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comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.* Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) Part 4/5

( Part1 - Part2 - Part3 - Part4 - Part5 )
[ Usenet FAQs | Web FAQs | Documents | RFC Index | Zip codes ]
Archive-name: pc-hardware-faq/part4
Last-modified: 1997/11/10
Version: 1.25

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
S) 7.0 Diagnostics

Q) 7.1  What do the POST beeps mean?
This section contains information on the following:

	IBM
	AMI 
	Phoenix
	DTK/ERSO XT BIOS
	MR BIOS
	Mylex 386 System BIOS
	Quadtel AT Compatible BIOS

[From: Shaun Burnett (burnesa@cat.com)]
 
POST (Power-On Self Test) beeps signal something is wrong with your
system.  The meaning of these beeps is BIOS dependent.  Below are the
audio codes for IBM, AMI, and Phoenix BIOS's.

IBM
Beep(s)                 Errant device
No beep                 Power supply, system board
1 short beep            System OK
2 short beeps           POST Error displayed on monitor
Repeating short beeps   Power supply, system board
3 long beeps            3270 keyboard card
1 long, 1 short beeps   System board
1 long, 2 short beeps   Display adapter (MDA, CGA)
1 long, 3 short beeps   EGA
Continuous beep         Power supply, system board


AMI
Beep(s)                 Failure
1 short                 DRAM refresh
2 short                 Parity circuit
3 short                 Base 64K RAM
4 short                 System timer
5 short                 Processor
6 short                 Keyboard controller Gate A20 error
7 short                 Virtual mode exception error
8 short                 Display memory R/W test
9 short                 ROM BIOS checksum
1 long, 3 short         Non-fatal--Conventional/extended memory
1 long, 8 short         Non-fatal--Display/retrace test


PHOENIX
Beep    Fatal Failures* Beep code      Non-Fatal Failures* code
1-1-3   CMOS write/read  (or real-     4-2-1   Timer tick interrupt test
         time clock read/write)                 (or in progress)
1-1-4   ROM BIOS checksum              4-2-2   Shutdown test (or in progress)
1-2-1   Programmable interval timer    4-2-3   Gate A20 failure
1-2-2   DMA initialization             4-2-4   Unexpected interrupt in
                                                protected mode
1-2-3   DMA page register write/read   4-3-1   RAM test in progress or
                                                address failure > FFFFh
1-2-4   SRAM test and configuration    4-3-3   Interval timer Channel 2
                                                (or test)
1-3-1   RAM refresh verification       4-3-4   Time-of-day clock (or test)
1-3-3   1st 64kb RAM chip or data      4-4-1   Serial port (or test)
         line failure, multibit
1-3-4   First 64K RAM odd/even logic   4-4-2   Parallel port (or test)
1-4-1   Address line failure first     4-4-3   Math coprocessor (or test)
         64K RAM
1-4-2   Parity failure first       low 1-1-2   System-board select
         64K RAM
2-1-1   Bit 0 first 64K RAM        low 1-1-3   Extended CMOS RAM
2-1-2   Bit 1 first 64K RAM
2-1-3   Bit 2 first 64K RAM
2-1-4   Bit 3 first 64K RAM
2-2-1   Bit 4 first 64K RAM
2-2-2   Bit 5 first 64K RAM
2-2-3   Bit 6 first 64K RAM
2-2-4   Bit 7 first 64K RAM
2-3-1   Bit 8 first 64K RAM
2-3-2   Bit 9 first 64K RAM
2-3-3   Bit 10 first 64K RAM
2-3-4   Bit 11 first 64K RAM
2-4-1   Bit 12 first 64K RAM
2-4-2   Bit 13 first 64K RAM
2-4-3   Bit 14 first 64K RAM
2-4-4   Bit 15 first 64K RAM
3-1-1   Slave DMA register
3-1-2   Master DMA register
3-1-3   Master interrupt mask
         register failure
3-1-4   Slave interrupt mask
         register failure
3-2-4   Keyboard controller test
         failure
3-3-4   Screen initialization
3-4-1   Screen retrace
3-4-2   Search for video ROM in
         progress (not failure)
* Unless otherwise noted.


[From: Will Spencer (will@gnu.ai.mit.edu)]

DTK/ERSO XT BIOS
 
1 short					- Begin POST and End POST
1 long, 1 short				- Floppy Disk Drive or Controller 
					  Failure
Continuous short			- Parity Error in First 64K RAM
Continuous tone				- First 64K RAM failure
1 long					- Keyboard Failed or Locked, Interrupt
					  or other system board error
long short, long short, long short	- Video Initialization Failure, or
				  	  Invalid Video Switch Setting

MR BIOS
 
:POST Code 1A Beep Codes
low high, low high low high high	- Real Time Clock is Not Updating
 
:POST Code 03 Beep Codes
low high, low low low			- ROM BIOS Checksum Test
 
:POST Code 04 Beep Codes
low high, high low low			- Page Register Test (Ports 81-8F)
 
:POST Code 05 Beep Codes
low high, low high low			- 8042 Keyboard Controller Selftest
 
:POST Code 07 Beep Codes
low high, high high low			- Memory Refresh Circuit Test
 
:POST Code 08 Beep Codes
low high, low low high			- Master (16bit) DMA Controller
					  Failure
low high, high low high			- Slave (8 bit) DMA Controller
					  Failure
 
:Post Code 0A Beep Codes
low high, low low low low		- Memory Bank 0 Pattern Test Failure
low high, high low low low		- Memory Bank 0 Parity Circuitry
					  Failure
low high, low high low low		- Memory Bank 0 Parity Error
low high, high high low low		- Memory Bank 0 Data Bus Failure
low high, low low high low		- Memory Bank 0 Address Bus Failure
low high, high low high low		- Memory Bank 0 Block Access Read
					  Failure
low high, low high high low		- Memory Bank 0 Block Access
					  Read/Write Failure
 
:POST Code 0B Beep Codes
low high, high high high low		- Master 8259 (Port 21 ) Failure
low high, low low low high		- Slave 8259 (Port A1) Failure
 
:POST Code 0C Beep Codes
low high, high low low high		- Master 8259 (Port 20) Interrupt
					  Address Error
low high, low high low high		- Slave 8259 (Port A0) Interrupt
					  Address Error
low high, high high low low		- 8259 (Port 20/A0) Interrupt
					  Address Error
low high, low low high high		- Master 8259 (Port 20) Stuck
					  Intercept Error
low high, high low high high		- Slave 8259 (Port A0) Stuck
					  Intercept Error
low high, low high high high		- System Timer 8254 CH0/IRQ0
					  Interrupt Failure
 
:POST Code 0D Beep Codes
low high, high high high high		- 8254 Channel 0 Test and
					  Initialization
 
:POST Code 0E Beep Codes
low high, low low low low high		- 8254 Channel-2 (Speaker) Failure
low high, high low low low high		- 8254 OUT2 (Speaker Detect) Failure
 
:POST Code 0F Beep Codes
low high, low high low low high		- CMOS RAM Read/Write Test Failure
low high, high high low low high	- RTC Periodic Interrupt / IRQ8
					  Failure
 
:POST Code 10 Beep Codes
low high, low low high low high		- Video Initialization and
					  (Cold-Boot) Signon Message
 
:POST Code 12 Beep Codes
low high, high low high low high	- Keyboard Controller Failure
 
:POST Code 17 Beep Codes
low high, low low low high high		- A20 Test Failure Due to 8042
					  Timeout
low high, high low low high high	- A20 Gate Stuck in Disabled State
 
:POST Code 19 Beep Codes
low high, low high high low high	- Memory Parity Error
low high, high high high low high	- IO Channel Error


Mylex 386 System BIOS
 
long					- Begin POST Beep Code
2 long					- Video Card Bad or No Video Card
long, short, long			- Keyboard Controller Error
long, 2 short, long			- Keyboard Error
long, 3 short, long			- Programmable Interrupt Controller
					  (8259-1) Error
long, 4 short, long			- Programmable Interrupt Controller
					  (8259-1) Error
long, 5 short, long			- DMA Page Register Error
long, 6 short, long			- RAM Refresh Error
long, 7 short, long			- RAM Data Test Error
long, 8 short, long			- RAM Parity Error
long, 9 short, long			- DMA Controller 1 Error
long, 10 short, long			- CMOS RAM Failure
long, 11 short, long			- DMA Controller 2 Error
long, 12 short, long			- CMOS RAM Battery Failure
long, 13 short, long			- CMOS Checksum Failed
long, 14 short, long			- BIOS ROM Checksum Failed
several long beeps			- Multiple failures

Quadtel AT Compatible BIOS
 
3 short					- Any Failure



Q) 7.2  What do the POST codes mean?
This section contains information on the following:

	IBM
	Award Modular BIOS
	Mylex 386 System BIOS
	Quadtel AT Compatible BIOS
	MR BIOS
	Checkpoint Codes for AMI BIOS  (pre-4/9/90)
	AMI BIOS
	AMI Color BIOS (after 2/1/91)
	EuroBIOS

[From: zz96sr@sdacs.ucsd.edu (Steve Rusk)]

     All personal computer error codes for the Power On Self Test, General
Diagnostics, and Advanced Diagnostics consist of a device number followed by
two digits other than 00.  (The device number plus 00 indicates successful
completion of the test.)

     This list is a compilation from various sources, including USENET's
Info-IBMPC Digest, IBM Technical Reference Manuals, and IBM Hardware,
Maintenance and Service manuals.

01x	Undetermined problem errors.
02x	Power supply errors.
1xx	System board errors.
101	System board error - Interrupt failure.
102	System board error - Timer failure.
103	System board error - Timer interrupt failure.
104	System board error - Protected mode failure.
105	System board error - Last 8042 command not accepted.
106	System board error - Converting logic test.
107	System board error - Hot NMI test.
108	System board error - Timer bus test.
109	Direct memory access test error.
121	Unexpected hardware interrupts occurred.
131	Cassette wrap test failed.
152
161	System Options Error-(Run SETUP) [Battery failure].
162	System options not set correctly-(Run SETUP).
163	Time and date not set-(Run SETUP).
164	Memory size error-(Run SETUP).
199	User-indicated configuration not correct.
2xx	Memory (RAM) errors.
201	Memory test failed.
202	Memory address error.
203	Memory address error.
3xx	Keyboard errors.
301	Keyboard did not respond to software reset correctly, or a stuck
	key failure was detected.  If a stuck key was detected, the
	scan code for the key is displayed in hexadecimal.  For
	example, the error code 49 301 indicates that key 73, the
	PgUp key, has failed (49 hex = 73 decimal).
302	User-indicated error from the keyboard test, or AT keylock
	is locked.
303	Keyboard or system unit error.
304	Keyboard or system unit error; CMOS does not match system.
4xx	Monochrome monitor errors.
401	Monochrome memory test, horizontal sync frequency test, or
	video test failed.
408	User-indicated display attributes failure.
416	User-indicated character set failure.
424	User-indicated 80 X 25 mode failure.
432	Parallel port test failed (monochrome adapter).
5xx	Color monitor errors.
501	 Color memory test failed, horizontal sync frequency test, or
	video test failed.
508	User-indicated display attribute failure.
516	User-indicated character set failure.
524	User-indicated 80 X 25 mode failure.
532	User-indicated 40 X 25 mode failure.
540	User-indicated 320 X 200 graphics mode failure.
548	User-indicated 640 X 200 graphics mode failure.
6xx	Diskette drive errors.
601	Diskette power-on diagnostics test failed.
602	Diskette test failed; boot record is not valid.
606	Diskette verifysd function failed.
607	Write-protected diskette.
608	Bad command diskette status returned.
610	Diskette initialization failed.
611	Timeout - diskette status returned.
612	Bad NEC - diskette status returned.
613	Bad DMA - diskette status returned.
621	Bad seek - diskette status returned.
622	Bad CRC - diskette status returned.
623	Record not found - diskette status returned.
624	Bad address mark - diskette status returned.
625	Bad NEC seek - diskette status returned.
626	Diskette data compare error.
7xx	8087 or 80287 math coprocessor errors.
9xx	Parallel printer adapter errors.
901	Parallel printer adapter test failed.
10xx	Reserved for parallel printer adapter.
11xx	Asynchronous communications adapter errors.
1101	Asynchronous communications adapter test failed.
12xx	Alternate asynchronous communications adapter errors.
1201	Alternate asynchronous communications adapter test failed.
13xx	Game control adapter errors.
1301	Game control adapter test failed.
1302	Joystick test failed.
14xx	Printer errors.
1401	Printer test failed.
1404	Matrix printer failed.
15xx	Synchronous data link control (SDLC) communications adapter errors.
1510	8255 port B failure.
1511	8255 port A failure.
1512	8255 port C failure.
1513	8253 timer 1 did not reach terminal count.
1514	8253 timer 1 stuck on.
1515	8253 timer 0 did not reach terminal count.
1516	8253 timer 0 stuck on.
1517	8253 timer 2 did not reach terminal count.
1518	8253 timer 2 stuck on.
1519	8273 port B error.
1520	8273 port A error.
1521	8273 command/read timeout.
1522	Interrupt level 4 failure.
1523	Ring Indicate stuck on.
1524	Receive clock stuck on.
1525	Transmit clock stuck on.
1526	Test indicate stuck on.
1527	Ring indicate not on.
1528	Receive clock not on.
1529	Transmit clock not on.
1530	Test indicate not on.
1531	Data set ready not on.
1532	Carrier detect not on.
1533	Clear to send not on.
1534	Data set ready stuck on.
1536	Clear to send stuck on.
1537	Level 3 interrupt failure.
1538	Receive interrupt results error.
1539	Wrap data miscompare.
1540	DMA channel 1 error.
1541	DMA channel 1 error.
1542	Error in 8273 error checking or status reporting.
1547	Stray interrupt level 4.
1548	Stray interrupt level 3.
1549	Interrupt presentation sequence timeout.
16xx	Display emulation errors (327x, 5520, 525x).
17xx	Fixed disk errors.
1701	Fixed disk POST error.
1702	Fixed disk adapter error.
1703	Fixed disk drive error.
1704	Fixed disk adapter or drive error.
1780	Fixed disk 0 failure.
1781	Fixed disk 1 failure.
1782	Fixed disk controller failure.
1790	Fixed disk 0 error.
1791	Fixed disk 1 error.
18xx	I/O expansion unit errors.
1801	I/O expansion unit POST error.
1810	Enable/Disable failure.
1811	Extender card warp test failed (disabled).
1812	High order address lines failure (disabled).
1813	Wait state failure (disabled).
1814	Enable/Disable could not be set on.
1815	Wait state failure (disabled).
1816	Extender card warp test failed (enabled).
1817	High order address lines failure (enabled).
1818	Disable not functioning.
1819	Wait request switch not set correctly.
1820	Receiver card wrap test failure.
1821	Receiver high order address lines failure.
19xx	3270 PC attachment card errors.
20xx	Binary synchronous communications (BSC) adapter errors.
2010	8255 port A failure.
2011	8255 port B failure.
2012	8255 port C failure.
2013	8253 timer 1 did not reach terminal count.
2014	8253 timer 1 stuck on.
2016	8253 timer 2 did not reach terminal count, or timer 2 stuck on.
2017	8251 Data set ready failed to come on.
2018	8251 Clear to send not sensed.
2019	8251 Data set ready stuck on.
2020	8251 Clear to send stuck on.
2021	8251 hardware reset failed.
2022	8251 software reset failed.
2023	8251 software "error reset" failed.
2024	8251 transmit ready did not come on.
2025	8251 receive ready did not come on.
2026	8251 could not force "overrun" error status.
2027	Interrupt failure - no timer interrupt.
2028	Interrupt failure - transmit, replace card or planar.
2029	Interrupt failure - transmit, replace card.
2030	Interrupt failure - receive, replace card or planar.
2031	Interrupt failure - receive, replace card.
2033	Ring indicate stuck on.
2034	Receive clock stuck on.
2035	Transmit clock stuck on.
2036	Test indicate stuck on.
2037	Ring indicate stuck on.
2038	Receive clock not on.
2039	Transmit clock not on.
2040	Test indicate not on.
2041	Data set ready not on.
2042	Carrier detect not on.
2043	Clear to send not on.
2044	Data set ready stuck on.
2045	Carrier detect stuck on.
2046	Clear to send stuck on.
2047	Unexpected transmit interrupt.
2048	Unexpected receive interrupt.
2049	Transmit data did not equal receive data.
2050	8251 detected overrun error.
2051	Lost data set ready during data wrap.
2052	Receive timeout during data wrap.
21xx	Alternate binary synchronous communications adapter errors.
2110	8255 port A failure.
2111	8255 port B failure.
2112	8255 port C failure.
2113	8253 timer 1 did not reach terminal count.
2114	8253 timer 1 stuck on.
2115	8253 timer 2 did not reach terminal count, or timer   2 stuck on.
2116	8251 Data set ready failed to come on.
2117	8251 Clear to send not sensed.
2118	8251 Data set ready stuck on.
2119	8251 Clear to send stuck on.
2120	8251 hardware reset failed.
2121	8251 software reset failed.
2122	8251 software "error reset" failed.
2123	8251 transmit ready did not come on.
2124	8251 receive ready did not come on.
2125	8251 could not force "overrun" error status.
2126	Interrupt failure - no timer interrupt.
2128	Interrupt failure - transmit, replace card or planar.
2129	Interrupt failure - transmit, replace card.
2130	Interrupt failure - receive, replace card or planar.
2131	Interrupt failure - receive, replace card.
2133	Ring indicate stuck on.
2134	Receive clock stuck on.
2135	Transmit clock stuck on.
2136	Test indicate stuck on.
2137	Ring indicate stuck on.
2138	Receive clock not on.
2139	Transmit clock not on.
2140	Test indicate not on.
2141	Data set ready not on.
2142	Carrier detect not on.
2143	Clear to send not on.
2144	Data set ready stuck on.
2145	Carrier detect stuck on.
2146	Clear to send stuck on.
2147	Unexpected transmit interrupt.
2148	Unexpected receive interrupt.
2149	Transmit data did not equal receive data.
2150	8251 detected overrun error.
2151	Lost data set ready during data wrap.
2152	Receive timeout during data wrap.
22xx	Cluster adapter errors.
24xx	Enhanced graphics adapter errors.
29xx	Color matrix printer errors.
2901
2902
2904
33xx	Compact printer errors.


[From: Will Spencer (will@gnu.ai.mit.edu)]

Award Modular BIOS
 
01	- Processor Test 1: Processor Status Verification
02	- Determine Post Type
03	- Clear 8042 Keyboard Controller
04	- Reset 8042 Keyboard Controller
05	- Get Manufacturing Status
06	- Initialize Chips (DMA, 8259's)
07	- Processor Test 2: Read/Write/Verify Registers with 
	  Data Pattern FF and 00
08	- Initialize CMOS Timer
09	- EPROM Checksum
0A	- Initialize Video Controller Register 6845
0B	- Test Timer (8254) Channel 0
0C	- Test Timer (8254) Channel 1
0D	- Test Timer (8254) Channel 2
0E	- Test CMOS Shutdown Byte
0F	- Text Extended CMOS
10	- Test DMA Channel 0
11	- Test DMA Channel 1
12	- Test DMA Page Registers
13	- Test Keyboard Controller
14	- Test Memory Refresh
15	- Test 1st 64K of System Memory
16	- Setup Interrupt Vector Table
17	- Setup Video I/O Operations
18	- Test Video Memory
19	- Test 8259 Mask Bits - Channel 1
1A	- Test 8259 Mask Bits - Channel 2
1B	- Test CMOS Battery Level
1C	- Test CMOS Checksum
1D	- Set Configuration from CMOS
1E	- Size System Memory
1F	- Test Found System Memory
20	- Test Stuck 8259 Interrupt Bits
21	- Test Suck NMI Bits (Parity I/O Check)
22	- Test 9259 Working
23	- Test Protected Mode
24	- Size Extended Memory
25	- Test Found Extended Memory
26	- Test Protected Mode Exceptions
27	- Setup Cache Control or Shadow RAM
28	- Setup 8242
29	- Reserved
2A	- Initialize Keyboard
2B	- Initialize Floppy Drive and Controller
2C	- Detect and Initialize COM Ports
2D	- Detect and Initialize LPT Ports
2E	- Initialize Hard Drive and Controller
2F	- Detect and Initialize Math Coprocessors
30	- Reserver
31	- Detect and Initialize Option ROMs
3B	- Initialize Secondary Cache w/OPTi Chipset (486 only)
CA	- Micronics Cache Initialization
CC	- NMI Handler Shutdown
EE	- Unexpected Processor Exceptiom
FF	- INT 19 Boot Attempt


Mylex 386 System BIOS
 
01	- CPU Test
02	- DMA Page Register Test
03	- Keyboard Controller Test
04	- BIOS ROM Checksum
05	- Send Keyboard Command Test
06	- CMOS RAM Test
08	- RAM Refresh Test
09	- First 64K Memory Test
0A	- DMA Controller Test
0B	- Initialize DMA
0C	- Interrupt Test
0D	- Determine RAM Size
0E	- Initialize Video of EGA/VGA Checksum
10	- Search for Monochrome Card
11	- Search for Color Card
12	- Word Splitter and Byte Shifter Test
13	- Keyboard Test
14	- RAM Test
15	- Timer Test
16	- Initialize Output Port of Keyboard Controller
17	- Keyboard Interrupt Test


Quadtel AT Compatible BIOS
 
02	- Flag Test
04	- Register Test
06	- System Hardware Initialization
08	- Initialize Chip Set Registers
0A	- BIOS ROM Checksum
0C	- DMA Page Register Test
0E	- 8254 Timer Test
10	- 8254 Timer Initialization
12	- 8237 DMA Controller Test
14	- 8237 DMA Initialization
16	- Initialize 8259/Reset Coprocessor
18	- 8259 Interrupt Controller Test
1A	- Memory Refresh Test
1C	- Base 64KB Address Test
1E	- Base 64KB Memory Test
20	- Base 64KB Test (Upper 16 bits)
22	- 8742 Keyboard Self Test
24	- MC146818 CMOS Test
26	- Start First Protected Mode Test
28	- Memory Sizing Test
2A	- Autosize Memory Chips
2C	- Chip Interleave Enable Test
2E	- First Protected Mode Test Exit
30	- Unexpected Shutdown
32	- System Board Memory Size
34	- Relocate Shadow Ram if Configured
36	- Configure EMS System
38	- Configure Wait States
3A	- ReTest 64K Base RAM
3C	- CPU Speed Calculation
3E	- Get Switches From 8042
40	- Configure CPU Speed
42	- Initialize Interrupt Vectors
44	- Verify Video Configuration
46	- Initialize Video System
48	- Test Unexpected Interrupts
4A	- Start Second Protected Mode Test
4C	- Verify LDT Instruction
4E	- Verify TR Instruction
50	- Verify LSL Instruction
52	- Verify LAR Instruction
54	- Verify VERR Instruction
56	- Unexpected Exception
58	- Address Line 20 Test
5A	- Keyboard Ready Test
5C	- Determine AT or XT Keyboard
5E	- Start Third Protected Mode Test
60	- Base Memory Test
62	- Base Memory Address Test
64	- Shadow Memory Test
66	- Extended Memory Test
68	- Extended Address Test
6A	- Determine Memory Size
6C	- Display Error Messages
6E	- Copy BIOS to Shadow Memory
70	- 8254 Clock Test
72	- MC146818 Real Time Clock Test
74	- Keyboard Stuck Key Test
76	- Initialize Hardware Interrupt Vectors
78	- Math Coprocessor Test
7A	- Determine COM Ports Available
7C	- Determine LPT Ports Available
7E	- Initialize BIOS Data Area
80	- Determine Floppy/Fixed Controller
82	- Floppy Disk Test
84	- Fixed Disk Test
86	- External ROM Scan
88	- System Key Lock Test
8A	- Wait for F1 Key Pressed
8C	- Final System Initialization
8E	- Interrupt 19 Boot Loader
B0	- Unexpected Interrupt


MR BIOS

(The post codes for MR BIOS are located with the post beeps)


Checkpoint Codes for AMI BIOS 
Release date 4/9/90 and after
 
Code       Meaning
 
01      NMI disabled and 286 register test about to start.
02      286 register test passed.
03      ROM BIOS checksum (32K at F800:0) passed.
04      Keyboard controller test with and without mouse passed.
05      Chipset initialization over, DMA and Interrupt controller disabled.
06      Video disabled and system timer test begin.
07      CH-2 of 8254 initialization half way.
08      CH-2 of timer initialization over.
09      CH-1 of timer initialization over.
0A      CH-0 of timer initialization over.
0B      Refresh started.
0C      System timer started.
0D      Refresh link toggling passed.
10      Refresh on and about to start 64K base memory test.
11      Address line test passed.
12      64K base memory test passed.
15      Interrupt vectors initialized.
17      Monochrome mode set.
18      Color mode set.
19      About to look for optional video ROM at segment C000 and give control
        to the optional video ROM if present.
1A      Return from optional video ROM.
1B      Shadow RAM enable/disable completed.
1C      Display memory read/write test for main display type as set in the
        CMOS setup program over.
1D      Display memory read/write test for alternate display type complete
        if main display memory read/write test returns error.
1E      Global equipment byte set for proper display type.
1F      Video mode set call for mono/color begins.
20      Video mode set completed.
21      ROM type 27256 verified.
23      Power on message displayed.
30      Virtual mode memory test about to begin.
31      Virtual mode memory test started.
32      Processor executing in virtual mode.
33      Memory address line test in progress.
34      Memory address line test in progress.
35      Memory below 1MB calculated.
36      Memory above 1MB calculated.
37      Memory test about to start.
38      Memory below 1MB initialized.
39      Memory above 1MB initialized.
3A      Memory size display initiated. This will be updated when the BIOS
        goes through the memory test.
3B      About to start below 1MB memory test.
3C      Memory test below 1MB completed and about to start above 1MB test.
3D      Memory test above 1MB completed.
3E      About to go to real mode.
3F      Shutdown successful and processor in real mode.
40      CACHE memory on and about to disable A20 address line.
41      A20 address line disable successful.
42      486 internal cache turned on.
43      About to start DMA controller test.
50      DMA page register test complete.
51      DMA unit-1 base register test about to start.
52      DMA unit-1 base register test complete.
53      DMA unit-2 base register test complete.
54      About to check F/F latch for unit-1 and unit-2.
55      F/F latch for both units checked.
56      DMA unit 1 and 2 programming over and about to initialize 8259
        interrupt controller.
57      8259 initialization over.
70      About to start keyboard test.
71      Keyboard controller BAT test over.
72      Keyboard interface test over, mouse interface test started.
73      Global data initialization for keyboard/mouse over.
74      Display 'SETUP' prompt and about to start floppy setup.
75      Floppy setup over.
76      Hard disk setup about to start.
77      Hard disk setup over.
79      About to initialize timer data area.
7A      Timer data initialized and about to verify CMOS battery power.
7B      CMOS battery verification over.
7D      About to analyze POST results.
7E      CMOS memory size updated.
7F      Look for <DEL> key and get into CMOS setup if found.
80      About to give control to optional ROM in segment C800 to DE00.
81      Optional ROM control over.
82      Check for printer ports and put the addresses in global data area.
83      Check for RS232 ports and put the addresses in global data area.
84      Coprpcessor detection over.
85      About to display soft error messages.
86      About to give control to system ROM at segment E000.
00      System ROM control at E000 over now give control to Int 19h boot 
        loader.


Checkpoint Codes for AMI BIOS 
Release date prior to 4/9/90 

Code    Meaning
01      NMI disabled & 286 reg. test about to start
02      286 register test over
03      ROM checksum OK
04      8259 initialization OK
05      CMOS pending interrupt disabled
06      Video disabled & system timer counting OK
07      CH-2 of 8253 test OK
08      CH-2 delta count test OK
09      CH-1 delta count test OK
0A      CH-0 delta count test OK
0B      Parity status cleared
0C      Refresh & system timer OK
0D      Refresh link toggling OK
0E      Refresh period ON/OFF 50% OK
10      Confirmed refresh ON & about to start 64K memory
11      Address line test OK
12      64K base memory test OK
13      Interrupt vectors initialized
14      8042 keyboard controller test OK
15      CMOS read/write test OK
16      CMOS checksum/battery check OK
17      Monochrome mode set OK
18      Color mode set OK
19      About to look for optional video ROM
1A      Optional video ROM control OK
1B      Display memory read/write test OK
1C      Display memory read/write test for alternate display OK
1D      Video retrace check OK
1E      Global equipment byte set for video OK
1F      Mode set call for Mono/Color OK
20      Video test OK
21      Video display OK
22      Power on message display OK
30      Virtual mode memory test about to begin
31      Virtual mode memory test started
32      Processor in virtual mode
33      Memory address line test in progress
34      Memory address line test in progress
35      Memory below 1MB calculated
36      Memory size computation OK
37      Memory test in progress
38      Memory initialization over below 1MB
39      Memory initialization over above 1MB
3A      Display memory size
3B      About to start below 1MB memory test
3C      Memory test below 1MB OK
3D      Memory test above 1MB OK
3E      About to go to real mode (shutdown)
3F      Shutdown successful and and entered in real mode
40      About to disable gate A-20 address line
41      Gate A-20 line disabled successfully
42      About to start DMA controller test
4E      Address line test OK
4F      Processor in real mode after shutdown
50      DMA page register test OK
51      DMA unit-1 base register test about to start
52      DMA unit-1 channel OK, about to begin CH-2
53      DMA CH-2 base register test OK
54      About to test f/f latch for unit-1
55      f/f latch test both unit OK
56      DMA unit 1 & 2 programmed OK
57      8259 initialization over
58      8259 mask register check OK
59      Master 8259 mask register OK, about to start slave
5A      About to check timer and keyboard interrupt level
5B      Timer interrupt OK
5C      About to test keyboard interrupt
5D      ERROR! timer/keyboard interrupt not in proper level
5E      8259 interrupt controller error
5F      8259 interrupt controller test OK
70      Start of keyboard test
71      Keyboard BAT test OK
72      Keyboard test OK
73      Keyboard global data initialization OK
74      Floppy setup about to start
75      Floppy setup OK
76      Hard disk setup about to start
77      Hard disk setup OK
79      About to initialize timer data area
7A      Verify CMOS battery power
7B      CMOS battery verification done
7D      About to analyze diagnostic test results for memory
7E      CMOS memory size update OK
7F      About to check optional ROM C000:0
80      Keyboard sensed to enable setup
81      Optional ROM control OK
82      Printer global data initialization OK
83      RS-232 global data initialization OK
84      80287 check/test OK
85      About to display soft error message
86      About to give control to system ROM E000:0
87      System ROM E000:0 check over
00      Control given to Int-19, boot loader


AMI BIOS
 
01	- 286 Register Test Failed
02	- ROM BIOS Checksum (32KB at F800:0) Failed
03	- ROM BIOS Checksum (32KB at F800:0) Passed
04	- 8259 Interrupt Controller Initialization
05	- Chipset Initialization Over, DMA & Interrupt Controller Disabled
06	- Video Disabled and System Timer Test Begin
07	- CH-2 of 8254 Initialization Half Way
08	- 8254 CH-2 Timer Test to be Completed
09	- 8254 CH-1 Timer Test to be Completed
0A	- 8254 CH-0 Timer Test to be Completed
0B	- DRAM Refresh Failure
0C	- System Timer Started
0D	- Refresh Link Toggling Passed
0E	- Refresh Period ON/OFF 50% OK
10	- Refresh ON and About to Start 64KB Base Memory Test
11	- Address Line Test Passed
12	- 64KB Base Memory Test Passed
13	- Interrupt Vectors Initialized
14	- 8042 Keyboard Controller Test Passed
15	- CMOS Read/Write Test Passed
16	- CNOS Checksum and Battery Check Passed
17	- Monochrome Mode Set
18	- Color Mode Set
19	- Give Control to the Optional Video ROM at Segment C0 if present
1A	- Return from Optional Video ROM
1B	- Display Memory Read/Write Test Passed
1C	- Alternate Display Memory Read/Write Test Passed
1D	- Video Retrace Check Passed
1E	- Global Equipment Byte Set for Proper Display Type
1F	- Video Mode Set Call for Mono/Color Begins
20	- Video Mode Set Completed
21	- ROM Type Verified, Video Display OK
22	- Power On Message Displayed
23	- Power On Message Displayed
30	- Virtual Mode Memory Test About to Begin
31	- Virtual Mode Memory Test Started
32	- Processor Executing in Virtual Mode
33	- Memory Address Line Test in Progress
34	- Memory Address Line Test in Progress
35	- Memory Below 1MB Calculated
36	- Memory Above 1MB Calculated, Memory Size Computation OK
37	- Memory Test About to Start
38	- Memory Below 1MB Initialized
39	- Memory Above 1MB Initialized
3A	- Memory Size Display Initiated
3B	- About to Start Below 1MB Memory Test
3C	- Memory Test Below 1MB Completed
3D	- Memory Test Above 1MB Completed
3E	- About to go to Real Mode (Shutdown)
3F	- Shutdown Successful and Processor in Real Mode
40	- Cache Memory ON and About to Disable A20 Address Line
41	- Gate A-20 Line Disabed Successfully
42	- 486 Internal Cache Turned ON
43	- About to Start DMA Controller Test
4E	- Address Line Test Passed
4F	- Processor in Real Mode After Shutdown
50	- DMA Page Register Test Complete
51	- DMA Unit-1 Base Register Test About to Start
52	- DMA Unit-1 Base Register Test Complete
53	- DMA Unit-2 Base Register Test Complete
54	- About to Check F/F Latch for Unit-1 and Unit-2
55	- F/F Latch for Both Units Checked
56	- DMA Unit-1 and 2 Programming Over
57	- 8259 Initialization Over
58	- 8259 Mask Register Check Passed
59	- Master 8259 Mask Register Passed
5A	- About to Check Timer and Keyboard Interrupt Level
5B	- Timer Interrupt Passed
5C	- About to Test Keyboard Interrupt
5D	- Error!  Timer/Keyboard Interrupt Not in Proper Level
5E	- 8259 Interrupt Controller Error
5F	- 8259 Interrupt Controller Test Passed
70	- About to Start Keyboard Test
71	- Keyboard Controller BAT Test Over
72	- Keyboard Interface Test Over, Mouse Interface Test Started
73	- Global Data Initialization for Keyboard/Mouse Over
74	- Display "Setup" Prompt and About to Start Floppy Setup
75	- Floppy Setup Over
76	- Hard Disk Setup About to Start
77	- Hard Disk Setup Over
79	- About to Initialize Timer Data Area
7A	- Time Data Area Initialized and About to Verify CMOS Battery Power
7B	- CMOS Battery Verification Over
7D	- About to Analyze POST Test Results
7E	- CMOS Memory Size Updated
7F	- Look for <DEL> Key and Get into CMOS Setup if Found
80	- About to Give Control to Optional ROM in Segment C800 to DE00 (Setup)
81	- Optional ROM Control Over
82	- Check for Printer Ports and put the Addresses in Global Data Area
83	- Check for RS232 Ports and Put the Addresses in Global Data Area
84	- Co-processor Detection Over
85	- About to Display Soft Error Messages
86	- About to Give Control to System ROM at Segment E000
87	- System ROM E000:0 Check Over


AMI Color BIOS after 2/1/91
	
00	- Going to Give Control to INT 19H Boot Loader
01	- Processor Register Test About to Start, and NMI to be Disabled
02	- Power On Delay Starting
03	- Any Initialization Before Keyboard BAT is in Progress
04	- Reading Keyboard SYS Bit, to Check Soft Reset/Power On
05	- Going to Enable ROM. i.e. Disable Shadow RAM/Cache if Any
06	- Calculating ROM BIOS Checksum
07	- Going to Issue the BAT Command to Keyboard Controller
08	- Going to Verify the BAT Command
09	- Keyboard Command Byte to be Written Next
0A	- Going to Write Command Byte Data
0B	- Going to Issue Pin-23,24 Blocking/Unblocking Command
0C	- NOP Command of Keyboard Controller to be Issued Next
0D	- CMOS Shutdown Register Test to be Done Next
0E	- Going to Calculate CMOS Checksum, and Update DIAG Byte
0F	- CMOS Initialization to begin (If "INIT CMOS IN EVERY BOOT IS SET")
10	- CMOS Status Register About to Init for Date and Time
11	- Going to Disable DMA and Interrupt Controllers
12	- About to Disable Video Display and Init Port-B
13	- Chipset Init/Auto Memory Detection About to begin
14	- 8254 Timer Test About to Start
15	- 8254 CH-2 Timer Test to be Completed
16	- 8254 CH-1 Timer Test to be Completed
17	- 8254 CH-0 Timer Test to be Completed
18	- About to Start Memory Refresh
19	- Memory Refresh Test to be Done Next
1A	- Going to Check 15 Micro Second On/Off Time
1B	- Base 64K Memory Test About to Start
20	- Address Line Test to be Done Next
21	- Going to do toggle Parity
22	- Going for Sequential Data R/W Test
23	- Any Setup Before Interrupt Vector Init About to Start
24	- Interrupt Vector Initialization About to begin
25	- Going to Read I/O Port of 8042 for Turbo Switch (if any)
26	- Going to Initialize Global Data for Turbo Switch
27	- Any Initialization After Interrupt Vector to be Done Next
28	- Going for Monochrome Mode Setting
29	- Going for Color Mode Setting
2A	- About to go for toggle Parity Before Optional ROM Check
2B	- About to do any Setup Required Before Optional Video ROM Check
2C	- About to Look for Optional Video ROM and Give Control
2D	- About to do any Processing after Video ROM Returns Control
2E	- If EGA/VGA Not Found, Then do Display Memory R/W Test
2F	- Display Memory R/W Test About to begin
30	- About to Look for the Retrace Checking
31	- About to do Alternate Display Memory R/W Test
32	- About to Look for the Alternate Display Retrace Checking
33	- Verification of Display Type with Switch Setting 
	  and Actual Card to begin
34	- Display Mode to be Set Next
35	- BIOS ROM Data Area About to be Checked
36	- Going to Set Cursor for Power On Message
37	- Going to Display the Power On Message
38	- Going to Read New Cursor Position
39	- Going to Display the Reference String
3A	- Going to Display the Hit <ESC> Message
3B	- Virtual Mode Memory Test About to Start
40	- Going to Verify from Video Memory
41	- Going to Prepare the Descriptor Tables
42	- Going to Enter in Virtual Mode for Memory Test
43	- Going to Enable Interrupts for Diagnostics Mode
44	- Going to Initialize Data to Check Memory Remap at 0:0
45	- Check for Memory Remap at 0:0 and Find the total System Memory Size
46	- About to go For Writing Patterns to Test Memory
47	- Going to Write Patterns in Base 640K Memory
48	- Going to Find Out Amount of Memory Below 1M Memory
49	- Going to Find Out Amount of Memory Above 1M Memory
4A	- Going for BIOS ROM Data Area Check
4B	- Going to Check <ESC> and to Clear Memory Below 1M for Soft Reset
4C	- Going to Clear Memory Above 1M
4D	- Going to Save the Memory Size
4E	- About to Display the First 64K Memory Test
4F	- Going for Sequential and Random Memory Test
50	- Going to Adjust Memory Size for Relocation/Shadow
51	- Memory Test Above 1M to Follow
52	- Going to Prepare to go Back to Real Mode
53	- Going to Enter in Real Mode
54	- Going to Restore Registers Saved During Preparation for Shutdown
55	- Going to Disable Gate A20 Address Line
56	- BIOS ROM Data Area About to be Checked
57	- BIOS ROM Data Area Check to be Completed
58	- Going to Clear Hit <ESC> Message
59	- About to Start DMA and Interrupt Controller Test
60	- About to Verify from Display Memory
61	- About to go For DMA #1 Base Register Test
62	- About to go For DMA #2 Base Register Test
63	- About to go For BIOS ROM Data Area Check
64	- BIOS ROM Data Area Check to be Completed
65	- About to Program DMA Unit 1 and 2
66	- 8259 Interrpt Controller Initialization
67	- About to Start Keyboard Test
80	- About to Issue Keyboard Reset Command
81	- About to Issue Keyboard Controller Interface Test Command
82	- About to Write Command Byte and Init Circular Buffer
83	- About to Check for Lock Key
84	- About to Check for Memory Size Mismatch with CMOS
85	- About to Display Soft Error and Check for Password or Bypass Setup
86	- About to do Programming Before Setup
87	- Going to CMOS Setup Program
88      - About to do Programming After Setup
89      - Going to Display Power On Screen Message
8A      - About to Display <WAIT...> Message, Mouse Check 
	  and Initialization Next
8B      - About to do Main and Video BIOS Shadow
8C      - Setup Options Programming After CMOS Setup About to Start
8D      - Going for Hard Disk, Floppy Reset
8E      - About to go For Floppy Check
8F      - Floppy Setup to Follow
90      - Test for Hard Disk Presence to be Done
91      - Hard Disk Setup to Follow
92	- About to go for BIOS ROM Data Area Check
93	- BIOS ROM Data Area Check to be Completed
94      - Going to Set Base and Extended Memory Size
95      - Going to Verify From Display Memory
96      - Going to do Any Init Before C800 Optional ROM Control
97      - Optional ROM Check and Control Will Be Done Next
98      - Give Control to Required Processing 
	  After Optional ROM Returns Control
99      - Going to Setup Timer Data Area and Printer Base Address
9A      - Going to Set the RS-232 Base Address
9B      - Going to do Any Initialization Before Co-Processor Test
9C      - Going to Initialize the Coprocessor Next
9D      - Going to do Any Initialization After Co-Processor Test
9E      - Going to Check Extd Keyboard, Keyboard ID and Num-Lock
9F      - Keyboard ID Command to be Issued
A0      - Keyboard ID Flag to be Reset
A1      - Cache Memory Test to Follow
A2      - Going to Display Any Soft Errors
A3      - Going to Set the Keyboard Typematic Rate
A4      - Going to Program Memory Wait States
A5      - Screen to be Cleared Next
A6      - Going to Enable Parity and NMI
A7      - Do Initialization Required Before Giving Control 
          to Optional ROM at E000
A8      - E000 ROM to Get Control Next
A9      - Going to do Any Initialization Required 
          After E000 Optional ROM Control
AA      - Going to Display the System Configuration


Post Codes for EuroBIOS v4.71
 
03	DMA Page registers OK
04	DMA Page registers failed
05	Keyboard did reply
06	Keyboard did not reply
07	Keyboard self-test passed
08	Keyboard self-test failed
09	8042 was able to read links
0A	8042 was unable to read links
0B	RATMON/DIAG link OK
0C	Keyboard accepted 60h command
0D	Keyboard did not accept 60h
0E	Keyboard parameter accepted
0F	Keyboard parameter not accepted
10	Able to read keyboard command byte
11	Unable to read keyboard command byte
12	Keyboard command byte came back OK
13	Keyboard command byte came back corrupt
14	RAM refresh clock ticking correctly
15	RAM refresh clock not ticking correctly
16	RAM bit test passed
17	RAM bit test failed
18	RAM parity OK
19	RAM parity error
1A	CMOS RAM passed
1B	CMOS RAM failed
1C	CMOS RAM battery OK
1D	CMOS RAM battery faulty
1E	CMOS RAM checksum passed
1F	CMOS RAM checksum failed
20	CMOS RAM battery fault bit set
21	DMA controllers passed
22	DMA controller 1 failed
23	DMA controller 2 failed
24	Protected mode entered safely
25	RAM test completed
26	ROM checksum correct
27	ROM checksum incorrect
28	Protected mode exit successful
29	Keyboard power-up reply received
2A	Keyboard power-up reply not received
2B	Keyboard disable command accepted
2C	Keyboard disable command not accepted
2D	No video display
2E	Reported errors
2F	About to halt
30	Protected mode entered safely
31	RAM test complete
32	PIC 1 (master) passed
33	PIC 1 (master) failed
34	PIC 2 (slave) passed
35	PIC 2 (slave) failed
36	Chipset initialised OK
37	Chipset initilize failed
38	Shadowed BIOS OK
39	Shadowed BIOS failed
3A	Shadowed video BIOS OK
3B	Shadowed video BIOS failed



Q) 7.3  *I think my cache is bad. What's a good diagnostic?

S) 8.0 Misc

Q) 8.1  What is the pin out for ...?
[From: ralf@alum.wpi.edu (Ralph Valentino)]

This is a list of the pinouts to the more common PC hardware
interfaces.  It is by no means complete.  While I have taken care not
to make any mistakes, I urge you to take caution when using these
tables.  Also, please keep in mind that these are only tables, they
are not a guide to hardware hacking and do not attempt to explain
drive capabilities, signal timings, handling care, or other interface
issues.  As always, make sure you know what you're doing before you
start hooking wires to your PC.

This section contains pinouts for:

---I/O ports---
Game Port DB15-Female
Serial Port DB9-Male DB25-Male
Serial Port loopback
Null Modem
Parallel Port DB25-Female
Parallel Port Centronics-36
Parallel Port loopback DB25-Male
Bidirectional ("Laplink") Parallel Cable DB-25 male to DB-25 male
10Base-T RJ-45 Male
10Base-T Crossover
MIDI 5pin DIN

---Controller/Host Adapter---
Floppy Disk Controller IDC-34 Male
IDE Hard Disk Interface IDC-40 Male
ESDI Hard Disk Interface IDC-34 Male, IDC-20 Male
RLL/MFM  Hard Disk Interface IDC-34 Male, IDC-20 Male
SCSI Connector Pinouts (Single Ended) IDC-50 Male
SCSI Connector Pinouts (Differential) IDC-50 Male
Macintosh SCSI Connector Pinouts (Single Ended) DB-25S Female

---Video---
VGA DB15-S Female DB9 Female
CGA DB9 Female
EGA DB9 Female
VESA Standard Feature Connector

---Bus interfaces---
ISA Bus Connector
EISA Bus Connector
VESA Local Bus (VLB) Connector
PCI Cards Universal/3.3V/5V and 32/64 bit

---Misc---
Power Connector Male
Speaker Connector
Turbo Indicator Connector
AT LED Power and Key Lock
AT Backup Battery
Motherboard Power Connectors (8 pin, 9 pin)
AT Keyboard Connector 5pin-DIN
XT Keyboard Connector 5pin-DIN
PS2 Keyboard/Mouse Connector 6pin-MDIN
PS2 to AT Keyboard adapter
30 pin Fast Page Mode SIMM  256kx8 256kx9 1Mx8 1Mx9 4Mx8 4Mx9
72 pin Fast Page Mode SIMM  256k/512k/1M/2M/4M/8M x 32/36 bit


 5pin DIN Male          DB15-S Male                   6pin MDIN Male
    --+--               ----------------------             ---
   /  ^  \              \   1  2  3  4  5    /           ] 2 1 [
  | 1   3 |              \ 6  7  8  9 10    /           | 4   3 |
   \ 425 /                \ 11 12 13 14 15 /             \6   5/
    -----                  ----------------                -^-

DB9 (DE-9) Male                DB15 (DA-15) Male
-------------           --------------------------
\ 1 2 3 4 5 /           \ 1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8 /
 \ 6 7 8 9 /             \ 9  10 11 12 13 14 15 /
  ---------               ----------------------

DB25 Male                             IDC-50 Male
 ------------------------------        -------------------
 \ 1  2  3  4  5  7  8 ... 13 /       | 1  3  5  7 ... 49 |
  \ 14 15 16 17 18 .......25 /        | 2  4  6  8 ... 50 |
   --------------------------          -------------------

(Power Connector) Male              RJ-45 (8 conductor phone) Male
  __________
 /          \                         ------------------
| 4  3  2  1 |                        | 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 |
 ------------                         -------____-------

30 pin SIMM                         72 pin SIMM
-------------------------------     ---------------------------------------
|                             |     |                                     |
 )                            |      )                 _                  |
 --|||||||||||||||||||||||||---      --|||||||||||||||/ \|||||||||||||||---
   1                       30          1             36  37            72

EISA/ISA/VLB
-----------------------------------------------
|            (component side)                 |
|                                             |
|   VLB   __ ISA-16bit __       ISA-8bit    __|
 |||||||||  |||||||||||  ||||||||||||||||||| A1(front)/B1(back)
             | | | | |    | | | | | | | | |   <-EISA
                   C1/D1                    E1(front)/F1(back)
                  G1/H1


        PCI Cards Universal/3.3V/5V and 32/64 bit.

PCI Universal Card 32/64 bit
 ----------------------------------------------------------------
|    PCI         Component Side (side B)                         |
|                                                                |
|                                                                |
|                                                optional        |
|    ____     mandatory 32-bit pins            64-bit pins  _____|
|___|    |||||||--|||||||||||||||||--|||||||--||||||||||||||
         ^     ^  ^               ^  ^     ^  ^            ^
       b01   b11  b14           b49  b52 b62  b63          b94

PCI 5V Card 32/64 bit
|                                                optional        |
|    ____     mandatory 32-bit pins            64-bit pins  _____|
|___|    ||||||||||||||||||||||||||--|||||||--||||||||||||||

PCI 3.3V Card 32/64 bit
|                                                optional        |
|    ____     mandatory 32-bit pins            64-bit pins  _____|
|___|    |||||||--||||||||||||||||||||||||||--||||||||||||||


Power Connector Male      Speaker Connector        Turbo Indicator Connector
pin     assignment        pin     assignment       pin     assignment
1       +12V              1       -Speaker         1       +5V
2       +12V return       2       [key]            2       -High Speed
3       +5V return        3       GND              3       +5V
4       +5V               4       +Speaker +5V


AT LED Power and Key Lock     AT Backup Battery
pin     assignment	      pin     assignment
1       LED power	      1       Batt+
2       GND		      2       [key]
3       GND		      3       GND
4       Key Switch	      4       GND
5       GND


Motherboard Power Connectors
pin     P8 assignment          pin     P9 assignment
1       Power Good             1       GND
2       +5v  (or N.C.)         2       GND
3       +12v                   3       -5v
4       -12v                   4       +5v
5       GND                    5       +5v
6       GND                    6       +5v


MIDI 5pin DIN
   MIDI In                 MIDI Out
pin     assignment      pin     assignment
1       N/C             1       N/C
2       N/C             2       GND
3       N/C             3       N/C
4       Current Src     4       Current Sink
5       Current Sink    5       Current Src


Floppy Disk Controller IDC-34 Male
pin     assignment      pin     assignment
1       GND             2       Density Select
3       GND             4       (reserved)
5       GND             6       (reserved)
7       GND             8       Index
9       GND             10      Motor Enable A
11      GND             12      Drive Sel B
13      GND             14      Drive Sel A
15      GND             16      Motor Enable B
17      GND             18      Direction
19      GND             20      Step
21      GND             22      Write Data
23      GND             24      Floppy Write Enable
25      GND             26      Track 0
27      GND             28      Write Protect
29      GND             30      Read Data
31      GND             32      Head Select
33      GND             34      Disk Change


Game Port DB15-Female
pin     assignment      pin     assignment
1       +5V DC          2       Button 4 (A_PB1)
3       Position 0(A_X) 4       GND
5       GND             6       Position 1 (A_Y)
7       Button 5(A_PB2) 8       +5V DC
9       +5V DC          10      Button 6 (B_PB1)
11      Position 2(B_X) 12      GND
13      Position 3(B_Y) 14      Button 7 (B_PB2)
15      +5V DC


Serial Port DB9-Male DB25-Male
9-pin   25-pin  assignment
1       8       DCD (Data Carrier Detect)
2       3       RX  (Receive Data)
3       2       TX  (Transmit Data)
4       20      DTR (Data Terminal Ready)
5       7       GND (Signal Ground)
6       6       DSR (Data Set Ready)
7       4       RTS (Request To Send)
8       5       CTS (Clear To Send)
9       22      RI  (Ring Indicator)

Parallel Port DB25-Female
pin     assignment      pin     assignment
1       -Strobe         2       Data 0
3       Data 1          4       Data 2
5       Data 3          6       Data 4
7       Data 5          8       Data 6
9       Data 7          10      -Ack
11      Busy            12      Paper Empty
13      Select          14      -Auto Feed
15      -Error          16      -Init
17      -Slct in        18      GND
19      GND             20      GND
21      GND             22      GND
23      GND             24      GND
25      GND


Parallel Port Centronics-36
1       -Strobe         2       Data 0
3       Data 1          4       Data 2
5       Data 3          6       Data 4
7       Data 5          8       Data 6
9       Data 7          10      -Ack
11      Busy            12      Paper Empty
13      Select          14      -Auto Feed
15      {OSCXT}         16      Signal GND
17      Frame GND       18      +5v
19      GND             20      GND
21      GND             22      GND
23      GND             24      GND
25      GND             26      GND
27      GND             28      GND
29      GND             30      GND
31      -Prime          32      -Error
33      Signal GND      34      N/C
35      N/C             36      N/C


10Base-T RJ-45 Male
pin     assignment      twisted pair    color
1       TxData+         2               White/Orange
2       TxData-         2               Orange
3       RxData+         3               White/Green
4          -            1               Blue
5          -            1               White/Blue
6       RxData-         3               Green
7          -            4               White/Brown
8          -            4               Brown


10Base-T Crossover
Connector 1 to  Connector 2
TxData+		RxData+
TxData-		RxData-
RxData+		TxData+
RxData-		TxData-


AT Keyboard Connector 5pin-DIN		XT Keyboard Connector 5pin-DIN
pin     assignment                      pin     assignment
1       CLK/CTS (open-collector)        1       CLK/CTS (open-collector)
2       RxD/TxD/RTS (open-collector)    2       Keyboard Data
3       N/C                             3       Reset
4       GND                             4       GND
5       +5V                             5       +5V


PS2 Keyboard/Mouse Connector 6pin-MDIN  PS2 6pin-MDIN to AT 5pin-DIN Keyboard
pin	assignment                      pin-PS2(F) pin-AT(M)
1	Data                            1          2
2	N/C                             2          N/C
3	GND                             3          4
4	Vcc                             4          5
5	CLK                             5          1
6	N/C                             6          N/C


IDE Hard Disk Interface IDC-40 Male
pin     assignment      pin     assignment
1       -Reset          2       GND
3       Data 7          4       Data 8
5       Data 6          6       Data 9
7       Data 5          8       Data 10
9       Data 4          10      Data 11
11      Data 3          12      Data 12
13      Data 2          14      Data 13
15      Data 1          16      Data 14
17      Data 0          18      Data 15
19      GND             20      Key
21      (reserved)      22      GND
23      -IOW            24      GND
25      -IOR            26      GND
27      IO Chrdy        28      Ale
29      (reserved)      30      GND
31      IRQ14           32      -IOCS16
33      Addr 1          34      (reserved)
35      Addr 0          36      Addr 2
37      -CS0 (1F0-1F7)  38      -CS1 (3f6-3f7)
39      -Active         40      GND


ESDI Hard Disk Interface IDC-34 Male, IDC-20 Male
               ESDI IDC-34
pin     assignment      pin     assignment
1       GND             2       Head Sel 3
3       GND             4       Head Sel 2
5       GND             6       Write Gate
7       GND             8       Config/Stat Data
9       GND             10      Transfer Ack
11      GND             12      Attn
13      GND             14      Head Sel 0
15      GND             16      Sect/Add MK Found
17      GND             18      Head Sel 1
19      GND             20      Index
21      GND             22      Ready
23      GND             24      Trans Req
25      GND             26      Drive Sel 1
27      GND             28      Drive Sel 2
29      GND             30      Drive Sel 3
31      GND             32      Read Gate
33      GND             34      Command Data

               ESDI IDC-20
pin     assignment      pin     assignment
1       Drive Selected  2       Sect/Add MK Found
3       Seek Complete   4       Addr Mark Enable
5       (reserved)      6       GND
7       Write Clk+      8       Write Clk-
9       Cartridge Chng  10      Read Ref Clk+
11      Read Ref Clk-   12      GND
13      NRZ Write Data+ 14      NRZ Write Data-
15      GND             16      GND
17      NRZ Read Data+  18      NRZ Read Data-
19      GND             20      GND



RLL/MFM  Hard Disk Interface IDC-34 Male, IDC-20 Male
             RLL/MFM IDC-34
pin     assignment      pin     assignment
1       GND             2       Head Sel 8
3       GND             4       Head Sel 4
5       GND             6       Write Gate
7       GND             8       Seek Complete
9       GND             10      Track 0
11      GND             12      Write Fault
13      GND             14      Head Sel 1
15      GND             16      (reserved)
17      GND             18      Head Sel 2
19      GND             20      Index
21      GND             22      Ready
23      GND             24      Step
25      GND             26      Drive Sel 1
27      GND             28      Drive Sel 2
29      GND             30      Drive Sel 3
31      GND             32      Drive Sel 4
33      GND             34      Direction In

             RLL/MFM IDC-20
pin     assignment      pin     assignment
1       Drive Selected  2       GND
3       (reserved)      4       GND
5       (reserved)      6       GND
7       (reserved)      8       GND
9       (reserved)      10      (reserved)
11      GND             12      GND
13      Write Data+     14      Write Data-
15      GND             16      GND
17      Read Data+      18      NRZ Read Data-
19      GND             20      GND


VGA DB15-S Female DB9 Female
15-pin  9-pin   assignment
1       1       Red
2       2       Green
3       3       Blue
4       -       Monitor ID bit 2
5       -       N/C
6       6       GND (red return)
7       7       GND (green return)
8       8       GND (blue return)
9       -       N/C
10      -       GND
11      -       Monitor ID bit 0
12      -       Minitor ID bit 1
13      4       Horizontal Sync
14      5       Vertical Sync
15      -       N/C

Monitor ID bit 0: reserved
Monitor ID bit 1: GND = mono, OPEN = color
Monochrome monitors use the green signal


CGA DB9 Female
pin   assignment
1     GND
2     GND
3     Red
4     Green
5     Blue
6     Intensity
7     (reserved)
8     Horizontal Sync
9     Vertical Sync


EGA DB9 Female
pin   assignment
1     GND
2     Secondary Red
3     Primary Red
4     Primary Green
5     Primary Blue
6     Secondary Green / Intensity
7     Secondary Blue / Mono Video
8     Horizontal Drive
9     Vertical Drive


     ISA Bus Connector              EISA Bus Connector
     -----------------              ------------------
Back Side       Component Side  Back Side       Component Side
pin assignment |pin assignment |pin assignment |pin assignment
B1  GND        |A1  CHCHK#     |F1  GND        |E1  CMD#
B2  Reset DRV  |A2  SD7        |F2  +5V        |E2  START#
B3  +5V        |A3  SD6        |F3  +5V        |E3  EXRDY
B4  IRQ9       |A4  SD5        |F4  ---        |E4  EX32#
B5  -5V        |A5  SD4        |F5  ---        |E5  GND
B6  DRQ2       |A6  SD3        |F6  ACCESS KEY |E6  ACCESS KEY
B7  -12V       |A7  SD2        |F7  ---        |E7  EX16#
B8  NOWS#      |A8  SD1        |F8  ---        |E8  SLBURST#
B9  +12V       |A9  SD0        |F9  +12V       |E9  MSBURST#
B10 GND        |A10 CHRDY      |F10 M/IO#      |E10 W/R#
B11 SMWTC#     |A11 AEN        |F11 LOCK#      |E11 GND
B12 SMRDC#     |A12 SA19       |F12 (reserved) |E12 (reserved)
B13 IOWC#      |A13 SA18       |F13 GND        |E13 (reserved)
B14 IORC#      |A14 SA17       |F14 (reserved) |E14 (reserved)
B15 DACK3#     |A15 SA16       |F15 BE3#       |E15 GND
B16 DRQ3       |A16 SA15       |F16 ACCESS KEY |E16 ACCESS KEY
B17 DACK1#     |A17 SA14       |F17 BE2#       |E17 BE1#
B18 DRQ1       |A18 SA13       |F18 BE0#       |E18 LA31#
B19 REFRESH#   |A19 SA12       |F19 GND        |E19 GND
B20 BCLK       |A20 SA11       |F20 +5V        |E20 LA30#
B21 IRQ7       |A21 SA10       |F21 LA29#      |E21 LA28#
B22 IRQ6       |A22 SA9        |F22 GND        |E22 LA27#
B23 IRQ5       |A23 SA8        |F23 LA26#      |E23 LA25#
B24 IRQ4       |A24 SA7        |F24 LA24#      |E24 GND
B25 IRQ3       |A25 SA6        |F25 ACCESS KEY |E25 ACCESS KEY
B26 DACK2#     |A26 SA5        |F26 LA16       |E26 LA15
B27 T/C        |A27 SA4        |F27 LA14       |E27 LA13
B28 BALE       |A28 SA3        |F28 +5V        |E28 LA12
B29 +5V        |A29 SA2        |F29 +5V        |E29 LA11
B30 OSC        |A30 SA1        |F30 GND        |E30 GND
B31 GND        |A31 SA0        |F31 LA10       |E31 LA9

                               |H1  LA8        |G1  LA7
D1  M16#       |C1  SBHE#      |H2  LA6        |G2  GND
D2  IO16#      |C2  LA23       |H3  LA5        |G3  LA4
D3  IRQ10      |C3  LA22       |H4  +5V        |G4  LA3
D4  IRQ11      |C4  LA21       |H5  LA2        |G5  GND
D5  IRQ12      |C5  LA20       |H6  ACCESS KEY |G6  ACCESS KEY
D6  IRQ15      |C6  LA19       |H7  D16        |G7  D17
D7  IRQ14      |C7  LA18       |H8  D18        |G8  D19
D8  DACK0#     |C8  LA17       |H9  GND        |G9  D20
D9  DRQ0       |C9  MRDC#      |H10 D21        |G10 D22
D10 DACK5#     |C10 MWTC#      |H11 D23        |G11 GND
D11 DRQ5       |C11 SD8        |H12 D24        |G12 D25
D12 DACK6#     |C12 SD9        |H13 GND        |G13 D26
D13 DRQ6       |C13 SD10       |H14 D27        |G14 D28
D14 DACK7#     |C14 SD11       |H15 ACCESS KEY |G15 ACCESS KEY
D15 DRQ7       |C15 SD12       |H16 D29        |G16 GND
D16 +5V        |C16 SD13       |H17 +5V        |G17 D30
D17 MASTER16#  |C17 SD14       |H18 +5V        |G18 D31
D18 GND        |C18 SD15       |H19 MAKx       |G19 MREQx


                VESA Local Bus (VLB) Connector
                ------------------------------
Back Side       Component Side  Back Side       Component Side
pin assignment |pin assignment |pin assignment |pin assignment
B1  Dat00      |A1  Dat01      |B30 Adr17      |A30 Adr16
B2  Dat02      |A2  Dat03      |B31 Adr15      |A31 Adr14
B3  Dat04      |A3  GND        |B32 Vcc        |A32 Adr12
B4  Dat06      |A4  Dat05      |B33 Adr13      |A33 Adr10
B5  Dat08      |A5  Dat07      |B34 Adr11      |A34 Adr08
B6  GND        |A6  Dat09      |B35 Adr09      |A35 GND
B7  Dat10      |A7  Dat11      |B36 Adr07      |A36 Adr06
B8  Dat12      |A8  Dat13      |B37 Adr05      |A37 Adr04
B9  Vcc        |A9  Dat15      |B38 GND        |A38 WBACK#
B10 Dat14      |A10 GND        |B39 Adr03      |A39 BEO#
B11 Dat16      |A11 Dat17      |B40 Adr02      |A40 Vcc
B12 Dat18      |A12 Vcc        |B41 n/c        |A41 BE1#
B13 Dat20      |A13 Dat19      |B42 RESET#     |A42 BE2#
B14 GND        |A14 Dat21      |B43 DC#        |A43 GND
B15 Dat22      |A15 Dat23      |B44 M/ID#      |A44 BE3#
B16 Dat24      |A16 Dat25      |B45 W/R#       |A45 ADS#
B17 Dat26      |A17 GND        |               |
B18 Dat28      |A18 Dat27      |               |
B19 Dat30      |A19 Dat29      |B48 RDYRTN#    |A48 LRDY#
B20 Vcc        |A20 Dat31      |B49 GND        |A49 LDEV<x>#
B21 Adr31      |A21 Adr30      |B50 IRQ9       |A50 LREQ<x>#
B22 GND        |A22 Adr28      |B51 BRDY#      |A51 GND
B23 Adr29      |A23 Adr26      |B52 BLAST#     |A52 LGNT<x>#
B24 Adr27      |A24 GND        |B53 ID0        |A53 Vcc
B25 Adr25      |A25 Adr24      |B54 ID1        |A54 ID2
B26 Adr23      |A26 Adr22      |B55 GND        |A55 ID3
B27 Adr21      |A27 Vcc        |B56 LCLK       |A56 ID4
B28 Adr19      |A28 Adr20      |B57 Vcc        |A57 LKEN#
B29 GND        |A29 Adr18      |B58 LBS16#     |A58 LEAD5#


VESA Standard Feature Connector
pin     assignment      pin     assignment
1       PB              2       PG
3       PR              4       PI
5       SB              6       SG
7       SR              8       SI
9       Dot Clock       10      Blank
11      HSync           12      VSync
13      GND             14      GND
15      GND             16      GND
17      Ext Video Sel   18      Ext Sync Sel
19      Ext DotClock Sel20      N/C
21      GND             22      GND
23      GND             24      GND
25      N/C             26      N/C


Null Modem:
Connector 1 to  Connector 2
DTR             DSR/DCD
DSR/DCD         DTR
RTS             CTS
CTS             RTS
TXD             RXD
RXD             TXD
GND             GND


Serial Port loopback:
Connected Pins
RX & TX
RTS & CTS
DCD & DTR & DSR & RI


Bidirectional (Laplink/Interlnk) Parallel Cable DB-25 male to DB-25 male
Connector 1 to Connector 2
2		15
3		13
4		12
5		10
6		11
10		5
11		6
12		4
13		3
15		2
16		16
17		17
25		25


Parallel Port loopback DB25 Male
Connected Pins
2 & 15
3 & 13
4 & 12
5 & 10
6 & 11


30 pin Fast Page Mode SIMM  256kx8 256kx9 1Mx8 1Mx9 4Mx8 4Mx9
pin     assignment|pin  assignment|pin  assignment|pin  assignment
1       Vcc       |9       Gnd    |17      A8     |25      DQ7
2       -CAS      |10      DQ2    |18      A9     |26      QP
3       DQ0       |11      A4     |19      A10    |27      -RAS
4       A0        |12      A5     |20      DQ5    |28      -CASP
5       A1        |13      DQ3    |21      -WE    |29      DP
6       DQ1       |14      A6     |22      Gnd    |30      Vcc
7       A2        |15      A7     |23      DQ6
8       A3        |16      DQ4    |24      N/C

Notes:
QP, CASP and DP are N/C on all x8 bit modules
a9 is a N/C on 256k modules
a10 is a N/C on 256k and 1M modules


72 pin Fast Page Mode SIMM  256k/512k/1M/2M/4M/8M x 32/36 bit
pin     assignment|pin  assignment|pin  assignment|pin  assignment
1       Gnd       |19      A10    |37      MP1    |55      DQ11
2       DQ0       |20      DQ4    |38      MP3    |56      DQ27
3       DQ16      |21      DQ20   |39      Gnd    |57      DQ12
4       DQ1       |22      DQ5    |40      -CAS0  |58      DQ28
5       DQ17      |23      DQ21   |41      -CAS2  |59      Vcc
6       DQ2       |24      DQ6    |42      -CAS3  |60      DQ29
7       DQ18      |25      DQ22   |43      -CAS1  |61      DQ13
8       DQ3       |26      DQ7    |44      -RAS0  |62      DQ30
9       DQ19      |27      DQ23   |45      -RAS1  |63      DQ14
10      Vcc       |28      A7     |46      N/C    |64      DQ31
11      N/C       |29      N/C    |47      -WE    |65      DQ15
12      A0        |30      Vcc    |48      N/C    |66      N/C
13      A1        |31      A8     |49      DQ8    |67      PD1
14      A2        |32      A9     |50      DQ24   |68      PD2
15      A3        |33      -RAS3  |51      DQ9    |69      PD3
16      A4        |34      -RAS2  |52      DQ25   |70      PD4
17      A5        |35      MP2    |53      DQ10   |71      N/C
18      A6        |36      MP0    |54      DQ26   |72      Gnd

Notes:
MP0,MP1,MP2,MP3 are N/C on all x32 bit modules
a9 is a N/C on 256k and 512k modules
a10 is a N/C on 256k, 512k, 1M and 4M modules
RAS1/RAS3 are N/C on 256k, 1M and 4M modules


SCSI Connector Pinouts (Single Ended) IDC-50 Male
pin     assignment|pin  assignment|pin  assignment|pin  assignment
01      GND       |02     -DB0    |27     GND     |28     GND
03      GND       |04     -DB1    |29     GND     |30     GND
05      GND       |06     -DB2    |31     GND     |32     -ATN
07      GND       |08     -DB3    |33     GND     |34     GND
09      GND       |10     -DB4    |35     GND     |36     -BSY
11      GND       |12     -DB5    |37     GND     |38     -ACK
13      GND       |14     -DB6    |39     GND     |40     -RST
15      GND       |16     -DB7    |41     GND     |42     -MSG
17      GND       |18     -DBP    |43     GND     |44     -SEL
19      GND       |20     GND     |45     GND     |46     -C/D
21      GND       |22     GND     |47     GND     |48     -REQ
23      GND       |24     GND     |49     GND     |50     -I/O
25      (open)    |26     TERMPWR


SCSI Connector Pinouts (Differential) IDC-50 Male
pin     assignment|pin  assignment|pin  assignment|pin  assignment
01      (open)    |02     GND     |27     GND     |28     GND
03      +DB0      |04     -DB0    |29     +ATN    |30     -ATN
05      +DB1      |06     -DB1    |31     GND     |32     GND
07      +DB2      |08     -DB2    |33     +BSY    |34     -BSY
09      +DB3      |10     -DB3    |35     +ACK    |36     -ACK
11      +DB4      |12     -DB4    |37     +RST    |38     -RST
13      +DB5      |14     -DB5    |39     +MSG    |40     -MSG
15      +DB6      |16     -DB6    |41     +SEL    |42     -SEL
17      +DB7      |18     -DB7    |43     +C/D    |44     -C/D
19      +DBP      |20     -DBP    |45     +REQ    |46     -REQ
21      DIFFSENS  |22     GND     |47     +I/O    |48     -I/O
23      GND       |24     GND     |49     GND     |50     GND
25      TERMPWR   |26     TERMPWR


Macintosh SCSI Connector Pinouts (Single Ended) DB-25S Female
pin    assignment|pin  assignment|pin  assignment|pin  assignment
01     -REQ      |08     -DB0    |14      GND    |20      -DBP
02     -MSG      |09     GND     |15      -C/D   |21      -DB1
03     -I/O      |10     -DB3    |16      GND    |22      -DB2
04     -RST      |11     -DB5    |17      -ATN   |23      -DB4
05     -ACK      |12     -DB6    |18      GND    |24      GND
06     -BSY      |13     -DB7    |19      -SEL   |25      NC (TERMPWR)
07     GND


PCI Cards Universal/3.3V/5V and 32/64 bit
pin assignment |pin assignment |pin assignment |pin assignment
B1  -12V       |A1   TRST#     |B48  AD[10]    |A48  Ground
B2  TCK        |A2  +12V       |B49 Ground     |A49 AD[09]
B3  Ground     |A3  TMS        |B50 (KEYWAY2)  |A50 (KEYWAY2)
B4  TDO        |A4  TDI        |B51 (KEYWAY2)  |A51 (KEYWAY2)
B5  +5V        |A5  +5V        |B52 AD[08]     |A52 C/BE[0]#
B6  +5V        |A6  INTA#      |B53 AD[07]     |A53 +3.3V
B7  INTB#      |A7  INTC#      |B54 +3.3V      |A54 AD[06]
B8  INTD#      |A8  +5V        |B55 AD[05]     |A55 AD[04]
B9  PRSNT1#    |A9  reserved   |B56 AD[03]     |A56 Ground
B10 reserved   |A10 +Vi/o      |B57 Ground     |A57 AD[02]
B11 PRSNT2#    |A11 reserved   |B58 AD[01]     |A58 AD[00]
B12 (KEYWAY1)  |A12 (KEYWAY1)  |B59 Vi/o       |A59 +Vi/o
B13 (KEYWAY1)  |A13 (KEYWAY1)  |B60 ACK64#     |A60 REQ64#
B14 reserved   |A14 reserved   |B61 +5V        |A61 +5V
B15 Ground     |A15 RST#       |B62 +5V        |A62 +5V
B16 CLK        |A16 Vi/o       |B63 reserved   |A63 Ground
B17 Ground     |A17 VNT#       |B64 Ground     |A64 C/BE[7]#
B18 REQ#       |A18 Ground     |B65 C/BE[6]#   |A65 C/BE[5]#
B19 +Vi/o      |A19 reserved   |B66 C/BE[4]#   |A66 +Vi/o
B20 AD[31]     |A20 AD[30]     |B67 Ground     |A67 PAR64
B21 AD[29]     |A21 +3.3V      |B68 AD[63]     |A68 AD[62]
B22 Ground     |A22 AD[28]     |B69 AD[61]     |A69 Ground
B23 AD[27]     |A23 AD[26]     |B70 +Vi/o      |A70 AD[60]
B24 AD[25]     |A24 Ground     |B71 AD[59]     |A71 AD[58]
B25 +3.3V      |A25 AD[24]     |B72 AD[57]     |A72 Ground
B26 C/BE[3]#   |A26 IDSEL      |B73 Ground     |A73 AD[56]
B27 AD[23]     |A27 +3.3V      |B74 AD[55]     |A74 AD[54]
B28 Ground     |A28 AD[22]     |B75 AD[53]     |A75 +Vi/o
B29 AD[21]     |A29 AD[20]     |B76 Ground     |A76 AD[52]
B30 AD[19]     |A30 Ground     |B77 AD[51]     |A77 AD[50]
B31 +3.3V      |A31 AD[18]     |B78 AD[49]     |A78 Ground
B32 AD[17]     |A32 AD[16]     |B79 +Vi/o      |A79 AD[48]
B33 C/BE[2]#   |A33 +3.3V      |B80 AD[47]     |A80 AD[46]
B34 Ground     |A34 FRAME#     |B81 AD{45]     |A81 Ground
B35 IRDY#      |A35 Ground     |B82 Ground     |A82 AD[44]
B36 +3.3V      |A36 TRDY#      |B83 AD[43]     |A83 AD[42]
B37 DEVSEL#    |A37 Ground     |B84 AD[41]     |A84 +Vi/o
B38 Ground     |A38 STOP#      |B85 Ground     |A85 AD[40]
B39 LOCK#      |A39 +3.3V      |B86 AD[39]     |A86 AD[38]
B40 PERR#      |A40 SDONE      |B87 AD[37]     |A87 Ground
B41 +3.3V      |A41 SBO#       |B88 +Vi/o      |A88 AD[36]
B42 SERR#      |A42 Ground     |B89 AD[35]     |A89 AD[34]
B43 +3.3V      |A43 PAR        |B90 AD[33]     |A90 Ground
B44 C/BE[1]#   |A44 AD[15]     |B91 Ground     |A91 AD[32]
B45 AD[14]     |A45 +3.3V      |B92 reserved   |A92 reserved
B46 Ground     |A46 AD[13]     |B93 reserved   |A93 Ground
B47 AD[12]     |A47 AD11]      |B94 Ground     |A94 reserved

Notes:
Pins 63-94 exist on 64 bit PCI implementation only
KEYWAY1 exists on Universal and 3.3V boards, they are Ground on 5V boards
KEYWAY2 exists on Universal and 5V boards, they are Ground on 3.3V boards
+Vi/o is 3.3V on 3.3V boards, 5V on 5V boards, and define signal rails
  on the Universal board.



Q) 8.2  *Where are benchmark programs located. What do they mean?

Q) 8.3  What is Plug and Play?

[From: leefi@microsoft.com (Lee Fisher)]

Plug and Play is the name of a technology that lets PC hardware and attached
devices work together automatically, reducing end-user complexity. Plug and
Play technology is implemented in hardware, in operating systems, and in
supporting software such as drivers and in the systemboard's BIOS. Microsoft
will support Plug and Play starting with Windows "Chicago" and Windows NT
"Cairo". Today there is a solution for MS-DOS and Microsoft Windows 3.x using
software from Intel which works with the Plug and Play hardware. There are a
variety of Plug and Play technologies, today including BIOS, ISA cards, SCSI,
IDE CD-ROM, PCMCIA, drivers.

Many specifications are available via anonymous ftp at 
ftp://ftp.microsoft.com/drg/.

Email the PlayList@Microsoft.COM alias to get on a list for announcements
regarding new specifications, informations on workshops, etc.

The Compuserve Plug and Play forum (GO PLUGPLAY) is available for technical
support issues regarding hardware and driver design issues.

For more related information, on ftp.microsoft.com, see 
/drg/Plug-and-Play/readme and /drg/Developer-Info/devinfo.zip.

Microsoft is starting a "Plug and Play Hardware Catalog" to showcase Plug and
Play hardware, entries are being accepted for the initial issue. Send hardware
and company information to:
    Plug and Play Catalog
    c/o Microsoft Corporation
    Hardware Vendor Relations Group, building 6
    One Microsoft Way
    Redmond, WA 98053-6399 USA

Q) 8.4  What is an OEM product?
[From: scott@bme.ri.ccf.org (Michael Scott)]

OEM versions of may computer products including keyboards, CDROM drives,
video and sound cards, modems, monitors, popular software packages and
more are available, either as parts of a computer system purchase, or as
individual items.  If you are considering a purchase of any OEM hardware
or software, it's important that you understand what you are buying.

OEM stands for Original Equipment Manufacturer.  OEM's exist in most
major industries;  Chrysler sells cars made by Mitsubishi, and all of
Sear's Kenmore products are made by OEM companies.  The main difference
in the computer industry is that OEM products are usually less expensive
than the retail versions supplied by the manufacturer.  However, there
are different types of OEM products.

Some manufacturers have two versions of their products;  one retail version
which ships in fancy packaging, and an OEM version which is sold in bulk
(usually to system manufacturers).  OEM products are not intended for
individual sale, and so don't include a glossy box, and often don't include
a manual or driver disks (if req'd).

Sometimes, the OEM versions are functionally identical to the original
retail version, but not always.  Often, a large system manufacturer will
specify particular features in an OEM product which are not the same as
the retail version.  For example, Matrox supplies OEM video cards to
a large manufacturer (i.e. Compaq's QVision 2000+ video card).  Because of
the large numbers purchased, Compaq gets a good price, and also
specifies things like:  amount of video RAM, upgradability, RAMDAC speed,
etc.  Part of the deal is usually that Compaq will take over responsibility
for the hardware warranty.

Hypothetically, say that Matrox makes 10000 extra units in anticipation of
Compaq's next order, with a few small BIOS tweaks for compatibility with
Compaq's machines.  Compaq decides they only need 8000 units this quarter,
so Matrox sells the extra 2000 units as OEM.  Once those units go out of
the factory, they're no longer Matrox's responsiblity, and probably don't
even have Matrox stamped on them anywhere.

I'm just using Matrox and Compaq for illustrative purposes here, but
component manufacturers commonly provide OEM versions of their products
for systems manufacturers.  i.e. ATI, Tseng and Cirrus Logic provide
chipsets for integration onto motherboards.

Sometimes, the difference between a retail version and the equivalent OEM
is negligible, i.e. the packaging.  However, more commonly the OEM version
has been made with less expensive components, includes no software or
hardware 'freebies' or extras, includes no hardware warranty, etc.

So, be careful when buying OEM that you are getting what you _think_ you
are getting.  You may be saving $20-30 and get a slower RAMDAC or a unit
that isn't upgradable.  On the other hand, you may be one of the
thousands of people who have good success with their OEM products and
saved some money at the same time.

Often, the OEM (original manufacturer) will not provide any tech support
or warranty service for OEM units.



Q) 8.5  What size should I set my DOS partitions to be?
[From: Mike Long <mike.long@analog.com>]
[Some corrections by: Osmo Ronkanen <ronkanen@cc.helsinki.fi>]

This depends on what cluster size you want.  A smaller cluster size is
better, because a small file takes up a whole cluster if there is even
one byte in it; the leftover space is called "slack."  If you have N
files on your drive, and your cluster size is S bytes, then you can
expect to lose N*S/2 bytes to slack space on the average.

The table below shows the maximum partition size to get clusters of a
given size.  You cannot format a hard drive under DOS with a cluster
size less than 2K.

+-------------------+-----------+-------+
|   Cluster size    | Partition |  FAT  |  Notes
|                   |   size    | type  |
+-------------------+-----------+-------+
|  4K  (4096 bytes) |     16 MB | FAT12 |
|  2K  (2048 bytes) |     32 MB | FAT16 | (DOS versions < 4.0)
|  2K  (2048 bytes) |    128 MB | FAT16 | (DOS versions >= 4.0)
|  4K  (4096 bytes) |    256 MB | FAT16 |
|  8K  (8192 bytes) |    512 MB | FAT16 |
| 16K (16384 bytes) |      1 GB | FAT16 |
| 32K (32768 bytes) |      2 GB | FAT16 |
| 64K (65536 bytes) |      4 GB | FAT16 |
+-------------------+-----------+-------+

Another consideration is backup.  If you backup to tape, you should
have disk partitions smaller than the capacity of a single tape for
ease in backup.

[From: Osmo Ronkanen <ronkanen@cc.helsinki.fi>]

The 32 MB limit actually didn't have anything to do with the
cluster size or FAT it was because the number of sectors in
the partition was stored in boot record as a 16 bit number. 



Q) 8.6  How do I get DOS to letter my devices the way I want?

The first floppy drive will always be A:, the second floppy drive will
always be B:.  If there is no second floppy, B: will also point to A:.

DOS will assign drive letters C: and up in the following order:

Primary DOS partition on each BIOS supported drive
  (Master, Slave, EIDE ch2 Master, EIDE ch2 Slave)
All logical drives in the Extended DOS partition on each BIOS supported drive
  (Master, Slave, EIDE ch2 Master, EIDE ch2 Slave)
Device drivers in CONFIG.SYS, in order, unless over ridden
Device drivers in AUTOEXEC.BAT, in order, unless over ridden

This table can be used to add drives without reordering drive letters.
For instance, if you have a Master drive with a Primary and Extended
DOS partition and you add a second (Slave) drive with a Primary DOS
partition, all of your extended partitions will be re-lettered.  If,
however, you only place an extended partition on the new drive, all
partitions on the Master will be assigned letters first.

Some device drivers, such as MSCDEX, have command line switches to
specify an unused drive letter rather than the next open one.  It is
usually a good idea to set these to a higher drive letter right off
rather than having to reinstall all of your software after adding
another drive.



Q) 8.7  Why won't my system boot from the hard drive?

If you can boot from a floppy and see the files on your hard drive,
then chances are there's something wrong with your MBR (Master Boot
Record) / partition table.  The first thing you should try is: "FDISK
/MBR".  This will fix the master boot record without effecting the
contents of your disk.  If this doesn't work, the next thing to try is
verifying that you have your Primary DOS Partition set active.  To do
this, enter "FDISK" and chose "Set active partition" (usually the
second option) then pick "Primary DOS Partition".  Then exit and
reboot.  This too will not effect the contents of your disk.

The next thing to try is replacing the files required for DOS to boot;
they may have been corrupted or deleted.  To do this, run "SYS C:".
This may or may not be possible as DOS versions before 5.0 required
these files be located at a certain place on your hard drive and that
spot may no longer be available.  Either way, this will not otherwise
effect the contents of your disk.

If neither of these things work, then the next thing to try is
reformatting your hard drive (FORMAT C: /SYS).  Note that this will
erase all of the files on your hard drive, so back up anything you
want to save first!!!  If all three of these suggestions fail, then
chances are you have a more serious problem.

Q) 8.8  How do I clean my computer?

Clean the outside with a damp (not wet) cloth with a mild dish washing
detergent after unplugging the system.  Let it dry completely before
plugging your system in.  Do not clean the inside - computer
components are not susceptible to common house hold dust.  Unless you
have special equipment, you will more likely cause more harm than help
to your computer if you try.

Q) 8.9  *What OS's are available for the PC? Which are free?

[this section being worked on]

Q) 8.10  *How can I transfer files between my PC and a Unix system?

[this section being worked on]

Q) 8.11  What tape backup software is available?

[From: herbst@techunix.technion.ac.il (Herbst OMR)]

 JUMBO TAPE
 ----------
Small. Not many features but does the job. Seems to work only with
Colorado drives.  Latest version is 4.03 and can be found by Archie
jumbo403.zip.

>From "Stan Faullin":
 
Useful DOS program.  Has very basic Backup (total, modified,
selected), Restore, Compare, Erase and Format functions.  Some
versions come with a Windows scheduler, but it will NOT run in the
background in a DOS window.  The compression scheme used in some
previous versions is NOT compatible with their latest release, so you
may not be able to read backups made with version 3.x with version
4.x.  Separate versions of this software are available for their
internal model or the parallel port model.
 
Windows:
 
The Lite version supports both parallel port versions and internal
versions.  The only Windows backup program for a parallel port device,
but only supports the Colorado Trakker unit.  Can run in the
background. Can be found by Archie, cbwlite.exe.
 
>From "gregb@oclflt.den.mmc.com (gregb)":
 
CMS Trakker 250 is supplied with a "generic" software package:
it performs backup, restore, selective backup & restore, compression,
compare. It works with DOS and Windows 3.1. 
For an additional $49.95 ($39?) you can purchase their fancier version.
 
 Central-Point backup
 --------------------
Large with many, many features and confusing directory
selections. Works with most drives.

 Conner Basic 1.0
 ----------------
>From "Moshe Braner   braner@emba.uvm.edu":
useless -- only backs up entire drive.
 
 Conner Basic 1.1
 ----------------
>From: 

If you got the low-power backup software bundled in -- Conner Backup
Basics -- and it is V1.0, you are entitled to a free upgrade from Conner.
The new version has an only slightly better addendum to the manual, but
the software now is about as flexible as most users would want -- partial
backup and restore by directory or file, etc.  It has worked well for us,
and I recommend that you ask for your copy.
 
>From: dmiller@im.lcs.mit.edu (Dick and Jill Miller)
 
I emphasize that v1.1 of Conner Backup Basics fixes many of the prior
problems, although its prompts, on-line help and printed documentation 
still deserve improvement.
 
 Conner Exec
 -----------
>From "Moshe Braner   braner@emba.uvm.edu":
 
Very large (2.5 megs for DOS version, windows version even larger).
Did not work with my parallel-port Conner 250meg QIC-80 drive.

 QICstream==Conner "Simply Safe Software Backup Basics version 3.0P"
 -------------------------------------------------------------------
Small and works fine. Works with parallel port Conner drive.
 
 Symantec Norton Backup
 ----------------------
This is included with Norton Desktop for Windows, which is a much
better deal than purchasing Norton Backup for Windows alone.
 
 Symantec Norton Backup for Windows
 ----------------------------------

 GNU-Tar
 -------

Q) 8.12  Why doesn't my new device work as fast as it should?

The performance of individual components in your system are highly
dependent the rest of your system.  For instance, the transfer rate of
drives, usually measured in megabytes per second, can depend on the
drive controller, bus type and OS.  Video card speed, sometime
measured in Winmarks, highly depends on the speed of your main CPU as
well as the OS.  When ever you see a statement on the speed of the
device, be sure to check the small print to determine what type of
system and under what conditions the speed was measured.  Don't be
fooled by benchmark numbers.  Another important corollary of this is
*never* post benchmarks - they offer little to no information for
comparison with other systems.  Benchmarks are only useful for
comparison purposes when run in a controlled environment, and even
then to a limited degree.

Q) 8.13  My drive lists a MTBF of 300,000 hours. Will it really last 34 years?

[From: swwalters@fl51mail.space.honeywell.com  (Steve Walters)]

Mean Time Between Failures (MTBF) is a statistical calculation
indicating the mean time between randomly occurring hardware failures.
Two parameters are necessary to fully describe how long a piece of
hardware will last.  The first parameter is MTBF which is a measure of
frequency in which random hardware failures will occur.  The second
parameter is mean operating life which defines how long the hardware
will last before an anticipated wearout phenomena will occur.  These
two parameters combined together give the true projection of the
'real' life of the drive.  As an example of how these parameters
interrelate, assume your drive has an MTBF of 300,000 hours and an
operating life of 5 years.  The drive will operate uninterrupted until
failure (such as a file server, for example).  This is telling you
that your drive should be very reliable until wearout occurs since the
MTBF greatly exceeds the mean life.  However, after 5 years (on the
average), expect it to fail due to wearout.  In this example, the
actual chances of the drive lasting 3 years is 92%, 4 years is 88%, 5
years is 56% and 6 years is 35%.

Q) 8.14  How do I find pin 1 on my chip/card/cable/connector?

Pin 1 is always marked in one way or another to avoid confusion due to
symmetry (after which known numbering schemes can be used).  The most
important thing to note is that the orientation of the letters or
numbers printed on the chip have absolutely nothing to do with the
actual orientation of the pins.  Never assume that all chips should be
readable from the same angle!

The most obvious marking for pin 1 is a small number '1'.  The first
thing you should do is look very carefully for it.  Ribbon cables are
often marked with a blue or red stripe on pin 1.  Some chips are
marked with a dot, notch or small angled cut in the material just
above pin 1.  Rectangular chips are usually marked with a notch on one
of ends; the first pin counter clockwise from this notch is pin 1.  If
you can't find a marking on the socket or connector, then try looking
at the pads (the holes in the board the socket or connector is
soldered into).  For through-hole devices, pin 1 has a square pad, the
rest should be round.

Q) 8.15  I've run out of power connectors, what can I do?

Assuming your power suply is actually strong enough to power all of
your devices, you can pick up a Y-adapter at your local Radio Shack.

Q) 8.16  What does FCC approval cover and what needs to be approved?
[From: scharf@mirage.nsc.com (Steve Scharf)]

                      FCC Part 15 EMI Certification
                                  and
                     UL/CSA/TUV Safety Certification

FCC Part 15 Certification of Computer Equipment
-----------------------------------------------
The basic thing to understand is that SYSTEMS are certified, Not individual 
circuit boards (though in most cases add-on cards ARE certified), not 
motherboards, not cases, and not power supplies.

Class A & B
-----------
Class A is for systems that will be used only in a commercial environment. 
Class A is more lax than Class B.

Class B is stricter, and is for systems that will be used in a home.

A manufacturer cannot simply declare that a system is not intended for home 
use and test to the more lax Class A limits (believe me, they tried this). A 
high end file server with a RAID array of drives and multiple network 
connections would qualify for Class A. A simple Pentium 100 desktop or Power 
PC would not.

FCC Certified Peripherals and Add-On Cards
------------------------------------------
Most add-on cards and peripherals (disk drives, floppy drives, CD-ROM 
drives, tape drives, etc.) have their own FCC certification. This is so they 
can be sold separately. They would technically not need to be certified 
separately if the system in which they are installed is certified as a unit.

Once a SYSTEM has passed FCC certification, a manufacturer may swap or add 
FCC certified cards and peripherals and retain compliance even though the 
system may technically exceed the limit with the different peripherals. I 
believe the FCC still has the right to demand that the system be in actual 
compliance with the emissions limits.

Motherboards
------------
The FCC has twice considered requiring motherboards be FCC certified and has 
twice rejected the idea. Of course there is great appeal to system 
manufacturers of this concept. Once a system is certified, the manufacturer 
could swap everything except the case and power supply and not have to re-
test.

The problem with this concept is that there could be no guarantee that the 
case that the motherboard was ultimately installed in, would be as good as 
the one that it was originally certified in. It would be easy to manufacture 
a very EMI tight case at great expense, inside which nearly any motherboard 
could pass. I don't believe ANY 386 or greater class of motherboard could 
pass outside of a case.

The Independent Testing Labs were very vocal against the certification of 
motherboards since it would have seriously affected their business.

Power Supplies and Cases
------------------------
Power supplies and cases are NOT FCC certified.

Keyboards and Mice
------------------
These are not required to be certified seperately if they are sold as part 
of a system, but in most cases they are certified separately so they can be 
sold separately.

Monitors, Printers, Externally Powered Peripherals
--------------------------------------------------
Each has their own certification. It actually has gotten very difficult to 
manufacture monitors that can meet Class B. This is why so many monitors 
have the plastic enclosed ferrite bead on the interface cable.

Swapping Motherboards, Power Supplies, and Cases.
-------------------------------------------------
You may not swap motherboards, power supplies, or cases, without re-
certification.

Bare Bones Systems
------------------
Some motherboard manufacturers sell 'bare bones' systems. This is 
the motherboard, power supply, and case, that has been FCC certified with 
some add-on cards and peripherals. The reseller can add any certified add-on 
cards and peripherals and retain compliance. For each new motherboard they 
recertify the bare bones system. 

The bare bones system concept has not been very successful in the chop shop 
type stores. This is because the bare bones systems cannot use the lowest 
quality and cheapest case and power supply, and thus costs several dollars 
more than what a chop shop normally uses. The bare bones systems are also 
sometimes UL and CSA certified which necessitates better quality (and thus 
more costly) power supplies and cases.

How Add-On Card Makers Certify Their Cards.
-------------------------------------------
What all add-on card makers do, is to certify their cards in a 'golden' 
system; a system with an excellent low noise (often low speed) motherboard 
and a high quality well shielded case and power supply. It isn't their 
problem to certify cards in a crappy and noisy system. The original IBM AT 
running at 6 Mhz is a popular system for certifying add-on cards, though of 
course this doesn't work anymore with PCI or VL bus cards.

How System Vendors Certify Their Systems.
-----------------------------------------
What most system makers do is to certify their systems with the lowest noise 
add-on cards and peripherals they can find. Then they can swap in any FCC 
certified add-on cards and peripherals.

Thus the system you buy may legally be FCC certified even though it is over 
the emission limits. I think the FCC has built in leeway into the 
requirements to allow for this. I think that the FCC still has the right to 
insist that such a system meet the actual limits, but I doubt if they ever 
do anything about it.

How All The Small Stores Comply with FCC Part 15
------------------------------------------------
Most small chop shop stores simply do not certify their systems. They are 
violating federal law and they usually get away with it since the FCC has 
very limited resources to enforce their rules. 

The problem is actually solving itself as buyers become more educated. The 
systems assembled by the small stores are usually lower quality, often 
higher priced, and lack the warranty support of the systems sold by the top 
and middle tier vendors.

What About Build-It-Yourself
----------------------------
There is no certification requirement for do-it-yourself systems. However if 
their is a complaint lodged against you and the FCC investigates and finds 
you to be the cause of excessive emissions, then they can take action 
against you.

UL/ETL/CSA/TUV Safety Certification
-------------------------------
UL-Underwriters Laboratories
CSA-Canadian Standards Association
TUV-German Safety Agency.
ETL-Electronic Testing Laboratories

These are product safety agencies. Most top tier systems are UL (or 
ETL)/CSA/TUV approved. Each agency now is supposed to inspect to the same 
international standards, but some policies are different in each agency.

The approval process is pretty simple despite all the requirements, but it 
can be costly so the cost needs to be amortized over a lot of systems. 

This is a partial list of the requirements:

No high voltages can be accessible to the user, so the power switch may have 
no exposed contacts (this is a problem on some cheap cases). This is why the 
original PCs had a power supply with an integral switch on the side, and why 
the PS/2 had a front switch that was mechanically linked to the switch on 
the power supply by a long steel rod

The power supply must be UL/CSA/TUV approved (low quality power supplies 
cannot pass this approval so this is a good indication of at least minimal 
quality of a power supply).

All peripherals powered by the system must have fuses in the power lines. 
This means PS/2 mice and all keyboards. They don't want a short in the 
keyboard or mouse setting the cable on fire (this is ridiculous, since the 
power supply would shut down if the +5volts was shorted to ground, but it is 
still a requirement).

The lithium battery must be double protected against being charged by the 
system. Two diodes are typically used for this.

All circuit board materials must meet flame ratings.

Proper labeling of power connections, fuses, and switches is required.

There are limitations on the colors of switches and lamps, i.e. no red LEDs 
(which indicate danger).

All peripherals must be approved separately.

A 'finger' test to be sure that fingers cannot touch moving parts like fans 
is performed.

The agency will test the system FULLY LOADED with peripherals and load 
boards to simulate maximum power supply load. Afterwards, depending on the 
agency, you can swap approved peripherals. UL requires that you submit a 
list of which approved peripherals you will swap and investigates every one 
to be sure that current limits are not exceeded. CSA and TUV do not require 
this. UL is a royal pain, since there are so many different peripherals, and 
so many new ones are being introduced.

All plastics must be approved. The agency will attempt to set the unit on 
fire.

Towers are subject to a 'tip test,' which necessitates the use of bases on 
the case. Tower PC's are especially poorly designed for the tip test since 
all the heaviest components are at the top.

You must perform certain test procedures on each system to check shock 
hazards. This is called Hi-Pot testing. The test machines must be calibrated 
periodically.

You must affix proper labels, and there are very strict requirements on the 
materials, the ink, the logos, etc.

The agency will inspect your factory and then conduct periodic and/or random 
inspections to ensure that you are complying with all the rules.

Do You need these Safety Approvals?
-----------------------------------
In the United States there is no federal requirement that electrical 
equipment be approved. Some counties and cities DO have this requirement. 
Most recognize UL, ETL, or CSA, and some may recognize others as well.

Some bare bones systems have UL/CSA approval, but since UL must approve a 
system's peripherals as they change, it is uncommon. Some manufacturers are 
getting just CSA since it is valid in most places in the U.S. that require 
certification.

Companies that export systems to Canada and Europe must have the appropriate 
approvals.

As you would expect, very very few, if any, chop shops can get these safety 
approvals. In reality, the systems they build would be pretty close to 
passing, providing they use the proper power supplies and switches, since 
nearly all motherboards and peripherals meet the proper requirements.

The safety approvals do usually ensure a modicum of quality, since no fly-
by-night factory could hope to meet the safety standards. Still there are 
instances of really poor equipment passing all the appropriate safety 
approvals.

As an aside, in Germany many types of products are subject to TUV testing, 
not just electronics. TUV designs appropriate tests for the product 
category. The bicycle/ski rack on the roof of my car is a TUV approved Thule 
rack, which has mounting systems far superior to their non-approved 
competitor. You can be fairly sure that it won't fly off the car at high 
speeds.

VDE Emissions Testing
---------------------
Germany has different emissions requirements (which are accepted by
most European countries). VDE emissions approval is difficult to
obtain becaues there are only a couple of labs in the United States
that VDE has allowed to certify systems. Thus, few PC's that are not
intended for sale in Europe will have VDE approval.



S) 9.0 References

Q) 9.1  What other FAQ's are out there?
The following is a partial list of official FAQs which may be useful
for more information on PC related items.  All of these FAQs are
archived on news.answers, though the frequency in posting and
availability are subject to the maintainers' whims.

If you are retrieving these by anonymous ftp, those items listed with
Archive-name's can be found under the news.answers directory under the
archive name.  The others can be found in their respective hierarchy's
directory under the Subject line's name.  For more information on how
to retrieve these items and how to find other FAQs, refer to the
article "Introduction to the *.answers groups" periodically posted to
news.announce.newusers.

Note: all *.answers groups have been removed from the Newsgroups lines

		------ Hardware Related FAQs ------

Newsgroups: comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.chips,comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.systems,
            comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.misc,comp.sys.intel
Subject: Personal Computer CHIPLIST 7.0 part * of *
From: offerman@einstein.et.tudelft.nl (Aad Offerman)
Summary: This list contains the various CPU's and NPX's and their features,
         used in the IBM PC, IBM PC/XT, IBM PC/AT, IBM PS/2 and compatbles,
         and the differences between them.
Archive-name: pc-hardware-faq/chiplist
--
Newsgroups: comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.storage,comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.misc
Subject: Enhanced IDE/Fast-ATA/ATA-2 FAQ [* of *]
From: pieterh@sci.kun.nl (Maintainer)
Summary: This FAQ addresses issues surrounding Enhanced IDE, ATA-2,
    ATAPI and Enhanced BIOSes. It includes practical questions,
    background information and lists of net resources.
Archive-name: pc-hardware-faq/enhanced-IDE
--
Newsgroups: comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.video
Subject: comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.video FAQ, Part * / *
Subject: comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.video Chipsets List
From: scott@bme.ri.ccf.org (Michael Scott)
Summary: This is a monthly posting containing a list of Frequently
          Asked Questions (and their answers) pertaining to video
          hardware for IBM PC clones.  It should be read by anyone who
          wishes to post to the comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.video
          newsgroup.
Archive-name: pc-hardware-faq/video/part1
--
Newsgroups: comp.dcom.modems,comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.comm
Subject: MS-Windows COM and Ns16550A UART FAQ
From: rjn@fc.hp.com (Bob Niland)
Summary: Improving Windows 3.x COM performance and reliability.
Archive-name: windows-com-faq
--
Newsgroups: comp.os.msdos.programmer,comp.sys.ibm.pc,comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware
Subject: The Serial Port, rel. *, part * / *
From: chbl@stud.uni-sb.de (Christian Blum)
--
Newsgroups: comp.sys.ibm.pc.misc,comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware,
            comp.os.ms-windows.advocacy,comp.os.os2.advocacy,
            comp.sys.intel,comp.sys.mac.advocacy,comp.sys.powerpc
Subject: Mac & IBM Info-Version *
From: bgrubb@scf.nmsu.edu (Bruce Grubb)
--
Newsgroups: comp.sys.ibm.pc.soundcard,comp.music,rec.music.synth,
	    comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware
Subject: FAQ: Gravis Ultrasound ("GUS") FAQ v*
From: Matthew E. Bernold <MEB117@psuvm.psu.edu>
Summary: A list of Frequently Asked Questions (and answers) concerning
	 the Gravis Ultrasound (GUS) sound card for IBM PC's. 
Archive-name: PCsoundcards/gravis-ultrasound/faq
--
Newsgroups: alt.sys.pc-clone.gateway2000
Subject: alt.sys.pc-clone.gateway2000 FAQ Part 1 of 3
From: tbrann1@uic.edu (Timothy S. Brannan)
Summary: alt.sys.pc-clone.gateway2000 FAQ
Archive-name: pc-hardware-faq/gateway2000/part1
--
Newsgroups: comp.sys.ibm.pc.soundcard.advocacy,
            comp.sys.ibm.pc.soundcard.games,comp.sys.ibm.pc.soundcard.misc,
            comp.sys.ibm.pc.soundcard.music,comp.sys.ibm.pc.soundcard.tech,
            comp.os.os2.multimedia
Subject: Aria Soundcard FAQ v*
From: dtauritz@wi.leidenuniv.nl (Daniel R. Tauritz)
Summary: This posting discusses hardware related issues concerning soundcards
         based on the Aria chipset from Sierra Semiconductor Corporation.
Archive-name: PCsoundcards/aria/faq
--
Newsgroups: comp.sys.ibm.pc.soundcard.misc
Subject: Tropez ISA sound board FAQ
From: towwang@umich.edu (Tow Wang Hui)
Summary: FAQ file on Tropez sound board by Turtle Beach Systems, for owners
	and prospective purchasers.
Archive-name: PCsoundcards/Tropez-faq
Comp-sys-ibm-pc-soundcard-misc-archive-name: Tropez-faq
--
Newsgroups: comp.sys.ibm.pc.soundcard,comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware,
            comp.sys.ibm.pc.misc
Subject: PRO AUDIO SPECTRUM SOUND CARD FAQ v*
From: thompson@kuhub.cc.ukans.edu
--
Newsgroups: comp.graphics,comp.lang.pascal,comp.os.msdos.programmer,
            rec.games.programmer
Subject: SuperVGA/VESA programmer's notes.
From: myles@giaec.cc.monash.edu.au
Summary: This posting contains programming notes and references for
         those interested in programming in SuperVGA modes.
Archive-name: pc-hardware-faq/supervga-programming
--
Newsgroups: comp.graphics.api.opengl,alt.3d,
            comp.os.ms-windows.programmer.graphics,comp.cad.pro-engineer,
            comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.video,comp.graphics.animation,
            comp.os.ms-windows.nt.misc
Subject: PC 3D Graphics Accelerators FAQ (Part * of *)
From: bm@cs.columbia.edu (Blair MacIntyre)
Summary: The FAQ is about 3D Graphics Accelerators for PC-compatible
         computers.
Archive-name: pc-hardware-faq/3dgraphics-cards/
--
Newsgroups: bit.listserv.big-lan,comp.dcom.lans.misc
Subject: BIG-LAN/bit.listserv.big-lan FAQ
From: jmwobus@mailbox.syr.edu (John Wobus)
Archive-name: LANs/big-lan-faq
--
Newsgroups: comp.dcom.cabling
Subject: Data Communications Cabling FAQ
From: pmac@fox.nstn.ca (Peter Macaulay)
Summary: This article is a collection of information sources,
  standards, implementation methods and definitions for
  data communications cabling.
Archive-name: LANs/cabling-faq
--
Newsgroups: comp.sys.mac.apps,comp.sys.mac.misc,comp.sys.mac.system,
	    comp.sys.mac.wanted,comp.sys.mac.hardware
Subject: Introductory Macintosh frequently asked questions (FAQ)
From: erh0362@tesla.njit.edu  (Elliotte Rusty Harold)
Summary: This document answers a number of the most frequently asked
 questions on Usenet about Macintosh computers.  To avoid wasting
 bandwidth and as a matter of politeness please familiarize yourself
 with this document BEFORE posting.
Archive-name: macintosh/general-faq
--
Newsgroups: comp.sys.mac.hardware,comp.sys.mac.misc
Subject: Macintosh PowerPC FAQ
From: mac_ppc_faq@postbox.acs.ohio-state.edu
Summary: This posting contains a list of questions and (often speculative)
         answers about PowerPC and its relation to the Macintosh.
Archive-name: macintosh/PowerPC-FAQ
--
Newsgroups: comp.sys.mac.system
Subject: Macintosh system software frequently asked questions (FAQ)
From: elharo@shock.njit.edu (Elliotte Rusty Harold)
Summary: This document answers a number of the most frequently asked
         questions about Macintoshes on Usenet.  To avoid wasting bandwidth
         and as a matter of politeness please familiarize yourself with this
         document BEFORE posting.
Archive-name: macintosh/system-faq
--
Newsgroups: comp.sys.mac.misc,comp.sys.mac.printing
Subject: Miscellaneous Macintosh frequently asked questions (FAQ)
From: elharo@shock.njit.edu (Elliotte Rusty Harold)
Summary: This document answers a number of the most frequently asked
         questions about Macintoshes on Usenet.  To avoid wasting bandwidth
         and as a matter of politeness please familiarize yourself with this
         document BEFORE posting.
Archive-name: macintosh/misc-faq
--
Newsgroups: comp.sys.mac.hardware.misc,comp.sys.mac.hardware.storage,
            comp.sys.mac.hardware.video
Subject: Macintosh hardware frequently asked questions (FAQ)
From: elharo@shock.njit.edu (Elliotte Rusty Harold)
Summary: This document answers several of the most frequently asked
         questions about Macintosh hardware on Usenet.  To avoid
         wasting bandwidth and as a matter of politeness please
         familiarize yourself with this document BEFORE posting.
Archive-name: macintosh/hardware-faq
--
Newsgroups: comp.sys.mac.comm
Subject: comp.sys.mac.comm Frequently Asked Questions [* / *]
From: davido@Princeton.EDU (David L. Oppenheimer)
Summary: This is the comp.sys.mac.comm Frequently Asked Questions list; its
 	 intent is to provide information specific to Macintosh computer
 	 communications, including modems, networks, and the like. You are
 	 encouraged to read this FAQ before posting to the newsgroup.
Archive-name: macintosh/comm-faq/part1
--
Newsgroups: comp.unix.sys5.r4,comp.unix.pc-clone.32bit,comp.sys.intel,
	    comp.os.linux.announce
Subject: PC-Clone UNIX Hardware Buyer's Guide
From: esr@snark.thyrsus.com (Eric S. Raymond)
Summary: Tips on how and where to buy hardware for your UNIX.
Archive-name: pc-unix/hardware

		------ OS Related FAQs ------

Newsgroups: comp.unix.questions,comp.unix.shell
Subject: Unix - Frequently Asked Questions (Contents) [Frequent posting]
From: tmatimar@empress.com (Ted M A Timar)
Archive-name: unix-faq/faq/contents
--
Newsgroups: comp.unix.questions,comp.unix.shell
Subject: Unix - Frequently Asked Questions (* / *) Digest [Frequent posting]
From: tmatimar@empress.com (Ted M A Timar)
Archive-name: unix-faq/faq
--
Newsgroups: comp.unix.sys5.r4,comp.unix.pc-clone.32bit,comp.unix.bsd,
	    comp.os.linux.announce
Subject: PC-clone UNIX Software Buyer's Guide
From: esr@snark.thyrsus.com (Eric S. Raymond)
Summary: A buyer's guide to UNIX versions for PC-clone hardware
Archive-name: pc-unix/software
--
Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce
Subject: LILO FAQ, version *
From: almesber@nessie.cs.id.ethz.ch (Werner Almesberger)
--
Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce
Subject: Linux FTP and BBS List #* (LONG)
From: Zane H. Healy <healyzh@holonet.net>
--
Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce,comp.os.linux
Subject: [comp.os.linux.announce] Guidelines for posting
From: mdw@sunSITE.unc.edu (Matt Welsh)
Archive-name: linux/announce/guide
--
Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce,comp.os.linux.admin
Subject: Linux * HOWTO
From: (Vince Skahan)
Comment: The following article are currently being posted (archive
	names, in parentheses, are in the "linux/howto" archive
	directory): Electronic Mail (mail); News (news); UUCP (uucp).
Archive-name: linux/howto/mail
--
Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce,comp.os.linux.help,comp.os.linux.admin
Subject: Linux NET-2 HOWTO
From: terryd@extro.ucc.su.oz.au (Terry Dawson)
Summary: HOWTO on configuration of TCP/IP networking and SLIP under Linux.
Archive-name: linux/howto/networking
--
Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce,comp.os.linux.help,comp.os.linux.admin
Subject: Linux HOWTO Index
From: mdw@sunsite.unc.edu (Matt Welsh)
Summary: Index of HOWTO documents about Linux.
Archive-name: linux/howto/index
--
Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce,comp.os.linux.admin
Subject: Linux Ethernet HOWTO
From: Paul Gortmaker <paul@cain.mmtc.rmit.oz.au>
Archive-name: linux/howto/ethernet
--
Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce,comp.os.linux.admin
Subject: Linux Printing HOWTO
From: gtaylor@cs.tufts.edu
Summary: HOWTO on printing under Linux
Archive-name: linux/howto/printing
--
Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce,comp.os.linux.help
Subject: Linux Frequently Asked Questions with Answers
From: ijackson@nyx.cs.du.edu (Ian Jackson)
Summary: Please read the whole FAQ before posting to comp.os.linux.help.
Archive-name: linux/faq
--
Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce,comp.os.linux.help
Subject: Linux INFO-SHEET
From: Michael K. Johnson <johnsonm@sunsite.unc.edu>
Summary: Generic introduction to the Linux operating system
Archive-name: linux/info-sheet
--
Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce,comp.os.linux.help
Subject: Linux META-FAQ
From: Michael K. Johnson <johnsonm@sunsite.unc.edu>
Summary: A listing of Linux sources of information
Archive-name: linux/meta-faq
--
Newsgroups: comp.os.linux.announce,comp.os.linux.help,
	    comp.os.linux.development,comp.os.linux.admin,comp.os.linux.misc
Subject: Welcome to the comp.os.linux.* hierarchy!
From: mdw@sunsite.unc.edu (Matt Welsh)
Archive-name: linux/announce/intro
--
Newsgroups: comp.os.mach
Subject: comp.os.mach Frequently Asked Questions
From: fgray@owlnet.rice.edu (Frederick Earl Gray)
Summary: Answers to questions frequently asked on the USENET newsgroup
         comp.os.mach
Archive-name: mach-faq
--
Newsgroups: comp.unix.solaris,comp.sys.sun.admin
Subject: Solaris 2 Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) *
From: Casper.Dik@Holland.Sun.COM (Casper H.S. Dik)
Summary: This posting contains a list of Frequently Asked Questions (and
    answers) about Sun Microsystem's Solaris 2.x system in general.
    See also the FAQs archived as Solaris2/Porting and Solaris2/x86.
Archive-name: Solaris2/FAQ
--
Newsgroups: comp.os.minix
Subject: Changes to MINIX Information Sheet
From: overby@plains.nodak.edu (Glen Overby)
Summary: Commonly Asked Questions -- With answers!
Archive-name: minix-faq
--
Newsgroups: comp.unix.msdos
Subject: Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for comp.unix.msdos
From: fnx!vpix-faq@uunet.UU.NET (VP/IX FAQ maintainance)
--
Newsgroups: comp.os.msdos.programmer
Subject: comp.os.msdos.programmer FAQ
From: Jeffrey Carlyle <carlyle@tocnet.com>
Summary: Frequently Asked Questions by DOS programmers with tested
         answers. Please read this before posting.
Archive-name: msdos-programmer-faq/faq
Comp-os-msdos-programmer-archive-name: dos-faq
--
Newsgroups: comp.os.os2.misc
Subject: OS/2 Users Frequently Asked Questions List Edition *
From: klund@athena.mit.edu (Kent H Lundberg)
Summary: This posting contains a list of common questions (and answers)
         about the IBM OS/2 Warp operating system.  It should be read by
         everyone interested in OS/2 Warp, from the newly curious to the
         long-time power user.
Archive-name: os2-faq/user/part*
--
Newsgroups: comp.os.os2.programmer.misc
Subject: FAQ: OS/2 Programming FAQ v*
From: andreas@traci.almroth.pp.se (Andreas Almroth)

		------ Windowing System Related FAQs ------

--
Newsgroups: comp.windows.x
Subject: comp.windows.x Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) * / *
From: dbl@visual.com (David B. Lewis)
Summary: useful information about the X Window System
Archive-name: x-faq/part*
--
Newsgroups: comp.windows.x.i386unix,comp.unix.pc-clone.32bit,
	    comp.unix.bsd,comp.windows.x
Subject: X on Intel-based Unix Frequently Asked Questions [FAQ]
From: steve@ecf.toronto.edu (Steve Kotsopoulos)
Summary: X options for Intel-based Unix (SYSV/386, 386BSD, Linux, Mach)
Archive-name: Intel-Unix-X-faq
--
Newsgroups: comp.os.ms-windows.apps,comp.os.ms-windows.misc,
            comp.os.ms-windows.setup,comp.os.ms-windows.nt.misc,
            comp.os.ms-windows.nt.setup,bit.listserv.win3-l
Subject: Windows FAQ: How to get it
From: tomh@metrics.com (Tom Haapanen)
Archive-name: ms-windows/windows.how-to-find-faqs
--
Newsgroups: comp.os.ms-windows.programmer.misc,
            comp.os.ms-windows.programmer.tools,
            comp.os.ms-windows.programmer.win32,bit.listserv.win3-l
Subject: Windows Programmer FAQ: How to get it
From: tomh@metrics.com (Tom Haapanen)
Archive-name: ms-windows/programmer.how-to-find-faqs
--
Newsgroups: comp.os.msdos.desqview
Subject: DESQview/QEMM Frequently Asked Questions: READ BEFORE POSTING
From: aml@world.std.com (Andrew Langmead)
Summary: FAQ list for the MS-DOS multitasker DESQview and memory manager QEMM
Archive-name: desqview-faq

		------ Miscellaneous FAQs ------

Newsgroups: comp.os.msdos.misc,comp.sys.ibm.pc.hardware.misc,
            comp.os.ms-windows.misc,comp.sys.ibm.pc.misc,alt.cd-rom,
            alt.sys.pc-clone.gateway2000,alt.sys.pc-clone.zeos,
            alt.sys.pc-clone.dell,comp.binaries.ibm.pc.d,
            comp.binaries.ibm.pc.wanted
Subject: PC-Clone Hardware Newsgroup Pointer
From: grohol@alpha.acast.nova.edu (John M. Grohol)
Summary: Newsgroup subject pointer for PC-clone hardware
Archive-Name: finding-groups/pc-hardware
--
Newsgroups: comp.sources.wanted,alt.sources.wanted
Subject: How to find sources
From: kent@sterling.com (Kent Landfield)
Archive-name: finding-sources
--
Newsgroups: comp.std.internat,comp.std.misc,comp.protocols.iso
Subject: Standards FAQ
From: unrza3@cd4680fs.rrze.uni-erlangen.de (Markus Kuhn)
Summary: Answers to questions such as what are ISO standards, where can I
         get standards, what are ISO/ITU/ANSI/etc., what standards are
         there relevant to computing, ...? This is a periodic posting in
         comp.protocols.iso, comp.std.misc and comp.std.internat.
Archive-name: standards-faq
--
Newsgroups: comp.sys.ibm.pc.games.announce,rec.games.misc
Subject: PC GAMES FAQ <- Guide To The Gaming World (Part * of *)
From: mmwang@mv.us.adobe.com (Michael Wang)
Summary: This FAQ has answers to common questions and other useful
	 information that all new readers of the comp.sys.ibm.pc.games.*
	 newsgroups should read before posting.
Archive-name: PC-games-faq/part1
--
Newsgroups: comp.virus
Subject: VIRUS-L/comp.virus Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
From: n.fitzgerald@cantva.canterbury.ac.nz (Nick FitzGerald)
Summary: This posting contains a list of Frequently Asked Questions,
         and their answers, about computer viruses.  It should be read
         by anyone who wishes to post to VIRUS-L/comp.virus.
Archive-name: computer-virus-faq
--
Newsgroups: misc.forsale.computers.workstation,
     misc.forsale.computers.other.misc,misc.forsale.computers.other.systems,
     misc.forsale.computers.other.software,misc.forsale.computers.modems,
     misc.forsale.computers.net-hardware,misc.forsale.computers.memory,
     misc.forsale.computers.monitors,misc.forsale.computers.printers,
     misc.forsale.computers.storage,misc.forsale.computers.other
Subject: Misc.FS+Biz.Mktplc ADVERTISING FAQ--INFO FOR NEW USERS
From: dank@metrics.com
Summary: This article describes appropriate ways of posting
        forsale and wanted ads on misc.forsale.* and biz.marketplace.*.
        As most posters to misc.forsale are on Usenet for the first
        time, it provides information useful to all readers--new and
        old alike.
Archive-name: misc-forsale-faq/posting-ads
--
Newsgroups: misc.forsale.computers.workstation,
      misc.forsale.computers.other.misc,misc.forsale.computers.other.systems,
      misc.forsale.computers.other.software,misc.forsale.computers.modems,
      misc.forsale.computers.net-hardware,misc.forsale.computers.memory,
      misc.forsale.computers.monitors,misc.forsale.computers.printers,
      misc.forsale.computers.storage,misc.forsale.computers.other
Subject: Misc.FS+Biz.Mktplc TRANSACTIONS FAQ--INFO FOR NEW USERS
From: dank@metrics.com (Dan King)
Summary: This article describes transactions over Usenet in detail.
	It presents the options available, recommended methods, and
	issues to protect buyers and sellers who conduct business by
	e-mail and parcel service--domestically and internationally. 
Archive-name: misc-forsale-faq/buying-selling
--
Newsgroups: comp.archives.msdos.announce,comp.archives.msdos.d
Subject: comp.archives.msdos.{announce,d} FAQ (Frequently Asked Questions)
From: ts@chyde.uwasa.fi (Timo Salmi)
Archive-name: msdos-archives/faq
--
Newsgroups: comp.archives.msdos.d,comp.binaries.ibm.pc.wanted,
	    comp.os.msdos.apps,comp.sys.ibm.pc.misc
Subject: Useful MSDOS Programs at SIMTEL20 and Garbo (Part * of *)
From: sko@wimsey.bc.ca (Samuel Ko)
Summary: A list of recommended msdos programs available from major ftp sites
Archive-name: msdos-archives/part*
--
Newsgroups: comp.binaries.ibm.pc
Subject: v*inf*: charter, CBIP newsgroups charter (part * / *)
From: cbip@cs.uml.edu (CBIP Moderator)
Archive-name: admin/charter
--
Newsgroups: comp.lang.postscript
Subject: PostScript monthly FAQ v* *-*-* [* of *]
From: Allen Braunsdorf <postscript-faq@cc.purdue.edu>
Summary: Useful facts about the PostScript graphics programming language
Archive-name: postscript/faq/part*
--
Newsgroups: comp.periphs.scsi
Subject: comp.periphs.scsi FAQ
From: garyf@wiis.wang.com (Gary Field)
Summary: This posting contains a list of Frequently Asked
             Questions (and their answers) about SCSI.  It
             should be read by anyone who wishes to post to the
             comp.periphs.scsi newsgroup.
Archive-name: scsi-faq
--
Newsgroups: comp.protocols.tcp-ip.ibmpc,comp.protocols.tcp-ip,
            alt.winsock,comp.os.ms-windows.networking.tcp-ip
Subject: comp.protocols.tcp-ip.ibmpc Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)
From: internau@zilker.net (Bernard Aboba)
Summary: Frequently Asked Questions (and answers) about TCP/IP on
                   PC-compatible computers.
Archive-name: ibmpc-tcp-ip
--
Newsgroups: comp.protocols.ppp
Subject: comp.protocols.ppp part* of * of frequently wanted information
From: ignatios@cs.uni-bonn.de (Ignatios Souvatzis)
Summary: This document contains information about the Internet Point-to-Point
 	Protocol, including a bibliography, a list of public domain and
 	commercial software and hardware implementations, a section on
 	configuration hints and a list of frequently asked questions and
 	answers on them.
 	It should be read by anybody interested in connecting to Internet
 	via serial lines, and by anybody wanting to post to
 	comp.protocols.ppp (before he/she does it!)
Archive-name: ppp-faq/part1
--
Newsgroups: alt.cd-rom,comp.multimedia
Subject: alt.cd-rom FAQ
From: rab@cdrom.com
Summary: Frequently asked questions about CD-ROMs
Archive-name: cdrom-faq





===============
Ralph Valentino  (ralf@worcester.com) (ralf@alum.wpi.edu) 
Senior Design Engineer, Instrinsix Corp.

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:12 PM