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Win95 FAQ Part 4 of 14: Hardware
Section - 4.3. How do I make this card work...

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Top Document: Win95 FAQ Part 4 of 14: Hardware
Previous Document: 4.2. Does Plug & Play work on systems without a Plug & Play BIOS?
Next Document: 4.4. How do I make this drive work...
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     * 4.3.1. ...sound card 

     * Sound Blaster (TM), SB Pro, SB16, AWE32 (TM) 
   Simple. Plug it in and load Win95 drivers, or run Add New Hardware.
   One thing Win95's really good at finding is original Creative Labs
   hardware. To make DOS games run in DOS sessions, you might need to
   change the card's settings to "traditional" settings: I/O port
   220-22F, I/O port 388-38B, IRQ 5, DMA 1, DMA 5.
   Win95 tends to allocate odd resources to SB16s. To avoid this, make
   sure those resources are available, including freeing them in your
   BIOS setup if you have such an option. A stock SB16's "Basic
   Configuration 6" exposes all the SB16's on board hardware, including
   both DMA channels, the OPL3 synth port, and the MIDI port.

     * Sound Blaster 16 Plug & Play 
   Plug & Pray is more like it.
   The PnP manager will have problems configuring this card if its
   "preferred resources" aren't available. Try to free up the standard
   I/O, Interrupt, and DMA values a Sound Blaster normally uses: A220,
   I5, D1, H5 (DMA 5). If you use an Award BIOS be sure to set those
   resources as "No/ICU" or otherwise available for use. You can
   hand-edit the resource settings from Device Manager if necessary.
   Non PnP systems will work with the SB16 PnP card, because Win95 will
   allocate resources the card can actually use.
   Whatever you do, do not install Creative's PnP Manager software on a
   Win95 system. That DOS/Win 3.1 PnP Manager is for systems running good
   ol' DOS. You will need the DOS PnP Manager for setting up Single
   Mode DOS programs, where you specify a new DOS configuration for the
   game, however. Try not to let the PnP manager installer add anything
   to your Windows directory; you can specify this when you install the
   PnP Manager by changing the Windows directory choice to "None".
   NOTE: Creative's newest PnP sound cards come with a whole slew of
   sound utilities that replicate many of Win95's built-in programs! This
   is a waste of disk space. For example, you try to use Creative's CD
   player, you insert an Audio CD, and Win95's CD Player auto-runs.

     * Clone sound cards listed with Windows 95 
   Microsoft included quite a list of weird chipsets in Win95's sound
   support, and most of the Windows Sound System clones offer Sound
   Blaster emulation in DOS sessions! The list currently includes:
     * Thunder Boards
     * Media Vision (Pro Audio Spectrum)
     * Windows Sound System (Analog Devices 1448 and Compaq (TM) Business
     * ESS 688 and 488

     * Clone sound cards that need DOS drivers to run 
   Only SB16 class cards actually need "DOS drivers" to operate, or at
   least, they're the only ones that actually stay resident when you load
   them. Other cards (Mozart class cards for example) will work with
   Win95's SB Pro drivers, or Windows Sound System drivers
   But if you have a card that won't work with SB drivers, or it
   supposedly requires DOS drivers, here's what to do. I'll use Oak
   Mozart class cards as an example, as this works perfectly with Mozart
    1. Install the card software, and be sure NOT to install Windows
       support for the card. Just to be sure, back up SYSTEM.INI before
       installing the software.
    2. Reboot the computer, but hit F8 on "Starting Windows 95..." and
       select "Command Prompt Only". This runs through your normal DOS
       startup without actually running Win95.
    3. Type MEM /C, and compare this module listing with the files in the
       CONFIG.SYS and AUTOEXEC.BAT that the sound software modified. Do
       any of the resulting files remain resident? In the case of Mozart
       class cards, they will not remain resident. If the sound software
       modified SYSTEM.INI, restore it with the backup you made.
    4. If no files remain resident, reboot and let Win95 run. Then
       install drivers for the SB Pro, or Windows Sound System, depending
       on what the card emulates. Re-boot and see if sound works.
   Here's what's happening: The DOS "drivers" load and initialize the
   sound card. Once this initialization is done, it will operate like a
   regular SB or WSS card, and you can use Win95 drivers for SB or WSS.
   This technique also works for CD-ROM support; if you let the sound
   card "driver" initialize the card, then install Win95 support for
   whatever CD-ROM card it emulates, it will work without having to load
   DOS CD-ROM drivers for it.
   DirectX and 4.00.950B users will want to use this capability, because
   your sound card manufacturer might've not made DirectSound drivers for
   that card yet. OPTi's 82C9xx cards for example, DO have Win95 drivers,
   but don't support DirectSound yet. Using their SNDINIT program,
   alongside a Sound Blaster Pro DirectSound driver, works around this
   problem rather nicely.

     * Sound card NOT listed with Windows 95 
   Cards not listed with Win95 will 90% work with Microsoft's SB Pro or
   Windows Sound System drivers. WSS cards will even work with DOS games
   in DOS sessions, if you enable Sound Blaster emulation. Still other
   cards, like Crystal's CS4232, do SB emulation in hardware, at the same
   time as WSS.
   See the previous section on using initialization "drivers", which will
   let you use Win95's SB Pro or WSS drivers with your unlisted sound

     * 4.3.2. card? 
   Win95 introduces a new version of Network Device Interface Spec (NDIS)
   3.1. NDIS 3.1 allows for PnP events, such as activating network
   clients when you insert a PCMCIA card. Win95 comes with quite a
   handful of NDIS 3.1 drivers for many cards, and I'll cover them first.
   I also go into a whole mess of network stuff in another section.

     * Net card listed with Windows 95 
   If a card is listed in Win95's built in driver list, it has an NDIS
   3.1 driver. Most of the time, Add New Hardware will detect it and
   install a driver for it. If not, you can manually add the driver from
   the list. On occasion, Win95 will goof on its first resource choices,
   but as it tells you, you can immediately run Device Manager to correct
   Most of the supplied drivers include a DOS (NDIS 2) driver as well as
   the NDIS 3.1 driver. This driver lets you run the card in Single Mode
   DOS by typing net start redir or net start nwredir from a DOS prompt.

     * Net card NOT listed with Windows 95 
   Of course, no hardware maker should be in the DOS box business these
   days without Win95 drivers. Check with them first. Otherwise, Win95
   will use NDIS 2.0 or ODI drivers if you're stuck. Both options sit

     * Using old ODI drivers with Win95 
   Life stinks sometimes; too many card makers believe only Novell does
   PC networks. Ahh well. Real mode ODI drivers will work with Win95
   protected mode protocols and drivers, as Novell designed ODI to work
   with NDIS protocols and clients.
   You need three real mode TSRs to use a network card with an ODI

LSL.COM (Comes with the net card)
The net card driver itself (Referred to as an MLID)
ODIHLP.EXE (Comes with Win95)

   You also need to install the "Existing ODI driver" using Add New
   Hardware, or Network control panel. Adding the "Existing ODI Driver"
   will install odihlp.exe, needed to link the real mode ODI drivers with
   NDIS 3.1.
   Finally, you need to write a net.cfg file for the ODI support. NDIS on
   top of ODI only works with Ethernet and Token-Ring (If you know of
   others please tell me!) ArcNet will not work in this configuration,
   but Win95 comes with a generic ArcNet driver for NDIS 3.1. You also
   need to specify all the frame types your adapter type can handle, for

link driver 3c5x9
       frame ethernet_802.2
       frame ethernet_802.3
       frame ethernet_snap
       frame ethernet_ii

   Some NDIS protocols require the weird frame types. In particular,
   TCP/IP requires ETHERNET_II.
   Copy this net.cfg to the same directory where you keep and the
   net card driver itself (Stick them in your Win95 directory for

     * Using old NDIS2 drivers with Win95 
   Like ODI support, Win95 will use real mode NDIS 2.0 drivers as well,
   but this eats significant amounts of conventional memory; even more
   than ODI drivers use!
   To use an NDIS 2.0 driver, you use Add New Hardware as before, and
   tell it where to find the NDIS 2 driver. You can configure the card
   like any other NDIS 3.1 card, but Win95 will add this line to

net start

   This will load the DOS protocol manager and the xxxxx.dos net card
   driver into conventional memory. When loads, it will load the
   NDIS 2 protected mode helper and start the network. NDIS 2 driver info
   will appear in The Registry, and should also appear in protocol.ini
   for compatibility. You can hand-edit protocol.ini as you normally
   would for NDIS 2 drivers, and Win95 will apply these changes the next
   time it re-starts.
   Some NDIS 2 drivers exist in \drivers\netcard on the Win95 CD-ROM, so
   check there if you don't see your card listed. Also check out
   Microsoft's Win95 driver library.

     * Using some DMA net cards on machines with more than 16 MB
   Some token-ring cards and maybe a few Ethernet cards need to use an
   ISA DMA channel to off-load CPU time. If your computer has more than
   16 MB memory, it can hang the computer, because Win95 will attempt to
   DMA into memory that the net card can't reach. ISA slots only have 24
   address lines (to access 16 MB).
   To make these cards work, run Device Manager and find the "Direct
   Memory Access Controller" driver in System Devices. In its settings,
   turn on "Allow DMA into first 16 MB only".
   This switch will also work for other DMA devices in case the driver
   doesn't already account for this.

     * 4.3.3. ...scanner card? 
   If you own an HP scanner you're in luck; HP designed Win95 versions of
   their TWAIN scanner interface software. Download it from HP's TWAIN currently depends on Advanced SCSI
   Programming Interface, so you need a Win95 driver for your SCSI host
   adapter to use it. Non-SCSI scanners can work with the Win 3.1
   software provided for it, but try to avoid loading real mode scanner
   drivers just to make your cheap hand scanner work. Don't waste your
   time. It may be possible to find a Win95 TWAIN driver for your
   non-SCSI scanner; ask the manufacturer.
   Check out Epson's home page ( for Win95
   versions of TWAIN for their Action Scanner and ES series scanners.
   These support their SCSI and Parallel Port scanners. Again you'll need
   a Win95 driver for your SCSI card, as Epson's TWAIN requires ASPI as
   4.00.950B users can take advantage of the Imaging components that come
   with it. These components include "thunk" layers between 16-bit
   scanners and 32-bit apps, and a simple image editor that uses your

     * 4.3.4. ...caching IDE or caching SCSI card? 
   Promise Technology ( has
   Win95 versions of its Caching IDE host adapter drivers, so be sure to
   grab them. Tekram ( will also have
   drivers for its IDE caching adapter, but the SCSI caching adapter
   should work with Adaptec 1540 drivers if they didn't get around to
   writing Win95 SCSI drivers yet.
   Most of the time, the standard IDE drivers will work with caching IDE
   cards, though they won't take advantage of the card's cache. If you do
   manage to get a Win95 caching IDE driver, try to set Win95's own cache
   to bare minimum (384 KB) so you make good use of your controller's
   cache instead. Edit your system.ini's [vcache] section:


   Then it will almost solely rely on the controller's cache and free up
   valuable memory for your programs.

     * 4.3.5. More on setting DMA properties to make old cards work
   While Win95 will honor settings you make in system.ini for things like
   DMABufferSize, I tend to prefer keeping system.ini clean to ease
   In Device Manager, find the "Direct Memory Access Controller" in
   System Devices. Here you may specify the DMA buffer size and wether or
   not Win95 will allow DMA above the 16 MB memory area. This switch is
   for hardware that uses ISA DMA to directly access memory, but prevents
   the device from trying to DMA into memory above 16 MB (the limit of
   the 24 address lines on the ISA bus). This switch will not affect VESA
   or PCI Bus Master devices, as they don't require ISA DMA channels.
   NOTE: A Win95 driver for an ISA DMA device should be smart enough not
   to try to DMA into memory above 16 MB by design. For example, SCSI
   drivers written by Adaptec and sound card drivers will allocate
   buffers below 16 MB regardless of how you set these switches. As a
   result you shouldn't have to mess with them.

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Top Document: Win95 FAQ Part 4 of 14: Hardware
Previous Document: 4.2. Does Plug & Play work on systems without a Plug & Play BIOS?
Next Document: 4.4. How do I make this drive work...

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