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RFC 1325 - FYI on Questions and Answers Answers to Commonly aske


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Network Working Group                                          G. Malkin
Request for Comments: 1325                                      Xylogics
FYI: 4                                                         A. Marine
Obsoletes: RFC 1206                                                  SRI
                                                                May 1992

                      FYI on Questions and Answers
        Answers to Commonly asked "New Internet User" Questions

Status of this Memo

   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  It does
   not specify an Internet standard.  Distribution of this memo is
   unlimited.

Abstract

   This FYI RFC is one of two FYI's called, "Questions and Answers"
   (Q/A), produced by the User Services Working Group of the Internet
   Engineering Task Force (IETF).  The goal is to document the most
   commonly asked questions and answers in the Internet.

New Questions and Answers

   In addition to updating information contained in the previous version
   of this FYI RFC, the following new questions have been added:

   Questions About the Internet:
     How do I get a list of all the hosts on the Internet?

   Questions About Internet Documentation:
     What is the RFC-INFO service?
     What is an FYI?
     What is an STD?
     What is the Internet Monthly Report?

   Questions About Internet Organizations:
     What is the Internet Society?

   Questions About Internet Services:
     What is "archie"?
     How do I Connect to archie?

   Mailing Lists and Sending Mail
     How Do I Send Mail to Other Networks?

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction.................................................  2
   2. Acknowledgements.............................................  3
   3. Questions About the Internet.................................  3
   4. Questions About TCP/IP.......................................  5
   5. Questions About the Domain Name System.......................  6
   6. Questions About Internet Documentation.......................  6
   7. Questions about Internet Organizations and Contacts.......... 14
   8. Questions About Services..................................... 19
   9. Mailing Lists and Sending Mail............................... 23
   10. Miscellaneous "Internet lore" questions..................... 27
   11. Suggested Reading........................................... 28
   12. References.................................................. 29
   13. Condensed Glossary.......................................... 30
   14. Security Considerations..................................... 42
   15. Authors' Addresses.......................................... 42

1. Introduction

   New users joining the Internet community have the same questions as
   did everyone else who has ever joined.  Our quest is to provide the
   Internet community with up to date, basic Internet knowledge and
   experience, while moving the redundancies away from the electronic
   mailing lists so that the lists' subscribers do not have to read the
   same queries and answers over and over again.

   Future updates of this memo will be produced as User Services members
   become aware of additional questions that should be included, and of
   deficiencies or inaccuracies that should be amended in this document.
   Although the RFC number of this document will change with each
   update, it will always have the designation of FYI 4.  An additional
   FYI Q/A, FYI 7, is published that deals with intermediate and
   advanced Q/A topics [11].

   The Q/A mailing lists are maintained by Gary Malkin at Xylogics.COM.
   They are used by a subgroup of the User Services Working Group to
   discuss the Q/A FYIs.  They include:

   quail@xylogics.com      This is a discussion mailing list.  Its
                           primary use is for pre-release review of
                           the Q/A FYIs.  It is not necessary to be
                           on this list to get the FYI documents.

   quail-request@xylogics.com  This is how you join and leave the quail
                               mailing list.

   quail-box@xylogics.com  This is a write-only list which serves as a

                           repository for candidate questions and
                           answers.  It is not necessary to be on the
                           quail mailing list to forward to the
                           quail-box.  Please note that this is not a
                           place to ask questions to which you don't
                           know the answers.

2. Acknowledgements

   The following people deserve thanks for their help and contributions
   to this FYI Q/A: Corinne Carroll (BBN), Vint Cerf (CNRI), Peter
   Deutsch (McGill), John Klensin (MIT), Doug Mildram (Xylogics), Tracy
   LaQuey Parker (UTexas), Craig Partridge (BBN), Jon Postel (ISI), Matt
   Power (MIT), Joyce K.  Reynolds (ISI), Karen Roubicek (Faxon),
   Patricia Smith (Merit), Gene Spafford (Purdue), and Carol Ward (SRI).

3. Questions About the Internet

   What is the Internet?

      The Internet is a large collection of networks (all of which run
      the TCP/IP protocols) that are tied together so that users of any
      of the networks can use the network services provided by TCP/IP to
      reach users on any of the other networks.  The Internet started
      with the ARPANET, but now includes such networks as NSFNET,
      NYSERnet, and thousands of others.  There are other major wide
      area networks, such as BITNET and DECnet networks, that are not
      based on the TCP/IP protocols and are thus not part of the
      Internet.  However, it is possible to communicate between them and
      the Internet via electronic mail because of mail gateways that act
      as "translators" between the different network protocols involved.

      Note: You will often see "internet" with a small "i".  This could
      refer to any network built based on TCP/IP, or might refer to
      networks using other protocol families that are composites built
      of smaller networks.

   I just got on the Internet.  What can I do now?

      You now have access to all the resources you are authorized to use
      on your own Internet host, on any other Internet host on which you
      have an account, and on any other Internet host that offers
      publicly accessible information.  The Internet gives you the
      ability to move information between these hosts via file
      transfers.  Once you are logged into one host, you can use the
      Internet to open a connection to another, login, and use its
      services interactively (this is known as remote login or
      "TELNETing".  In addition, you can send electronic mail to users

      at any Internet site and to users on many non-Internet sites that
      are accessible via electronic mail.

      There are various other services you can use.  For example, some
      hosts provide access to specialized databases or to archives of
      information.  The Internet Resource Guide provides information
      regarding some of these sites.  The Internet Resource Guide lists
      facilities on the Internet that are available to users.  Such
      facilities include supercomputer centers, library catalogs and
      specialized data collections.  The guide is published by the NSF
      Network Service Center (NNSC) and is continuously being updated.
      The Resource Guide is distributed free via e-mail (send a note to
      resource-guide-request@nnsc.nsf.net to join the e-mail
      distribution) and via anonymous FTP (in nnsc.nsf.net:resource-
      guide/*).  Hardcopy is available at a nominal fee (to cover
      reproduction costs) from the NNSC.  Call the NNSC at 617-873-3400
      for more information.

   How do I find out if a site has a computer on the Internet?

      Three good sources to consult are "!%@:: A Directory of Electronic
      Mail Addressing and Networks" by Donnalyn Frey and Rick Adams;
      "The User's Directory of Computer Networks", by Tracy LaQuey; and
      "The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems
      Worldwide", by John Quarterman.

      In addition, it is possible to find some information about
      Internet sites in the WHOIS database maintained at the DDN NIC at
      Network Solutions, Inc..  The DDN NIC (Defense Data Network,
      Network Information Center) provides an information retrieval
      interface to the database that is also called WHOIS.  To use this
      interface, TELNET to NIC.DDN.MIL and type "whois" (carriage
      return).  No login is necessary.  Type "help" at the whois prompt
      for more information on using the facility.  WHOIS will show many
      sites, but may not show every site registered with the DDN NIC
      (simply for reasons having to do with how the program is set up to
      search the database).

   How do I get a list of all the hosts on the Internet?

      You really don't want that.  The list includes almost 727,000
      hosts.  Almost all of them require that you have access permission
      to actually use them.  However, there are many machines which
      serve special functions and are available to the public.  There is
      not yet a definitive list, but below are some available machines.
      They are available via telnet.

         A geographic information server which provides latitude,
         longitude and other statistics about a city.

            telnet martini.eecs.umich.edu 3000

         The Library of Congress maintains an online catalog.

            telnet dra.com

         NASA SpaceLink offers latest NASA news including shuttle
         launches and satellite updates.

            telnet spacelink.msfc.nasa.gov

4. Questions About TCP/IP

   What is TCP/IP?

      TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol) [4,5,6]
      is the common name for a family of over 100 data-communications
      protocols used to organize computers and data-communications
      equipment into computer networks.  TCP/IP was developed to
      interconnect hosts on ARPANET, PRNET (packet radio), and SATNET
      (packet satellite).  All three of these networks have since been
      retired; but TCP/IP lives on.  It is currently used on a large
      international network of networks called the Internet, whose
      members include universities, other research institutions,
      government facilities, and many corporations.  TCP/IP is also
      sometimes used for other networks, particularly local area
      networks that tie together numerous different kinds of computers
      or tie together engineering workstations.

   What are the other well-known standard protocols
   in the TCP/IP family?

      Other than TCP and IP, the three main protocols in the TCP/IP
      suite are the Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) [8], the File
      Transfer Protocol (FTP) [3], and the TELNET Protocol [9].  There
      are many other protocols in use on the Internet.  The Internet
      Activities Board (IAB) regularly publishes an RFC [2] that
      describes the state of standardization of the various Internet
      protocols.  This document is the best guide to the current status
      of Internet protocols and their recommended usage.

5.  Questions About the Domain Name System

   What is the Domain Name System?

      The Domain Name System (DNS) is a hierarchical, distributed method
      of organizing the name space of the Internet.  The DNS
      administratively groups hosts into a hierarchy of authority that
      allows addressing and other information to be widely distributed
      and maintained.  A big advantage to the DNS is that using it
      eliminates dependence on a centrally-maintained file that maps
      host names to addresses.

   What is a Fully Qualified Domain Name?

      A Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN) is a domain name that
      includes all higher level domains relevant to the entity named.
      If you think of the DNS as a tree-structure with each node having
      its own label, a Fully Qualified Domain Name for a specific node
      would be its label followed by the labels of all the other nodes
      between it and the root of the tree.  For example, for a host, a
      FQDN would include the string that identifies the particular host,
      plus all domains of which the host is a part up to and including
      the top-level domain (the root domain is always null).  For
      example, PARIS.NISC.SRI.COM is a Fully Qualified Domain Name for
      the host at 192.33.33.109.  In addition, NISC.SRI.COM is the FQDN
      for the NISC domain.

6. Questions About Internet Documentation

   What is an RFC?

      The Request for Comments documents (RFCs) are working notes of the
      Internet research and development community.  A document in this
      series may be on essentially any topic related to computer
      communication, and may be anything from a meeting report to the
      specification of a standard.  Submissions for Requests for
      Comments may be sent to the RFC Editor (RFC-EDITOR@ISI.EDU).  The
      RFC Editor is Jon Postel.

      Most RFCs are the descriptions of network protocols or services,
      often giving detailed procedures and formats for their
      implementation.  Other RFCs report on the results of policy
      studies or summarize the work of technical committees or
      workshops.  All RFCs are considered public domain unless
      explicitly marked otherwise.

      While RFCs are not refereed publications, they do receive
      technical review from either the task forces, individual technical

      experts, or the RFC Editor, as appropriate.  Currently, most
      standards are published as RFCs, but not all RFCs specify
      standards.

      Anyone can submit a document for publication as an RFC.
      Submissions must be made via electronic mail to the RFC Editor.
      Please consult RFC 1111, "Instructions to RFC Authors" [10], for
      further information.  RFCs are accessible online in public access
      files, and a short message is sent to a notification distribution
      list indicating the availability of the memo.  Requests to be
      added to this distribution list should be sent to RFC-
      REQUEST@NIC.DDN.MIL.

      The online files are copied by interested people and printed or
      displayed at their sites on their equipment.  (An RFC may also be
      returned via electronic mail in response to an electronic mail
      query.) This means that the format of the online files must meet
      the constraints of a wide variety of printing and display
      equipment.

      Once a document is assigned an RFC number and published, that RFC
      is never revised or re-issued with the same number.  There is
      never a question of having the most recent version of a particular
      RFC.  However, a protocol (such as File Transfer Protocol (FTP))
      may be improved and re-documented many times in several different
      RFCs.  It is important to verify that you have the most recent RFC
      on a particular protocol.  The "IAB Official Protocol Standards"
      [2] memo is the reference for determining the correct RFC to refer
      to for the current specification of each protocol.

   How do I obtain RFCs?

      RFCs are available online at several repositories around the
      world.  For a list of repositories and instructions about how to
      obtain RFCs from each of the major US ones, FTP the file in-
      notes/rfc-retrieval.txt from the host ISI.EDU.  That host supports
      anonymous login.  You can also get information about RFC
      repositories via electronic mail.  Send a message to rfc-
      info@isi.edu.  In the body of the message, type
      "help: ways_to_get_rfcs" (without the quotes).

      Two examples of obtaining RFCs online follow.

      RFCs can be obtained via FTP from NIC.DDN.MIL, with the pathname
      rfc/rfcNNNN.txt (where "NNNN" refers to the number of the RFC).
      Login using FTP, username "anonymous" and password "guest".

      RFCs can also be obtained via FTP from NIS.NSF.NET.  Using FTP,

      login with username "anonymous" and password "guest"; then connect
      to the RFC directory ("cd RFC").  The file name is of the form
      RFCnnnn.TXT-1 (where "nnnn" refers to the number of the RFC).  The
      NIS also provides an automatic mail service for those sites which
      cannot use FTP.  Address the request to NIS-INFO@NIS.NSF.NET and
      leave the subject field of the message blank.  The first line of
      the text of the message must be "SEND RFCnnnn.TXT-1", where nnnn
      is replaced by the RFC number.

      Requests for special distribution should be addressed to either
      the author of the RFC in question, to NIC@NIC.DDN.MIL, or to
      NISC@NISC.SRI.COM.  SRI International operates the
      FTP.NISC.SRI.COM online repository of RFCs and other files, and
      makes the RFCs available in hardcopy for those people who have
      neither FTP nor e-mail access to the Internet.  Hardcopy RFCs are
      sold by SRI on a cost-recovery basis.  In addition, SRI has a
      hardcopy subscription service for RFCs, as well as several
      publications that incorporate selections of RFCs.  Unless
      specifically noted otherwise on the RFC itself, all RFCs are for
      unlimited distribution.

   How do I obtain a list of RFCs?

      SRI maintains a file that is an index of the RFCs.  It lists each
      RFC, starting with the most recent, and for each RFC provides the
      number, title, author(s), issue date, and number of hardcopy
      pages.  In addition, it lists the online formats (PostScript or
      ASCII text) for each RFC and the number of bytes each such version
      is online.  If an RFC is also an FYI, that fact is noted, with the
      corresponding FYI number.  (There is a parallel FYI Index
      available).  Finally, the Index notes whether or not an RFC is
      obsoleted or updated by another RFC, and gives the number of that
      RFC, or if an RFC itself obsoletes or updates another RFC, and
      gives that RFC number.  The index is updated online each time an
      RFC is issued.

      This RFC Index is available online for anonymous FTP from the
      FTP.NISC.SRI.COM host as rfc/rfc-index.txt.  The FYI Index is
      online as fyi/fyi-index.txt.  They are also available via
      electronic mail by sending a message to mail-server@nisc.sri.com.
      In the body of the message, say "send rfc-index" or "send fyi-
      index" (don't use quotes, but do use lowercase).  The RFC Index is
      also available from the SRI in hardcopy for $12, as are individual
      RFCs.  Call SRI at 1-415-859-3695 for help in obtaining the Index.

   What is the RFC-INFO service?

      The Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern
      California (ISI) has announced a service called RFC-Info.  Even
      though this is a service, rather than a document, we'll discuss it
      in this section because it is so closely tied to RFC information.

      RFC-Info is an e-mail based service to help in locating and
      retrival of RFCs and FYIs.  Users can ask for "lists" of all RFCs
      and FYIs having certain attributes ("filters") such as their ID,
      keywords, title, author, issuing organization, and date.  Once an
      RFC is uniquely identified (e.g., by its RFC number) it may also
      be retrieved.

      To use the service send e-mail to RFC-INFO@ISI.EDU with your
      requests in the body of the message.  Feel free to put anything in
      the SUBJECT, the system ignores it.  All input is case
      independent.  Report problems to RFC-MANAGER@ISI.EDU.

      To get started, you may send a message to RFC-INFO@ISI.EDU with
      requests such as in the following examples (without the
      explanations between brackets):

Help: Help              [to get this information]

List: FYI               [list the FYI notes]
List: RFC               [list RFCs with window as keyword or in title]
  keywords: window
List: FYI               [list FYIs about windows]
  Keywords: window
List: *                 [list both RFCs and FYIs about windows]
  Keywords: window
List: RFC               [list RFCs about ARPANET, ARPA NETWORK, etc.]
  title: ARPA*NET
List: RFC               [list RFCs issued by MITRE, dated 1989-1991]
  Organization: MITRE
  Dated-after:  Jan-01-1989
  Dated-before: Dec-31-1991
List: RFC               [list RFCs obsoleting a given RFC]
  Obsoletes: RFC0010
List: RFC               [list RFCs by authors starting with "Bracken"]
  Author: Bracken*      [* is a wild card matches everything]
List: RFC               [list RFCs by both Postel and Gillman]
  Authors: J. Postel    [note, the "filters" are ANDed]
  Authors: R. Gillman
List: RFC               [list RFCs by any Crocker]
  Authors: Crocker
List: RFC               [list only RFCs by S.D. Crocker]

  Authors: S.D. Crocker
List: RFC               [list only RFCs by D. Crocker]
  Authors: D. Crocker

Retrieve: RFC           [retrieve RFC-822]
  Doc-ID: RFC0822       [note, always 4 digits in RFC#]

Help: Manual            [to retrieve the long user manual, 30+ pages]
Help: List              [how to use the LIST request]
Help: Retrieve          [how to use the RETRIEVE request]
Help: Topics            [list topics for which help is available]
Help: Dates             ["Dates" is such a topic]
List: keywords          [list the keywords in use]
List: organizations     [list the organizations known to the system]

   Which RFCs are Standards?

      See "IAB Official Protocol Standards" (currently, RFC 1280) [2].

   What is an FYI?

      FYI stands for For Your Information.  FYIs are a subset of the RFC
      series of online documents.

      FYI 1 states, "The FYI series of notes is designed to provide
      Internet users with a central repository of information about any
      topics which relate to the Internet.  FYI topics may range from
      historical memos on operational questions.  The FYIs are intended
      for a wide audience.  Some FYIs will cater to beginners, while
      others will discuss more advanced topics."

      In general, then, FYI documents tend to be more information
      oriented, while RFCs are usually (but not always) more technically
      oriented.

      FYI documents are assigned both an FYI number and an RFC number.
      As RFCs, if an FYI is ever updated, it is issued again with a new
      RFC number; however, its FYI number remains unchanged.  This can
      be a little confusing at first, but the aim is to help users
      identify which FYIs are about which topics.  For example, FYI 4
      will always be FYI 4, even though it may be updated several times
      and during that process receive different RFC numbers.  Thus, you
      need only to remember the FYI number to find the proper document.
      Of course, remembering titles often works as well.

      FYIs can be obtained in the same way RFCs can and from the same
      repositories.  In general, their pathnames are fyi/fyiNN.txt or
      fyi/fyiNN.ps, where NN is the number of the FYI without leading

      zeroes.

   What is an STD?

      The newest subseries of RFCs are the STDs (Standards).  RFC 1311
      [12], which introduces this subseries, states that the intent of
      STDs is to identify clearly those RFCs that document Internet
      standards.  An STD number will be assigned only to those
      specifications that have completed the full process of
      standardization in the Internet.  Existing Internet standards have
      been assigned STD numbers; a list of them can be found both in RFC
      1311 and in the IAB Official Protocol Standards RFC.

      Like FYIs, once a standard has been assigned an STD number, that
      number will not change, even if the standard is reworked and re-
      specified and later issued with a new RFC number.

      It is important to differentiate between a "standard" and
      "document." Different RFC documents will always have different RFC
      numbers.  However, sometimes the complete specification for a
      standard will be contained in more than one RFC document.  When
      this happens, each of the RFC documents that is part of the
      specification for that standard will carry the same STD number.
      For example, the Domain Name System (DNS) is specified by the
      combination of RFC 1034 and RFC 1035; therefore, both of those
      RFCs are labeled STD 13.

   What is the Internet Monthly Report?

      The Internet Monthly Report communicates online to the Internet
      Research Group the accomplishments, milestones reached, or
      problems discovered by the participating organizations.  Many
      organizations involved in the Internet provide monthly updates of
      their activities for inclusion in this report.

      The Internet Monthly Report is for Internet information purposes
      only.

      You can receive the report online by joining the mailing list that
      distributes the rerpot.  Requests to be added or deleted from the
      Internet Monthly report list should be sent to "cooper@isi.edu".

      In addition, back issues of the Report are available for anonymous
      FTP from the host NIS.NSF.NET in the 'imr' directory with the file
      names in the form IMRYY-MM.TXT, where YY is the last two digits of
      the year and MM two digits for the month.  For example, the June
      1991 Report is in the file IMR91-06.TXT.

   What is an Internet Draft?  Are there any guidelines available for
   writing one?

      Internet Drafts (I-Ds) are the current working documents of the
      IETF.  Internet Drafts are generally in the format of an RFC with
      some key differences:

         -  The Internet Drafts are not RFCs and are not a numbered
            document series.

         -  The words INTERNET-DRAFT appear in place of RFC XXXX
            in the upper left-hand corner.

         -  The document does not refer to itself as an RFC or as a
            Draft RFC.

         -  An Internet Draft does not state nor imply that it is a
            proposed standard.  To do so conflicts with the role of
            the IAB, the RFC Editor, and the Internet Engineering
            Steering Group (IESG).

      An Internet Drafts Directory has been installed to make available,
      for review and comment by the IETF members, draft documents that
      will be submitted ultimately to the IAB and the RFC Editor to be
      considered for publishing as an RFC.  The Internet Drafts
      Directories are maintained primarily at the NSFNET Network Service
      Center (NNSC).  There are several "shadow" machines which contain
      the IETF and Internet Drafts Directories.  They are:

         NSF Network Service Center:  nnsc.nsf.net
         DDN NIC:  nic.ddn.mil
         SRI International: ftp.nisc.sri.com
         Pacific Rim:  munnari.oz.au
         Europe:  nic.nordu.net (192.36.148.17)

      To access these directories, use anonymous FTP.  Login with
      username, "anonymous", password, "guest".  Once logged in, change
      to the directory, "cd internet-drafts".  Internet Draft files can
      then be retrieved.

      For further information on the Internet Drafts of the IETF, or if
      you have problems with retrieving Internet Draft documents,
      contact Megan Davies (mdavies@nri.reston.va.us) or Greg Vaudreuil
      (gvaudre@nri.reston.va.us) for assistance.

   How do I obtain OSI Standards documents?

      OSI Standards documents are NOT available from the Internet via
      anonymous FTP due to copyright restrictions.  These are available
      from:

         Omnicom Information Service
         501 Church Street NE
         Suite 304
         Vienna, VA  22180  USA
         Telephone: (800) 666-4266 or (703) 281-1135
         Fax: (703) 281-1505

         American National Standards Institute
         11 West 42nd Street
         New York, NY  10036  USA
         Telephone: (212) 642-4900

      However, the GOSIP specification which covers the use of OSI
      protocols within the U.S. Government is available from SRI and
      from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST).
      The final text of GOSIP Version 2 is now available from both
      sites.

      Online sources:

         Available through anonymous ftp from osi.ncsl.nist.gov
         (129.6.48.100) as:

            ./pub/gosip/gosip_v2.txt        -- ascii
            ./pub/gosip/gosip_v2.txt.Z      -- ascii compressed
            ./pub/gosip/gosip_v2.ps         -- PostScript
            ./pub/gosip/gosip_v2.ps.Z       -- PostScript compressed

         Available through anonymous ftp from ftp.nisc.sri.com
         (192.33.33.22) as:

            netinfo/gosip-v2.txt        -- ascii
            netinfo/gosip-v2.ps         -- PostScript

         Hardcopy sources:

            Standards Processing Coordinator (ADP)
            National Institute of Standards and Technology
            Technology Building, Room B-64
            Gaithersburg, MD  20899
            (301) 975-2816

            Network Information Systems Center
            SRI International, Room EJ291
            333 Ravenswood Ave.
            Menlo Park, CA  94025
            1-415-859-3695

7. Questions about Internet Organizations and Contacts

   What is the IAB?

      The Internet Activities Board (IAB) is the coordinating committee
      for Internet design, engineering and management [7].  IAB members
      are deeply committed to making the Internet function effectively
      and evolve to meet a large scale, high speed future.  The chairman
      serves a term of two years and is elected by the members of the
      IAB.  The current Chair of the IAB is Lyman Chapin.  The IAB
      focuses on the TCP/IP protocol suite, and extensions to the
      Internet system to support multiple protocol suites.

      The IAB performs the following functions:

         1)   Sets Internet Standards,

         2)   Manages the RFC publication process,

         3)   Reviews the operation of the IETF and IRTF,

         4)   Performs strategic planning for the Internet, identifying
              long-range problems and opportunities,

         5)   Acts as an international technical policy liaison and
              representative for the Internet community, and

         6)   Resolves technical issues which cannot be treated within
              the IETF or IRTF frameworks.

      The IAB has two principal subsidiary task forces:

         1)  Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)

         2)  Internet Research Task Force (IRTF)

      Each of these Task Forces is led by a chairman and guided by a
      Steering Group which reports to the IAB through its chairman.  For
      the most part, a collection of Research or Working Groups carries
      out the work program of each Task Force.

      All decisions of the IAB are made public.  The principal vehicle
      by which IAB decisions are propagated to the parties interested in
      the Internet and its TCP/IP protocol suite is the Request for
      Comments (RFC) note series and the Internet Monthly Report.

   What is the IETF?

      The Internet has grown to encompass a large number of widely
      geographically dispersed networks in academic and research
      communities.  It now provides an infrastructure for a broad
      community with various interests.  Moreover, the family of
      Internet protocols and system components has moved from
      experimental to commercial development.  To help coordinate the
      operation, management and evolution of the Internet, the IAB
      established the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

      The IETF is chaired by Phill Gross and managed by its Internet
      Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  The IETF is a large open
      community of network designers, operators, vendors, and
      researchers concerned with the Internet and the Internet protocol
      suite.  It is organized around a set of several technical areas,
      each managed by a technical area director.  In addition to the
      IETF Chairman, the area directors make up the IESG membership.

      The IAB has delegated to the IESG the general responsibility for
      making the Internet work and for the resolution of all short- and
      mid-range protocol and architectural issues required to make the
      Internet function effectively.

   What is the IRTF?

      To promote research in networking and the development of new
      technology, the IAB established the Internet Research Task Force
      (IRTF).

      In the area of network protocols, the distinction between research
      and engineering is not always clear, so there will sometimes be
      overlap between activities of the IETF and the IRTF.  There is, in
      fact, considerable overlap in membership between the two groups.
      This overlap is regarded as vital for cross-fertilization and
      technology transfer.

      The IRTF is a community of network researchers, generally with an
      Internet focus.  The work of the IRTF is governed by its Internet
      Research Steering Group (IRSG).  The chairman of the IRTF and IRSG
      is Jon Postel.

   What is the Internet Society?

      The Internet Society is a relatively new, professional, non-profit
      organization with the general goal of fostering the well-being and
      continued interest in, and evolution and use of the Internet.  The
      Society (often abbreviated ISOC) anticipates that it will
      integrate the IAB, IETF, and IRTF functions into its operation.

      The following goals of the Society are taken from its charter:

             A.  To facilitate and support the technical evolution of
         the Internet as a research and education infrastructure, and to
         stimulate the involvement of the scientific community,
         industry, government and others in the evolution of the
         Internet;

             B.  To educate the scientific community, industry and the
         public at large concerning the technology, use and application
         of the Internet;

             C.  To promote educational applications of Internet
         technology for the benefit of government, colleges and
         universities, industry, and the public at large;

             D.  To provide a forum for exploration of new Internet
         applications, and to stimulate collaboration among
         organizations in their operational use of the global Internet.

      More information about the Internet Society is available for
      anonymous FTP from the host NNSC.NSF.NET in the directory isoc.
      Here is a list of the files available:

      Filename (Topic)          Description

      index-isoc                An index of the isoc directory

      announcement              Internet Society Announcement

      charter                   Internet Society Charter

      inet-conference           INET 92 Internet Society Annual Meeting
                                Announcement and Call for Participation

      isoc-advisory-council     The Internet Society advisory council

      isoc-founding-members     List of the Internet Society founding
                                members

      isoc-secretariat          Information about the Internet Society
                                secretariat

      isoc-trustees             List of the Internet Society trustees

      questions-and-answers     Internet Society Questions & Answers
                                by Vint Cerf

      membership-organizations  Internet Society Organizational
                                Membership Form

      membership-individuals    Internet Society Individual Membership
                                Form

      This information is also available via electronic mail via the
      NNSC Info-Server.  The Info-Server is an automated program that
      retrieves information through electronic mail.  To receive these
      files via the Info-Server, send a mail message to: info-
      server@nnsc.nsf.net. In the body of the message, type "Request:
      isoc" followed by the topic names of any files you'd like.  For
      example:

         Request: isoc
         Topic:   inet-conference
         Topic:   questions-and-answers
         Topic:   charter
         Topic:   announcement
         Request: end

      Notice that the "Topics" for the Info-Server correspond to the
      file names used when FTPing.

   What is the IANA?

      The task of coordinating the assignment of values to the
      parameters of protocols is delegated by the Internet Activities
      Board (IAB) to the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA).
      These protocol parameters include op-codes, type fields, terminal
      types, system names, object identifiers, and so on.  The "Assigned
      Numbers" Request for Comments (RFC) [1] documents the currently
      assigned values from several series of numbers used in network
      protocol implementations.  Internet addresses and Autonomous
      System numbers are assigned by the Network Information Center at
      Network Solutions, Inc.  This responsibility has been delegated by
      the IANA to the DDN NIC which serves as the Internet Registry.
      The IANA is located at USC/Information Sciences Institute.

      Current types of assignments listed in Assigned Numbers and

      maintained by the IANA are:

         Address Resolution Protocol Parameters
         ARPANET and MILNET X.25 Address Mappings
         ARPANET and MILNET Logical Addresses
         ARPANET and MILNET Link Numbers
         BOOTP Parameters and BOOTP Extension Codes
         Domain System Parameters
         IANA Ethernet Address Blocks
         Ethernet Numbers of Interest
         IEEE 802 Numbers of Interest
         Internet Protocol Numbers
         Internet Version Numbers
         IP Time to Live Parameter
         IP TOS Parameters
         Machine Names
         Mainl Encryption Types
         Multicast Addresses
         Network Management Parameters
         Point-to-Point Protocol Field Assignments
         PRONET 80 Type Numbers
         Port Assignments
         Protocol and Service Names
         Protocol/Type Field Assignments
         Public Data Network Numbers
         Reverse Address Resolution Protocol Operation Codes
         TELNET Options
         Terminal Type Names
         Unix Ports
         X.25 Type Numbers

      For more information on number assignments, contact IANA@ISI.EDU.

   What is a NIC?  What is a NOC?

      "NIC" stands for Network Information Center.  It is an
      organization which provides network users with information about
      services provided by the network.

      "NOC" stands Network Operations Center.  It is an organization
      that is responsible for maintaining a network.

      For many networks, especially smaller, local networks, the
      functions of the NIC and NOC are combined.  For larger networks,
      such as mid-level and backbone networks, the NIC and NOC
      organizations are separate, yet they do need to interact to fully
      perform their functions.

   What is "The NIC"?

      "The NIC" usually refers to the Defense Data Network, Network
      Information Center (DDN NIC), which is now at Network Solutions,
      Inc.  The DDN NIC is a network information center that maintains a
      repository for RFCs and Internet Drafts.  The host name is
      NIC.DDN.MIL.  Shadow copies of the RFCs and the Internet Drafts
      are maintained on several other hosts as well, including
      NIS.NSF.NET and FTP.NISC.SRI.COM.

      The DDN NIC also provides various user assistance services for DDN
      users; contact NIC@NIC.DDN.MIL or call 1-800-365-3642 for more
      information.  In addition, the DDN NIC is the Internet
      registration authority for the root domain and several top and
      second level domains; maintains the official DoD Internet Host
      Table; is the site of the Internet Registry (IR); and maintains
      the WHOIS database of network users, hosts, domains, networks, and
      Points of Contact.

      This NIC was located for many years at SRI International, so you
      may also hear the term "SRI NIC".  SRI also maintains an online
      information repository and provides general Internet information
      services.  For example, the SRI Network Information Systems Center
      is currently the only site that provides paper copies of the RFCs,
      which are made available on a cost recovery basis.  Call 415-859-
      3695 for more information on this service.

   What is the IR?

      The Internet Registry (IR) is the organization that is responsible
      for assigning identifiers, such as IP network numbers and
      autonomous system numbers, to networks.  The IR also gathers and
      registers such assigned information.  The IR may, in the future,
      allocate the authority to assign network identifiers to other
      organizations; however, it will continue to gather data regarding
      such assignments.  At present, the DDN NIC at Network Solutions,
      Inc., serves as the IR.

8. Questions About Services

   How do I find someone's electronic mail address?

      There are a number of directories on the Internet; however, all of
      them are far from complete.  The largest directories are the WHOIS
      database at the DDN NIC, the PSInet White Pages, and KNOWBOT.
      Generally, it is still necessary to ask the person for his or her
      email address.

   How do I use the WHOIS program at the DDN NIC?

      To use the WHOIS program to search the WHOIS database at the DDN
      NIC, TELNET to the NIC host, NIC.DDN.MIL.  There is no need to
      login.  Type "whois" to call up the information retrieval program.
      Next, type the name of the person, host, domain, network, or
      mailbox for which you need information.  If you are only typing
      part of the name, end your search string with a period.  Type
      "help" for a more in-depth explanation of what you can search for
      and how you can search.  If you have trouble, send a message to
      NIC@NIC.DDN.MIL or call 1-800-365-3642.

   How do I become registered in the DDN NIC's WHOIS database?

      If you would like to be listed in the WHOIS database, you must
      have an electronic mailbox accessible from the Internet.  First
      obtain the file netinfo/user-template.txt.  You can retrieve this
      file via anonymous FTP from NIC.DDN.MIL.

      Fill out the name and address information requested in the file
      and return it to REGISTRAR@NIC.DDN.MIL.  Your application will be
      processed and you will be added to the database.  Unless you are
      an official Point of Contact for a network entity registered at
      the DDN NIC, the DDN NIC will not regularly poll you for updates,
      so you should remember to send corrections to your information as
      your contact data changes.

   How do I use the White Pages at PSI?

      Performance Systems International, Inc. (PSI), sponsors a White
      Pages Pilot Project that collects personnel information from
      member organizations into a database and provides online access to
      that data.  This effort is based on the OSI X.500 Directory
      standard.

      To access the data, TELNET to WP.PSI.COM and login as "fred" (no
      password is necessary).  You may now look up information on
      participating organizations.  The program provides help on usage.
      For example, typing "help" will show you a list of commands,
      "manual" will give detailed documentation, and "whois" will
      provide information regarding how to find references to people.
      For a list of the organizations that are participating in the
      pilot project by providing information regarding their members,
      type "whois -org *".

      For more information, send a message to WP-INFO@PSI.COM.

   How do I use the Knowbot Information Service?

      The Knowbot Information Service is a white pages "meta-service"
      that provides a uniform interface to heterogeneous white pages
      services in the Internet.  Using the Knowbot Information Service,
      you can form a single query that can search for white pages
      information from the NIC WHOIS service, the PSI White Pages Pilot
      Project, and MCI Mail, among others, and have the responses
      displayed in a single, uniform format.

      Currently, the Knowbot Information Service can be accessed through
      TELNET to port 185 on hosts nri.reston.va.us and sol.bucknell.edu.
      From a UNIX host, use "telnet nri.reston.va.us 185".  There is
      also an electronic mail interface avaliable by sending mail to
      netaddress at either nri.reston.va.us or sol.bucknell.edu.

      The commands "help" and "man" summarize the command interface.
      Simply entering a user name at the prompt searches a default list
      of Internet directory services for the requested information.
      Organization and country information can be included thorgh the
      syntax: "userid@organization.country".  For example, the queries
      "droms@bucknell" and "kille@ucl.gb" are both valid.  Note that
      these are not Domain Names, but rather a syntax to specify an
      organization and a country for the search.

      The default list of directory services currently includes the
      whois services at the DDN NIC and the white pages service for
      MCIMail.  If an organization is specified, the PSI X.500 service
      is also searched.  Other services can be requested explicitly.

   What is USENET?  What is Netnews?

      USENET is the formal name, and Netnews a common informal name, for
      a distributed computer information service that some hosts on the
      Internet use.  USENET handles only news and not mail.  USENET uses
      a variety of underlying networks for transport, including parts of
      the Internet, UUCP, BITNET, and others.  USENET is not part of the
      Internet proper.  Netnews can be a valuable tool to economically
      transport traffic that would otherwise be sent via mail.  USENET
      has no central administration.

   How do I get on USENET?

      To get on USENET, you must acquire the software, which is
      available for some computers at no cost from some anonymous FTP
      sites across the Internet, and you must find an existing USENET
      site that is willing to support a connection to your computer.  In
      many cases, this "connection" merely represents additional traffic

      over existing Internet access channels.

      One well-known anonymous FTP archive site for software and
      information regarding USENET is ftp.uu.net.  There is a "news"
      directory which contains many software distribution and
      information sub-directories.

      It is recommended that new users subscribe to and read
      news.announce.newusers since it will help to become oriented to
      USENET and the Internet.

   What is anonymous FTP?

      Anonymous FTP is a conventional way of allowing you to sign on to
      a computer on the Internet and copy specified public files from it
      [3].  Some sites offer anonymous FTP to distribute software and
      various kinds of information.  You use it like any FTP, but the
      username is "anonymous".  Many systems will allow any password and
      request that the password you choose is your userid.  If this
      fails, the generic password is usually "guest".

   What is "archie"?

      The archie system was created by a group at McGill University in
      Montreal to automatically track anonymous FTP archive sites, and
      this is still its primary function.  The system curently makes
      available the names and locations of some 1,500,000 files at some
      900 archive sites.

      Archie's User Access component allows you to search the "files"
      database for these filenames.  When matches are found, you are
      presented with the appropriate archive site name, IP address, the
      location within the archive, and other useful information.

      You can also use archie to "browse" through a site's complete
      listing in search of information of interest, or obtain a complete
      list of the archive sites known to that server.

      The archie server also offers a "package descriptions" (or
      "whatis") database. This is a collection of names and descriptions
      gathered from a variety of sources and can be used to identify
      files located throughout the Internet, as well as other useful
      information.  Files identified in the whatis database can then be
      found by searching the files database as described above.
      Additional databases are planned for the coming months.

   How do I connect to archie?

      You can connect to archie in a variety of ways. There is a
      conventional TELNET interface, an electronic mail interface, and a
      variety of client programs available.  There are currently nine
      archie servers located throughout the world.

      To try the TELNET interface to archie you can TELNET to the host
      ARCHIE.MCGILL.CA and login as user "archie" (there is no password
      required).  Type "help" to get you started.  The "servers" command
      can be used to locate an archie server closer to your site.  Using
      an archie server closer to you relieves some of the load on the
      McGill host.

      You can obtain details on using the electronic mail interface by
      sending mail to "archie@archie.mcgill.ca" with the word "help" in
      either the subject or body of the message.

      Documentation on archie is available for anonymous ftp from
      ARCHIE.MCGILL.CA in the subdirectory "archie/doc".  A variety of
      archie client programs are available in the subdirectory
      "archie/clients".  Questions, comments, and suggestions can be
      sent to the archie development group by sending mail to "archie-
      group@archie.mcgill.ca".

   What is "TELNET"?

      The term "TELNET" refers to the remote login that's possible on
      the Internet because of the TELNET Protocol [9].  The use of this
      term as a verb, as in "telnet to a host" means to establish a
      connection across the Internet from one host to another.  Usually,
      you must have an account on the remote host to be able to login to
      it once you've made a connection.  However, some hosts, such as
      those offering white pages directories, provide public services
      that do not require a personal account.

9. Mailing Lists and Sending Mail

   What is a mailing list?

      A mailing list is really nothing more than an alias that has
      multiple destinations.  Mailing lists are usually created to
      discuss specific topics.  Anybody interested in that topic, may
      (usually) join that list.  Some mailing lists have membership
      restrictions, others have message content restrictions, and still
      others are moderated.  Most large, "public" mailing lists, such as
      IETF and TCP-IP, have an additional mail address to which requests
      to be added or deleted may be sent.  Usually, these are of the

      form listname-request.

      There is a "list-of-lists" file available on the host
      ftp.nisc.sri.com that lists most of the major mailing lists,
      describes their primary topics, and explains how to subscribe to
      them.  The file is available for anonymous ftp in the netinfo
      directory as interest-groups (that is, the path is:
      netinfo/interest-groups).  It can also be obtained via electronic
      mail.  Send a message to mail-server@nisc.sri.com with the body of
      the message reading, "Send netinfo/interest-groups" and the file
      will be returned in moderate size pieces via electronic mail.

   How do I contact the administrator of a mailing list rather than
      posting to the entire list?

      For every mailing list mentioned in the "interest-groups" file,
      there is a description of how to join the list or send other such
      administrative messages to the person in charge of the list.  In
      general, however, it is usually safe to assume that you can send a
      message to an address in the format of ListName-request@domain.
      The convention of having a parallel mailbox conforming to the "-
      request" format is very widely followed.  All administrative
      messages regarding using, joining, or quitting the list should be
      sent to that mailbox instead of to the whole list so that the
      readers of the list don't have to read them.

   What are some good mailing lists?

      The TCP-IP, IETF, and RFC Distribution lists are primary lists for
      new Internet users who desire further information about current
      and emerging developments in the Internet.  The first two lists
      are unmoderated discussion lists, and the latter is an
      announcement service used by the RFC Editor.

   How do I subscribe to the TCP-IP mailing list?

      To be added to the TCP-IP mailing list, send a message to:

         TCP-IP-REQUEST@NIC.DDN.MIL

   How do I subscribe to the IETF mailing list?

      To be added to the IETF mailing list, send a message to:

         IETF-REQUEST@ISI.EDU

   How do I subscribe to the RFC Distribution list?

      To be added to the RFC Distribution list, send a message to:

         RFC-REQUEST@NIC.DDN.MIL

      Note that all announcements to this list are also sent to the IETF
      list.  So, if you are on the IETF list, you don't need to be on
      this list, too.

   How do I send mail to other networks?

      Mail to the Internet is addressed in the form user@domain.
      Remember that a domain name can have several components and the
      name of each host is a node on the domain tree.  So, an example of
      an Internet mail address is june@nisc.sri.com.

      There are several networks accessible via e-mail from the
      Internet, but many of these networks do not use the same
      addressing conventions the Internet does.  Often you must route
      mail to these networks through specific gateways as well, thus
      further complicating the address.

      Here are a few conventions you can use for sending mail from the
      Internet to three networks with which Internet users often
      correspond.

        Internet user to Internet user:

          username@hostname.subdomain.toplevel domain
          e.g. gsmith@nisc.sri.COM

        Internet user to BITNET user:

          user%site.BITNET@BITNET-GATEWAY
          e.g. gsmith%emoryu1.BITNET@cunyvm.cuny.edu.
               gsmith%emoryu1@CORNELLC.CIT.CORNELL.EDU

        Internet user to UUCP user:

          user%host.UUCP@uunet.uu.net
          user%domain@uunet.uu.net

        Internet user to SprintMail user:

          /G=Mary/S=Anderson/O=co.abc/ADMD=SprintMail/C=US/@SPRINT.COM
          -or-
          /PN=Mary.Anderson/O=co.abc/ADMD=SprintMail/C=US/@SPRINT.COM
          (Case is significant.)

        Internet user to CompuServe user:

                Replace the comma in the CompuServe userid (represented
        here
                with x's) with a period, and add the compuserve.com
        domain         name.

        CompuServe user to Internet user:

                >Internet:user@host         Insert >internet: before an
        Internet address.

        Internet user to MCIMail user:

          accountname@mcimail.com
          mci_id@mcimail.com
          full_user_name@mcimail.com.

   What is a newsgroup?

      A newsgroup is a bulletin board which readers, interested in that
      newsgroup's particular topic, can read and respond to messages
      posted by other readers.  Generally, there will be a few "threads"
      of discussion going on at the same time, but they all share some
      common theme.  There are approximately 900 newsgroups, and there
      are more being added all the time.

      There are two types of newsgroups: moderated and unmoderated.  A
      moderated newsgroup does not allow individuals to post directly to
      the newsgroup.  Rather, the postings go to the newsgroup's
      moderator who determines whether or not to pass the posting to the
      entire group.  An unmoderated newsgroup allows a reader to post
      directly to the other readers.

   How do I subscribe to a newsgroup?

      You don't subscribe to a newsgroup.  Either you get it on your
      machine or you don't.  If there's one you want, all you can do is
      ask the systems administrator to try to get it for you.  The same
      is true for creating newsgroups.

10. Miscellaneous "Internet lore" questions

   What does :-) mean?

      In many electronic mail messages, it is sometimes useful to
      indicate that part of a message is meant in jest.  It is also
      sometimes useful to communicate emotion which simple words do not
      readily convey.  To provide these nuances, a collection of "smiley
      faces" has evolved.  If you turn your head sideways to the left,
      :-) appears as a smiling face.  Some of the more common faces are:

         :-)  smile                    :-(  frown

         :)   also a smile             ;-)  wink

         :-D  laughing                 8-)  wide-eyed

         :-}  grin                     :-X  close mouthed

         :-]  smirk                    :-o  oh, no!

   What do "btw", "fyi", "imho", "wrt", and "rtfm" mean?

      Often commmon expressions are abbreviated in informal network
      postings.  These abbreviations stand for "by the way", "for your
      information", "in my humble [or honest] opinion", "with respect
      to", and "read the f*ing manual" (with the "f" word varying
      according to the vehemence of the reader).

   What is the "FAQ" list?

      This list provides answers to "Frequently Asked Questions" that
      often appear on various USENET newsgroups.  The list is posted
      every four to six weeks to the news.announce.newusers group.  It
      is intended to provide a background for new users learning how to
      use the news.  As the FAQ list provide new users with the answers
      to such questions, it helps keep the newsgroups themselves
      comparatively free of repetition.  Often specific newsgroups will
      have and frequently post versions of a FAQ list that are specific
      to their topics.

      Other information is also routinely posted.  Here are the subject
      lines of several general information postings provided on USENET:

         Answers to Frequently Asked Questions  (the "FAQ" list)
         Introduction to news.announce
         What is Usenet?
         Rules for posting to Usenet

         How to Create a New Newsgroup
         How to Create a New Trial Newsgroup
         A Primer on How to Work With the Usenet Community
         Emily Postnews Answers Your Questions on Netiquette
         Hints on writing style for Usenet
         USENET Software: History and Sources
         List of Active Newsgroups
         Alternative Newsgroup Hierarchies, Part I
         Alternative Newsgroup Hierarchies, Part II
         How to Construct the Mailpaths File
         Regional Newsgroup Hierarchies, Part I
         Regional Newsgroup Hierarchies, Part II
         Regional Newsgroup Hierarchies, Part III
         List of Moderators
         Publicly Accessible Mailing Lists, Part I
         Publicly Accessible Mailing Lists, Part II
         Publicly Accessible Mailing Lists, Part III
         List of Periodic Informational Postings
         How to Get Information about Networks
         A Guide to Social Newsgroups and Mailing Lists

      All of these articles are normally archived for FTP access on
      pit-manager.mit.edu in /pub/usenet/news.announce.newusers.

11. Suggested Reading

   For further information about the Internet and its protocols in
   general, you may choose to obtain copies of the following works:

      Bowers, K., T. LaQuey, J. Reynolds, K. Roubicek, M. Stahl, and A.
      Yuan, "Where to Start - A Bibliography of General Internetworking
      Information", RFC 1175, FYI 3, CNRI, U Texas, ISI, BBN, SRI,
      Mitre, August 1990.

      Comer, D., "Internetworking with TCP/IP: Principles, Protocols,
      and Architecture", Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1989.

      Krol, E., "The Hitchhikers Guide to the Internet", RFC 1118,
      University of Illinois Urbana, September 1989.

12. References

   [1] Reynolds, J., and J. Postel, "Assigned Numbers", RFC 1060,
       USC/Information Sciences Institute, March 1990.

   [2] Postel, J., Editor, "IAB Official Protocol Standards", RFC 1280,
       Internet Activities Board, March 1992.

   [3] Postel, J., and J. Reynolds, "File Transfer Protocol (FTP), RFC
       959, USC/Information Sciences Institute, October 1985.

   [4] Postel, J., "Internet Protocol - DARPA Internet Program Protocol
       Specification", RFC 791, DARPA, September 1981.

   [5] Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol - DARPA Internet
       Program Protocol Specification", RFC 793, DARPA, September 1981.

   [6] Leiner, B., R. Cole, J. Postel, and D. Mills, "The DARPA Internet
       Protocol Suite", IEEE INFOCOM85, Washington D.C., March 1985.
       Also in IEEE Communications Magazine, March 1985.  Also as
       ISI/RS-85-153.

   [7] Cerf, V., "The Internet Activities Board" RFC 1160, CNRI, May
       1990.

   [8] Postel, J., "Simple Mail Transfer Protocol", RFC 821,
       USC/Information Sciences Institute, August 1982.

   [9] Postel, J., and J. Reynolds, "TELNET Protocol Specification", RFC
       854, USC/Information Sciences Institute, May 1983.

  [10] Postel, J., "Request for Comments on Request for Comments -
       Instructions to RFC Authors", RFC 1111, USC/Information Sciences
       Institute, August 1989.

  [11] Malkin, G., A. Marine, and J. Reynolds, "FYI on Questions and
       Answers: Answers to Commonly Asked 'Experienced Internet User'
       Questions", FYI 7, RFC 1207, FTP Software, SRI, USC/Information
       Sciences Institute, February 1991.

  [12] Postel, J., "Introduction to the STD Notes", RFC 1311,
       USC/Information Sciences Institute, March 1992.

13. Condensed Glossary

   As with any profession, computers have a particular terminology all
   their own.  Below is a condensed glossary to assist in making some
   sense of the Internet world.

   ACM     Association for Computing Machinery
           A group established in 1947 to promote professional
           development and research on computers.

   address There are two separate uses of this term in internet
           networking: "electronic mail address" and "internet
           address".   An electronic mail address is the string
           of characters that you must give an electronic mail
           program to direct a message to a particular person.
           See "internet address" for its definition.

   AI      Artificial Intelligence
           The branch of computer science which deals with the
           simulation of human intelligence by computer systems.

   AIX     Advanced Interactive Executive
           IBM's version of Unix.

   ANSI    American National Standards Institute
           A group that certifies organizations which develop U.S.
           standards for the information processing industry.  ANSI
           accredited groups participate in defining network protocol
           standards.

   ARP     Address Resolution Protocol
           An Internet protocol which runs on Ethernet and all IEEE
           802.X LANs which maps internet addresses to MAC addresses.

   ARPA    Advanced Research Projects Agency
           The former name of what is now called DARPA.

   ARPANET Advanced Research Projects Agency Network
           A pioneering long haul network funded by ARPA.  It
           served as the basis for early networking research as
           well as a central backbone during the development of
           the Internet.  The ARPANET consisted of individual
           packet  switching computers interconnected by leased lines.

   AS      Autonomous System
           A collection of gateways (routers) under a single
           administrative authority using a common Interior Gateway
           Protocol for routing packets.

   ASCII   American (National) Standard Code for Information Interchange

   B       Byte
           One character of information, usually eight bits wide.

   b       bit - binary digit
           The smallest amount of information which may be stored
           in a computer.

   BBN     Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc.
           The Cambridge, MA company responsible for development,
           operation and monitoring of the ARPANET, and later,
           the Internet core gateway system, the CSNET Coordination
           and Information Center (CIC), and NSFNET Network
           Service Center (NNSC).

   BITNET  Because It's Time Network
           BITNET has about 2,500 host computers, primarily at
           universities, in many countries.  It is managed by
           EDUCOM, which provides administrative support and
           information services.  There are three
           main constituents of the network: BITNET in the United
           States and Mexico, NETNORTH in Canada, and EARN in
           Europe.  There are also AsiaNet, in Japan, and
           connections in South America.  See CREN.

   bps     bits per second
           A measure of data transmission speed.

   BSD     Berkeley Software Distribution
           Term used when describing different versions
           of the Berkeley UNIX software, as in "4.3BSD
           UNIX".

   catenet A network in which hosts are connected to networks
           with varying characteristics, and the networks
           are interconnected by gateways (routers).  The
           Internet is an example of a catenet.

   CCITT   International Telegraph and Telephone
           Consultative Committee

   core gateway
           Historically, one of a set of gateways (routers)
           operated by the Internet Network Operations Center
           at BBN.  The core gateway system forms a central part

           of Internet routing in that all groups had to advertise
           paths to their networks from a core gateway.

   CREN    The Corporation for Research and Educational Networking
           BITNET and CSNET have recently merged to form CREN.

   CSNET   Computer + Science Network
           A large data communications network for institutions doing
           research in computer science.   It uses several different
           protocols including some of its own.  CSNET sites include
           universities, research laboratories, and commercial
           companies.  See CREN.

   DARPA   U.S. Department of Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency
           The government agency that funded the ARPANET and later
           started the Internet.

   Datagram
           A self-contained, independent entity of data carrying
           sufficient information to be routed from the source
           to the destination data terminal equipment without
           reliance on earlier exchanges between this source
           and destination data terminal equipment and the
           transporting network.

   DCA     Defense Communications Agency
           Former name of the Defense Information Systems Agency
           (DISA).  See DISA.

   DDN     Defense Data Network
           Comprises the MILNET and several other DoD networks.

   DDN NIC The network information center at Network Solutions, Inc.
           It is the primary repository for RFCs and Internet Drafts,
           as well as providing other services.

   DEC     Digital Equipment Corporation

   DECnet  Digital Equipment Corporation network
           A networking protocol for DEC computers and network devices.

   default route
           A routing table entry which is used to direct any data
           addressed to any network numbers not explicitly listed
           in the routing table.

   DISA    Defense Information Systems Agency
           Formerly called DCA, this is the government agency
           responsible for installing the Defense Data Network
           (DDN) portion of the Internet, including the MILNET
           lines and nodes.  Currently, DISA administers the
           DDN, and supports the user assistance services of the
           DDN NIC.

   DNS     The Domain Name System is a mechanism used in
           the Internet for translating names of host computers
           into addresses.  The DNS also allows host computers
           not directly on the Internet to have registered
           names in the same style, but returns the electronic
           mail gateway which accesses the non-Internet network
           instead of an IP address.

   DOD     U.S. Department of Defense

   DOE     U.S. Department of Energy

   dot address (dotted address notation)
           Dot address refers to the common notation for Internet
           addresses of the form A.B.C.D; where each letter represents,
           in decimal, one byte of the four byte IP address.

   Dynamic Adaptive Routing
           Automatic rerouting of traffic based on a sensing and analysis
           of current actual network conditions.  NOTE: this does not
           include cases of routing decisions taken on predefined
           information.

   EARN    European Academic Research Network

   EBCDIC  Extended Binary-coded Decimal Interchange Code

   EGP     Exterior Gateway Protocol
           A protocol which distributes routing information to the
           gateways (routers) which connect autonomous systems.

   Ethernet
           A network standard for the hardware and data link levels.
           There are two types of Ethernet: Digital/Intel/Xerox (DIX)
           and IEEE 802.3.

   FDDI    Fiber Distributed Data Interface
           FDDI is a high-speed (100Mb) token ring LAN.

   FIPS    Federal Information Processing Standard

   FTP     File Transfer Protocol
           The Internet standard high-level protocol for
           transferring files from one computer to another.

   gateway See router

   GB      Gigabyte
           A unit of data storage size which represents 10^9 (one
           billion) characters of information.

   Gb      Gigabit
           10^9 bits of information (usually used to express a
           data transfer rate; as in, 1 gigabit/second = 1Gbps).

   GNU     Gnu's Not UNIX
           A UNIX-compatible operating system developed by the
           Free Software Foundation.

   header  The portion of a packet, preceding the actual data,
           containing source and destination addresses and
           error-checking fields.

   host number
           The part of an internet address that designates which
           node on the (sub)network is being addressed.

   HP      Hewlett-Packard

   I/O     Input/Output

   IAB     Internet Activities Board
           The IAB is the coordinating committee for Internet
           design, engineering and management.

   IBM     International Business Machines Corporation

   ICMP    Internet Control Message Protocol
           ICMP is an extension to the Internet Protocol.  It
           allows for the generation of error messages,
           test packets and informational messages related to IP.

   IEEE    Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers

   IETF    Internet Engineering Task Force
           The IETF is a large open community of network designers,
           operators, vendors, and researchers whose purpose is to
           coordinate the operation, management and evolution of
           the Internet, and to resolve short- and mid-range
           protocol and architectural issues.  It is a major source
           of proposed protocol standards which are submitted to the
           Internet Activities Board for final approval.  The IETF
           meets three times a year and extensive minutes of the
           plenary proceedings are issued.

   internet
   internetwork
           Any connection of two or more local or wide-area networks.

   Internet
           The global collection of interconnected local, mid-level and
           wide-area networks which use IP as the network layer
           protocol.

   internet address
           An assigned number which identifies a host in an internet.
           It has two or three parts: network number, optional subnet
           number, and host number.

   IP      Internet Protocol
           The network layer protocol for the Internet.  It is a packet
           switching, datagram protocol defined in RFC 791.

   IRTF    Internet Research Task Force
           The IRTF is a community of network researchers,
           generally with an Internet focus.  The work of the IRTF
           is governed by its Internet Research Steering Group (IRSG).

   ISO     International Organization for Standardization

   KB      Kilobyte
           A unit of data storage size which represents 10^3
           (one thousand) characters of information.

   Kb      Kilobit
           10^3 bits of information (usually used to express a
           data transfer rate; as in, 1 kilobit/second = 1Kbps = 1Kb).

   LAN     Local Area Network
           A network that takes advantage of the proximity of computers
           to offer relatively efficient, higher speed communications
           than long-haul or wide-area networks.

   LISP    List Processing Language
           A high-level computer language invented by Professor John
           McCarthy in 1961 to support research into computer based
           logic, logical reasoning, and artificial intelligence.  It
           was the first symbolic (as opposed to numeric) computer
           processing language.

   MAC     Medium Access Control
           For broadcast networks, it is the method which devices use
           to determine which device has line access at any given
           time.

   Mac     Apple Macintosh computer.

   MAN     Metropolitan Area Network

   MB      Megabyte
           A unit of data storage size which represents
           10^6 (one million) characters of information.

   Mb      Megabit
           10^6 bits of information (usually used to express a
           data transfer rate; as in, 1 megabit/second = 1Mbps).

   MILNET  Military Network
           A network used for unclassified military production
           applications.  It is part of the DDN and the Internet.

   MIT     Massachusetts Institute of Technology

   MTTF    Mean Time to Failure
           The average time between hardware breakdown or loss of
           service.  This may be an empirical measurement or a
           calculation based on the MTTF of component parts.

   MTTR    Mean Time to Recovery (or Repair)
           The average time it takes to restore service after a
           breakdown or loss.  This is usually an empirical measurement.

   MVS     Multiple Virtual Storage
           An IBM operating system based on OS/1.

   NASA    National Aeronautics and Space Administration

   NBS     National Bureau of Standards
           Now called NIST.

   network number
           The part of an internet address which designates the
           network to which the addressed node belongs.

   NFS     Network File System
           A network service that lets a program running on one
           computer to use data stored on a different computer on
           the same internet as if it were on its own disk.

   NIC     Network Information Center
           An organization which provides network users with
           information about services provided by the network.

   NOC     Network Operations Center
           An organization that is responsible for maintaining
           a network.

   NIST    National Institute of Standards and Technology
           Formerly NBS.

   NSF     National Science Foundation

   NSFNET  National Science Foundation Network
           The NSFNET is a highspeed "network of networks" which is
           hierarchical in nature.  At the highest level is a
           backbone network currently comprising 16 nodes connected
           to a 45Mbps facility which spans the continental United
           States.  Attached to that are mid-level networks and
           attached to the mid-levels are campus and local
           networks.  NSFNET also has connections out of the U.S.
           to Canada, Mexico, Europe, and the Pacific Rim.  The
           NSFNET is part of the Internet.

   NSFNET  Mid-level Level Network
           A network connected to the highest level of the NSFNET that
           covers a region of the United States.  It is to mid-level
           networks that local sites connect.  The mid-level networks
           were once called "regionals".

   OSI     Open Systems Interconnection
           A set of protocols designed to be an international standard
           method for connecting unlike computers and networks.  Europe
           has done most of the work developing OSI and will probably

           use it as soon as possible.

   OSI Reference Model
           An "outline" of OSI which defines its seven layers and
           their functions.  Sometimes used to help describe other
           networks.

   OSPF    Open Shortest-Path First Interior Gateway Protocol
           A proposed replacement for RIP.  It addresses some
           problems of RIP and is based upon principles that have
           been well-tested in non-internet protocols.  Originally
           acronymed as OSPFIGP.

   packet  The unit of data sent across a packet switching network.
           The term is used loosely.  While some Internet
           literature uses it to refer specifically to data sent
           across a physical network, other literature views
           the Internet as a packet switching network
           and describes IP datagrams as packets.

   PC      Personal Computer

   PCNFS   Personal Computer Network File System

   PPP     Point-to-Point Protocol
           The Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) provides a method for
           transmitting datagrams over serial point-to-point links.

   protocol
           A formal description of message formats and the rules
           two computers must follow to exchange those messages.
           Protocols can describe low-level details of
           machine-to-machine interfaces (e.g., the order in
           which bits and bytes are sent across a wire)
           or high-level exchanges between allocation
           programs (e.g., the way in which two programs
           transfer a file across the Internet).

   RFC     The Internet's Request for Comments documents series
           The RFCs are working notes of the Internet research and
           development community.  A document in this series may be on
           essentially any topic related to computer communication, and
           may be anything from a meeting report to the specification of
           a standard.

   RIP     Routing Information Protocol
           One protocol which may be used on internets simply to pass
           routing information between gateways.   It is used on many
           LANs and on some of the NSFNET intermediate level networks.

   RJE     Remote Job Entry
           The general protocol for submitting batch jobs and
           retrieving the results.

   router  A special-purpose dedicated computer that attaches to
           two or more networks and routes packets from one
           network to the other.  In particular, an Internet
           router forwards IP datagrams among the networks it
           connects.  Gateways route packets to other
           gateways until they can be delivered to the final
           destination directly across one physical network.

   RPC     Remote Procedure Call
           An easy and popular paradigm for implementing the
           client-server model of distributed computing.

   server  A computer that shares its resources, such as printers
           and files, with other computers on the network.  An
           example of this is a Network Files System (NFS)
           Server which shares its disk space with one or more
           workstations that may not have local disk drives of
           their own.

   SLIP    Serial Line Internet Protocol
           SLIP is currently a defacto standard, commonly used for
           point-to-point serial connections running TCP/IP.  It is
           not an Internet standard but is defined in RFC 1055.

   SMTP    Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
           The Internet standard protocol for transferring
           electronic mail messages from one computer to another.
           SMTP specifies how two mail systems interact and the
           format of control messages they exchange to transfer mail.

   SNA     System Network Architecture
           IBM's data communications protocol.

   SNMP    Simple Network Management Protocol
           The Simple Network Management Protocol (RFC 1157) is the
           Internet's standard for remote monitoring and management
           of hosts, routers and other nodes and devices on a network.

   subnet  A portion of a network, which may be a physically independent
           network, which shares a network address with other portions
           of the network and is distinguished by a subnet number.  A
           subnet is to a network what a network is to an internet.

   subnet number
           A part of the internet address which designates a subnet.
           It is ignored for the purposes internet routing, but is
           used for intranet routing.

   T1      A term for a digital carrier facility used to transmit a
           DS-1 formatted digital signal at 1.544 megabits per second.

   T3      A term for a digital carrier facility used to transmit a DS-3
           formatted digital signal at 44.746 megabits per second.

   TCP     Transmission Control Protocol
           A transport layer protocol for the Internet.  It is a
           connection oriented, stream protocol defined by RFC 793.

   TCP/IP  Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
           This is a common shorthand which refers to the suite
           of application and transport protocols which run over IP.
           These include FTP, TELNET, SMTP, and UDP (a transport
           layer protocol).

   Telenet A public packet-switching network operated by US Sprint.
           Also known as "SprintNet".

   TELNET  The Internet standard protocol for remote terminal
           connection service.  TELNET allows a user at one site
           to interact with a remote timesharing system at
           another site as if the user's terminal was connected
           directly to the remote computer.

   Token Ring
           A type of LAN.   Examples are IEEE 802.5, ProNET-10/80 and
           FDDI.  The term "token ring" is often used to denote 802.5

   Tymnet  A public character-switching/packet-switching network
           operated by British Telecom.

   UDP     User Datagram Protocol
           A transport layer protocol for the Internet.  It is a
           datagram protocol which adds a level of reliability and
           multiplexing to IP datagrams.  It is defined in RFC 768.

   ULTRIX  UNIX-based operating system for Digital Equipment Corporation
           computers.

   UNIX    An operating system developed by Bell Laboratories that
           supports multiuser and multitasking operations.

   UUCP    UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program
           A protocol used for communication between consenting
           UNIX systems.

   VMS     Virtual Memory System
           A Digital Equipment Corporation operating system.

   WAN     Wide Area Network

   WHOIS   An Internet program which allows users to query a database of
           people and other Internet entities, such as domains,
           networks, and hosts, kept at the DDN NIC.  The information for
           people shows a person's company name, address, phone number
           and email address.

   XNS     Xerox Network System
           A data communications protocol suite developed by Xerox.  It
           uses Ethernet to move the data between computers.

   X.25    A data communications interface specification developed to
           describe how data passes into and out of public data
           communications networks.  The public networks such as
           Sprintnet and Tymnet use X.25 to interface to customer
           computers.

14. Security Considerations

   Security issues are not discussed in this memo.

15. Authors' Addresses

   Gary Scott Malkin
   Xylogics, Inc.
   53 Third Avenue
   Burlington, MA  01803

   Phone:  (617) 272-8140
   EMail:  gmalkin@Xylogics.COM

   April N. Marine
   SRI International
   Network Information Systems Center
   333 Ravenswood Avenue, EJ294
   Menlo Park, CA  94025

   Phone:  (415) 859-5318
   EMail:  april@nisc.sri.com

 

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