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UnixWare Frequently Asked Questions (The Email system)

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Archive-name: unix-faq/unixware/email
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: Jul 9 1997
Version: 2.12

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
UnixWareŽ Frequently Asked Questions List ( The Email system )

For more information about the files which make up the total UnixWare FAQ,
see the "FAQ Overview" file posted regularly on the Internet newsgroup
comp.unix.unixware.misc.

INTRODUCTION

This is the Email section of the UnixWare Frequently Asked Questions file
maintained on the Internet. Its maintainers is Andrew Josey
(andrew(a)tamarix.demon.co.uk). Suggestions and contributions are always
welcome.

The purpose of this document is to give answers to frequently asked
questions on Email configuration in UnixWare 2.x for the "mailsurr"
subsystem.

This document in this revision does not cover sendmail in detail. There is a
package included on the freebird archive at
ftp://ftp.freebird.org/unixware/freebird/mailtools/sendmail that will
automatically update the system to use sendmail.

If you have UnixWare 2.1.2, please note that the Sendmail version included
with the Internet FastStart is known to have some security problems and is
not covered by this FAQ - contact SCO for configuration information.

If you are setting up Email for the first time, please check Questions M2
and M15 first, which document known problems in the Email system and give an
overview of key steps to setup for internet mail. If you use dialup PPP see
M52.

This document and the other FAQ files may be found on the world wide web at
http://www.freebird.org/faq/

This document may also be obtained by anonymous ftp from the freebird
archive at

   * ftp://ftp.freebird.org/unixware/freebird/hints/FAQ/
   * ftp://ftp1.freebird.org/pub/mirror/freebird/hints/FAQ/
   * ftp://ftp2.freebird.org/pub/unixware/freebird/hints/FAQ/

Small print: This file is Copyright 1997 freebird.org. Permission is granted
for copying for non-commercial use. Many proper names of companies and
software mentioned in these files are trademarks of their respective owners.
All views are those of the individual contributors and not of their
employers.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------

TABLE OF CONTENTS

M1) What is the default Mailer on UnixWare ?
M2) Are there any mail related bug fixes for UnixWare 2 ?
M3) Is there any documentation describing the mail subsystem?
M4) I've seen mention of the createSurr command and autoconfiguration
    of the mail subsystem - what is this and what does it do?
M5) Where are the configuration files used by the mail subsystem?
M6) How do I set the domain name used in the From: line?
M7) What other configuration parameters can I set in the
    /etc/mail/mailcnfg file?
M8) How does mail get delivered and how does the /etc/mail/mailsurr file work?
M9) How can I setup mail aliasing?
M10) How are uucp and smtp handled by the mailsurr file?
M10.1) How do I setup uucp over TCP between two UnixWare machines?
M11) I want to setup uucp outbound over a modem, how do I setup
     the uucp files?
M12) How do i restart smtp - do I need to reboot?
M13) How do I setup mail logging?
M14) How do I setup Smart Routing - using pathrouter ?

M15) What do I need to do to Set Up an Internet/Uucp Mail Gateway on UnixWare2?
M15.1) Setup mail alias lookups via DNS, NIS or MHS (/etc/mail/lookupLibs)
M15.2) Set the mail domain information in /etc/mail/mailcnfg
M15.3) Setup any header rewrite rules (/etc/mail/rewrite)
M15.4) Customizing /etc/mail/mailsurr (/usr/lib/mail/mailsurr.proto)
M15.5) Setting up delivery lines to mail-servers, list-processors etc
M15.6) Activating mail logging
M15.7) Setting up suitable defaults for mailx users
M15.8) If you have local users, then add other mail-user agents
M15.9) Update /etc/profile
M15.10) Setting up smart routing between uucp and internet zones
M15.11) Add a rule to mailsurr.proto to catch mail to unknown local users.
M15.12) Setup uucp over the connection server for  uucp over
M15.13) Setup mail alias files
M15.14) Install an alternate incoming smtpd
M15.15) Install the TCP/SPX wrappers so as to monitor who is connecting.
M16) I have UW2 and my inbound smtpd keeps dying. Is there a fix?
M17) I have UW2 - smtpd now runs as a daemon - is there a way to run
     it from inetd? Running from inetd makes it more reliable and also
     can be wrapped.
M18) I have UW2  and my outbound smtp  does incorrect routing to MX
     record sites and also continually bounces mail when sending
     to an unknown user when it should only bounce once - is there a fix?
M19) I'm having trouble routing email from my local machine to the net.
     I'm connected to a local internet provider and can run Mosaic etc
     but can't send email. What do i need to do to make this work?
M20) Mail sent to my domain mydom.com does not arrive locally on the
     machine. It gets here but the local mailsystem does not recognise it
     as local.
M20.1) How can I set other mail domains besides my real domain
            to be treated as local?
M21) I'm using UnixWare2 and when mail arrives locally the Return-Path:
     header has the format @myprovider:remotedomain!user or @domain:user or
     @domain:user@domain.  Is there someway to put this into normal
     domain address format?
M22) Large mail alias lists don't seem to work on UnixWare 2. Is this
     a known problem?
M23) smtp mail to hosts which only have MX records and no valid A
     records never gets there? This is with the 2.0 developer release.
M24) How do I make the mailsystem send mail for local addresses off
     to another host if they are not found locally without setting up
     aliases?
M25) How can I get mailx/dtmail to add fullname information to
     the From: line?
M26) How can I set the From: line  (hiding the internal hosts to a
     mail domain)?
M27) I want to setup a cluster of machines, with a single mail
     gateway machine.
M28) How can i make bounced email go to the postmaster if the user
     address is invalid?
M29) How can i debug mail delivery?
M30) How can i debug the /etc/mail/rewrite rules?
M31) How can I use the rewrite rules to rewrite a To: header
     of the format uunet!domain!user to user@domain?
M32) I have  tcp installed yet i only want to do transfers over
     uucp. How do i make the mailsurr file exclude the smtpqer delivery lines?
M33) I'm sending to a SCO system over uucp which only understands
     RFC822. The UnixWare mailsystem inserts an extra From line which
     upsets the SCO mailer.
M34) Where are outgoing messages stored for smtp?
M35) Mail is bouncing back with problems about an invalid
     From header line, what should I do?
M36) After changing the system owner to another user and
     deleting the original user, mail is still being sent to the original
     system owner for example when a new package is installed,
     and errors stating "unable to send to " appear after adding a package.
M37) Why when I send local mail does my PPP link get established, for
     example when I pkgadd or pkgrm a package?
M38) Is it possible to change the sender address with
mailsurr's translation facilities?  The man page indicates
that only the recipient address can be changed.
Am I going to have to move to sendmail?
M39) How do I setup a POP3 server on UnixWare ?
M40) I'm using UnixWare 1.x and  I can't find the createSurr command,
     what should i do?
M41) How do I setup my mail to be autoanswered?
M42) How do I setup my mail to be forwarded?
M43) How do I setup a mail-server?
M44) How do I  setup a mailing list - such as Listproc ?
M45) How do I  make sendmail the default mailer?
M46) Mail of the address format @mylocal.domain:user@mylocal.domain is not
     delivered locally, how can I fix this?
M47) dtmail won't restart after my machine was switched off.
M48) Inbound mail is addressed to <@site.demon.co.uk:user@domain.co.uk>
     and does not get delivered to the local user.
M49) I'm using PPP but don't have the interface up when the system
    creates the mailsurr file, and thus it does not detect my IP
    link - what can I do?
M50) How can I set mailalias in the form : user@site  maps to local user?
M51) What is the /etc/mail/smtpcnfg file in tf2100/UW2.1?
M52) How should I setup Mail via PPP?
M53) How can I setup mail to handle virtual hosts's mail?
M54) I need to print all incoming mail as well as send it to local users.
M55) Mail loops - its forwarded by my provider but then goes into a loop - any ideas?
M56) Mail delivery does not seem to be case insensitive - any ideas?


Subject: M1) What is the default Mailer on UnixWare? The default mailer on UnixWare is based on SVR4 mail and was originally developed at AT&T Bell Labs. This mailer uses a regular-expression based parser (/etc/mail/mailsurr) to deliver mail - this is similar in format to sendmail but is not sendmail. It supports SMTP, UUCP mail, mailing list directories, mail aliases and an MHS gateway. Sendmail is also included on the system and can be used instead of the mailsurr subsystem but is not the officially supported mailer (see question M45 for how to make sendmail the default mailer). If you do decide to use sendmail you are recommended to get the latest version, the ones included by default are known to be out of date and may have some security problems. Subject: M2) Are there any mail related bug fixes for UnixWare2 ? If you have UnixWare 2.01/2.02/2.03 you SHOULD install tf2100.tar. (IGNORE THE RELEASE NOTES for tf2100 that say the fixes are in 2.03, the final version of tf2100 was after 2.03, so you do need it). If you have UnixWare 2.1 or Later you DO NOT need to install tf2100.tar, but you are recommended to upgrade to 2.1.1 or 2.1.2 as that contains further mail related fixes. Other alternatives are to install sendmail or smap/smapd. See the freebird archive for details. Subject: M3) Is there any documentation describing the mail subsystem? Please read the on-line Dynatext documentation provided with UnixWare. Subject: M4) I've seen mention of the createSurr command and autoconfiguration of the mail subsystem - what is this and what does it do? The createSurr script is an attempt to autoconfigure the /etc/mail/mailsurr file based on the running configuration. createSurr is run automatically on each reboot in /etc/rc2.d/S81smtp. To make permanent changes to the mail configuration you must edit the /usr/lib/mail/mailsurr.proto file rather than the /etc/mail/mailsurr file - or disable the call to createSurr in /etc/rc2.d/S81smtp by commenting it out. The first thing you might want to try prior to any other changes is to run the new GUI admin tool for Mail Setup, in Admin_Tools/Mail_Setup, select extended and save the selection. The next section describes in some detail how createSurr works. The mail autoconfiguration routine invoked by /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/createSurr consults the perl script (note that UnixWare includes a cut down version of perl 4.036 in /usr/gnu/bin) /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/configCheck to probe the system configuration, followed by /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/configMail to update the /etc/mail/mailsurr file. In detail the sequence is as follows: createSurr calls-> configCheck opens-> /etc/mail/mailflgs /etc/mail/mailcnfg /etc/mail/smfcnfg /etc/resolv.conf /etc/uucp/Systems /etc/confnet.d/inet/interface updates-> /etc/mail/mailflgs calls-> configMail opens-> /etc/mail/mailflgs /etc/mail/mailsurr.proto updates-> /etc/mail/mailsurr Subject: M5) What are the configuration files used by the mail subsystem? The configuration files are stored in /etc/mail and in /usr/lib/mail. The key files in /etc/mail are: mailcnfg mailsurr rewrite lookupLibs The key files in /usr/lib/mail are: mailsurr.proto lookupLibs.proto The /etc/mail/mailcnfg file: This file is used to initialise the mail configuration; in UnixWare 2 the GUI Mail_setup tool edits this file. The fields DOMAIN and SMARTERHOST are of particular importance. DOMAIN - string used to supply the domain name for the From: line SMARTERHOST - can be set to a machine that has better routing information in case the local machine does not understand the address. Its possible and desirable for some workstations to route all mail to the SMARTERHOST; if you are connecting to the internet you probably want to set SMARTERHOST to the name of your ISP. The /etc/mail/mailsurr file: This file contains a set of rules for routing and transport of mail. This is further described later in this document. The /etc/mail/rewrite file: This is new in UnixWare 2 and allows mail header rewriting (see rewrite(4) and the Dynatext documents referred to in section M3) . The /etc/mail/rewrite contains functions to rewrite mail headers for local (called in the local() function) and remote delivery (called in the main() function). An example of changing the From: lines to hide internal hosts is given in question M15 section 3. The /etc/mail/lookupLibs files: This is new in UnixWare 2 and is a file containing the names of the shared libraries to be opened when the mailalias command (which is run by mail when parsing the mailsurr file). This determines where aliases should be found. Its possible using this for alias lookup to use the DNS and NIS. This file is autoconfigured. The /usr/lib/mail/mailsurr.proto file: This contains the default mailsurr rules for different configurations. This file is used to create the file /etc/mail/mailsurr. Permanent changes to /etc/mail/mailsurr should be made by editing this file. This is further described later in this document. The /usr/lib/mail/lookupLibs.proto file: This is new in UnixWare 2. This contains the default mailalias lookup rules. This file is used to create the file /etc/mail/lookupLibs. Permanent changes to that file should be made by editing this file. This is further described later in this document. The /etc/mail/smtpcnfg file: This is new in tf2100 and UnixWare 2.1. The contains initialisation information for the behaviour of smtp. See M51 for details of the default values in this file. Subject: M6) How do I set the domain name used in the From: line? In UnixWare2 the Mail_setup GUI tool can be used to set the domain address. This edits a file called /etc/mail/mailcnfg and adds a line, for example to set the domain to "mydomain.com" DOMAIN=mydomain.com Subject: M7) What other configuration parameters can I set in the /etc/mail/mailcnfg file? CLUSTER - can be used to name a group of machines. The string supplied is used instead of the domain name when mail supplies the remote from line. (with the /etc/mail/rewrite file included in UnixWare 2 - i no longer use this field but add a rewrite function instead) FAILSAFE - can be used to denote a machine to which delivery should be made in case local delivery fails - useful when using mail in a networked environment DEL_EMPTY_FILE - if value set to no empty mailfiles are not deleted by mail or mailx ADD_DATE - if set to true, i.e ADD_DATE=true, the mailer will add a Date: line if one does not already exit ADD_FROM - if set to true, i.e ADD_FROM=true, the mailer will add a From: line if one does not already exit Subject: M8) How does mail get delivered and how does the /etc/mail/mailsurr file work? Incoming mail over smtp is received over TCP/IP on port 25. In UnixWare 2.x an smtpd daemon process listens on port 25 to receive mail Once mail is received by the smtp receiver it is passed to the rmail process which then uses the regular expression based parser (/etc/mail/mailsurr) to decide how to do deliver the mail. Incoming mail over uucp is queued in /var/spool/uucp/sitename and then uux scans that directory and passes the mail off to the rmail process for delivery. Outgoing mail is handed to rmail which based on the address and the mailsurr rules in place delivers the mail accordingly. The file /etc/mail/mailsurr contains a set of rules for routing and transport of mail. This file is automatically created by the command /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/createSurr by scanning the system configuration and a template mailsurr prototype file in /usr/lib/mail/mailsurr.proto. To make permanent changes to this file edit the mailsurr.proto file and then rerun the createSurr command. The mail autoconfiguration routine invoked by /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/createSurr consults the perl script /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/configCheck to probe the system configuration. After scanning the system the file /etc/mail/mailflgs contains flags for the configuration options autoconfigured. Examination of the mailsurr.proto shows the same flags with conditional mailsurr entries. The possible flags in /etc/mail/mailflgs are SMTR, MHS, DNS, UUCP and IP: SMTR if SMARTERHOST is set in /etc/mail/mailcnfg MHS is set if %g is set in /etc/mail/mailcnfg (MHS gateway ) This may be set off if MHSINTERVAL is set to 0 in /etc/mail/smfcnfg DNS is set if there is a resolver set in /etc/resolv.conf UUCP is set if there are entries in /etc/uucp/Systems IP is set if it determines there is a valid device in /etc/confnet.d/inet/interface The createSurr command the invokes /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/configMail to produce the updated /etc/mail/mailsurr file. Looking at the file created (see mailsurr(4) for full details). Each entry in the /etc/mail/mailsurr file consists of three fields. 'sender' 'recipient' 'command' The sender and recipient fields are regular expressions. If these first two fields match those of the mail message being processed, the associated command is run. Some sample mailsurr entries follow - don't worry if you don't understand these, for a full explanation you can refer to the UnixWare man page for mailsurr(4). # mail-server, mailing lists and information distribution handling section '.+' 'mail-server' '< /opt/lib/mserv/listener' '.+' 'listproc' '<S=0; /home/listserv/catmail -r -f' # Send mail for `laser' to attached laser printer # Make certain that failures are reported via return mail. '.+' 'laser' '< S=0;F=*; lp -dlaser' # For remote mail via uucp '.+' '([^!@]+)!(.+)' '< /usr/bin/uux - \\1!rmail (\\2)' Examples of mailsurr/mailsurr.proto/mailcnfg files for a uucp/internet gateway and client workstation in cluster configurations are available from the Freebird archive in the directory hints: Mail/README Mail/mailsurr Mail/mailcnfg Mail/client.mailcnfg Mail/client.mailsurr Mail/client.mailcnfg.uw2 Mail/client.mailsurr.uw2 Mail/mailcnfg.uw2 Mail/mailsurr.proto.uw2 Subject: M9) How can I setup mail aliasing? UnixWare mail has a convenient method of alias processing, and the mailer calls a utility called mailalias. The mailalias utility if it cannot find a user locally or a mailbox (UnixWare mail delivers to mailfiles as well as users - so you can just places a mailbox into /var/mail without setting up a user account) looks for a list of alias files in the configuration file /etc/mail/namefiles. Note that mailsurr does not use any of the sendmail aliasing files (i.e. /usr/ucblib/aliases). The default files are /etc/mail/lists and /etc/mail/names. In our local installation we've added added a couple of local files, /etc/mail/groups for internal groups, /etc/mail/localiases for internal distribution and /etc/mail/fullnames which has alternate long names; so this file looks like: # --- example /etc/mail/namefiles ----- /etc/mail/lists /etc/mail/names # Local add-ons /etc/mail/groups /etc/mail/localiases /etc/mail/fullnames # -----end example ---- /etc/mail/groups could be: # ---- example /etc/mail/groups ----- # All the local groups within Sitename.This is the definitive copy used by # all the mail interfaces (it's totally transparent to them all). # managers john fred wendy june staff joan michelle rita \ sarah brendan all managers staff # --- end example -- /etc/mail/localiases could be: # ----- example /etc/mail/localiases ---- # localiases: # These are purely local, readily changeable aliases for mapping # user@site.domain to internal host!user # # This file is for the gateway john argus!john fred argus!fred wendy woolco!wendy june sun4!june rita olim380!rita sarah olim380!sarah brendan sun4!brendan # -- end example -- /etc/mail/fullnames could be: # --- example /etc/mail/fullnames --- j.williams john john.williams john f.jones fred fred.jones fred w.jones wendy wendy.jones wendy r.arnold rita rita.arnold rita # common misspellings can also be included sara sarah brendon brendan # --- end example ---- Subject: M10) How are uucp and smtp handled by the mailsurr file? Delivery by uucp is driven off the /etc/uucp files. If you wish to do some smart routing see the later section on pathrouter.. Use of smtp can we be done either using DNS lookup or not. Typically for internal hosts in a cluster, we set smarterhost (in /etc/mail/mailcnfg) to our internet gateway, and then that host does the DNS lookup. # UnixWare 2 example: The mail transports go here. # smtp delivery first followed by uucp # If DNS is not used, use "smtpqer -N". If DNS is used, remove the "-N". # '.+' '([^@,:]+)@(.+)' '< B=4096; /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/smtpqer -f %R -s %X' '\\1@\\2' '.+' '(@[^@,:]+[,:].+)' '< B=4096; /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/smtpqer -f %R -s %X' '\\1' '.+' '([^@,:]+)@(.+)%D' '< H=add_from_header;B=1024; uux -a %R -p -- \\2 !rmail' '(\\1)' '.+' '@([^@,:]+)%D[,:](.+)' '< H=add_from_header;B=1024; uux -a %R -p -- \\1 !rmail' '(\\2)' Tip: If you are using dialup uucp you may want to change the uux command invoked to add the "-r" flag so that mail will be queued for delivery, rather than attempting delivery at the time the mail is sent. The mail can then be sent when the uucp system polls the site which is more efficient. An example of a uucp delivery line with the -r flag added follows: # invoke uux with -r flag to queue mail for delivery '.+' '([^@,:]+)@(.+)%D' '< H=add_from_header;B=1024; uux -a %R -p -- \\2 !rmail' '(\\1)' '.+' '@([^@,:]+)%D[,:](.+)' '< H=add_from_header;B=1024; uux -r -a %R -p -- \\1 !rmail' '(\\2)' Since your mailsurr file was created by the createSurr command then remember to make the changes permanent by editing the file /usr/lib/mail/mailsurr.proto (the template prototype file). Subject: M10.1) How do I setup uucp over TCP between two UnixWare machines? Step 1. Edit /etc/uucp/Devices and uncomment the following line CS - - - CS This then uses the connection server to make connections. Step 2. Edit /etc/uucp/Systems , add a line for each system you want to talk to, for example to system raven raven Any CS - -,listen:10103 This entry makes "uucico" run over the TCP network. It causes the Connection Server to connect to the "10103" service through the "listen" service. The "10103" service invokes uucico. Step 3. Edit /etc/uucp/Permissions, to allow remote systems connecting over the connection server to send and request files (note that remote systems also need an entry in /etc/uucp/Systems). LOGNAME=nuucp SENDFILES=yes REQUEST=yes M11) I want to setup uucp outbound over a modem, how do I setup the uucp files? In UnixWare2 you can do this using the Dialup_setup GUI tool. Alternately I carry a floppy with the following files from /etc/uucp that I install when I want to setup my laptop to call outbound: Config Devices Devices.tcp Dialers Systems This configuration is for a Hayes compatible modem, and is known to work with Supra modems, Multitech ZDX modems and US Robotics. These files can be obtained from the freebird archive in the file hints/Mail/uucp.quick.tar.Z Subject: M12) How do i restart smtp - do I need to reboot? You can stop and restart smtp without rebooting as follows: $ su # sh /etc/rc2.d/S81smtp stop # sh /etc/rc2.d/S81smtp start Subject: M13) How do I setup mail logging? The following mailsurr entries log successful and failed deliveries in /var/mail/:log and /var/mail:errors respectively. In UnixWare 1.x these are files, in UnixWare 2 these are directories. # Log mail delivery # '.+' '.+' '> W=1;B=*; maillog -o /var/mail/:log' '-O %O %R %n %H %l --' '.+' '.+' 'Errors W=1;B=*; maillog -o /var/mail/:errors' '-O %O %R %n %H %l --' #/usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/createSurr -l on In UnixWare 2 you can also select the appropriate part of the GUI setup to turn logging on. In UnixWare 2 logs are now kept in directories with a different log being stored each day in a file denoted by the day name, ie. Monday,....Sunday for the 7 days. If you prefer the old style format of logging to just a single file , its very simple just to replace the logging tool with either your own or the one from UnixWare 1.x. (from the Freebird archive ...freebird/hints/Mail/maillog.alt). To determine problems with outgoing mail, check the /var/spool/smtpq/LOG file. Each time a mail message is sent, a log of the delivery command is appended to this log file. A cron entry located in /var/spool/cron/crontabs/smtp recycles daily backup copies of the mail message deliveries on a 7 day cycle. This is useful for debugging mail problems. In UnixWare 2 daily logs for smtp delivery are now kept in the directory /var/spool/mailq/Logs. Subject: M14) How do I setup Smart Routing - using pathrouter ? Sometimes you may wish to override routing via MX records, for example if you want to route mail privately over a modem link rather than the internet. The utility suitable for use with UnixWare is pathrouter. Pathrouter can be used to lookup route information for uucp and domain addresses. The /etc/uucp/paths file is the routing database for the pathrouter command (see paths(4), and pathrouter(1M)) . Each line of the file provides routing information to either a host or to a domain (designated by a leading "."). Each line should have either two or three tab characters (ascii 0x9) as separated fields. The format of each line in the paths file is: key route [cost] Note that the cost field is a delivery weighting field which is not used by the mail subsystem (smail would use it). An example paths (/etc/uucp/paths) file for a gateway machine. The following paths file is an example of setup for a gateway machine. This example prefixes the destination routes with an exclamation mark (!) to reduce the number of translations done by the rmail(1). This example is used to rewrite the domain addresses france.fr; and any uk domain address (matched by the .uk rule) to be routed via the uel machine. The usg.com domain address is converted to !usg!%s in order to utilise the uucp transport rather than smtp. france.fr !uel!france.fr!%s 0 uel !uel!%s 0 usg !usg!%s 0 windsor !uel!windsor!%s 0 .uk !uel!%s 0 .usg.com !usg!%s 0 Prefixing a name by a dot as in ".usg.com" can be used to match domains, and so this rule would match site1.usg.com to be routed thru usg!. Note that this example does not have "smart-host" defined, and so any addresses that are not matched by pathrouter are left unchanged. In this example it is assumed that the DNS lookup will resolve the address and perform delivery over smtp. If you don't have DNS lookup, or you decide to route unknown addresses to the nearest backbone then add an entry smart-host !backbone!%s 0 An example we use here to send mail to a particular route follows; this for various internal routing to an internal gateway within the company, and allows mail to be addressed as user@fpk, user@fpk.mycomp.com or user@mycomp.com with all mail going to the one gateway. fpk !nj-ums.fpk.mycomp.com!%s 0 fpk.mycomp.com !nj-ums.fpk.mycomp.com!%s 0 mycomp.com !nj-ums.fpk.mycomp.com!%s 0 This is then combined with a delivery line within mailsurr.proto to send this over smtp: '.+' '!(nj-ums.fpk.mycomp.com)!(.+)' '< B=4096; /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/smtpqer -f %R -s \\1' '\\2' Subject: M15) What do I need to do to Set Up an Internet/Uucp Mail Gateway on UnixWare 2? The following section details the steps taken to setup up an email gateway on UnixWare 2 - the email gateway is connected to the internet and also has direct uucp connections over tcp and serial lines. Subject: M15.1) Setup mail alias lookups via DNS, NIS or MHS (/etc/mail/lookupLibs) Do you want mailalias to use DNS, NIS or MHS to lookup for aliases? If you don't then by disabling the feature (by commenting out lines in usr/lib/mail/lookupLibs.proto) you can speed mailalias lookup - this is also useful if you are a dialup user who wants to only send mail periodically when connected. In /usr/lib/mail is the file lookupLibs.proto; by default this contains: /usr/lib/mail/libalias/file.so /usr/lib/mail/libalias/passwd.so <DNS> /usr/lib/mail/libalias/dns.so <NIS> /usr/lib/mail/libalias/nis.so <MHS> /usr/lib/mail/libalias/extract.so When createSurr is run to auto-discover the machine configuration and create a suitable mailsurr file, it will auto include the lines for the features it discovers, for example DNS being configured auto includes the line beginning <DNS> You can insert a comment into this file to disable the line, or you can delete the line; for example to disable DNS, NIS and MHS mailalias lookup on this machine; /usr/lib/mail/libalias/file.so /usr/lib/mail/libalias/passwd.so <DNS> #/usr/lib/mail/libalias/dns.so <NIS> #/usr/lib/mail/libalias/nis.so <MHS> #/usr/lib/mail/libalias/extract.so Alternately you can replace mailalias with the UW1.x version of mailalias which then only uses the aliases as defined in /etc/mail/namefiles. Since I'm not using any aliases in the DNS/NIS presently I install the UW1.x version as /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/mailalias.alt and edit the line in mailsurr.proto accordingly. The changes are as follows: # Run all (apparently) local names through the mail alias processor. # This version uses mailalias.alt which is the 1.x version # '.+' '.+' 'Translate T=1;B=*; R=|/usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/mailalias.alt -P%L! -P%U! -P%L\%D! -P%U\%D! -S@%U\%D -S@%L\%D -S@%L -S@%U -r -p' '%n' A copy of the UW1.x version of mailalias is available on the Freebird archive. Subject: M15.2) Set the mail domain information in /etc/mail/mailcnfg You can establish many of the mail configuration parameters by using the Admin_Tools/Mail_Setup GUI Tool. One of the things this does is to enter parameters into the file /etc/mail/mailcnfg - a file that does not exist by default. A typical file is as follows: ADD_DATE=1 ADD_FROM=1 ADD_RECEIVED=1 DOMAIN=novell.co.uk SMARTERHOST=usl.com ADD_MESSAGE_ID=1 FORCE_7BIT_HEADERS=1 FORCE_7BIT_MIME=1 ADD_TO=1 FORCE_MIME=1 Important parameters here are: SMARTERHOST - where to send mail in the event that you are unable to resolve or have no uucp route to a host. Typically this is your IP provider or another friendly site. DOMAIN - is the mail domain for the From: line in mail. Typically mail will have the form From: user@nodename.domain. The next section in this document shows a mail rewrite rule which rewrites the From: lines so as to make all mail seem to have come from just the domain name. Subject: M15.3) Setup any header rewrite rules (/etc/mail/rewrite) Using the default setup with DOMAIN=novell.co.uk, mail will appear as if it comes from the machinename.novell.co.uk. Many installations prefer to make it appear as if they have just one email address, their domain name. The /etc/mail/rewrite file contains functions to rewrite mail headers for local and remote delivery. The following is a rewrite function to search for occurrences of node.novell.co.uk and replace them with just novell.co.uk. function check_headers() { var hdr; # loop through ALL headers for (hdr from headers_pattern("From:")) # if we match a header that has something like foo.xyz.com in it if (hdr ~ "[a-zA-Z]\\.novell\\.co\\.uk") # then substitute the shorter version in its place hdr=gsubstitute(hdr, "[a-zA-Z0-9.]+\\.novell\\.co\\.\\uk", "novell.co.uk"); } So this function should be added to the file /etc/mail/rewrite. There are two pre-defined special functions within this file - main() and local(). You need to add this to the function main() which is executed before any rules in the /etc/mail/mailsurr file are executed. Other functions may be executed from mailsurr via Rewrite rules or H= invocations on delivery lines. The function local() is executed for local delivery. An example function to be executed by a H= invocationm is add_from_header. This is a modified version we use for uucp connections (this works for us below) # function add_from_header # # Add a >From line. function add_from_header() { # Create the From header. var retpath, elementArray, newHeader; retpath = returnpath(); if(strstr(retpath, "!") != 0) { # uucp incoming case #retpath = substitute(retpath, "^(.+)!([^!]+)$", "\\1:\\2"); elementArray = split(retpath, ":"); elementArray[0] = substitute(elementArray[0], "^@", ""); newHeader = elementArray[1] @ " " @ fromdate(time()) @ " remote from " @ elementArray[0]; } else if(strstr(retpath, "@") == 0) { # local delivery so add this machine's domain newHeader = retpath @ " " @ fromdate(time()) @ " remote from " @ usefuldomain(); } else { # over smtp? retpath = gsubstitute(retpath, ":@", "!"); retpath = substitute(retpath, "^@", ""); if(strstr(retpath, ":") == 0) { retpath = substitute(retpath, "([^!@]+)@([^@]+)$", "\\2:\\1"); } else { retpath = substitute(retpath, "([^:]*)[:]([^!@]+)@([^@]+)$", "\\1!\\3:\\2"); } elementArray = split(retpath, ":"); elementArray[0] = substitute(elementArray[0], "^@", ""); newHeader = elementArray[1] @ " " @ fromdate(time()) @ " remote from " @ elementArray[0]; } prepend_header(">From", ">From", newHeader); } function usefuldomain() { var dom = domain(); dom = substitute(dom, "^\.", ""); return dom; } Also see section M21 for a rewrite function for changing the Return-Path: mail header. Subject: M15.4) Customizing /etc/mail/mailsurr (/usr/lib/mail/mailsurr.proto) To customize the /etc/mail/mailsurr file and make the changes permanent you need to make the changes to the file /usr/lib/mail/mailsurr.proto. Some example changes are below: To see mail to the address "novell.co.uk" as local when the nodename is mailgate.novell.co.uk add the following entry to /etc/mail/mailcnfg %d=novell.co.uk Add the following line to /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/ (just after the ACCDOM line in Part 2 and before the mailalias line) '.+' '([^@]+)@%d' 'Translate R=\\1' To do this change in a more generic manner add a capital D to the NODOT entry in mailsurr.proto. (The NODOT was a typo) An alternate to adding %d into the mailcnfg is to put the explicit line in the mailsurr.proto file; for example: '.+' '([^@]+)@(uel.co.uk)' 'Translate R=\\1' # our old domain Subject: M15.5) Setting up delivery lines to mail-servers, list-processors etc (mailsurr.proto) Entries can also be added to setup special delivery lines into programmes such as the mail-server. Add the entry in part 3 after the ckbinarsys line: '.+' 'mail-server' '< /opt/lib/mserv/listener' Subject: M15.6) Activating mail logging You won't get too far without being able to determine whats going on. The command to switch mail logging on follows: /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/createSurr -l on Subject: M15.7) Setting up suitable defaults for mailx users Edit the file /etc/mail/mailx.rc and add some suitable site defaults: set autoprint askcc bang crt=20 dot showto set metoo cmd=/opt/bin/mailPR page hold set sendmail=/bin/rmail set from ignore Message-Id Received Status Content-Type Content-Length Default-Options Auto-Forwarded-From Auto-Forward-Count Subject: M15.8) If you have local users, then add other mail-user agents : for example, mush, elm, pine etc If you are using the version of Elm from the mail-server, system wide defaults are contained in /opt/lib/elm/elm.rc, a sample is below for our site. ## /opt/lib/elm/elm.rc -- system wide defaults for elm ## default hostname to override uname in From: line ## for example. ## hostname = uel.co.uk ## If not set, the From: line defaults to the uname ## hostname = uel.co.uk hostname = novell.co.uk hostdomain = novell.co.uk hostfullname = novell.co.uk ## weedout unwanted mail headers weedout via Default-Options Auto-Forwarded-From Auto-Forward-Count X-Nvlenv-01DL-Expanded Original-Content-Type Content-Type Content-Length X-Nvlenv-01Date-Transferred X-Nvlenv-01Date-Posted References Subject: M15.9) Update /etc/profile EDITOR=vi postmark="`grep '^'$LOGNAME':' /etc/passwd | cut -d: -f5`" ORGANIZATION="Novell Europe." export EDITOR postmask ORGANIZATION Subject: M15.10) Setting up smart routing between uucp and internet zones As a mail gateway that has both uucp connections and an internet connection we need to be able to smart route between the zones. A utility called pathrouter is provided with UnixWare 2 to enable this. To enable the pathrouter utility, find the lines beginning <PATHS> in mailsurr.proto : <PATHS> # Reroute using pathrouter. <PATHS> # <PATHS> '.+' '[^@]+' 'Translate R=|/usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/pathrouter %n' <PATHS> And change these to: # Reroute using pathrouter. # #'.+' '[^@]+' 'Translate R=|/usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/pathrouter %n' '.+' '.*[!@].*' 'Translate T=1;B=*; R=|pathrouter -p' '%n' Also add a uucp delivery line (before or after the smtp delivery lines depending on your preference) #Added for pathrouter '.+' '!([^!]+)!(.+)' '< B=1024; uux -r -a %R -p -- \\1!rmail' '(\\2)' #before <UUCP> One thing I also found was to comment out calls to localmail in mailsurr.proto. Install paths routing database in /etc/uucp/paths Subject: M15.11) Add a rule to mailsurr.proto to catch mail to unknown local users. # mailgate setup: # This rule included for catching email sent to an unknown local user. # This combined with the use of pathrouter allows unknown local mail # to be sent to user@uknown which pathrouter expands to postmaster and the # unknown address so an error mesg still gets sent to the originator. '.+' '[^!@]+' 'Translate T=1;B=*; R=|localmail -p -S @unknown' '%n' In /etc/uucp/paths add: unknown !windsor!postmaster %s 0 (Note windsor is where the postmast mailbox lives) For localdelivery to postmaster this would simply be: unknown postmaster %s 0 Subject: M15.12) Setup uucp over the connection server for uucp over the network (rather than dialup uucp) Edit /etc/uucp/Systems.tcp, add entries: usl Any CS - -,listen:10103 usle Any CS - -,listen:10103 waterloo Any CS - -,listen:10103 carrera Any CS - -,listen:10103 marlow Any CS - -,listen:10103 Edit /etc/uucp/Devices; enable CS - - - CS entry Edit /etc/uucp/Permissions Subject: M15.13) Setup mail alias files Typically, you will want to edit /etc/mail/namefiles and add any filenames that you wish to contain your mailing lists. See section M9 for examples. Subject: M15.14) Install an alternate incoming smtpd so that incoming mail connections can be controlled using the TCP/SPX wrappers. (see M17 for further details) Subject: M15.15) Install the TCP/SPX wrappers so as to monitor who is connecting. If you're paranoid (or security conscious) and want to keep logs of who is connecting to your machine, install the TCP/SPX wrappers. If you're on the internet you should consider installing this package or the netacl's from the TIS Firewall Toolkit in order to control access to all TCP services. Subject: M16) I have UW2 and my inbound smtpd keeps dying. Is there a fix? If you are running 2.0x apply tf2100.tar - although the release notes say tf2100 is included in 2.03 you still need to apply it. If you are running 2.1.x update to 2.1.1 or later. If these don't work reliably, then an alternative is to use smap/smapd from the TIS Firewall toolkit (see the next question on running smtpd from inetd on UW2). Another alternative is to install sendmail , see elsewhere in this FAQ. Subject: M17) I have UW2 - smtpd now runs as a daemon - is there a way to run it from inetd? Running from inetd makes it more reliable and also can be wrapped. You can run the smap/smapd programmes from the TIS Firewall Toolkit V1.3 as replacements for the inbound smtpd. These have been ported to UnixWare2 /rmail subsystem - binaries can be found in the internet/server/fwtk/smap directory on the Freebird archive. smap is a simple incoming smtp daemon invoked from inetd. Its job in life is to store incoming mail for processing by smapd. It runs chroot'd in the incoming mail spool area. smapd reads mail from the incoming spool area, and hands it off to the real mail subsystem The idea behind this mailer is that smap is simple and understandable and robust, and can be run on a firewall - you can also run it as a replacement to the stock smtpd daemon if you prefer - and this allows you to use tcp wrappers if you wish. The files provided on the server with smap contain a new /etc/rc2.d/S81smtp script that auto detects if smapd is in place and runs smapd on system startup - this assumes you'll reconfigure your inetd to include the smap and restart it. Subject: M18) I have UW2 and my outbound smtp does incorrect routing to MX record sites and also continually bounces mail when sending to an unknown user when it should only bounce once - is there a fix? If you are running UW2.0x apply tf2100 - or update to 2.1.1 or later. Alternately consider installing the sendmail package from the freebird archive. Subject: M19) I'm having trouble routing email from my local machine to the net. I'm connected to a local internet provider and can run Mosaic etc but can't send email. What do i need to do to make this work? Either (1) use them as a SMARTERHOST (for mail forwarding if they are agreeable), by setting SMARTERHOST=ipprovider.domain in /etc/mail/mailcnfg and updating the /etc/mail/mailsurr mail configuration file (best to back it up first) by the following: su /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/createSurr CreateSurr looks at the system configuration and using the /usr/lib/mail/mailsurr.proto file creates a new /etc/mail/mailsurr file , in this case it enables a section of the mailsurr file to forward all mail to unknown sites to the site specified by SMARTERHOST. You may want to make sure that the IP address of the site specified by SMARTERHOST is in your /etc/hosts files. Alternately (2) if you have DNS working backup /usr/lib/mail/mailsurr.proto and then edit it changing the smtpqer lines to remove the -N flag, which tells smptqer to do a DNS lookup. And then create a new /etc/mail/mailsurr file: su /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/createSurr If you create the /etc/mail/mailcnfg file (btw check the manual page for details on mailcnfg) the permissions should be 444 bin mail. On my UnixWare 1.x machines we have the following. SMARTERHOST=usg ADD_DATE=true ADD_FROM=true REMOTEFROM=novell.co.uk You should change SMARTERHOST and REMOTEFROM accordingly. If you choose to have SMARTERHOST set to a fully qualified domain name i.e. usg.novell.com Then toggle two lines in part 3 of the /etc/mail/mailsurr to use smtp delivery first... You'll have something like this in part 3 (for UnixWare 1.x), '.+' '!([^!]+)!(.+)' '< B=512; uux -a %R -p -- \\1!rmail' '(\\2)' '.+' '!([^!]+)!(.+)' '< B=4096; smtpqer -N %R \\1' '\\2' Swap the two lines around. Subject: M20)Mail sent to my domain mydom.com does not arrive locally on the machine. It gets here but the local mailsystem does not recognise it as local. The Mail Setup GUI has a button to select to catch mail to the domain for local delivery. This activates the NODOT entry in the mailsurr file. This in fact should be DNODOT (edit /usr/lib/mail/mailsurr.proto and change the occurrence of NODOT to DNODOT, re-run createSurr and this should work correctly). (Note that this is fixed in update2.03 and tf2100.tar) Subject: M20.1) How can I set other mail domains besides my real domain to be treated as local? If you have multiple domain names that you want to receive mail, you can add an entry to /etc/mail/mailcnfg %d=myotherdom.com Edit /usr/lib/mail/mailsurr.proto to create a translation entry in that file. The user@domain entry is shown below from the mailsurr.proto file: # Map all names of the form user@local-machine -> user # Map all names of the form user@uname -> user # Map all names of the form user@domain # Then loop back through from the top. # '.+' '(.+)@%L' 'Translate R=\\1' '.+' '(.+)@%U' 'Translate R=\\1' '.+' '(.+)@%d' 'Translate R=\\1' #This is the added entry for user@domain Then run the script /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/createSurr. If mail is coming in via the internet you'll also need to setup an MX record for the other domain to tell it to send mail to this host. Subject: M21) I'm using UnixWare2 and when mail arrives locally the Return-Path: header has the format @myprovider:remotedomain!user or @domain:user or @domain:user@domain. Is there someway to put this into normal domain address format? The following rewrite function edits the Return-path: header for locally delivered email into normal domain address format. Add the following functions to the file /etc/mail/rewrite. function local() { fix_return_path(); } function fix_return_path() { var hdr; # loop through the headers of this name for (hdr from headers("Return-path")) { if (hdr ~ "@([a-zA-Z0-9.]+):([a-zA-Z0-9.]+)!([a-zA-Z0-9.]+)" ) { hdr = gsubstitute(hdr, "@([a-zA-Z0-9.]+):([a-zA-Z0-9.]+)!([a-zA-Z0-9.]+)", "\\3@\\2"); } if (hdr ~ "@([a-zA-Z0-9.]+):([a-zA-Z0-9.]+)@([a-zA-Z0-9.]+)" ) { hdr = gsubstitute(hdr, "@([a-zA-Z0-9.]+):([a-zA-Z0-9.]+)@([a-zA-Z0-9.]+)", "\\2@\\3"); } if (hdr ~ "@([a-zA-Z0-9.]+):([a-zA-Z0-9.]+)" ) { hdr = gsubstitute(hdr, "@([a-zA-Z0-9.]+):([a-zA-Z0-9.]+)", "\\2@\\1"); } } } Subject: M22) Large mail alias lists don't seem to work on UnixWare 2. Is this a known problem? This is a bug. To fix this you need to apply one of the mail updates in section M2. An alternative workaround is to use the UnixWare 1.x version of mailalias. This loses some functionality , i.e. is not driven off the /etc/mail/lookupLibs file and only looks up aliases based off the files referenced in /etc/mail/namefiles; but then is thus faster. I have installed this on my UW2 mail gateway as /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/mailalias.alt and adjusted the /usr/lib/mail/mailsurr.proto file as: '.+' '.+' 'Translate T=1;B=*; R=|/usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/mailalias.alt -P%L! -P%U! -P%L\%D! -P%U\%D! -S@%U\%D -S@%L\%D -S@%L -S@%U -r -p' '%n' And then recreated the /etc/mail/mailsurr file with /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/createSurr -l on A copy of the UW1.x version of mailalias is on the Freebird archive as mailalias.bin.UW1.Z. Subject: M23) smtp mail to hosts which only have MX records and no valid A records never gets there? This is with the 2.0 developer release. This is a bug fixed in the 2.01 version of smtpd. Update to 2.01,2.02 or 2.03 or apply tf2100.tar. Subject: M24) How do I make the mailsystem send mail for local addresses off to another host if they are not found locally without setting up aliases? Enable the following line in the mailsurr file, replacing the HOST.DOMAIN field by the appropriate values. # If you have a flat name space across multiple machines, but user-names only # exist on disjoint machines, this entry will forward any name not known # locally off to the given host. # #'.+' '[^!@]+' 'Translate T=1;B=*; R=|localmail -p -S @HOST.DOMAIN' '%n' Subject: M25) How can I get mailx/dtmail to add fullname information to the From: line? UnixWare rmail/mail adds additional information to the From: line based on the postmark environment variable. On our systems we typically add the following to /etc/profile: postmark="`grep '^'$LOGNAME':' /etc/passwd | cut -d: -f5`" export postmark Subject: M26) How can I set all the From: line (hiding the internal hosts to a mail domain)? This can be done either in the mail user agent , that is mailx, dtmail , elm or mush , which are described here , or alternately using the rewrite rules in /etc/mail/rewrite (only in UnixWare 2 - see question M15 section 3 for details on this feature). ==>mailx/dtmail: In your .mailrc for mailx,dtmail set postmark="myname@my.domian (My Fullname)" From the mailx man page: postmark=string The specified string is included in the comment field of the From: header of messages that you send. The string is usually set to your name. See from and translate. If the string includes an @, it will be used for the entire From: header. ==>For elm, edit /opt/lib/elm/elm.rc ## /opt/lib/elm/elm.rc -- system wide defaults for elm ## default hostname to override uname in From: line ## for example. ## hostname = uel.co.uk ## If not set, the From: line defaults to the uname ## hostname = uel.co.uk hostname = my.domain hostdomain = my.domain hostfullname = my.domain ==>For mush in your system mushrc file set hostname=my.domain Subject: M27) I want to setup a cluster of machines, with a single mail gateway machine. (for UW1) Use the sample files client.mailcnfg and client.mailsurr to make the internal hosts forward all mail to the gateway. And then just configure the mail gateway to be a smarthost for mail. On UnixWare 2 setup a client machine with the GUI so that all mail is forwarded to a smarter host - which can be your local email gateway. Copy the resulting /etc/mail/mailsurr and /etc/mail/mailcnfg files - install on each machine in the cluster - and edit S81smtp so as not to call createSurr and rewrite the /etc/mail/mailsurr file on each reboot. Subject: M28) How can i make bounced email go to the postmaster if the user address is invalid? A simple way just to send the message to the postmaster follows: '.+' '[^!@]+' 'Translate T=1;B=*; R=postmaster' You should add these lines to the /usr/lib/mail/mailsurr.proto file before part 4 (postprocessing commands), and use the command /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/createSurr to create a new mailsurr file (best to backup your existing mailsurr file first). CreateSurr looks at the system configuration and using the /usr/lib/mail/mailsurr.proto file creates a new /etc/mail/mailsurr file . Subject: M29) How can i debug mail delivery? There are two commands you can execute to see whats happening: /bin/mail -d address message <ctrl-d> Will show you a short list of translations and delivery commands (and will deliver the message). /bin/mail -T "" address will show you in gorey detail the translations taken from the default mailsurr file. This can be used to determine whether a problem can be isolated to the address translation. Subject: M30) How can i debug the /etc/mail/rewrite rules? Set the following environment variable: MAILR_DEBUG=10 export MAILR_DEBUG /bin/mail -d email-address msg <ctrl-d> This lets you see what the rewrite rules are doing. Subject: M31)How can I use the rewrite rules to rewrite a To: header of the format uunet!domain!user to user@domain? Add a call to the function fix_to_line() in the main() function of /etc/mail/rewrite so this is called for remote mail delivery. function main() { ... fix_to_line("To"); } function fix_to_line(var hdrname) { var hdr; # loop through the headers of this name for (hdr from headers(hdrname)) { # if the header has uunet!domain!user in it if (hdr ~ "uunet!([a-zA-Z0-9.]+)!([a-zA-Z0-9.]+)" ) { # then convert !uunet!domainr!user to user@domain hdr = gsubstitute(hdr, "uunet!([a-zA-Z0-9.]+)!([a-zA-Z0-9.]+)", "\\2@\\1"); } } } Subject: M32) I have tcp installed yet i only want to do transfers over uucp. How do i make the mailsurr file exclude the smtpqer delivery lines? Comment out the smtpqer entries in the /usr/lib/mail/mailsurr.proto and execute /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/createSurr to eliminate the smtp delivery command. Subject: M33) I'm sending to a SCO system over uucp which only understands RFC822. The UnixWare mailsystem inserts an extra From line which upsets the SCO mailer. (for UW1) To have the From line stripped when sending mail via UUCP an I=1; would need to be prepended to the uux delivery command lines in the mailsurr.proto file, otherwise the mail will bounce because of this postmark line. Then execute /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/createSurr to update the /etc/mail/mailsurr file. Subject: M34) Where are outgoing messages stored for smtp? (for UW1)All outgoing mail messages for SMTP are located in /var/spool/smtpq under the domain/host directories. (for UW2) Mail msgs are now stored in /var/spool/mailq . Subject: M35) Mail is bouncing back with problems about an invalid From header line, what should I do? (for UnixWare 2.0x) Please apply patch tf2100.tar. This symptom is often seen when communicating with Microsoft Mail or cc:Mail. Subject: M36) After changing the system owner to another user and deleting the original user, mail is still being sent to the original system owner for example when a new package is installed, and errors stating "unable to send to " appear after adding a package. This is caused since the files /var/sadm/install/admin/check and /var/sadm/install/admin/default contain a line "mail=username username2 etc. These files do not get updated when some users are deleted from the system. The fix is to manually take out the names of the non existing user from the mail= line in /var/sadm/install/admin/check and default. Subject: M37) Why when I send local mail does my PPP link get established, for example when I pkgadd or pkgrm a package? On UnixWare 2 this is triggered by the mailalias program. There is a file in /etc/mail called lookupLibs (built from /usr/lib/mail/lookupLibs.proto) that contains references to shared libraries used to lookup aliases. By default if you have DNS defined in your mailflgs file, mailalias will connect to your name server to ask it about aliases. To work around this just comment out the <DNS> line /usr/lib/mail/lookupLibs.proto and /etc/mail/lookupLibs. Subject: M38) Is it possible to change the sender address with mailsurr's translation facilities? The man page indicates that only the recipient address can be changed. Am I going to have to move to sendmail? For UnixWare 2.x we add functions to the file /etc/mail/rewrite to rewrite mail headers. Subject: M39) How do I setup a POP3 server on UnixWare ? The POP server is included in UW2 in /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/popper, however there's a problem with truncation of the last mail message with that version. Either pick up tf2100 from ftp.sco.com:/UW20 or get one of the freeware versions from ftp.abs.net|ftp.novell.co.uk in /pub/unixware/freebird/mailtools/popper (source and binaries available). To make operational, you need to do the following: (i) edit /etc/services, ensure there is an entry pop3 110/tcp # Post Office (ii) edit /etc/inetd.conf, add an entry pop3 stream tcp nowait root /replace_with_Path_to_popper/popper popper (iii) Restart inetd, by sending a kill -HUP to the inetd PID. Subject: M40) I'm using UnixWare 1.x and I can't find the createSurr command, what should i do? This occurs because you did not install the nuc package. Subject: M41) How do I setup my mail to be autoanswered? This is done by using the vacation command. To setup the default autoanswering message just type vacation For example: $ vacation UX:vacation: INFO: Vacation notification installed UX:vacation: INFO: Logging will go to '/opt/lib/mserv/.maillog' UX:vacation: INFO: '/usr/share/lib/mail/std_vac_msg' will be used for the canned message This will cause the system to send the following standard reply: Subject: AUTOANSWERED!!! I am on vacation. I will read (and answer if necessary) your e-mail message when I return. This message was generated automatically and you will receive it only once, although all messages you send me while I am away WILL be saved. A list of senders is kept in the file $HOME/.maillog, and incoming mail is kept in your normal mailbox by default, since the UnixWare mailer keeps the forwarding information in /var/mail/:forward and not in the mailbox file as in earlier SVR4.0 releases. If you would prefer to customise the reply, prepare a message in a file and then give the filename as an option to the vacation utility, for example: vacation -M message For example: $ vacation -M Msg Forwarding to |/usr/lib/mail/vacation2 -o %R -M Msg $ For example the message might contain (Note: the ``From:'' line is the address for folks to reply to -- this should be of the form username@domain_addr, this may not be needed if your mail subsystem puts a From: line for you, there should be an entry ADD_FROM=true in /etc/mail/mailcnfg if using the default mailer [/bin/mail]) Subject: AUTOANSWERED!!! From: postmast@novell.co.uk (Postmaster) I am permanently on vacation. I will read (and answer if necessary) your e-mail message when and if I return, and if I can be bothered. This message was generated automatically and you will receive it only once, although all the messages you send me while I am away WILL be saved. If your mail is really for the attention of somebody else, then why did n't you send it to them in the firstplace :-) Alternately try sysadmin@novell.co.uk :-) -- The Postmaster To read your mail while vacation is in effect: You can use your normal mail user agent (elm, mush, mailx or whatever), since the UnixWare mailer keeps the forwarding information in /var/mail/:forward and not in the mailbox file as in earlier SVR4.0 releases. To remove the vacation facility: /bin/mail -F "" or vacation -n For example: $ /bin/mail -F "" UX:mail: INFO: Forwarding removed $ Subject: M42) How do I setup my mail to be forwarded? To forward all your mail to another person or another mailbox use the following command : To forward to a single person, e.g. /bin/mail -F andrew To forward to more than one person use a quoted string: /bin/mail -F "andrew plord" for example: $ /bin/mail -F "andrew plord" UX:mail: INFO: Installing forwarding to local address: andrew UX:mail: INFO: Installing forwarding to local address: plord UX:mail: INFO: Forwarding to andrew plord It is also possible to combine a forward with the vacation programme: for example $ vacation -M $HOME/.MSG -f andrew UX:vacation: INFO: Vacation notification installed UX:vacation: INFO: Logging will go to '/opt/lib/mserv/.maillog' UX:vacation: INFO: '/opt/lib/mserv/.MSG' will be used for the canned message To confirm the forward is in effect, cat the :forward/user-id file: $ cat /var/mail/:forward/mserv Forward to andrew | C=0;S=2;F=*; /usr/lib/mail/vacation2 -o %R -M /opt/lib/mserv/.MSG Note that you should not edit the /var/mail/:forward files directly else they will loose the correct permissions and email delivery will fail. Subject: M43) How do I setup a mail-server? The mail-server we use at novell.co.uk is the Squirrel mail-server version 3.01 . This is written by Johan Vromans and is mainly written in perl. A binary version ready for use with UW1.x or UW2 is on the Freebird archive ftp.abs.net:/unixware/freebird/mailtools/mail-server.bin.tar.Z. The steps to install this are as follows: Create an account mserv, with the home directory rooted in /opt/lib/mserv. We assume the mail-server archive tree is in /home/mserv-archive, if its elsewhere make a symlink. useradd -s /usr/bin/ksh -d /opt/lib/mserv mserv (mkdir /opt/lib if it does not exist) cd /opt/lib zcat mserv.tar.Z|tar xvf - chown -R mserv mserv chown root mserv/listener To run the mail-server, you need to install ALL the following packages: utils/perl-4.0pl36.pkg.tar, archivers/gzip-1.2.4.pkg.tar, utils/gnufind-3.7.pkg.tar. All these packages are on the novell.co.uk mail-server archive. You also need to allow the mserv account to use cron, edit /usr/lib/cron/cron.allow and add the mserv user. To test prior to running out of cron, login as user mserv ./listener -noqueue You can then type interactive requests Once you are happy, edit the file mserv.hints Place the files you want to serve in /home/mserv-archive, run some of the indexing commands by hand ./makeindex ./makels ./changes Then enable the crons crontab ctab Next stage, enable in the mailsubsystem. This can be done by editing /usr/lib/mail/mailsurr.proto and editing the following in section 3 of the file after the ckbinarsys entry. # mail-server, mailing lists and information distribution handling section '.+' 'mail-server' '< /opt/lib/mserv/listener' Then run /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/createSurr -l on. # /etc/mail/extaliases Then run /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/createSurr -l on. On the system that the mail-server runs I have a mailbox called bit-bucket, which as long as it exists in /var/mail/bit-bucket and is mode 660 owner mserv, group mail is used to catch all admin mail. System aliases are added a file in /etc/mail, /etc/mail/names ### Mailserver ### # if you want mail to go to real people #mserv plord andrew # else put it in a mailbox mserv bit-bucket # various typos on mail-server mailserv mail-server mailserver mail-server mail_server mail-server mail-serverl mail-server mail-serv mail-server mail-serve mail-server mail-sarver mail-server mailx-server mail-server mailer-server mail-server ftpmail mail-server # various strange things that requestors send, best to dump them in the # bit-bucket mailbox reply-address bit-bucket your-address-here bit-bucket your-mail-address-goes-here bit-bucket address-to-reply-to bit-bucket your-email-address bit-bucket File Permissions: All files except listener can be owned by user mserv. listener has to be owned by root and setuid. Subject: M44) How do I setup a mailing list - such as Listproc ? A port of ListProcessor Version 6.0, Binary distribution for UnixWare is available on ftp.novell.de:/pub/unixware/usle/mailtools/listproc.bin.tar.Z. Please observe the copyright notice below: ListProcessor version 6.0 by Anastasios Kotsikonas, Copyright (c) 1991-93. Use, duplication or disclosure by the U.S. Federal Government is subject to the restrictions set forth in FAR 52.227-19(c), Commercial Computer Software or, for U.S. Department of Defense Users, by DFAR 252.227-7013(c)(1)(ii). Note: To make this work with the UnixWare mail subsystem (mailsurr), the formail utility from procmail has been used as a front end to the ListProcessor catmail utility, to edit the headers etc. Installation instructions for this distribution (1) Login as root If you are running straight UnixWare 2.0 , 2.01 or 2.02 you need to apply a patch to the smtp subsystem. The supported version can be obtained from ftp://ftp.sco.com/UW20/ (2) Then install the listproc tools into /home/listserv as follows: cd /home zcat listproc.tar.Z|tar xvf - useradd -d /home/listserv -s /usr/bin/ksh listserv chown -R listserv listserv vi /usr/lib/cron/cron.allow append listserv to the end of this file (3) Setup the mailaliases etc: You need to add entries in the /etc/mail/mailsurr file for your mailing lists. This can be done by editing the file /usr/lib/mail/mailsurr.proto adding the lines below (note xopen-testing is an example) and then running the command: /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/createSurr -l on #### #### Part 3 #### #### Delivery commands should go here. #### # Check for binary mail. Uncomment this if you want to use it. # #'.+' '!([^!]+)!.+' '< F=*;C=0; /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/ckbinarsys -t %C -s \\1' # mailgate setup: # mail-server, mailing lists and information distribution handling section # admin requests '.+' 'listproc' '<S=0; /home/listserv/catmail -r -f' # mailing lists '.+' 'xopen-testing' '<S=0;F=1-255;C=*; /home/listserv/catmail -L XOPEN-TESTING -f' (4) Edit /etc/mail/namefiles and add: /etc/mail/listaliases This tells mailalias to look in this file for additional aliases. Add the following to that list, change the name (andrew) as appropriate ### Mailing Lists ### # who is the overall admin for listproc list-admin andrew # if you share this file on multiple machines enable the next line # to get the mail to the right machine #xopen-testing lechladel!xopen-testing xopen-testing-request listproc (5) Login as user listserv: Edit the config file and change values in there as appropriate for your configuration. The organization line needs changing, as do the lists that you define. In this example a list xopen-testing is shown. This list requires all subscription requests to be approved by the list owner. Also in this example the lists are running on a machine called lechlade, you want to change all email addresses to be those of your mail domain. Check out the documentation in the doc directory. Lastly when you are ready and feel you have an understanding, install a crontab entry . Install a cron file to start the server: crontab crontab This will start the server. To test, send some mail to listproc, and also to xopen-testing. It takes a while for the listproc to awake the first time, since its only started on the hour, once awake the daemon keeps running. Edit the crontab to start the daemon sooner. To see where incoming requests go, if you configured the mailer correctly, check the file /home/listserv/requests. xopen-testing should say you are not subscribed, you can then resend and subscribe. Check both the admin mail box and the initiator. Look at help/general and change the first line as required. To add new lists you have to create a set of files in /home/listserv/lists in a subdirectory as well as editing /home/listserv/config. Check out the doc directory. File & Directory Perms in /home/listserv A couple of utilities have to be setuid listserv - see below: total 4032 drwxr-xr-x 2 listserv other 96 Apr 12 14:56 News drwx------ 3 listserv other 96 Apr 12 14:56 arc drwx------ 5 listserv tech 96 Apr 12 14:55 archives -rw------- 1 listserv tech 0 Jan 18 1994 batch drwxr-xr-x 2 listserv other 96 Apr 12 14:56 bin -rwsr-xr-x 1 listserv other 86 Apr 17 09:10 catmail -rwsr-xr-x 1 listserv other 155400 Jan 26 1994 catmail.prog -rw------- 1 listserv tech 6745 Feb 14 19:12 config -rw-r--r-- 1 listserv other 57 Feb 10 1994 crontab drwx------ 2 listserv tech 1024 Apr 12 14:55 doc -rwx------ 1 listserv other 175732 Jan 26 1994 farch -rw------- 1 listserv tech 84 Jan 18 1994 flocks -rwx------ 1 listserv other 15208 Jan 26 1994 fwin drwxr-xr-x 2 listserv tech 96 Apr 12 14:56 gateway drwx------ 2 listserv tech 1024 Apr 12 14:56 help -rwxr-xr-x 1 listserv other 13892 Jan 26 1994 ilp -rwx------ 1 listserv other 321880 Jan 26 1994 list -rwx------ 1 listserv other 424760 Jan 26 1994 listproc drwx------ 11 listserv tech 1024 Apr 12 14:55 lists -rwxr-xr-x 1 listserv other 45208 Jan 18 1994 make -rw-r--r-- 1 listserv tech 546 Jan 18 1994 makefile drwxr-xr-x 4 listserv other 96 Apr 12 14:56 man -rw------- 1 listserv other 251796 Jul 6 08:16 mbox drwx------ 2 listserv tech 1024 Jul 10 18:57 mqueue -rwx------ 1 listserv tech 1986 Jan 18 1994 news -rw------- 1 listserv tech 892 Jul 5 10:18 owners -rwx------ 1 listserv tech 1888 Jan 18 1994 peer -rwx------ 1 listserv other 216956 Jan 26 1994 pqueue -rwx------ 1 listserv tech 1201 Jan 18 1994 queued -rwxr-xr-x 1 listserv other 501 Jan 20 1994 rcp -rw------- 1 listserv other 57 Jul 6 08:16 received -rwx------ 1 listserv tech 502 Jan 18 1994 redux -rw------- 1 listserv other 0 Jul 6 08:16 requests -rwx------ 1 listserv other 4808 Jan 26 1994 rev -rwxr-xr-x 1 listserv other 7420 Jan 26 1994 semset -rw------- 1 listserv other 6 Jul 6 08:16 sent -rwxr-xr-x 1 listserv other 172072 Jan 26 1994 serverd -rwx------ 1 listserv tech 6931 Jan 20 1994 setup -rwx------ 1 listserv other 169264 Jan 26 1994 start -rwx------ 1 listserv tech 23389 Jan 18 1994 systest -rwx------ 1 listserv other 22312 Jan 26 1994 tlock -rwx------ 1 listserv tech 133 Jan 18 1994 ulock -rw------- 1 listserv tech 700 Jan 18 1994 unwanted.hosts drwxr-xr-x 2 listserv tech 1024 Apr 12 14:56 util -rw-r--r-- 1 listserv tech 591 Jan 18 1994 welcome.live Subject: M45) How do I make sendmail the default mailer? Note that this is for the default sendmail included with the base system and is not for the Sendmail package included with the Free UW212 IFS - please check with SCO for how to configure that. On UnixWare 2: (Step 1). rename /etc/rc2.d/S81smtp to /etc/rc2.d/s81stmp (Step 2). Start sendmail in /etc/inet/config. Like this: # The next line can be read: # If field 3 is a Y and /usr/sbin/in.gated was not run, then run # /usr/sbin/in.routed -q 4b:/usr/sbin/in.routed:/usr/sbin/in.gated:Y::-q: ###4c:/usr/sbin/route::n::add default router_placeholder 1 ###6:/usr/sbin/in.xntpd::y:/etc/inet/ntp.conf:: 7:/usr/bin/sh::y:/etc/inet/rc.inet:/etc/inet/rc.inet start: 4c:/usr/sbin/route::y::add default 129.123.1.254 1: ## added by JRD 8:/usr/ucblib/sendmail::y:/usr/ucblib/sendmail.cf:-bd -q24h: 9:/usr/sbin/syslogd::y:/etc/syslog.conf:: (Step 3). copy the /etc/ucbmail/mailsurr file over the /etc/mail/mailsurr file. Note that you should also check the mailtools/sendmail directory on the ftp archive since there is a binary pkgadd version of sendmail there which does the setup automagically. Subject: M46) Mail of the address format @mylocal.domain:user@mylocal.domain is not delivered locally, how can I fix this? You need to add a line to /usr/lib/mail/mailsurr.proto as follows: After the uucollapse line add: '.+' '@(%DNODOT)[:,](.+)' 'Translate R=\\2' '.+' '@(%L%D)[:,](.+)' 'Translate R=\\2' '.+' '@(%U)[:,](.+)' 'Translate R=\\2' Then run /etc/rc2.d/S81smtp stop /etc/rc2.d/S81smtp start Subject: M47) dtmail won't restart after my machine was switched off. One of our machines was switched off with a dtmail session active and when restarted wont let the user back into mail, saying the mail is already being read - any ideas? Check /var/mail/:readlock for a file as in username.lock Try removing that file. If that does not work and you can't get in (due to a kernel lock) move the mailbox in /var/mail aside and rename it, then copy it back to the original name (has to be done quickly:-) Subject: M48) Inbound mail is addressed to <@site.demon.co.uk:user@domain.co.uk> and does not get delivered to the local user. Our Internet provider is Demon, and we are using the mail forwarding service. This allows use of user@domain.co.uk, rather than the usual user@site.demon.co.uk. The problem :- The "RCPT TO:" line when receiving mail reads ( As seen in the osm log ) RCPT TO: <@site.demon.co.uk:user@domain.co.uk> Instead of the mail being delivered to the user, it goes to root. This is the same for any user. Outgoing mail is fine. To fix: edit the /usr/lib/mail/mailsurr.proto file and try the following: {after uucollapse }; add # Strip off local routes to domain, local.domain, uname, uname.alternate '.+' '@(%DNODOT)[:,](.+)' 'Translate R=\\2' '.+' '@(%L%D)[:,](.+)' 'Translate R=\\2' '.+' '@(%U)[:,](.+)' 'Translate R=\\2' # put our alternate domain here '.+' '@(%site.demon.co.uk)[:,](.+)' 'Translate R=\\2' Subject: M49) I'm using PPP but don't have the interface up when the system creates the mailsurr file, and thus it does not detect my IP link - what can I do? Bob Stewart writes: If your only networking connection is via ppp, you will have to make a change to /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/configCheck if you want to use smtp to send your mail. Look for the section entitled "Check if IP is up and running". Add the following line immediately after the check to just force IP as the mail transport: $flaglist{IP} = 1; Reboot your system, or alternately as root, type sh /etc/rc2.d/S81smtp stop sh /etc/rc2.d/S81smtp start and verify that IP preceeds UUCP in /etc/mail/mailflgs. Subject: M50) How can I set mailalias in the form : user@site maps to local user? I run multiple domains in my server and I want to map "sales@abc.com" to a user "andy" "editor@def.com" to a user "ron". How should I do this? Set up the mailsurr file in the following way... Robert A Heller writes: We have a script in /etc/mail/vdom that takes two command line parameters as: /etc/mail/vdom username domain If the 'user' is one of a common set between domains like, info, accounts, sales, webmaster etc (create your own list), it appends an index number to the user name. For example, sending to info@vdomain.com will result in mail calling vdom as /etc/mail/vdom info vdomain.com vdom will find the index number for vdomain.com (say 20) and it will then print on the standard output info20, which is returned to the mail delivery system. The mailsurr file is modified with an entry like: '.+' '([^@]+)@(.*vdomain.com)' 'Translate T=1; R=|/etc/mail/vdom \\1 \\2' somewhere before 'local' mail delivery. If the username is not one of the 'common' names, but rather a real e-mail at that address it simply puts the real name on the output. Therefore, if michael is a real user at realdomain.com but owns the virtual domain vdomain.com, mail program will... /etc/mail/vdom michael vdomain.com and the output returned to the mail program for further processing will simply be 'michael'. Notably, '.+' '([^@]+)@([^@]+)(vdomain.com)' 'Translate T=1; R=|/etc/mail/vdom \\1 \\2' does not work. Here are our samples: -----mailsurr.proto---- <ACCDOM> '.+' '([^@]+)@%{DNODOT}' 'Translate R=\\1' # INTERNET_XL begin # This is to weed out any addresses of the form user@mail.xl.ca. '.+' '([^@]+)@(.*xl.ca)' 'Translate T=1; R=\\1' '.+' '([^@]+)@(.*xlent.net)' 'Translate T=1; R=\\1' # Virtual domains hosted by this server '.+' '([^@]+)@(.*advancedcard.com)' 'Translate T=1; R=|/etc/mail/vdom \\1 \\2' '.+' '([^@]+)@(.*ames-bros.bc.ca)' 'Translate T=1; R=|/etc/mail/vdom \\1 \\2' '.+' '([^@]+)@(.*concerta.com)' 'Translate T=1; R=|/etc/mail/vdom \\1 \\2' -------/etc/mail/vdom-- #!/bin/sh vdomain=$2 # COUNTER 23 case $vdomain in *advancedcard.com) no=1;; *ames-bros.bc.ca) no=2;; *concerta.com) no=21;; *) no=;; esac case $1 in admin | info | sales | support | accounts | accounting | webmaster | director | orders ) user=$1$no;; *) user=$1;; esac printf $user Subject: M51) What is the /etc/mail/smtpcnfg file in tf2100/UW2.1? This file is read when smtp is started. It contains fields of the format field=value The default file with UW212 looks like MX_FIRST=yes USE_LOG_FILES=yes USE_WRAPPERS=no USE_OSM=no TIMEOUT=3 days LOG_MASK=incoming, outgoing, errors MX_FIRST=yes : means smtp attempts delivery to a hosts specified Mail Exchanger record (MX DNS record) rather than the delivering directly to the host IP address. If set to no, then it attempts delivery directly to the host IP address and then any MX hosts if specified. USE_LOG_FILES=yes : whether to log to /var/spool/mailq/Logs. If no value is given this defaults to yes. USE_WRAPPERS=no : whether to check to access using the /etc/hosts.allow file (as in the tcp wrappers package). I've not been able to convince myself that this works at the moment. USE_OSM=no : whether to direct log messages to syslog (osmlog). If yes these can be viewed using the Message_monitor GUI tool, or syslogd can direct them to log files. TIMEOUT=3 days : the time from original delivery attempt before the mail is returned to the sender as being undeliverable. If a value of "-1" is given the attempts continue indefinitely. An example of 7 days timeout can also be specified as "TIMEOUT=1 week". LOG_MASK=incoming, outgoing, errors : what events to be logged. Other classes to be logged are: "queued" - log info on msgs placed on queues; "debug" - log debug info; "connection" - log info on connections; "recipients" - log info about recipients. Its possible to switch all this off with the value "nothing" or to switch all logging on with "everything". Subject: M52) How should I setup Mail via PPP? Let's assume firstly that you have a PPP link up and working and that tcp/ip services between your host and your ISP have been established. Lets also assume that you can obtain the Email FAQ from http://www.freebird.org/faq/email.html since that explains the email subsystem in greater depth than here. There are various scenarios: (1) You have your own domain name, for example tamarix.demon.co.uk and your ISP initiates an smtp transfer to your host when you start a ppp session (this is how demon work in the UK) You need to establish your DOMAIN name for email. This can be done by using the Mail_setup GUI tool or by editing(or creating) the file: /etc/mail/mailcnfg The mailcnfg file I use at home is DOMAIN=demon.co.uk FORCE_7BIT_HEADERS=1 FORCE_7BIT_MIME=1 ADD_TO=1 ADD_MESSAGE_ID=1 SMARTERHOST=post.demon.co.uk By setting DOMAIN=demon.co.uk outbound mail from my home machine tamarix has the From: line set to tamarix.demon.co.uk. Since you are at home you want to try and do all mail processing while offline - hence the use of a SMARTERHOST, whose IP address should be added to your /etc/hosts file so as not to require an MX lookup when sending mail (see smtpqer line later) You also want to edit the file /usr/lib/mail/lookupLibs.proto and comment out some lines in there so as to reduce DNS lookups. /usr/lib/mail/libalias/home.so /usr/lib/mail/libalias/file.so /usr/lib/mail/libalias/passwd.so <DNS> #/usr/lib/mail/libalias/dns.so <NIS> #/usr/lib/mail/libalias/nis.so <MHS> #/usr/lib/mail/libalias/extract.so This proto file ends up creating the file /etc/mail/lookupLibs , (after running the /usr/lib/mail/surrcmd/createSurr command - ran out of /etc/rc2.d/S81smtp). The /etc/mail/mailsurr file is the key file for determining how mail gets delivered, I customize this file and then make it permanent - after all once you've set it up why let createSurr keep rewriting it! A fixed mailsurr file appropriate for PPP can be obtained from: ftp.abs.net:/unixware/freebird/hints/Mail/mailsurr.ppp (2) You have a POP mailbox on the ISP server, and your mail account is username@your_isp_address.dom. You'll need to use a POP client or equivalent to get the mail onto your local machine. You'll then need to reply using mail on the local machine and want to ensure that the mail headers look like mail is being sent from the ISP machine. In this case your mailbox is held on the ISP's machine and they have a POP server. You need a popclient to retrieve the mail from the server onto your local machine. A version of the Mail Users Shell (Mush) is available on ftp.abs.net:/unixware/freebird/mailtools/popclient that can be used. There has also been a tool posted in this group that will retrieve the mailbox from your ISP into the local machine, in which case you can then use your favourite mail user agent to read it (i don't have a copy off-hand). POP allows you to retrieve mail but most servers don't allow you to send mail. You can use smtp to send mail from your local machine using the above configuration with one exception, you need to rewrite the From: line for outbound mail to hide your nodename (so in my case, mail would appear to come from demon.co.uk and not tamarix.demon.co.uk). This can be done by editing the file /etc/mail/rewrite and adding the routine (this will need editing for your configuration) function check_headers() { var hdr; # loop through ALL headers for (hdr from headers_pattern("From:")) # if we match a header that has something like foo.xyz.com in it if (hdr ~ "[a-zA-Z]\\.demon\\.co\\.uk") # then substitute the shorter version in its place hdr=gsubstitute(hdr, "[a-zA-Z0-9.]+\\.demon\\.co\\.\\uk", "demon.co.uk"); } Add a call to this in the function main() in /etc/mail/rewrite, so this looks like: function main() { add_missing_headers(); check_headers(); } (3) When sending mail you'll want to consider whether you want to relay mail via a SMARTERHOST (recommended), usually your ISP or whether you want to send the mail directly across the internet to the remote recipient In the mailsurr example above, I've assumed that this is what you'd want to do. And in most cases this makes sense, since that way you can let your ISP handle the routing and delivery issues. For those odd occasions when you want to get mail somewhere quickly or directly i use an i: prefix to say internet directly which you may or may not find particularly useful. (4) Perhaps you have two PPP links in different domains (like my home box), and can switch between them. You want to receive mail to both domain addresses - this requires some level of customization I have some scripts (written by Mike Convey) to swap between my ISP and my work PPP links. At home my machine is known as tamarix, at work its known as voyager (now if i'd kept the names the same i would not need this!). When I send email i keep the tamarix.demon.co.uk domain in there, but occasionally i want to forward mail over the work link to my machine. In this case I have to add a line to the mailsurr file so that it recognises the mail as local, otherwise it sends it off to the SMARTERHOST The trick is to add another delivery line to translate the mail for local delivery, and add your alternate nodename in there '.+' '([^@]+)@(voyager)%D' 'Translate R=\\1' The %D is needed since the inbound smtp adds the Domain info. (5) Perhaps your ISP relays mail to you over uucp over TCP/IP, perhaps by a mail forward? What then? For incoming mail this is not a problem, and you can still send mail outwards using smtp. I'm sure there are other configurations not covered here, hopefully this will be useful to some folks! Subject: M53) How can I setup mail to handle virtual hosts's mail? How do I handle virtual hosts' mail with mailsurr ? Example: have machine mydomain.net have virtual machines virtual1.ca virtual2.ca virtual3.ca I want to have server handle mail for sales@mydomain.net sales@virtual1.ca sales@virtual2.ca sales@virtual3.ca One way to handle this is to add explicit rules on the mailsurr.proto file as follows: Add this in just before the area where it deals with supposedly local names. # Map all names addressed to alias@domain.com to appropriate users. '.+' '(sales)@(mydomain.net)' 'Translate T=1; R=ron' '.+' '(sales)@(virtual1.ca)' 'Translate T=1; R=andy' '.+' '(sales)@(virtual2.ca)' 'Translate T=1; R=linda' '.+' '(sales)@(virtual3.ca)' 'Translate T=1; R=bob' In the above, all the R=names are local users or aliases (if they are not local you can alias them to the real addresses). Subject: M54) I need to print all incoming mail as well as send it to local users. # Add this before any address translations to mailsurr.proto # Send all incomming mail to printer and to user. # Do a C=* so mail is sent to the user also. '.+' '([^@]+)@(mydomain.com)' '< C=*; lp -dtest' Subject: M55) Mail loops - its forwarded by my provider but then goes into a loop - any ideas? This usually occurs when the /etc/mail/mailsurr file is not pattern matching a delivery line, specifically a line to translate the address to a local address for delivery. Examine the log file in /var/mail/:log , look at the To address of the bounced message. If its of the form @site.com:user@foo.domain See M48. Else check that your DOMAIN is defined in /etc/mail/mailcnfg and that any customisations to /etc/mail/mailsurr have been done. Subject: M56) Mail delivery does not seem to be case insensitive - any ideas? Problem: Any mail that is received with a capitol letter in the recipient field is returned to the originator. Meaning, if you compose mail to AUser@mydom,net, it will not get to me. Instead an ambiguous/invalid recipient error is generated. The problem occurs since the mailalias call with the mailsurr sees the address with a domain still attached. Translation to lower case is handled by the mailalias line within /etc/mail/mailsurr, in this case the mailalias call leaves this alone as its not local, and a later line attempts local delivery. The fix is to add another mailalias call by duplicating the existing line. ---------------------------------------------------------------------------- Acknowledgements: Many thanks to the following for feedback and comments on various drafts of this FAQ: Steve Wootton, Pete Holsberg, Michael Tiernan, Bob Stewart, Dan Daggett. -- Andrew Josey, Disclaimer: Any views expressed are not those of my employer, either past, present or future.

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:12 PM