and patches mentioned below - Wansung font support,
patches for IRIX 4.x,5.x, and 6.x, etc. It's available as 
hanterm304beta3.tar.gz in /hangul/terminal/hanterm/ at CAIR archive. Hangul
Johab fonts are not a part of Hanterm distribution, anymore and are
separately packaged as hanterm304fonts.tar.gz. It's verified that under
Linux, Sun OS 4.x and 5.x,SGI IRIX 4.x,5.x, and 6.x,Digital Unix
3.2a,Digital Unix 4.0 and AIX 4.x, it works well. 

Oh, Sung-kyu released series of patches against hanterm3.04beta3 in
February, 1998 accomodating most new features listed below (automatic font
recognition,Iyagi johab font, etc). The most exciting new feature is
UTF-8(file system safe Unicode encoding) support. Hanterm 3.04beta6 with all
these patches and new feature is available in 
/hangul/terminal/emulator/hanterm304beta at CAIR archive. Another important
aspect of hanterm 304beta6 is that he came up with a workaround for
incompatibility between some X server and Johab fonts(mentioned below).
There are two reasons for Johab fonts not working with some X server. Some X
servers have both problems while others have either of them. For details,
get 3.04beta6 and read documents. With 3.04beta6, one doesn't have to define
DGUX_XSERVER to use Johab font any more. If you can't still use Johab fonts
with your X server (e.g. eXceed 6.0 for Windows NT), you may get a slightly
modified set of Johab fonts(non-zero width font). They are packaged as 
hanterm.nzfonts.tar.gz at available at 

hanterm 3.04beta6 should be compiled where hanterm 3.04beta3 has been
compiled. Nonetheless, you're encouraged to get and test it on your
platform. Especially feedback from those who use NeXTstep(+ an X
server),HP/UX(8.x,9.x,10.x), AIX 3.x and 4.x, DEC Ultrix,FreeBSD,SCO Unix,
Unixware, A/UX and other flavors of Unix would be greatly appreciated.
Posting your test result and/or patch to Hangul Usenet Newsgroup, 
han.comp.hangul would be preferred. In case you cannot access
han.comp.hangul, I'll relay to han.comp.hangul feedback mailed to me. 

Oh, Sung-kyu also released an alpha version of Hanterm based on a new xterm
for X11 R6.x by T.E.Dickey at It's currently in alpha
stage and available at 

In March, 1997, a newer version of Hanterm with bug fixes and compatibility
patch for X11 R6.1 or later was released by Hwang, Chi-deok at He has since been releasing a series of Hanterms based
on xterm included in X11 R6.x with Hangul code fetched from Hanterm 3.0x.
All those versions (hanterm-xf. the latest is hanterm-xf331-p7) are now
available in /hangul/terminal/hanterm/hanterm-xf at CAIR archive. They
include several improvements over hanterm 3.04beta(some of them are fed back
to hanterm 304beta by Oh, Sung-kyu), but all these new features seem to have
been tested only under Linux(it's included in the Korean version of RedHat
Linux and Debian Linux) and might have problem in other OS(more exactly
Unices still shipping with X11 R5 as opposed to X11 R6.x). The odd would be
higher for other OS if they're compiled with X11 R6.3. 

On Sep. 22nd,1996 Lee, Sang-yoon(sp?) at patched Hanterm
3.04beta3 to make use of 8/4/4(8 set for initial consonants,4 set for middle
vowels and 4sets for final consonants) Hangul Johab fonts widely used in
MS-DOS. He packaged and put his patch along with wide variety of Hangul
fonts(in PCF format) as hanterm304beta3-johab844.tar.gz in /incoming/hangul
at CAIR archive. 

Lim, Jongwoo at patched Hanterm for automatic recognition
of font encoding. With this patch, you don't have to give '-ks' or '-kst'
option to use Hangul Wansung font(ksc5601.1987-0 or ksc5601.1987-1
encoding). It's available /hangul/incoming at CAIR archive as 

Some X servers(e.g. DG/UX server,eXodus for Windows 3.1/95/NT, some Xserver
for SGI machines and perhaps Xaccel server for BSDI 2.0 and Xserver from
Xinside and MetroX for Linux. eXceed for Windows NT may have the same
problem) don't work well with Johab fonts. Under those servers, you can
still use Wansung fonts with '-ks' or '-kst' option depending on encoding of
Wansung font(most Wansung fonts available need 'ks' option). Alternatively,
you can follow the instruction given for DG/UX server in Hanterm
package.(i.e. add -DDGUX_XSERVER flag). Recently, I found some X
server for HP/UX 10.x has similar problem, but it wasn't fixed even with
compiling Hanterm with DGUX_XSERVER flag added in Makefile.I would be
grateful to any one who can send me a solution to this problem. For the time
being, you have to use Hanterm with Wansung font(with '-ks' option) in
HP/UX. All these problems have been fixed in Hanterm 3.04beta6.(see above) 

You don't have to compile it under Linux(although it's not hard at all)
since Linux KE(Korean Extension) team has collected binaries of all existing
Hangul programs including Hanterm,HLaTex0.92e and HanX and made them
available in the form installable by 'pkgtools' in Slackware distribution of
Linux. For more details on Linux-KE, read the newsgroup, Han.sys.linux. 

On NeXTstep, Hanterm 3.0.2 is reported to be installed and work well with
new version of Mouse X supporting X11 R5.[Contribution by a netter whose
name I lost and La,Hoseong(]. On FreeBSD, Hanterm
is reported to be compiled clean, but there seem to be some complication
with 'locale'. 

Under OpenWin with SUN OS 4.x, one need to get Hanterm binary compiled under
X11 R5 and SUN OS 4.x and install Hangul fonts using font installation
procedure for OW. It's not certain if Hanterm binary is to be
'static-compiled' (from KIDS 'Hangul' board and Park,Yongsup at Univ. of

In case you have a PC running MS-DOS and/or MS-Windows 3.1/95/NT or Mac
directly connected to the Net, you can install X server for your platform (
for instance, WhitePine has a line of X servers for MS DOS,MS Windows and
Mac OS whose demo versions are available at ) and log
on to a Unix host where you can launch Hanterm to be displayed on your local
PC or Mac. You don't need any other Hangul programs for PC or Mac because
everything(X client) is running on a Unix host and only its output is shown
via X server on your local machine. 

Difference among various versions of Hanterm used to be mentioned here, but
I decided to drop it. You can still find it at if you're

Another experimental hanterm implementation, han3term is going underway by 
Chang Hyeong-Kyu (at Currently available is the alpha
version and was written to support a 3-byte Hangul code(Dictionary ordered),
which can compose all possible Hangul characters.[Contribution by 

Hangul patched version of Eterm(Gtk equivalent of xterm) is available at 

IYAGI is a Hangul terminal emulator(and a telnet client in case 7.x) running
on MS-DOS, which was developed by 'Kun-Sa-Ram' (which began as 'Hanulso'at
Kyung-Buk Nat'l University). IYAGI supports Hercules, EGA, and VGA graphic
displays, mouse, adlib sound. [Contribution by Choi,Woohyung] Iyagi is a
nice-looking program, but its VT-100 terminal emulation in the last version
in public domain(v5.3) is crippled so that it's very hard to use editors
like vi and emacs, www text browsers like Lynx and any program requiring
rather exact VT-100 terminal emulation. From v. 6.0 on, Iyagi becomes a
commercial software. Currently shipping version is 7.0 for MS-DOS and 7.3
for MS-Windows 3.1/95(any language version) and 7.7 for MS-Windows 95/98/NT.
Iyagi 7.7 (7k won in Korea) has built-in Hangul and several auxillary
programs such as Hangul editor, so that it can be used in any version of
MS-Windows MS-Windows 95/98/NT, localized or not. Choi, Jun-Ho
<> informed me that details on Iyagi are found at 

In case you still need a terminal emulator with built-in Hangul for MS-DOS, 
Shinsedae 2.51 by Kim,Kye-yeon at is a much
better choice than iyagi 5.3 as vt-100 termianl emulation in Shinsedae is
superior to that in iyagi 5.3. It's available in /incoming at UnderB archive.
You may want to get a set of protocols( to use with it
available in the same directory. Also of your interest is ihanja.exe for
Hanja and special characters in /pub/pc/terminals at Hana BBS archive. 

Changmun Yegi 3.5 is known to be a decent Hangul terminal emulator for MS
Windows 3.1/95/NT. It doens't come with built-in Hangul, so that you need
either Hangul version of MS-Windows 3.1/95/NT or non-Korean version plus
programs like Hanme Hangul and Unionway. (See Subject 4). It's available at 
HiTel archive where you can find it with filename search(give 'yegi' as
search term). For the sake of those abroad, I uploaded it to /incoming at 
Hanabbs archive. The author can be reached at 

In addition, you might also try terminal emulators with tested VT-100
compatibility like ProComm Plus, MS-Kermit and Telix with software Hangul as
described in Subject 4. In a newer version of MS-Kermit, you have to give
following command set term char transparent [Contribution by 

For Hangul Windows 3.1 or MS-Windows 3.1+Hanme Hangul for Windows(See
Subject 4)), Choi, Gi-chang ( made VTEL286 for AT
and VTEL386 for 386 or higher. They're available at most Hangul archives 

Besides, most of communcation programs available at Simtel and its mirror
sites such as MicroLink and Telix for Windows( and
probablely work well with Hanme Hangul for Windows 3.1/95(See Subject 4))+
MS-Windows 3.1/95 and it may work with Hangul MS-Windows 3.1. In principle,
any terminal emulator made for MS-Windows 3.1 should work for Hanme Hangul
for Windows and Hangul MS-Windows 3.1 as long as there's an option to choose
font to use in terminal window. See Subject 4 for further details on Hangul
under MS-Windows. 

WinTerm by Yun, Young-sun is a telnet client and terminal emulator for
MS-Windows with a few convenient features like capture,xterm-style cut and
paste,and chatting window. The newest version of WinTerm is available at the
author's web page, Older
versions are available at most Hangul archives.(See Subject 1) It does NOT
have built-in Hangul I/O, so that you need to use it under any of 
Hangul-capable-environments( See Subject 4) for MS-Windows to view/write
Hangul. Otherwise, you won't be able to read/write Hangul with Winterm. 

All the terminal emulator and telnet client for Windows(e.g. Ewan and
Netterm) without built-in Hangul support would have no problem(as far as
output is concerned and if there's an option to change font to use) running
under another Hangul environment for MS-Windows, Union Way + MS-Windows. 

Several telnet clients(dial-up terminal emulators) with built-in Hangul
support (thus can be used without Unionway or Hanme Hangul under non-Korean
version of MS-Windows) are available: 

Token(formerly known as InHangeul) 
   made by Park Choung Shik at works under any
   language version of MS-Windows 95/98/NT(version 1.x used to work under
   MS-Windows 3.1 as well, but 2.x doesn't any more) and is available at I tried Token 1.x under MS-Windows 3.1
   and 95 to find it works very well. Supports zmodem file transfer over
   telnet connection and can be used as a dial-up terminal emulator as well.
   In addition, version 2 has numerous useful features including built-in
   Hangul input/output and Hangul truetype font support(such as Gulimche as
   found in MS IE Korean add-on and Unionway fonts). 
DoranDoran Telnet 2.0 by Mirinae software 
   supports telnet as well as dial-up connection. works under MS-Windows
   95/NT. supports zmodem file transfer over telnet link. For details,
Modu Jamdun Hu-e 
   telnet client and terminal emulator. works under MS-Windows 95/NT 4.0.
   supports zmodem file transfer. Contact 
Serom Dataman Pro 
   works under MS-Windows 3.1,95,NT. telnet client and terminal emulator.
   available at 
Iyagi 7.3(Lan version) 
   a commercial program. works under MS-Windows 95/NT. 

Another way to use MS-DOS box as a Hangul terminal is install X-server(such
as WinPro of which demo version is available at and 
eXodus whose demo version can be fetched from Refer to Subject 6 for more information
on X servers for Intel-based PC and Mac.) for Windows or DOS on your PC and
run Hanterm installed in your Unix host as X-client. Of course, your MS-DOS
box and Unix host should be linked with very high speed network. Using SLIP
or PPP for serial line connection, one may run Hanterm over phone-line with
28800 bps or faster modem,but it's still very slow. Hangul Johab fonts
included in Hanterm distribution(now, it's in a separate package) or Wansung
fonts like Daewoo font in X11 R5/R6 distribution on your local PC using
x-util included in Micro-X. See Subject 6 for other Wansung fonts. 

On Mac with Korean Language Kit(KLK) or Hangul Talk , you can use Teletalk
or its successor TeleGraphic (the newest version 2.6.1 was recently
released,see Elex web page at for details), Hangul
VT-100 terminal emulator or Hangul-patched ZTerm 0.9 or recent version of 
ZTerm(1.03b+Korean font) at UnderB archive You also might want to try demo
version of Vision Link acclaimed as the most advanced Hangul terminal
emulator at Mac Hangul archive. When using Teletalk(and perhaps other comm.
program)under KLK make sure that your primary script is Korean instead of
Roman. You may change primary script with 'Script Switcher' in Control panel
and by rebooting Mac. Be warned, however, that VT-100 emulation of Teletalk
is almost useless for editing although it can be used for Hangul reading. 
Hangul-patched ZTerm 0.9 and Teletalk are also available at CAIR archive. 

You may wish to get 4 sets of Hangul fonts from Elex to get a better display
of Hangul in terminal emulator on Mac. See Subject 5 for more info. 

This is where I was disappointed by KLK. I assumed that KLK would make it
possible to use Hangul with almost any programs written for English system,
which is not the case. According to Choi,Dongseok at Chicago, it's not
possible to see Hangul with most communication programs he has. See Subject
5 for WS II( thus KLK) compliant program list. 

Another way to use Mac as a Hangul terminal is install Mac X or any other X
Window server on your Mac and run Hanterm installed in your Unix host(it may
be a Mac with A/UX) as X-client. Of course, your Mac and Unix host should be
linked with very high speed network. Using SLIP or PPP for serial line
connection, one may run Hanterm over phone-line with 9600 bps or faster
modem,but it's still very slow. Choi,Dongseok (
wrote me that he has been running Hanterm this way. One problem with this is
input of Hangul due to key map difference as pointed out by Kim,Daeshik
( earlier.(Key map difference may be troublesome for any case
with x-client and x-server on different kinds of machine althouth I had no
problem running Hanterm on SUN sparc under Mouse-X on NeXT). 

3. How can I edit Hangul documents?

On Unix host, there are a few editors for Hangul. To edit Hangul file with
any of these editors, you have to set terminal 8bit-clean. See Subject 16 

Mule is a Multilingual Extension to the GNU Emacs. Mule 1.0 and 2.x are
based on Emacs ver.18 and have superceded Nemacs(Nippon Emacs?).
[Contribution by Choi,Woohyung]. Mule 2.3 is still widely used in and
outside Japan, but the release of GNU Emacs 20 with Mule features included
by default made Mule 2.3 (based on Emacs 18.x) obsolete. I recommend
everyone still using Mule 2.3 upgrade to GNU Emacs 20 or Hanemacs(based on
GNU Emacs 19.3x). 

As mentioned above, GNU Emacs 20 (the newest is 20.2) includes all the
features added by Mule development team and is truly multilinguial. You have
to get three files, emacs-M.N.tar.gz, leim-M.N.tar.gz(for Hangul input)
and intlfonts.tar(that includes Hangul X fonts contributed to X consortium
by Daewoo. You don't need to get this file if you already have Daewoo and
other Hangul X11 fonts and are not interested in languages other than those
covered by iso-8859-1 and Korean. See Subject 6 for details on Hangul X11
fonts) where M is 20(or larger) and N is 2 for the newest version as of
Ocotober, 1997. All three of these files are available at the GNU archive( is the original site and there are a
number of mirrors around the world including KREONET archive and CAIR
archive in Korea). If Hangul characters are displayed as hollow boxes,
invoke emacs with "-fn fontset-standard" option. Please, note that you need
to press CTRL-\(instead of more familiar shift-space) to toggle input method
between Hangul and English. If invoked with '-nw' option from within hanterm
and other hangul terminal emulators for MS-Windows and Mac, you can use
shift-space(or whatever your terminal emulator uses to switch between Hangul
and English). 

A mixture of successes and failures have been reported as to using Hangul
Input Method offered by X11 instead of leim included in GNU Emacs 20. HP/UX
10.x(if terminal-coding-system is set to euc-kr) seems to sort of work, but
Linux and Digital Unix don't work well. According to Chung, Jae-youn at, XEmacs under Solaris 2.5 reportedly(not confirmed)
works well with X Input Method(htt or is). 

It'd be a good idea to add the following lines(posted by Choi, Jun-Ho at to your X resource file(e.g. ~/.Xdefaults or
~/.Xresources) to avoid the hassle of designating the fontset in command
line(i.e. invoking emacs with 'emacs -fn fontset-standard'). You need to
customize this to make it suitable for your environment (Hangul fonts you
have and the resolution of your X display, etc). 

Emacs.Font: *-fontset-standard
Emacs.Fontset-0: -misc-fixed-medium-r-normal-*-12-120-*-*-m-60-fontset-6,\
Emacs.Fontset-1: -*-courier-medium-r-normal-*-12-120-*-*-m-70-fontset-7,\

XEmacs(formerly Lucid Emacs) 20 also includes Mule features, but its
multilinguial support is a little bit behind that of GNU Emacs 20. 

FAQ for Mule(which unfortunately doesn't reflect recent changes in GNU Emacs
20/Mule) is available in (Korean translation of
Mule FAQ is also available at the same site). For the up-to-date information
on Emacs 20(Mule), you may wish to subscribe to Mule mailing list by sending
a message with 'subscribe' in the message body to 

Detailed instruction for setting Mule 2.x for Hangul is found in at CTAN archives and CAIR archive along with HLaTeX 0.9xe
distribution. Without installing HLaTeX 0.9xe, it can be printed out with
any postscript printer or non-PS printer and ghostscript See Subject 11 for

GNU Emacs 20.0.x needs different settings to use Hangul. You may add
following lines to ~/.emacs if you use it primarily for Korean. [Sent to
Mule-mailing list by Kim, Deogtae at] 

(set-language-environment "Korean")
;;(load-library "korean")  ;; this doesn't seem to be necessary in Emacs 20.x

;; Remove comment if you want to use three set keyboard, instead
;;    (select-input-method "Korean" "korean-hangul3")
;; Or better is use the following line
;;  (setq default-korean-keyboard "3")

(setq-default file-name-coding-system 'euc-kr)

;;; Interactive setting of clipboard coding system.
;;  This should be included in standard emacs lisp package.

(defun set-clipboard-coding-system (user-coding-system)
  "Set `clipboard-coding-system' for communicating with other X clients.
When sending or receiving text via cut_buffer, selection, and clipboard,
the text is encoded or decoded by this coding system.
A default value is `iso-latin-1'"
  (interactive "zClipboard coding system: ")
  (setq clipboard-coding-system user-coding-system))

;; Proper copy and paste with other windows in window environment
(set-clipboard-coding-system 'euc-kr)

;; In Emacs 20.3, use the following instead for cut and paste in EUC-KR
;; (per Chung jae youn
(set-selection-coding-system 'euc-kr)

;; To use Shift-Space instead of CTRL-\ 
;; to toggle input methods in window environment
(global-set-key [?\S- ] 'toggle-input-method)   

;; these lines are necessary for those who use Emacs/Mule in terminal
;; environment such as Hanterm and other Hangul terminal emulators running
;; under MS-Windows and Mac with '-nw' option

(if (and (null window-system) (null noninteractive))
      (set-keyboard-coding-system 'euc-kr)
      (set-terminal-coding-system 'euc-kr)))

;; Hangul Mail setting
(setq sendmail-coding-system 'euc-kr)
;; Hangul Usenet Newsgroup setting
(gnus-mule-add-group "han" 'euc-kr)

For further details on mail and news related settings, see Subject 9 and 
Subject 24, respectively. 

Mule(rather,it has to be called GNU Emacs now that GNU Emacs has accomodated
all the enhancements of Mule) has been in active development and necessary
Hangul(acutally language setting) setting may vary from version to version
until sort of stabilized version comes out perhaps in late 1997.
Accordingly, what I include here(pros and cons, bugs, configuration, etc)
may or may not be applied to a specific version of Emacs/Mule. What follows
has to be added to site-start.el (if you have root previlege) or ~/.emacs as
an ordinary user. 

Mule 2.3 has been ported to Windows 95/NT and you can use Hangul in
Korean/Japanese(and perhaps Chinese/Taiwanese) Windows 95/NT with it. For
details, see, Han, Jeonghoon's web
page. There are a couple of other solutions(which seem to be better) based
on Emacs 20.x. See 

In early 1995, Hangul-aware Emacs was released by Kim,Kang-hee(at and it's available in /hangul/editor/HanEmacs at CAIR
Archive and major Hangul archives. There are two versions of them, one based
on GNU emacs( hanemacs-gnu-0.99) and the other( hanemacs-lucid-1.0) based on
Lucid Emacs. The most recent version with enhanced JOHAB encoding handling
and Hanja conversion is 2.1 (based on GNU Emacs 19.30) released in May, 1996
and available at CAIR archive and SUNsite Korea. compared GNU Emacs 19.30 and HanEmacs 2.1 and
applied patches to convert the former to the latter to GNU Emacs 19.34 to
enable Hangul I/O in GNU Emacs 19.34. The author of HanEmacs merged the
change and released HanEmacs 19.34 on August, 25, 1997. It's available as 
hanemacs-19.34.tar.gz in the same place as HanEmacs 2.1. 

For Hanemacs 19.34, you might have to add the following lines to .emacs in
your home directory(or in compile time, you can add it to site-init.el)
[posted to han.comp.os.linux by Choi Jun Ho at] 

     (boundp 'emacs-major-version)
     (= emacs-major-version 19)
     (= emacs-minor-version 34))
  (standard-display-european t)
  (set-input-mode (car (current-input-mode)) (nth 1 (current-input-mode)) 0)))

There is another emacs patched for Hangul. It's patched for Japanese first
and called nemacs. A little patch to nemacs 3.3(available at CAIR archive)
made possible using Hangul. Nemacs is old and has been superceded by Mule,
so that you'd better use Mule or Hanemacs, instead. [Contribution by 

A trouble with these patched version of Emacs or GNU Emacs 20.x is that
they're so huge(at least 10 MB) that you may not install it without
permission of the system administrator at your site. There's a way, however,
to use Hangul in GNU Emacs prior to 20.x(perhaps in Lucid Emacs(now
XEmacs),too). Add following lines to '.emacs' in your home directory and
you'll be able to use Hangul with ordinary Emacs when launched inside 
Hanterm or other Hangul emulator(See Subject 2) with '-nw'(no window) option
to emacs. Be aware that you have to bear with some inconvenience(e.g. a
single Hangul syllable requires two key strokes to delete) using this

      (standard-display-european t)
      (require 'iso-insert)
      (require 'iso-syntax)
      (standard-display-8bit 160 255)
      (set-input-mode (car (current-input-mode))
         (nth 1 (current-input-mode)) 0)

[Quoted from Hangul Linux-help mailing list digest by Lee,Jong-hyuk at Probablely, original contribution by Kim,Daeshik at] 

A far better way to use Hangul in GNU Emacs prior to version 20 (invoked
with '-nw' option from within Hangul terminal emulator : See Subject 2) is
install ksc.5601.el in your home directory and put following lines in 

(if (and (null window-system) (null noninteractive)) 
      (load-library "~/ksc5601.el")
      (standard-display-ksc5601 t)

ksc5601.el was made by Deoktae Kim( at KAIST and is
currently available at [Contribution by
Chung Jae-youn at] 

Some people managed to use GNU Emacs 20 with the Hangul Input Method server
for X window instead of "built-in" input mechanism. In HP/UX 10.x, Chung,
Jae-youn succeeded in connecting Emacs to Hangul Input method server by
setting terminal-coding-system to euc-kr. Needless to say, the environment
variable XMODIFIERS should be to set to "@im=input_server_name". Under
Digital Unix 4.x, Emacs 20.x doesn't work while Hangul Emacs works with
Hangul Input Method server if the toggle key for Hangul and English is set
to CTRL-Space instead of Shift-Space according to Choi, Jun Ho at 

Stevie is a vi clone, and there is Japanese stevie named Jstevie. You can
edit hangul documents on Hanterm with Jstevie. You should compile it after
hacking a couple of lines of Makefile. Please set the code you use to EUC
codeset in the Makefile. [Contribution by Choi,Woohyung] 

Stevie is now an obsolete program. You are advised to use Hangul Elvis by ,
Park, Chong-Dae, a member of SPARCS. The most recent version is helvis1.8h2+
available at SPARCS archive or its mirrors at CAIR Archive, I-NET archieve
,and Sunsite Korea. Park, Chong-Dae went at length to make helvis have as
complete Hangul support as possible and his efforts paid off well. 

nvi is an enhanced vi included in BSD 4.4 and the newest version 1.79 can be
obtained at Jun-ichiro itojun Itoh
( did the M17N(multinationalization) of nvi and made the
m17n patch available at It's
NOT L10N(localization), but M17N or I18N. Hence, more than one
language(other than English) can be intermingled in a single document just
as in Mule. After applying m17n patch to nvi 1.79 source, compile it with
following commands in the top of nvi source tree. 

  % cd build
  % ./configure --enable-multibyte=euc-kr --program-prefix=n
  % make
  % su
  % install

If you don't have the root previlege, you can just put the binary whereever
you like instead of doing the last two steps. One advantage of M17Ned nvi
over helvis is that it supports ISO-2022-KR as well as EUC-KR. On the other
hand, there's a prolonged delay when switching to the command mode from
Hangul input mode, which can be pretty annoying. According to the author,
this problem has been fixed for EUC encodings(EUC-KR,EUC-JP, and so forth)
in the newest version. 

Beginning with Vim 5.3, Hangul support(as offered by Hvim mentioend below)
is included in the main tree of Vim. Vim 5.4l has even better support of
Korean incoporating patches by Nam, Sung-hyun,Park, Chong-Dae,Hwang,
Chi-deok and others. To edit Hangul documents with Vim 5.3 or later, you
need to use the option -enable-multibyte (For 5.3, add 
--enable-max-feature as well. Under Unix with incomplete locale
support, --broken-locale has to be specified for 5.4l or later with
locale library support.) when configuring it before compiling and your
vimrc(~/.vimrc) file should include set fileencoding=korea.
[Contributed by Park, Chong-Dae at]. For more
information on Vim, refer to 

The following two paragraphs on CVim and Hvim are obsolete and you're much
better off grabbing the newest version of Vim and compiling it as mentioned

Chinese version of vim(VI improved) can be used for Hangul editing. Chinese
patch against vim 4.2 along with vim-4.2 source is available at Paek, Sung-Hoon at patched vim-5.0t to support Hangul. It works
both in Unix and Hangul MS-Windows 95/NT. One can grab it atCAIR Archive (in
/hangul/incoming). Please, note that Hangul support is not as complete as
helvis, though. 

Nam, Sung-hyun at <> has been active in a number of
Hangul related projects for Unix. Among them is hvim(Hangul-enabled VIM).
For details on HVIM, see (for his other
projects, refer to Recent versions works with X
input method as well. 

On systems running SunOS/KLE, you can use 8-bit clean vi for hangul editing.
Set your environment variable LANG as korean. Then you can edit hangul
documents with vi or other text editors. [Contribution by Choi,Woohyung]
This is also the case of most Unix with L10N/I18N support(and Korean locale)
such as Digital Unix, AIX, HP/UX, IRIX. Unfortunately, Korean locale is 
NOT usually installed by system administrators outside Korea even if it's
freely available from the vendor. You might ask your system admin. to
install Korean locale. 

PICO (default editor for a popular mail program, PINE) seems to be 8bit
clean and works for Hangul. Whatever editor you use under Unix, you have to
make your 'tty' 8bit clean to enter Hangul. See Subject 16) for details on
terminal set-up. Hangul-patched pico has been made and is available for
Linux. I don't know where to get it on the Internet,though. 

Joe(an editor simpler than Emacs but much more sophistcated than pico) can
be configured for Hangul editing. Invoke it with "-asis" option or add
"-asis;" to joerc file. [Contribution by Lee, Kidong at]

Jun Yei at released a free CJK word processor for X
window, Chinese Power 3.0. The source is freely available at to han.comp.hangul by
Gilly(Yun G. J.)]. You need to have Motif library and
header files to compile it. Under Solaris 2.5.1 and HP/UX 10.x, it was
compiled almost out of box. Linux and FreeBSD users without Motif may try to
compile it with Lesstif(free clone of Motif). 

On MS-DOS machine, 

Iyagi, has its own built-in editor and it's fairly nice. And VADA is a word
processor running on MS-DOS supporing the same devices as Iyagi. It was also
developed by Hanulso(now Kunsaram) [ note: almost all the softwares from
Hanulso. only support JOHAB as your document encoding. So you'll have to
make code conversions manually. Please check first if it can be configured
to handle your local code.] [Contribution by Choi,Woohyung]. Iyagi 7.3(See
Subject 2) for MS-Windows 3.1 or 95 also has Hangul editor with built-in
Hangul I/O (which means you can run it in any version of MS-Windows 3.1/95,
localized or not). 

SAN is another nice Hangul editor/word processor for MS-DOS and it can deal
with both JOHAB encoding and EUC-KR (conventionally known as Wansung).It's
at major Hangul archives(three files: san1.exe,san2.exe,san3.exe).
[Contribution by Choi,Woohyung] 

Hangul editor for ms windows v.3.1 is at CICA Windows archive(as
/pub/pc/win3/util/ by There is
another (or perhaps the same) Hangul editor/word processor made by students
with SNU CS dept. available at Hana BBS archive. It consists of 4 zipped
files, I've never used
any of these. 

Lee, Jaekil at released a Hangul editor (still in alpha
status) for Win32(MS-Windows 95 and MS-Windows NT) which, according to the
author, works under non-Korean version of MS-Windows as well as under Korean
MS-Windows provided that MS Internet Explorer 3.0 Hangul add-on or Global
IME is installed (See Subject 38 for Hangul add-on). You can get it at 

Meadow(Multilingual enhancement to gnu Emacs with ADvantages Over Windows)
lets you edit Hangul and many other scripts(at the same time) in any
language version of MS-Windows. For details, see You may also wish to

Duke University has developed Unicode editor for Windows NT/95/3.1, UniEdit.
With UniEdit in any language version of MS-Windows NT/95/3.1, you can edit
multilinguial text seamlessly. A try-out version is available at 

yudit is a free Unicode editor for Unix/X11 (with motif,kde and qt widgets.
lesstif also works) developed by Gaspar Sinai at It
doesn't yet support Hangul input via Hangul Input method servers(such as
included in commercial Unix shipped in Korea or released on the net for
Linux), but the support is planned. Even without Hangul input method, you
can enter Hangul with Unicode code point('U' followed by 4 digit hexadecimal
number is regarded as Unicode code point). This way, one can add a few
Hangul characters not included in KS C 5601. The newest version is available
at Utilities accompanying
yudit include uniconv(code converter for many different encodings based on
Unicode 2.0 and ISO-2022) and uniprint which can be used for printing Hangul
and multilinguial documents with Unicoded-encoded truetype fonts like
Cyberbit,Gulim and Batang(see Subject 6) 

Hangul web pages can be edited with any text editor(mentioned here) on any
platform with which you can produce plain text (HTML is plain text) in
EUC-KR(8bit encoding of KS C 5601). In case you want to use GUI-based HTML
editor, you may try HomeSite(recommened by or HotDog for
MS-Windows. I haven't check if they work under non-Korean MS-Windows + Hanme
Hangul/Unionway, but it's likely that they do. Netscape Gold and MS
FrontPage(only under Hangul MS-Windows) may be used, too. Namo Interactive
has released a Hangul Web editor. It's available at
or at In order to get web
pages produced by them accessible by the widest audience, users of MS Front
Page have to replace the following meta tag at the beginning of html

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type"
content="text/html; charset=ks_c_5601-1987">


<meta http-equiv="Content-Type"
content="text/html; charset=EUC-KR">

There've been reports that some versions of MS IE don't recognize documents
with "Content-Type text/html; charset=EUC-KR" as the 8bit encoding of KS C
5601 and KS C 5636/US-ASCII as in EUC-KR. In that case, remove the meta tag
above. Another work-around used by Namo web editor mentitoned above is put
two charset parameters for Content-Type as shown below, which is not 
standard-compliant, but works(Be aware that it may break things for other
browsers). Microsoft is to blame because EUC-KR has been used to refer to
8bit encoding of KS C 5601 and KS C 5636/US-ASCII in MIME Content-Type
header of Hangul mail messages(see Subject 9 and Subject 8). On top of that,
in light of RFC 2130, it's a good idea to use different names for character
set(KS C 5601 and KS C 5636/US-ASCII) and a specific encoding of character

<meta http-equiv="Content-Type"
content="text/html; charset=ks_c_5601-1987; charset=EUC-KR">

According to Gil,Hojin at, Golive Cyberstudio is a WS
II savvy web editor(i.e. it works with either Korean Mac OS or KLK +
non-Korean Mac OS). posted to a Hangul newsgroup that Visual
Page,WebObject Fusion(for MS-Windows) and Claris HomePage Hangul version(for
Mac) work well for Hangul web page editing,too. Unicorn Editor available in by Xiaolin Zhao at is known to work well under Hangul-capable environment for
Mac(See Subject 5). Unicorn Editor 1.2.2 was released in May, 1997, which is
a shareware and is available at
It's designed to be used for Hangul editing/word processing without
system-wide support for Hangul(an older version used to require Hangul input
method for MacBlue Telnet,but a newever version seems to have its own input
methods and fonts for CJK) as well. As of March 1st, however, Hangul input
module for MacBlue Telnet has a couple of flaws. The author wrote to me that
he's been preparing for a new Hangul input module. Other simple text editor
like TeachText are also known to work with Hangul capbale environment
mentioned in Subject 5. 

Hangul SGML editor has been developed by Natural Language processing
department at SERI(System Engineering Research Institute). [reported June,
25, 1997 by Chosun Ilbo]. 

4. How can I use Hangul under MS-DOS/MS-Windows
and OS/2?

In Korea, you can buy a MS-DOS machine with h/w Hangul card (and Hangul
MS-DOS if you like) installed,but it's not so readily available in the US. 

DANSI (Darn ANSI) is a software Hangul emulator for MS-DOS and is known to
run as fast as hardware Hangul cards.(available in /hangul/terminal/dansi at
CAIR archive and its mirrors). It was written by Ha,Hyung-jin at for VGA card(no EGA/CGA card support). The
distribution of DANSI has no English document so that you have to get the
English translation of document for DANSI available as dansi.rea at Hana BBS
archive. It was, however, written a long time ago(in early 90's) and may not
work with some new (S)VGA cards. Another software Hangul available is DKBY.
DKBY supports 2-byte Combinational code/encoding and DANSI supports almost
all kinds of codes/encodings. It works fine combined with most terminal
emulators made for English and Hangul patched Telnet clients for MS-DOS (See
Subject 17). 

There are commercial programs implementing Hangul BIOS. Hanme Hangul for DOS
3.1 by Hanme Soft and HanMac by Hangul & and Computer are two of the most
popular ones. Being commercial products, they are more stable and work
happily with more programs made for English only(virtually all) than DANSI. 

Hanme Hangul for Window 3.1/95 is to MS-Window 3.1/95 what WS II+KLK is to
System 7.1 or later on Mac. The price of Hanme Hangul for MS-Window 3.x
version 2.5 is around $80 and it's said to be an excellent software for
Hangul under MS-Window 3.1.Almost all program made for MS-Widnow 3.1 can be
run and accept Hangul input with Hanme Hangul for Window. Hanme Hangul for
Windows 95 seems to have more trouble working with programs made for English
MS Windows 95 than Hanme Hangul for Windows 3.1. In addition, a number of
programs from Microsoft using Unicode (e.g. MS Office 7.0, MS-Office 97 and
later) are not likely to work with Hanme Hangul for Windows 95. In some
programs, you have to turn on 'Print truetype as graphics option' to get
Hangul printed. Moreover, according to Okyeon Yi at, a
line related to Adobe Font Manager(ATM) in system.ini is a cause of trouble
in printing with Hanme Hangul for Windows 95. Removing that line is reported
to solve the problem. For more infomration on Hanme Hangul, see or 

Korean Microsoft released Hangul MS-Windows 3.1 supporing 386/sx or higher.
It's said to be faster than English MS-Window and solved many problems that
were cause of complaints. It's 115,000 won and it might be difficult to
decide which to use Hangul MS-Windows 3.1 or MS-Windows 3.1 + Hanme hangul
for Windows 2.5. You may find reviews on Han.* newsgroups and Hangul
Internet BBS 

Hangul Windows 95 was released in late November, 1995 by Microsoft Korea.
Hangul Windows 95 has use a proprietary encoding called Unified Hangul
Code(code page 949) which is upward compatible with EUC-KR used in all three
major platforms in Korea (See Subject 8 for details). 

Unionw Way AsianSuite 97 is a program similar to Hanme Hangul for Windows ,
but works under MS-Windows NT 3.51/4.0 in addition to MS-Windows 3.1/95.
Besides, it works with Unicode-encoded fonts while its predecessor,
AsianSuite4(called CJK Unionway a couple of years ago) didn't. It can be
used for Japanese and Chinese as well as Korean. Demo version available on
the Net comes with only bitmap font. jj inconvenience, you may type in
Hangul,too) Hangul web site under Windows 3.1/95. You should get 'try and
buy version' product ID from to try it
for 60 days after installation, after which you may get Korean standard
version(1 bitmap font+Korean Input method) for Korean for $59 and Korean Pro
version(1bitmap,1 truetype fonts+Korean IME pro and FontMaker to convert
double byte fonts to single byte fonts indispensable when using some
graphics packages made for non-East-Asian version of MS-Windows) for $149 or
Korean Super version(3 more true type fonts and FontMaker Pro) for $199. For
details, visit Unionway web page or send mail to 

AsianViewer and AsianBridge by Twinbridge enables users of any versions of
MS-Windows 3.1/95 to display Korean,Japanese,and Chinese in web pages and
else where. Its support of ISO-2022-KR and automatic MIME decoding (Hangul
mail exchange code. See Subject 9 for a bug-fixed DLL file) in addition to
EUC-KR(they incorrectly refer to it as KS C 5601. See Subject 8 for the
difference) makes it particulary useful in reading Hangul mail encoded in
ISO-2022-KR. See for details and 30-60 day free
trial version. 

Charles Tustison at dropped me a note that Twinbridge
had released TwinBridge Korean Partner which include Korean Input Method
along with many other useful features(dynamic localization, Unicode
support,extended CJK character sets, font conversion utility to make single
byte true type fonts out of double byte CJK true type fonts, etc) and 4 sets
of true type fonts. It's known to work with a number of programs made for
non-Asian version of MS-Windows (e.g. MS-Office) under MS-Windows 3.1,
Windows 95,Windows 98, OS/2 Windows mode and SoftWindows on Mac. It is
listed at $199. 

In February, 1998, Microsoft released Input Method Editor (IME) for Korean
and Japanese which can be used in any language version of MS Windows
95/NT/98 to enter Korean and Japanese in MS Internet Explorer and MS Outlook
Express.(refer to Subject 38 for more details). This IME doesn't work yet
with other application programs, but I expect other programs(MS
Office,Netscape,etc) will come out which work with the IME. A newer version,
renamed Global IME, supports Chinese(traditional and simplified) as well.
You can download it at 

Dynalab developed AsiaSurf for Windows 3.1/95 to display CJK characters. I
tried a demo version with bitmap font and it worked fine with Netscape in
Windows 3.1. It's claimed to work with any localized or non-localized
version of MS Windows 3.1/95 to offer Korean,Japanese,and Chinese output(no
input) functionality. What's known for sure to work include Netscape and
MS-Mail(which is different from MS Internet Mail).Refer to for details. 

Linguist Software has a very interesting offering, namely LaserKorean for
MS-Windows(3.1/95 and perhaps NT), which is a set of single byte Korean
fonts(5 true types and Adobe type1) and Korean input method to be used in
English and other non-East-Asian version of MS-Windows. Being single byte
fonts, these fonts should work well with many programs that don't normally
work with double byte Korean fonts, especially non-localized version of DTP
and graphic programs like photoshop and page maker. A drawback of
single-byte fonts is that syllables are not put into familar square box and
rather look like characters typed with 3-set typewriter. Mac version is also
available. Further information can be obtained at [Contribution by Charles Tustison at] 

NJWin is still another program which is claimed to be able to display Hangul
under English MS-Windows 3.1/95/NT. It supports display of Japanese and
Chinese as well. It cannot be used for input of Hangul. Under MS Windows NT,
it used to work only with 16bit applications. The newest version, however,
now supports 32 bit applications as well as Unicode-based programs such as
MS Office 7.0. It has additional merit of automatically detecting and
decoding ISO-2022-KR (Hangul mail exchange code.) and can be used to read
Hangul messages encoded in ISO-2022-KR. (See Subject 9 for more info. on
using it for Hangul mail and bug-fixed DLL file). For further details, see 
NJSTAR page( 

Another program to display CJK chars in non-localized version of MS-Windows
3.1/95 is MView2.0 you can retrieve at by keyword search
for 'mview20'.[Contribution by Lee,Choul-Gyun at] 

Extensive information on using Hangul under Windows NT/95 is found at 

Ministry of Culture released three sets of Hangul fonts (Truetype for
Windows which can be converted to Mac Truetype, and Windows Bitmap. They
come in three encodings, EUC-KR encoding of KS C 5601,Johab, and MS Extended
Hangul(See Subject 8). Currently, you can get them at HiTel Web archive (See
Subject 1). Choose 'archive'(Jaryo-shil),computer, and
DTP/WordProcessing(Chonja-Chulpan) in turn and search by ID('LI') with id
'kacademy' and you'll get the list for all of them. For web browsers like
Netscape and MS Internet Explorer, you may wish to get Hanyang web batang
fonts available at Hanyang system( 

Bitstream, famous foundry, released a free set of Unicode fonts for
MS-Windows 95/NT/98. You can get it by sending your request to 
<> (It used to be on-line, but it doesn't seem to be
any more) 

MS Internet Explore add-on for Korean(Korean Language Pack) available at includes two truetype fonts(Gulim and
Gulimche) which can be used to view Korean web pages with MS IE and Netscape
under any language version of MS-Windows 95/98/NT. See Subject 38 for Korean
web browsing under MS-Windows. 

Shin,Minsang(sp?) at has collected and put on his
web page over twenty Hangul fonts at Some of them are
in public domain but others are apparently not(I'm not sure, though). You
have to use them at your own risk. 

You may find it useful to have a program to convert Hangl fonts for Windows
3.1 to Windows 95 format( 31to95.exe). I've found the program in the public
software archive of HiTel-Web (See Subject 1 for HitelArchive). It's also
available at where other Hangul font
utils(breatttc to break ttc into component ttf files) are also available.
Please, note that you may not use fonts for Windows 3.1 this way if it's in
violation of license terms binding your fonts. 

Some applications made for English use extended ASCII characters which are
displayed broken in Hangul MS-Windows. To get them shown correctly, you may
turn OFF font association for ANSI and/or OEM font by editing registry (for
Windows 95) and win.ini for (Windows 3.1). In what follows,change yes to 
no to turn off font association. [Posted by Yi, Yeong Deug
( to Hangul Usenet Newsgroup, han.comp.hangul] 


Users of HP inkjet printers bought outside Korea may try Korean version of
HP drivers available at Even if your printer and a
model of printer for which Korean driver is made are different(get the
closest match), it may work. ashong at wrote to
han.comp.question that Korean driver for HP600 works with his HP682c. 

East Asian version of MS Windows 95 other than Korean users (e.g.
Taiwanese,Japanese,and Chinese) may be able to have Korean I/O
functionaility added by installing two components of Korean MS-Windows 95
and editing some registries as posted by Kim Song-ju at to han.comp.hangul and outlined below. Please, note
that it's not replacement of the input method that comes with
MS-Windows(Taiwanese,Japanese or Chinese) but addition of Korean input
method and Korean fonts, which is similar to installing Korean Language
Kit(See Subject 4) to non-Korean Mac OS. Difference is that this recipe
works only with East Asian version of MS-Windows 95 while in case of Mac OS,
KLK can be installed on top of any non-Korean Mac OS to give full Korean I/O

1. Install MSIE 3.0 Int'l Language Pack (*.ttf & *.nls are what you need)
   for Korean 
2. Don't forget to backup your origional components and registry files
   before you modify anything below. 
3. Replace Win95\SYSTEM\KEYBOARD.DRV with that comes from Win95KR. Only this
   one supports right-alt/ctrl key_event that toggles and translates Hangul
   to Hanja. (This might constitue a violation of license terms for Hangul
   MS Windows 95. Please, contact Microsoft or Microsoft Korea and check if
   you're allowed to use Hangul IME of Hangul Windows 95 in other lang.
   version of Windows 95 before following this step.) 
4. Copy MSIME95.IME into your Win95\SYSTEM 
5. Add following items to registry 

          [HKLM\System\CurrentControlSet\control\Keyboard Layouts\E0010412]
              "IME file"="MSIME95.IME"
              "layout file"="kbdus.kbd"
              "layout text"="KOREAN"
          [HKCU\keyboard layout\preload\1]

6. Save registry and you'll be able to select Korean KEYBOARD in Control
7. In some cases, font_association and default_association might need to be

Hangul version of OS/2 is available from IBM Korea. For English OS/2,
WarpMate for OS/2 has been developed in Beijing and is about to be released,
soon. It's just like Unionway for MS-Windows 3.1/95 and supports Korean as
well as Chinese and Japanese in most English applications for OS/2. [posted
to Hangul Usenet Newsgroup, han.sys.ibmpc by W. Choi at
You may also use UnionWay and Hanme Hangul for Windows in OS/2-Win. 

Those who are familiar with Unix and X window and fast network access(e.g.
Ethernet,FDDI,Fast Ethernet) to Unix hosts may opt to install one of X
servers for MS-Windows(at least one is freely available.) over MS-Windows
and run remote X clients with Hangul support like Hanterm,Netscape,and
Hanemacs. See Subject 6 for Hangul programs in Unix and X and a list of X
servers for MS-Windows. It'd be the least expensive way to use Hangul for
some Unix-philes. OS/2 users may also install OS/2 port of XFree86(free X
server for Intel-based PC Unix. See and run remote X
clients with Hangul support. 

5. How can I use Hangul on Mac?

Here are several options you can choose from to use Hangul on Mac. Dennis
Hanks at has put on the web a detailed review of
these options. ( 

 o For just viewing Hangul web pages under Mac OS 8.5, you don't need to
   purchase anything. Just installing Multilingual Internet Access Kit would
   enable you to view Korean web pages with Netscape and MS IE(for that
   matter, not just Korean but also all the languages except for Russian
   supported by Mac Language Kits). Even under Mac OS prior to Mac OS 8.5,
   by installing Hangul fonts(some of them are freely available. see below),
   you can view Hangul web pages. It's also alleged that you may be able to
   enter Hangul with any of Korean input method compatible with MacOS
   8.5(UniExpress and Sejong) even if you don't install Korean Language Kit.
 o Hangul Talk 7.1 or higher from Elex in Korea, 
 o World Script II and Korean Language(KLK). At long last, KLK was released
   on Oct. 23rd,1996. See the press release at
   for details. Estimated retail price is USD 139(Some retailers sell it for
   as low as USD 99). You might also try for details on KLK.
   Information on KLK in Korean is at
   The press release about KLK by Apple Japan can be of your interest,too.
   It's available at Now that
   KLK was released, I have removed all the references to (components of)
   KLK beta freely available on the Net in the FAQ. 
 o Han Korean Kit by HanSoft ( 
 o PanAsian Kit(by Xiaolin Allen Zhao at along with Unicorn
   Editor or one of freely available Hangul Input Methods and Hangul fonts
   mentioned below can be an alternative to Korean Language Kit. It's a
   donation-ware and available at and Oriental
   Express(for one-click dynamic localization of English programs) must be
   of your interest, too. 
 o LaserKorean for Mac by Linguist Software
   ( includes Korean input method and
   single-byte truetype and postscript type 1 fonts. In Austrailia, you may
   wish to visit Techflow web page See Subject 23 for their contact info. 
 o Electronic Hangul by Wayne Bostow at 
 o Those who are familiar with Unix and X window and fast network
   access(e.g. Ethernet,FDDI,Fast Ethernet) to Unix hosts may opt to install
   one of X servers for Mac(at least one is freely available.) over Mac OS
   and run remote X clients with Hangul support like Hanterm,Netscape,and
   Hanemacs. See Subject 6 for Hangul programs in Unix and X and a list of X
   servers for Mac. It'd be the least expensive way to use Hangul for
 o In case you can live without Hangul input, you may try less
   expensive(free or shareware?) solution offered by Elixir developed by It's an extension to display CJK texts in
   non CJK environment available at Info-Mac archive and other famous Mac
 o Another option for Unix-philes is install one of Uniices for Mac and run
   Unix programs with Hangul support. Mklinux is a free port(based on Mach
   microkernel) of Linux to Power Mac by Apple and Open Software Foundation.
   More details can be found at Mklinux home page at In addition, there's a native port of Linux
   to PowerPC Mac. It's known to work slightly better than MkLinux. Refer to 

Elex sells localized version of Mac OS, Hangul Talk. Unfortunately, there's
alway quite long delay between release of new version of Mac OS and that of
Korean counter part. For instance, Hangul Talk is still based on 7.5.1 while
the newest Mac OS is 7.5.5. Here's where to contact to get Hangul Talk. 

    Elex :  
            +82-2-780-4545, +82-2-709-8000(voice)

You may also try their recently opened web site at
Recently, I found that Asia Soft (1-800-882-8856) carrys Hangul Talk for
$450. See Subject 23 for other dealers. 

One more note to Hangul Talk, up-to Hangul Talk 7.1.x, it comes with a
dangle,Hangul key (h/w protector) to be put into a ADB port and someone made
s/w Hangul key. From 7.5.x, Hangul Talk is not hardware-protected by Hangul
key any more. 

Korean Language Kit(KLK) seems to be a good choice for using Hangul in
mostly English environment (or with any other language KIT or localized Mac
OS). It comes with Power Input method for Hangul including Hanja and special
symbols defined in KS X 1001(KS C 5601-1987) and 5 sets of Hangul truetype
fonts. It requires system 7.1 or higher(English or localized). I tested its
beta version on Powerbook 165c and Mac LC with system 7.1 and Mac IIsi,Power
Mac 6x00 with System 7.5 and worked fine. Microsoft used to be reluctant to
make their products compatible with World Script technology (and thus KLK)
partly because their own OS, MS-Windows didn't(it still doesn't) have the
same level of multilinguial support as available to MacOS via World Script.
The situation has changed and quite many program including MS Office and MS
Internet Explorer seem to work with KLK. WordPerfect, Nisus, ClarisWork,and
Netscape are also made to support it. Corel which bought WP from Novell
recently, however, dropped support for World Script on which KLK is based so
that a newer version of WP might not work with KLK (beta) as well as in the
past. For the list of programs compatible with KLK, see data sheet at Apple
info site. In addition, Elex has a page for KLK at In cae there's some trouble with
Hangul font(type#5 error), try installing FontSize Patch available at Apple(
[posted to Hangul Usenet newsgroup han.comp.sys.mac by Jeong-hyun Kim] 

In order to use programs localized for Korean(e.g. Hangul Claris Organizer)
with Hangul menu and dialog box under KLK + non-Korean Mac OS, you need to
register them as Korean software using Korean Language Register in Apple
Extras folder. [Contribution by Seungwoo Park at and
...]. Netscape should be registered as Korean program to display Hangul

In (not so likely) case you are not satisfied with Power Input method in KLK,
you may wish to install on top of KLK Sejong-imryoki by BBCom in Korea. 
v.1.53 and v.1.54 are available at Mac Hangul archive 2,Mac Hangul Archive 3
and UCSD archive. Note that Sejong input method at Mac Hangul archive 1is
password protected (perhaps, a copy archived before BBCom announced that
Sejong would be a freeware) as pointed out to me by Park,Hae-Chan. For more
information, contact BBCom at or

There is another freeware Input Method, Aram Input Method 1.4 by Cho,
Ikhan( of Taegu Mac User Group available at UCSD archive.
It has some unique features like Hangul-Hanja automatic conversion and
Japanese typing with English keyboard. ([Contribution by Kim,Jeong-hyun])
For further details on Aram IM, contact Taegu MUG at The author of Aram input method released 
UniExpress, yet another freeware Hangul input method, much improved over
Aram input method. Unlike its predecessor Aram input method, it works well
with the newest Mac OS 8.5. More details on UniExpress is available at 

In July 1999, InfoLogic also released Korean Language Extension Kit (KLEK)
1.5. It comes with UniExpress 1.5 (feature-rich Korean Input Method),
Lexi-Magic 1.5 (multilingual section dictionary) and Korean fonts along with
necessary system components. For more details, you can refer to 

Seoul system made available for free download a beta version of new Hangul
input method at It seems to
have a number of neat features not offered in Power Input method that comes
with Korean Language Kit. [Posted by to

There are several Hangul fonts available on the Net. Beginning with MacOS
8.5, bitmap only fonts(i.e. without truetype equivalents. e.g. Tongshing A)
are reported NOT to work with some applications(especially, telnet clients
like Hangul Nifty Telnet, NCSA Telnet-K and SimpleText). If you have trouble
using Hangul in those programs, you may get PC Myeongjo, SinMyeong and
JungGothic mentioned below (available at UCSD archive) which are known to
work fine with Hangul Nifty Telnet and others. [Posted by Aaram Yun and
others to Usenet Newsgroup han.comp.sys.mac 

Improved Seoul font 
   English part is replaced by Chicago or Copland font. Available at Mac
   Hangul Archive3. 
Munhwabu(Ministry of Culture) font 
   Available at HiTel archive for MS-Windows(See Subject 4). Truetype
   version can be converted to Mac Truetype with TrueKeys(Windows to Mac
   true type converter for CJK character sets) by Xiaolin Zhao at available at 
Munhwabu(Ministry of Culture) fonts in CID-Keyed format 
   Two sets(Munhwa Regular and Munhwa Gothic) are released by Adobe. Can be
   obtained at
   Requires a recent version(3.9 or later) of Adobe Type Manager(ATM). One
   included in Adobe Acrobat Reader(available from Adobe free of charge)
   works fine with these fonts. [Contribution by Dennis Hanks at] 
Free Hangul bitmap fonts for Internet 
   Elex released Internet Font A,Internet Font B, TongShin Font A,and
   TongShin Font B on Oct 1st. They come in 9,10,12,14,16,18,20,and 24 point
   and are available at Elex web page
   ( or Elex archive
Free Hangul bitmap fonts from Elex 
   ShinMyungjo, JungGothic, PCMyungjo avaiable in /pub/jhan/mac/fonts at 
   UCSD archive. When installing these fonts, make sure that
   FontExtension.K48 is put into extension folder. 
Seoul-Boston and a few others 
   Made by Frank Hoffman at Harvard University. They are Fixed-width
   (12point) fonts and available at
Other fonts 
   Yamda Language Center of Univ. of Oregon has a few hangul fonts. See [Contribution by]. 
Hanyang fonts 
   Hanyang System ( released four sets of free
   Hangul true type fonts on Aug. 20th,1996. Besides, two sets of screen
   fonts are availabel from Hanyang system. 
Pan-Asia CJK fonts 
   converted from Unix hbf (a variant of bdf used in cnprint: see Subject 21).
   It makes use of true type sbit technology and requires
   FontExtension.K48(included in PCMyeongjo,ShinMyeongjo and JungGothic
   mentioned above) for Korean. Three sets of Korean fonts, New Seoul, New
   Pusan and New P'yongyang, are currently offered at [Posted by
   Allen Zhao at xlz@USA.Net(the author of Unicorn Editor and TrueKeys). 
Bitstream Cyberbit 
   Unicode font for MS-Windows, but can be used without modification for
   MacOS 8.5(just put them into System folder). Send your request to (It used to be available on the web, but I can't
   find it any more). 

In addition to freely available Hangul fonts, Asia Soft(See Subject 23 for
contact info.) sells Royal font 1, a set of PS fonts for Mac. On top of
that, Techflow in Australia sells a set of single byte Korean fonts(true
type and type 1) with AsiaScript(I'm not sure what this is, but perhaps it
includes Korean input methods as well as Chinese and Japanese similar to one
offered by HanKoreanKit and Electronic Hangul). Being single byte fonts,
they work with most non-localized version of English softwares(e.g.
Photoshop,FrameMaker, PageMaker, etc) as is the case for HanKoreanKit and
Electronic Hangul. See Subject 23 for contact info. 

Several people reported difficulty with Hangul printing using LaserWriter.
According to Jeong-hyun Kim(, LaserWriter 8.x
doesn't work with Hangul and KLK, so that you had better use
LaserWriter(driver,util) 7.x. Dennis Hanks at informed me
that the cause of trouble with LaserWriter 8.x and KLK is absensce of a
control panel(Hangul Jojung or Laserwriter Chooser) in Korean Language Kit
for non-Korean Mac OS. Apple announced the printing fix for KLK and put the
missing control panel at
According to him, 'Printer Chooser' control panel included in Sejong input
method works fine with KLK and Laser Writer driver 8.x. You need to turn off
background printing to print out Hangul as is the case with earlier version
of LaserWriter driver. Another solution posted to Hangul Usenet Newsgroup
han.comp.sys.mac by Sohn, Dong-Kee( is install two
InputBackSupport extensions, one from System 7.5update2.0 and the other from
Hangul Mac OS 7.5.3. According to him, you don't have turn off background
printing, but have to increase memory allocated to Printer Monitor. This
way, all fonts except for Hangul PS fonts with # in their names can be used.
Cho, Dooyoung( reported that he has no problem in Hangul
printing with System 7.5.5 plus Korean Language Kit and LaserWriter 8.4.1.
Your mileage may vary and have to try solutions given here to figure out
which one works for you. 

Han Korean Kit(Hantorie) offered an inexpensive Hangul solution for Mac
users with English system. In early 1998, HanSoft released version 2.0 of
Hantorie. The code used by Hantorie(sort of N-byte hangul code?) is
different from EUC-KR and other Hangul codes in Korea. Code converter,
Toctac is included in Hantorie. From v.1.2, it supports Hangul input in 
EUC-KR(Wansong Input method. It can be used with KLK/Hangul Talk) and output
is possible(with help of built-in filtering code converter so that incoming
Hangul in EUC-KR is displayed transparently without any user intervention
and can be used for viewing Hangul web pages seamlessly). Han Soft home
page( has excellent introduction to a number of
Hangul related matter. Whether you're Mac user or not, this site is worth

LaserKorean for Mac by Linguist Software appears similar to Han Korean Kit
in that both uses single byte true type and type 1 fonts for Hangul in a
number of programs made for English Mac OS. 

Electronic Hangul is $295 and the author claims that it works well with
virtually all programs and it comes with gurantee that it would work with
all programs made for Mac. It includes 5 PS 1 type fonts. I have to see how
it works. It doesn't support Hanja. Contact WBOSTOW@HOUNIX.ORG for further
detail. Note,however, that EH code is NOT compatible with EUC-KR or any of
Hangul encodings ever used in Korea. Encoding converter from EUC-KR is
included. See for details. 

Gil, Hojin has a very readable and user-friendly web page for Hangul on Mac
full of detailed information not fully covered here. See 

For more information, you may consider joining the mailing list for Mac and
Hangul. Send mail to with body as following(and
empty subject). 

subscribe mac your-e-mail-address

Mailing list is linked to Hangul Usenet newsgroup han.comp.sys.mac. Mailing
list and newsgroup are where you can meet a number of gurus about Hangul on
Mac including two founders of the mailing list, Kim,Jeong-hyun at and Prof. Kim,KiTae at

Besides, Prof. Kim, Ki-tae with ME department at POSTECH and Kim,Jeong-hyun
at KAIST, operating Mac Han archive 2 and Mac Han archive 1, respectively.
collected a great deal of information about Hangul on Mac at and These two
sites are 'must' for everyone who wanted to use Hangul. In case you have
trouble connecting to these sites, you can get most of information by
sending mail to with subject 'hangul.mac',
'hangul.eudora', and 'hangul.netscape' for FAQs on Hangul on Mac in general,
Hangul mail on Mac(be aware that some of recipes given for Hangul mail by
this cannot be applied outside Korea. See Subject 9), and Hangul web
browsing on Mac,respectively. Another very comprehensive coverage of Hangul
on Mac and hangul in general(keyboard,coding scheme,etc) is found at HanSoft
homepage as mentioned above.On top of that,Korean Studies Home page at
Harvard also keeps extensive (and some step-by-step) information about using
Hangul on Mac. Jeffrey A. Hawkins has also maintained a brief but useful
page for Hangul on Mac at Han,
Jeong-gwan's UCSD archive is also a very good place to look into for Hangul
Mac software and related documents. 

When transfering Hangul text file in EUC-KR(8bit encoding of KS X 1001- KS C
5601- and US-ASCII/KS X 1003) with fetch,the most widely used ftp client for
Mac, you have to turn off 'translate ISO characters' option in
Customize|Preference|Misc. [Contribution by Jeong-hyun Kim at] 

No Jungho(sp?) put on his web page( a useful
collection of information on Hangul and Internet software for Mac including
patches for some famous programs. Newly opened is
another good source of information on Mac and Hangul. 

6. How can I use Hangul under Unix?

First of all, there is a Hangul xterm, Hanterm which , along with various
Hangul-patched tools for Unix such as hangul elvis(vi clone), hangul emacs( 
Subject 3), hangul printing tool(Subject 21),hangul mail (Subject 9), hangul
irc/talk(Subject 28), Hangul LaTeX(Subject 11), will fulfill basic
requirement for using Hangul under Unix + X Window. See also Subject 16 for
terminal(stty) setting for Hangul input. 

There are a few Hangul fonts available on the Net to use with Hanterm
,Netscape,and HanEmacs/ Mule with its own window (and most X applications in
case you installed HanX mentioned below). 

Daewoo fonts 
   Hangul Wansung fonts donated by Daewoo to X consortium. They're likely to
   have been istalled in most X11 R5 and R6 distribution. If not, you can
   get them(in BDF format you can convert to SNF format for X11R4 or PCF
   format for X11 R5/R6 as necessary) from X consortium archive(in
   /pub/R6.1/xc/fonts/bdf/misc(hangl*.bdf) and CAIR
KAIST fonts 
   Three sets of Wansung fonts in GR encoding(all other Wansung fonts
   mentioned here are GL encoding) have been used since X11 R4. They are
   available in snf format at CAIR archive. The binary distribution of 
   KIMS(Korean Input Method Server: see below) by Kim, Bumchul includes them
   in PCF format. 
Hanyang fonts 
   Wansung fonts converted from F3 format to bitmap (PCF/SNF) by
   Baik,Young-jun. Sets of Hanyang fonts modified by me to have more
   reasonable FONT DESCENT and FONT ASCENT are archived as 
   hanyang-font-pcf.tar.gz) in /hangul/fonts at CAIR archive and its
Sun Gothic fonts 
   Wansung fonts which used to be available as in
   /hangul/incoming/NS20-hangul at CAIR archive. Not available any more
   probablely because of copy right. Sun workstations shipped in Korea come
   with this set of fonts. 
   KS C 5601-1987-0 encoded version of Pine Tree font by Lee,YongJae
   available in 
Web Batang (Hanyang system) 
   A set of Wansung fonts that come in 8 sizes (9,10,12,14,16,18,20,24) and
   two weights(bold and medium) were released by Hanyang system (a famous
   Korean foundry for Hangul font) which also offers free Hangul fonts for
   Mac and MS-Windows at their web page As with
   Hanyang fonts mentioned above, Web Batang fonts have FONT_DESCENT and
   FONT_ASCENT values unsuitable for terminal fonts and I posted a
   easy-to-follow recipe to correct these values to Usenet newsgroup 
   han.comp.hangul. My article is available at
   Hong,Hunsoo with Physics Dept. of KAIST(at
   converted Hangul PS type 1 font included in HLaTeX 0.97(See Subject 11)
   to X11 BDF format. Symbols in this font are extracted out of Daewoo font
   and combined with Hangul(hand-corrected by Hong, Hunsoo with bdf font
   editor) and Hanja converted from the type 1 font. It's available in 
Mizi font 
   Mizi Research released a set of Hangul fonts both in KS C 5601 GL and GR
   encodings to use with hanIM(Hangul Input Method for X11 R5/R6). They're
   available at (follow the link for hanIM). 
Johab fonts 
   Hanterm distribution used to contain several Hangul fonts -Iyagi and
   those from old HWP- for X in Johab encoding. Now, they're separately
   packaged as hanterm304fonts.tar.gz in /hangul/terminal/hanterm at CAIR
Mun-hwa-bu fonts 
   distributed by Ministriy of Culture. Perhaps type 1 PS fonts. Available
   in /pub/hangul/fonts at CAIR archive. 

All of Wansung fonts include all characters(Hangul,Hanja,and symbols)
defined in KSC 5601. Johab fonts for Hanterm can be used to display all
Hangul syllables in modern Koreans(11,172). 

To install these fonts, please refer to the on-line manual pages of 
mkfontsdir,xlsfonts,xset. Basically, what you have to do is if
you have access to the console of your workstation : 

1. Make a directory under your home directory where you want to save Hangul
   fonts(say it's xfont) 

         % mkdir ~/xfont

2. Download and uncompress (ungzip and untar) them in xfont. Suppose
   downloaded file fonts.tar.gz is in current directory, do following 

         % gzip -d -c fonts.tar.gz | (cd ~/xfont; tar -xvf -)
         % cd ~/xfont

3. If uncompressed fonts have names with pcf extension, skip to the next
   step. In case their names end with bdf(Daewoo fonts obtained from X
   consortium), you have to convert each of them to pcf(X11R5 or later) or
   snf(X11R4) with bdftopcf and bdftosnf For each of fonts in the
   set, in X11R5, 

          % bdftopcf font1.bdf > font1.pcf 

   In X11R4, 

          % bdftosnf font1.bdf > font1.snf 

4. run following commands 

          % mkfontdir
          % xset fp+ ~/xfont
          % xset fp rehash

5. Check if newly installed fonts are available to your X server with
   xlsfonts. You should get something like following when Daewoo fonts are

          % xlsfonts | grep ksc

6. The last two commands(xset) in step 4. have to be repeated everytime you
   log onto the machine at the console. You may automate it by putting those
   commands in ~/.login or ~/.profile if the environment variable DISPLAY is
   defined, which means you're using X window system. A better way is put
   them in ~/.xsession(if you use XDM) or ~/.xinitrc(if you use startx or
   similar script to begin X window at the console ) or ~/.openwin-init (in
   case of Openwindow). You don't have to take this step if you can install
   Hangul fonts in system default path(most likely
   <XROOT>/lib/X11/fonts/misc or <OPENWINROOT>/lib/X11/fonts/misc) for X
   window fonts either by persuading your system administrator or being one
7. If your X server supports compressed font(X11 R6 server does. X11 R6.3
   server even supports gziped fonts), you may compress pcf fonts before
   step 4 with compress or gzip(X11R6.3 only) 

Free Type Project team distributes ttf2bdf to convert true type fonts(for
MS-Windows) to X BDF fonts. It also has been developing xmbdfeditor(Motif
Based X font editor). Both are available at Pre-built binaries
of ttf2bdf for Solaris, Sun OS and Linux are available at Truetype rendering engine will be
included in next release of X11(perhaps, in different name). [Posted to Mule
mailing list by Mark Leisher at] Choi, Jun Ho at modified ttf2bdf for Hangul true type fonts. The
original ttf2bdf was made by Mark Leisher using Free Type
library( (for
public doamin truetype font rasterizer). With his modified version of
ttf2bdf, ttf2bdf-k, you can convert Hangul truetype fonts for MS-Windows and
Mac to X11 BDF font either in KS C 5601-1987-0(GL encoding) or
Unicode-native-encoding. (There are a few freely available Hangul true type
fonts with all of 11,172 Hangul syllables defined in Unicode/ISO-10646:BMP.
See Subject 4 for the list). Use and distributions of BDF fonts made this
way out of true type fonts are governed by the terms of the license you have
for those fonts. See for
further details on ttf2bdf-k. 

A newer version of ttf2bdf accomodated and extended Choi, Jun-Ho's patch
With this version of ttf2bdf(1.5 or later), one can make
Unicode-native-encoded X11 fonts as well as those in KS C 5601 GL and GR
encoded out of Hangul true type fonts. Encoding tables are not supplied for
Korean and you have to make them. A easy way is get code tables at Unicode
ftp archive and edit them as necessary. (See Subject 8). 

A far better approach to true type font support in X11 is use X-tt(X server
with built-in support for truetype font rendering) developed by Japanese
FreeBSD users. X-tt enables you to use truetype fonts in X11 programs.
Binaries for FreeBSD, Linux and OpenBSD are available as well as the patch
which can be applied to X11 R6.x source tree in order to get X-tt on any
platform(mostly Unix). For more information, refer to Choi, Jun-Ho's web
page at 

In case of X terminal, you cannot make Hangul fonts available to it without
favor of system administrator. Contact your system administrator after
downloading Hangul fonts you need and ask her/him to install them for you.
You may have to tell her/him that that Hangul fonts have nothing speical and
are just like ordinary X window fonts as far as installation is concerned. 

There's a way to make available Hangul fonts without help of the system
administrator to X terminal if it's conformant to X11R6 or later(the latest
is X11 R6.3). X11 R5 server CANNOT be made to use font server.This valuable
information was passed to me by Yang, Chulho at has a
web page explaining how to take advantage of X font server at It has some UMD-specific
information, but would be of help when read along with this FAQ). I
overlooked it because I was under the false impression that X font server
requires the previlege of the system administrator to run. It's also very
handy in case your schools have a cluster of Mac or MS-Windows boxes with X
server programs for Mac/MS-Windows because you don't have to install Hangul
fonts on a machine on which you run X server which must be different every
time you log on. You can just keep Hangul fonts and run X font server on a
single Unix machine(or a set of machines with NFS/AFS shared home

At any rate, the way to do it is running X font server on a Unix machine you
can access where Hangul fonts are installed(Let's say it's The first three steps are the same as above. What
you have to do after that is: (suppose you install Hangul fonts in xfont
under your home directory) 

1. Make xfont font directory by running 

           % mkfontdir ~/xfont

2. Make a file named xfs.conf in your home directory with following content 

           clone-self = on
           use-syslog = off
           catalogue = $HOME/xfont
           #error-file = /usr/X11R6/lib/X11/fs/fs-errors
           # in decipoints
           default-point-size = 120
           default-resolutions = 75,75,100,100
           port = 3001 
           # any value above 1000 which is not used by other daemons
           # like web server. This number is to be used when
           # designating the X font server below.

3. Launch X font server 

           % xfs -config ~/xfs.conf &

4. Get your X terminal/X server to use the font server running on a Unix
   host where you launched it. 

           % xset fp+ tcp/
           % xset fp rehash

   where is the address of the host running X font
   server and port is the port used when launching X font server (3001 in
   the example above) 

   In case you use a X server program for Mac or MS-Windows, there may be an
   easier way to designate X font server. For instance, eXodus(for Mac and
   MS-Windows) has a menu for X font server designation in eXodus control
   panel(or Settings|Fonts). 
5. You may automate the last two steps which needs to be done every time you
   wish to use Hangul X fonts not available by default on your X terminal/X
   server. There are a couple of different ways to automate them depending
   on how you begin your X window session(XDM or running xterm with
   rsh/rexec). If you use XDM, you may insert three lines of commands in the
   last two steps(xfs and xset) in appropriate place in .xsession in your
   home directory. In case you open an X session with xterm launched with
   rsh/rexec from X server like eXodus, you might add following lines to
   your .cshrc/.tcshrc (csh/tcsh) 

   if ( $?prompt) then
     if ( $?DISPLAY) then
       xfs -config ~/xfs.conf &
       xset fp+ tcp/
       xset fp rehash

   or .profile(Bourn shell). 

   if test -n $PS1 
      case $- in
          xfs -config ~/xfs.conf &
          xset fp+ tcp/
          xset fp rehash

6. Check if Hangul fonts are available with xlsfonts as mentioned above.

You can use Hangul fonts made available this way in any X applications which
support Hangul (e.g. Netscape, Hanterm, HanEmacs,and Mule). 

Moon Hong-sok(sp? at has made a font server(the source
code is not available, only the binary for Linux has been released) to read
Hangul johab fonts used by Iyagi(a popular terminal emulator in Korea) and
wrap them up in such a way that they're recognized as Wansung fonts(in
KSC5601-1987-0 encoding) by X clients such as Netscape and Hanterm.
Installing it greatly increases the number of Hangul fonts available to
programs like Netscape which work only with Wansung fonts. It's available at
HiTel(telnet:// You may ask the author for a copy. [posted
by Nam, Sung-Hyun at to han.comp.os.linux] 

Mizi Research in collaboration with Hangul & Computer developed a Hangul
font server which seamlessly translates Hangul true type fonts for
HWP(Arae-Ah Hangul), one of the most widely used Hangul word processors in
Korea into X11 format in various sizes(actually, it's scalable). X11 clients
can use them as if they're just ordinary Hangul fonts in KSC5601-1987-0
encoding (GL encoding). As of this writting, only Linux binary is available

In addition, Hangul TeX packages such as HLaTeX 0.9x and hTeXp/hLaTeXp(See 
Subject 11) include Hangul fonts(metafont,pk image and PS type 1) in
Wansung-Johab hybride encoding and modified Wansung encoding, which may be
converted for use in X window. Unix machines sold in Korea seem to be
shipped with quite extensive set of Hangul fonts for X, but they're not
generally available in public domain. 

Adobe made available Hangul CID-Keyed fonts(Munhwa Regular and Munhwa
Regular Gothic) based on Munhwabu(Ministry of Culture) font. They can be
obtained at
Please, note that those with hqx at the end of names are for Mac and you
don't have to get them. To make use of CID-keyed font, your platform has to
support Display Postscript(DPS) which is available on some versions of Unix
sold in Korea(e.g. Solaris and SGI Irix). Recent versions(5.0 or higher) of 
Ghostscript support CID-keyed font and Choi, Jun-Ho posted to Usenet
newsgroup han.comp.hangul a recipe for using Hangul CID-keyed font with
Ghostscript font based on what he obtained from a Japanese web site on
Japanese CID-keyed font and Ghostscript. You can retrieve his article on 
Dejanews Power search with the search term "~g han.comp.hangul and ~a choi
and adobe and ghostscript and cmap". 

Related to this is hfftype patch (derived from kfftype patch for Japanese
truetype font) to ghostscript 5.x also by Choi, Jun Ho. The step-by-step
instruction for applying this patch and using Hangul truetype font with
ghostscript 5.x is given at 

There are a few Hangul patched versions of FVWM (a very popular window
manager for X). Shin, DongJun at was the first to
patch FVWM 1.x for Hangul. Lee,Man-yong at
patched FVWM 2.x and Choi,Jun-Ho at patched FVWM95
2.x. Both are available in
Currently, they work with KSC5601.0(GL) encoded Wansung
fonts(Daewoo,Hanyang,Pinetree,SunGothic,Hanyang Webbatang), but not with
KSC5601.1(GR) encoded Wansung fonts(Sambo) nor with Johab fonts. For more
details, see Choi, Jun-Ho also
applied Hangul patches to AfterStep (NeXTstep-like window manager for X11). has details on Hangul patched

Choi Jun-Ho's page has links to internationalized version of Afterstep at and
qvwm95(more faithful replica of Windows 95 interface with
internationalization(I18N) than fvwm95) at
CFAN(Comprehensive FVWM Archive Network??) at is a primary source of I18N patches
for a few variants of fvwm(fvwm95,bowman,fvwm2,fvwm, afterstep,etc). In
addition to qvwm, mwm(motif window manager),mlvwm(, 
WindowMaker( have full-fledged I18N
support. Windows managers with I18N require you to have the locale for
Korean. On a platform where Korean locale is not yet supported at C library
level(most commercial Unix shipped in Korea comes with Korean locales.
Outside Korea, one may get it from the vendor for nominal charge if not
free.), but Xserver and libX11 are compiled to depend on X locale(e.g. Linux
and XFree86), you have to make sure you compile a I18Ned Window manager with
X_LOCALE defined. 

Hwang, Chiduck at patched
fvwm95-2.0.43a-Autoconf(there's an I18N version of fvwm as noted above),
enlightenment(enl_DR-0.12), and scwm(scheme configurable window manager) for
Hangul. All of them are available at 

Choi, Jun Ho at patched SGML-Tools(formerly known as
Linuxdoc-SGML) It supports one of the most popular Hangul LaTeX
implementations, HLaTeX 0.9x.(See Subject 11) as well as HTML. See for details. 

According to Lee, Wonil at, there's a Hangul
patched version of Tcl/Tk based on Japanese version 7.3/3.6 and 7.5/4.1. You
may wish to contact him for more details. Also, he wrote that Japanese patch
against Tk 3.6,4.0,4.1,4.2,and 8.0 is available at 

Choi, Jun Ho <> has a patch for Hangul output against
Tk 4.2 at Wins
Technology seems to have developed(there's a strong allegation that they
just copied what Lee, Wonil had done in 1994) Hangul version of Tcl/Tk. For
details, visit their web pages at 

Instead of patching every X Window application for Hangul, Oh, Sung-gyu( at came up with an ingenius idea of patching the
heart of X Window, shared(dynamic) X11 library(libX11) for Hangul I/O. By
replacing* with his Hangul patched version,*(called
HanX) and installing Hangul fonts, you may read and write Hangul in most X11
application programs linked dynamically to libX11.(To check this , run 'ldd
-v program_name' in Sun OS and Linux and see if '*' is listed. In
other flavor of Unix, there must be a command with similar functionality)
including and not limited to XMosaic(see for this at SPARCS home
page( ), xterm, window managers like twm,olwm,fvwm.
Currently, HanX is available for several Unix(like) OS including Linux 1.2.x
(1.3.x), Sun OS 4.1.x, Sun OS 5.2. Porting to other OS' are underway. For
the most recent update, look into SPARCS archive or its mirror at
CAIR-Archive,I-Net Archive, Sunsite Korea. As of Sep. 22nd, binaries for
following OS' are available. 

 o Sun OS 4.1.3 with X11 R4,R5, and R6 
 o Sun OS 5.2,5.3 with X11 R4 and R5 
 o Linux with X11 R5(XFree86 2.0) and X11 R6(XFree86 3.x)(both a.out and ELF
   for XF86 3.x) 
 o SGI Irix 5.2(?) 

HanX 2.10.8(update by Kim In-sung at was
released in Dec. 1996. Binary for Linux ELF and source code are available in
/hangul/incoming at CAIR archive. A still newer HanX for Linux to work with 
XFree86 3.2A based on X11R6.3 was released by the same author and is
available at CAIR archive. 

Some versions of Unix shipped in Korea(e.g. Solaris 2.x,HP/UX,Digtial Unix,
AIX) come with Hangul Input Server which enables Hangul input in some X
window applications written to make use of input server(e.g. Netscape) as
defined in X11 R5 and/or R6. In Solaris 2.x, Hangul input method(htt) is
launched by default if you begin your X session in Korean locale. According
to a post to han.sys.sun by, you can launch it from a
command line with the option -lc_basiclocale ko. 

According to Park JaeHo(at, Digital, unlike other
vendors of Unix workstations such as Sun,HP,SGI,IBM and SCO, does NOT
require separate license to install I18N/L10N components(C library locale,X
input server,etc), so that any system administrator with CD-ROM for OSF/1(or
Digital Unix) can install Korean locale and Hangul input server(dxhangulim)
for CDE,DEC Window and X available in /ALPHA/WORLDWIDE/BASE(those with name
begining with ISOKO) on OSF/1 CD-ROM. After installing these, you have to
launch Hangul input server(dxhangulim), which can be done best in start-up
script for X (e.g ~/.xsession or ~/.xinitrc) to enable Hangul input in
applications supporting X input server mechanism like Netscape. You also
have to add to font path with xset fp 
/usr/i18n/lib/X11/fonts/decwin/100dpi and 

Linux along with FreeBSD has the most complete set of Hangul supporting
packages of multitudes of Unix variants mostly due to its openness. In
addition to all of Hangul programs for X-window and Unix mentioned in this
FAQ, there's a hangul console package, "Han", which enables Hangul I/O in
Linux console. Currently, Linux-KE project is underway to make a complete
Hangul suite (as an extension to Slackware)for Linux and products of the
project are available at Further
details and progress reports on Linux-KE project are posted on Usenet
newsgroup han.comp.os.linux. You may join Linux-KE project if you're willing
to take your time and efforts for it by sending mail to with subject subscribe ke 

Aside from Linux-KE project which has been virtually dead for a long time,
some members of Linux user group at Nowcom, one of nationwide on-line
services in Korea produced Alzzaware based on Slackware 3.1 with a lot of
pre-compiled and pre-configured Korean programs added in Slackware packaging
format. It used to be available in, but due to recent hard
disk failure at Juno, it's not available any more. Instead, Alzzaware2 based
on RedHat 4.0 made up of about 20 Hangul packages in RPM format is available
at The newest version of
Alzzaware(as of Nov., 1998, it's based on RedHat 5.1) with over 100 packaged
tailored for Korean Linux users is always available in perhaps, ) and the information on it is available at
Kim, Byung-Chan's( web page at 

A number of Linuxers in Korea drawn from on-line service Linux user groups
and the Net formed KLUG(Korean Linux User Group) in summer of 1997. It's
worth visiting its home page at if you're
interested in Linux. Quite many RPMs(RedHat packages) of Hangul programs
(e.g. HanX for XF86 3.3, hanterm,Hangul patched Pine, etc) made by KLUG
members have been uploaded to contrib directory of RedHat archive. 

Packaging Hangul programs for Debian Linux is also in progress and the
mailing list was set up for the project. For details, contact Park, Chu-yeon

Kwon, Soon-Son <> has been coordinating Korean Linux
Document Project(KLDP) which has amassed a large number of HOWTO's,
mini-Howto's and many other documents both translation from the English
originals and the home-grown. It's definitely worth visiting KLDP web site

X inside sells CDE(Common Desktop Environment) for Linux and FreeBSD with
support for Korean output in CDE applications. Hangul Input server is not
yet included as of 1.0. See and 

Choi, Jun-Ho at has maintained a web site for Korean
FreeBSD users at Currently, it
has a lot of useful information including those on building Korean locale
for FreeBSD(ko_KR.euc locale),I18Ned booting disk for freebsd, 8bit clean
more and many others. FreeBSD 2.2 RELEASE contains Korean locale made by him
although not without some glitches which are expected to be fixed in
upcoming 3.0 RELEASE(and fixes for which are already included in
3.0-current). He also built Hangul ports of a number of programs and made
them available at FreeBSD archiving sites throughout the world(See for a site nearest you). In addition, Korean FreeBSD
User Group(KFUG) has a web site at with tons of
useful information. 

Ryu, Changwoo( patched GNU texinfo for Hangul(patched
against GNU texinfo 3.12). TeX output works only with HLaTeX 0.96 or later
which uses Wansung encoding font.(See Subject 11). texinfo-ko-0.4. For
details, see Another Hangul-enabled
texinfo package is available at 

Kim, Bumchul at has collected at his web page( pretty extensive information about Hangul
programming under X/Motif including some examples and tips. 

Park, Jaihyun (at has recently released the
first beta version of Hangul Input Method Server for X11 R6, Byeoroo at It can be used to input Hangul
in internationalized X applications such as Xedit and Netscape(for the
latter, see Subject 36). It has been tested under Linux, but as the source
code is available, it should be compiled under other variants of Unix. A
couple of others have been developing public domain Hangul input methods so
that there will be a few Hangul input method servers in public domain to
choose from. 

On Oct, 9th, 1997(Hangul-nal), Kim, Bumchul (at
released the Linux binary of KIMS(Korean Input Method Server). Like Byeoroo,
it can be used to input Hangul in I18Nized X11 programs such as Netscape(See
Subject 36) provided that you have Korean locale either for C library or
X11(in the latter case, your X server has to be compiled with X_LOCALE
defined. X11 R6.3 server included in RedHat Linux 5.0 was not compiled with
X_LOCALE defined so that you need to get X11 R6.3 from xfree86 web page).
Compared with Byeoroo, it's more stable. He puts all the gory details on
KIMS at 

On Oct 29, 1997, Mizi Research announced a third Hangul Input Method server
for Linux and Solaris 2.5.x. It supports 3-set-keyboard as well as
2-set-keyboard and comes with a set of new Hangul fonts. For more details,

Please, note that Linux binaries of hanIM and KIMS can be used in FreeBSD
with an excellent Linux emulation moduel. Choi, Jun Ho made a port of hanIM
and Mizi fonts for use under FreeBSD. The port is available at any FreeBSD
archive worldwide. To use hanIM in Solaris 2.5.x, you need to install Korean
locale (C library) which is not usually shipped with non-Asian version of

GNU-NLS Korean team have been moving at fast pace to translate messages for
GNU programs to Korean. Refer to
(Korean) and for

Bang, Jun-Young at has made possible Hangul support in
Wine(a free MS-Windows emulator for Linux). Refer to for more details. 

A new set of widgets for X11, gtk/Gtk+ has been under development, which has
pretty good I18N support. It's supposed to be easy to use Hangul input
method servers in gtk+ applications, but under Linux it has some trouble
with hanIM,KIMS and byeoroo.(it works well with htt under Solaris 2.5.x).
Seo, Young-jin at came up with a work-around and put it on
the web at On top of that,
there is a very active group of Koreans involved in I18N/L10N aspect of Gtk.
You can get up-to-date details on the Korean Gtk project at 

Running X clients with Hangul support over an X server running on a
Intel-based PC or Mac would be quite handy without any hassle installing
Hangul support programs for Mac and MS-Windows/MS-DOS described in Subject 4
and Subject 5 if one's familiar with Unix and X window. See above for using 
X font server to make Hangul fonts available to X server running on
Mac/MS-Windows. A very extensive list of X servers for MS-Windows and Mac
maintained by Kenton Lee( can be obtained at One of them(MI/X) is
absolutely free without any string attached. For more information, refer to It's not so good as
others, howerver according to those who tried it. 

Unix manual pages translated in Korean are available at 

Detailed explanation on PXHan used to be included, but I decided to drop
that because it's not of much use now that Netscape for Unix/X can display
Hangul. You may find it
if you're interested. 


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