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Macintosh system software frequently asked questions (FAQ)


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Archive-name: macintosh/system-faq
Version: 2.4.1
Last-modified: June 23, 1996
Maintainer: elharo@shock.njit.edu
URL: http://www.macfaq.com/systemfaq.html

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
Frequently Asked Questions about Macintosh System Software
==========================================================


     comp.sys.mac.faq, part 2:
     comp.sys.mac.system 
 
     Copyright 1993-1996 by Elliotte Harold
     Please see section 5.8 of the general FAQ if you wish to 
     redistribute, revise or republish this document in any way.

     Archive-name: macintosh/system-faq
     Version: 2.4.1
     Last-modified: June 23, 1996
     Address comments to elharo@shock.njit.edu


What's new in version 2.4.1:
----------------------------

  I've made some minor changes to the setext formatting
  to facilitate automatic conversion to HTML.

  The macfaq archive site has moved from rever.nmsu.edu to
  ftp.macfaq.com.
  
  2.5) Where can I get non-U.S. system software and scripts?
  
  This question has been updated to reflect the release of 
  several new language kits and applications.




          Table of Contents          
-------------------------------------------------------------------

I.   Memory
     1. Why is my system using so much memory?
     2. What is MODE32?  the 32-bit enabler?  Do I need them?
     3. How much memory should I allot to my cache?
II.  System Software
     1. Why does Apple charge for system software?
     2. What does System 7.5 give me for my $35/$50/$99 that System 7.1 doesn't?
     3. Where can I get System 7.5?
     4. How can I use System 6 on a System 7 only Mac? 
     5. Non-US scripts and systems
     6. What is System 7 Tuneup?  System Update 3.0? etc.? Do I need them?
     7. Why do my DA's disappear when I turn on MultiFinder?
     8. Do I need System 7.0.1?
     9. Can I get System 7.0.1, 7.1 or 7.5 on 800K disks?
    10. Is there a version of UNIX for the Mac?
III. Hard Disk and File System Problems
     1. Help! My folder disappeared!
     2. Why can't I throw this folder away?
     3. Why can't I share my removable drive?
     4. Why can't I eject this SyQuest cartridge?  CD-ROM?  etc.
     5. Why can't I rename my hard disk?
     6. How do I change my hard disk icon?
IV.  Fonts
     1. How do I convert between Windows fonts and Mac fonts?
     TrueType and PostScript?
     2. What font will my screen/printer use when different types 
     are installed?
     3. Where should I put my fonts?
V.   Miscellaneous:
     1. What does System Error XXX mean?
     2. What is a Type Y error?
     3. What is A/ROSE?
     4. Easy Access: One Answer, Many Questions
     5. How can I keep multiple system folders on one hard disk?
     6. How do I access the programmer's key?


RETRIEVING THE ENTIRE FAQ
=========================

  This is the SECOND part of this FAQ.  The first part is also 
  posted to this newsgroup under the subject heading  "Introductory 
  Macintosh frequently asked questions (FAQ)" and includes a complete 
  table of contents for the entire document as well as information on
  where to post, ftp, file decompression, trouble-shooting, preventive
  maintenance and conditions for reproduction, posting and use of this
  document outside of Usenet.  The third, fourth, fifth and sixth parts
  are posted every two weeks in comp.sys.mac.misc, comp.sys.mac.apps, 
  comp.sys.mac.wanted and comp.sys.mac.hardware respectively.  Please
  familiarize yourself with all six sections of this document before
  posting.  All pieces are available for anonymous ftp from 

  <URL:ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/news.answers/macintosh/>

  Except for the introductory FAQ which appears in multiple
  newsgroups and is stored as general-faq, the name of each 
  file has the format of the last part of the group name followed 
  by "-faq", e.g the FAQ for comp.sys.mac.system is stored as
  system-faq.  You can also have these files mailed to you
  by sending an email message to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu with 
  the line:  

   send pub/usenet/news.answers/macintosh/name 

  in the body text where "name" is the name of the file you want as 
  specified above (e.g. general-faq).  You can also send this server 
  a message with the subject "help" for more detailed instructions.  
  For access via the World Wide Web use

  <URL:http://www.macfaq.com/faqs.html>


MEMORY  (1.0) 
=============

WHY IS MY SYSTEM TAKING UP SO MUCH MEMORY?  (1.1)
-------------------------------------------------

  Under system versions earlier than 7.0 or under System 7.x
  without 32-bit addressing turned on the Mac cannot access more than
  eight megabytes of real memory.  If you have more physical RAM
  installed, the Mac knows it's present but can't do anything with it. 
  When About this Macintosh (About the Finder in System 6) is selected 
  from the Apple menu, the system reports all the memory it can't use 
  as part of the system memory allocation.

  To use the memory you need to install System 7 and turn on
  32-bit addressing in the Memory control panel.  If you have a Mac
  with dirty ROMs (a II, IIx, SE/30, or IIcx) you also need MODE32.
  MODE32 is free from the mythical friendly neighborhood dealer or

  <URL:ftp://ftp.macfaq.com/pub/>

  The original Mac II also needs the FDHD ROM upgrade to use 4 megabyte 
  or larger SIMMs in Bank A.  Without it SIMMs larger than one megabyte
  can only be put in the second bank of memory on a Mac II.  If you're 
  staying with System 6, Maxima from Connectix ($45 street) allows you 
  to use up to fourteen megabytes of real memory and can allocate 
  anything beyond that to a RAM disk.
    
  If you have an LC or an LC II with four megabytes of RAM
  soldered to the motherboard, you still need to add two four-megabyte
  SIMM's to reach the ten megabyte maximum imposed by the LC ROM. 
  This means you'll always have two unused megabytes which About this
  Macintosh and About the Finder report as part of the system memory
  allocation.  Unfortunately there is no current means of accessing
  this extra memory.

  If you've turned on 32-bit addressing or if you have eight
  megabytes or less of RAM, check your disk cache (RAM cache in 
  System 6) in the Memory Control Panel (General Control Panel in 
  System 6) to make sure it isn't set exceptionally high.  All 
  memory allotted to the cache comes out of the System's 
  memory allocation.

  Finally if you recently upgraded to System 7.1 by updating your
  system software rather than by doing a clean reinstall, (See question
  4.6 in the general FAQ) you should move all fonts out of your system
  file as these can take up an extraordinary amount of memory.


WHAT IS MODE32?  THE 32-BIT ENABLER?  DO I NEED THEM?  (1.2)
------------------------------------------------------------

  MODE32 and the 32-bit enabler are system extensions that allow 
  Mac II's, IIx's, IIcx's, and SE/30's to access more than eight
  megabytes of real memory under System 7.  The 32-bit enabler is buggy
  and doesn't work at all with System 7.0 or 7.5.  If you have more 
  than eight megabytes of real memory in an SE/30, II, IIcx, or IIx,  
  (or eight megabytes and RAM Doubler) you need MODE32.  See
  
  <URL:ftp://ftp.macfaq.com/pub/>


HOW MUCH MEMORY SHOULD I ALLOT TO MY CACHE?  (1.3)
--------------------------------------------------

  One of the Memory Control Panel (or General Control Panel in
  System 6) settings is the mysterious cache, Disk Cache in System 7,
  RAM cache in System 6.  This is memory the system sets aside to hold
  frequently accessed data from the disk. The cache acts like a 7-11
  for your hard disk.  It's quicker to get a quart of milk at the 7-11,
  but it costs more so you don't do all your shopping there.  And the
  7-11 doesn't have everything you want so sometimes you need to go 
  to the A&P (your hard disk) instead.

  Unfortunately the caches in pre-7.5 system software really aren't
  all that fast.  In these systems the RAM cache would more appropriately
  be called the RAM thief.  Its effect on performance seems to be much
  like the canals of Mars.  You have to want to see it before you can.
  The caching algorithm has allegedly been improved in System 7.5 but 
  I haven't seen any hard evidence of that yet.
  
  However there are a few applications and extensions such as 
  Dayna DOSMounter that actually make use of the cache and will run 
  much faster when it's turned on than when it's off.  Thus I recommend
  setting your cache to 64K, turning it on, and forgetting about it. I
  hope that in 1995 most Macintoshes have enough RAM that they don't
  need to worry about losing 64K.

  If, however, your Mac is a IIsi running a color monitor from 
  the internal video, then you may possibly speed up your Mac with an
  appropriate cache setting.  The IIsi and the IIci use system RAM to
  store the video image on your screen.  (Other Macs with internal
  video have video RAM separate from the main system RAM so this trick
  doesn't apply to them.)  The internal video competes with the System
  for use of this RAM; and that competition slows down your Mac, just 
  like two children fighting in the back seat of your car adds an hour 
  to the time it takes to get to the beach.  To stop the fighting a 
  smart parent will put one child in the front seat and one in the back. 
  A smart Mac owner will put the internal video in the front seat and 
  the system in the back seat.  To push the system out of the front seat
  set a IIsi's cache to between 384K and 768K which will take up all 
  the space in the front seat not occupied by the internal video and 
  force the system to sit in the back.  The exact value depends on the
  type of monitor you have installed.  Experiment to see what works 
  for you.  Unfortunately this trick doesn't work when virtual memory
  is turned on, but if you're using virtual memory you're probably more
  concerned about saving memory than gaining speed anyway.  There's
  also a bug in the System 6 cache code that may cause a peformance 
  hit on disk access if the cache is larger than 128K so this trick is
  more likely to help Macs running System 7, but again experiment to 
  see what works for you.



SYSTEM SOFTWARE  (2.0) 
======================

WHY DOES APPLE CHARGE FOR SYSTEM SOFTWARE?  (2.1)
-------------------------------------------------

  Apple charges for system software because Apple's policy makers
  suspect they'll make more money by charging for it than by not
  charging for it.  Apple is a publicly held corporation in a
  capitalist economy where the law requires corporations to make
  reasonable attempts to maximize profits.  To give away something
  Apple could make more money by charging for would be a breach of 
  the fiduciary responsibility of Apple's Board of Directors and 
  actionable by Apple stockholders in a court of law.  


WHAT DOES SYSTEM 7.5 GIVE ME FOR MY $20/$50/$99 THAT SYSTEM 7.1 DOESN'T? (2.2)
------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  Quite a lot actually.  You get Apple Guide, MacTCP, the ability
  to read DOS formatted floppy disks, a hierarchical Apple menu, a 
  menu bar clock, QuickDraw GX, some new fonts, drag and drop between
  applications, background floppy formatting, a disk cache that
  actually works, AppleScript and a scriptable Finder, QuickTime 2.0,
  and about fifty other features of varying utility.  There's no 
  feature that makes the upgrade a necessity, so if you're happy with 
  your current system software and don't want to spend $90 for these 
  new features don't.  Most new software should continue to work well 
  with System 7.0 and 7.1 for at least the next year


WHERE CAN I GET SYSTEM 7.5?  (2.3)
----------------------------------

  Apple rationalized its decision to begin charging for system 
  software by claiming that most people had been unable to get system 
  software updates from online sources or authorized dealers (and of 
  course they rationalized their refusal to authorize low-price mail 
  order dealers by claiming that Macs require dealer support) and by 
  claiming that charging for system software will make retailers more
  willing to stock Apple system software and thus make it easier to
  obtain.  This denies the reality that System 7.0 was in fact readily
  available from the primary sources of payware Mac software as well 
  as being freely available online.  And I doubt a full-page ad for 
  System 7.0 in the software catalogs costs Apple any more than an ad 
  for System 7.5.  This rationalization also ignores how previously 
  in large organizations only one person needed to be able to get 
  the system software from a dealer, online, or bundled with a 
  new CPU before others could freely and legally copy it.  So, 
  despite Apple's protests to the contrary, it is now harder to 
  get a current copy of the system software thus creating a FAQ 
  where there was none before.

  The easiest way to get System 7.5 is to visit your local
  software retailer and buy it for about $99 (though I've seen
  it as low as $90 and as high as $129 so shop around).  You can 
  also order it from all the usual mail-order houses like Mac Zone.  
  It comes in two versions, one on high density floppy disks and one 
  on CD-ROM that also includes a couple of Peirce Printing Tools 
  extensions for QuickDraw GX.  Both of these versions include 
  an upgrade manual.


HOW CAN I USE SYSTEM 6 ON A MAC THAT REQUIRES SYSTEM 7?  (2.4)
--------------------------------------------------------------

  The PowerBook 100, Classic II, LCII, Performa 200, and Performa
  400 all work with System 6.0.8L, a special foreign version of System
  6.0.8 that was hacked together because these machines beat many of
  the internationalized versions of System 7 to market.  I do not know 
  where you can find System 6.0.8L.  If anyone does know please tell
  me, and I'll add it here.


WHERE CAN I GET NON-U.S. SYSTEM SOFTWARE AND SCRIPTS?  (2.5)
------------------------------------------------------------

  For a company that's relatively hip to the international marketplace 
  Apple certainly has a difficult time comprehending that its
  customers might need to work with more than one language.  A  
  recent call to the Apple Customer Assistance Center support line
  revealed that system software is available only in the country
  of origin.  The support rep was unable even to provide contact 
  information for distributors in countries outside the United 
  States.  What the support rep didn't know (but I do) is that most 
  international versions of System 7.0.1 are available for anonymous 
  ftp from 

  <URL:ftp://ftp.support.apple.com/pub/apple_sw_updates/Worldwide/Macintosh/system_sw/>

  Your best chance to get Korean system software or any 
  international version of System 7.1 is to have a friend in 
  the appropriate country mail you the software.
  
  If you want to work with multiple languages but don't 
  need an entire foreign system, you first need to upgrade to at
  least System 7.1, the first truly international operating system.  
  System 7.1 includes numerous hooks to support multiple languages.  
  After installing System 7.1 the first thing you'll want are keyboards,
  fonts, and script systems that let you write in your language of
  choice.  Many international keyboard layouts are included in

  <URL:ftp://ftp.macfaq.com/pub/>

  A number of Roman keyboards are also included with System 7.5.

  Apple's Japanese, Chinese, Korean, Cyrillic, Hebrew and Arabic
  (including Farsi) Language Kits are available from the usual
  sources including MacConnection (1-800-800-2222) for a little 
  less than $200 each. See 
  
  <URL:http://product.info.apple.com/productinfo/datasheets/as/korean.html>
  <URL:http://product.info.apple.com/productinfo/datasheets/as/japanese.html>
  <URL:http://product.info.apple.com/productinfo/datasheets/as/hebrew.html>
  <URL:http://product.info.apple.com/productinfo/datasheets/as/chinese.html>
  <URL:http://product.info.apple.com/productinfo/datasheets/as/arabic.html>
  <URL:http://product.info.apple.com/productinfo/datasheets/as/cyrillic.html>
  
  No other language kits are available as of June, 1996.  So once 
  again if you want to work in Icelandic, Turkish or something else, 
  you need to have a friend in the appropriate country send you 
  the software.
   
	Application software that supports your language of choice is also
	nice to have.  Currently the only fully WorldScript savvy word
	processors are Nisus Writer 4.15 and WorldWrite 3.0. (SimpleText
	is WorldScript savvy, but only supports text up to 32K in size.) 
	Nisus Writer supports Western European languages and Japanese. 
	With an extra cost ADB dongle it can also work in Arabic, Chinese,
	Korean, Farsi and most Eastern European languages.  WorldWrite
	3.0 supports all the Apple Language Kits including Japanese,
	Chinese, Cyrillic, Hebrew and Arabic. No dongle is needed. 
	$189 bundles are available with your choice of Apple's Cyrillic, 
	Hebrew or	Arabic language kit. 	
	
	<URL:http://www.worldsoft.com/>
	<URL:http://www.nisus-soft.com/>

  Several other products including ClarisWorks 4.0 and WordPerfect 3.5
  support WorldScript I languages (That is, right-to-left systems
  like English and Chinese) but not left-to-right, WorldScript II 
  languages like Hebrew and Arabic. 


WHAT IS SYSTEM 7 TUNEUP?  SYSTEM UPDATE 3.0? ETC. DO I NEED THEM?  (2.6)
------------------------------------------------------------------------

  If you use System 7.0, 7.0.1, or the System 7.0 printer drivers, 
  you need System 7 Tuneup 1.1.1.  The tuneup includes a number of
  fixes and enhancements to System 7, including substantially faster
  printer drivers, a StyleWriter driver that supports background
  printing, a fix that saves several hundred kilobytes of memory on
  non-networked Macs, and, most importantly, a vaccine for the
  disappearing folders bug.

  <URL:ftp://ftp.support.apple.com/pub/apple_sw_updates/US/Macintosh/System%20Software/Other%20System%20Software/>

  If you're using System 7.1, 7.1 Pro or 7.1.2, then you should 
  install System Update 3.0 instead, available from

  <URL:ftp://ftp.support.apple.com/pub/apple_sw_updates/US/Macintosh/System%20Software/Other%20System%20Software/>

  This replaces all the various System Software Updates and Hardware System 
  Updates.  None of these are necessary for System 7.5.

  If you're using System 7.5 you should install System 7.5 Update 2.0
  instead.  You can get it from

  <URL:ftp://ftp.support.apple.com/pub/apple_sw_updates/US/Macintosh/System/System_7.5_Update_2.0/>
     
  This will bring you to System 7.5.3. Next you should install the 
  System 7.5.3 Revision 2 update, available from
    
  <URL:ftp://ftp.support.apple.com/pub/apple_sw_updates/US/Macintosh/System/System_7.5.3_Revision_2/>


WHY DO MY DA'S DISAPPEAR WHEN I TURN ON MULTIFINDER?  (2.7)
-----------------------------------------------------------

  You need to put the file "DA Handler" in your System Folder.  It
  should be on one of your System 6.0.x disks.  Under Finder the Desk
  Accessories load into the memory provided by your application.  
  Under MultiFinder they load into their own memory space provided 
  by DA Handler.


DO I NEED SYSTEM 7.0.1?  (2.8)
------------------------------

  Officially if you don't have a Quadra or PowerBook, you don't
  need System 7.0.1.  Unofficially some changes were made that speed 
  up SANE (numerics) operations on 32-bit clean Macintoshes with a
  floating-point coprocessor.  These include all IIci's and IIfx's plus
  LC's and IIsi's that have had a coprocessor specially installed.
  (Neither of the latter machines ships with a coprocessor.)  See

  <URL:ftp://ftp.support.apple.com/pub/apple_sw_updates/US/mac/system_sw/System_7.0.1/>


CAN I GET SYSTEM 7.0.1, 7.1 or 7.5 ON 800K DISKS?  (2.9)
--------------------------------------------------------

  As of this writing Apple has not made any system software after
  7.0 available on 800K floppy disks, and it is unlikely that they
  will ever do so.  You can still install System 7.5 from a CD-ROM.

	If you can somehow get copies of the floppy disks onto your hard
	drive, either via a friend's machine with an external hard disk or
	through a network, you can install from that hard disk. On your
	friend's machine drag the icon for each floppy disk onto the hard
	drive you'll use to do the install.  The Finder will make copies
	of the contents of each disk and put them in folders labelled
	"Disk 1," "Disk 2," and so on.  Place all the disk folders in
	another folder, and label that folder "Net Install". Then open the
	Disk 1 folder, take out the installer application and script and
	place it at the top level of your Net Install folder.  If
	necessary you now need to shut down your friend's Mac and move
	their external hard drive to your Mac.  Once the hard drive has
	been connected to the Mac on which you want to install the new
	system software, launch the installer.
	  
  You can also use the free utility ShrinkWrap to mount the images of
  the 1400K System 7.0.1 disks on your hard drive and install from the
  image rather than a floppy.  Be warned, however, that installing
  system software from mounted images is a notoriously unreliable
  procedure. Be sure you make a complete backup of your hard disk and
  have a set of system disks on genuine floppies before attempting to
  install from mounted images.  See

  <URL:ftp://ftp.macfaq.com/pub/>


IS THERE A VERSION OF UNIX FOR THE MAC?  (2.10)
-----------------------------------------------

  Does anyone really understand Apple's Unix strategy?  If so will you 
  please explain it to me?  As I understand it, A/UX, Apple's well-
  respected Unix product of long standing, has been killed in favor
  of IBM's roundly despised AIX.  A/UX has been officially discontinued
  and is not supported on most current hardmare except for some WorkGroup
  Servers.  Nonetheless you can still buy it and run it on almost any Mac.
  AIX, the new "official" Apple Unix cannot be bought for and will not
  run on any Apple hardware.  Does this leave you confused?  If so you're not
  alone.  For more information about A/UX see Jim Jagielski's FAQ list at

  <URL:ftp://rtfm.mit.edu/pub/usenet/comp.unix.aux/>

  MachTen from Tenon is a commercial Unix-like overlay for the MacOS.
  Send email to info@tenon.com or see

  <URL:http://www.tenon.com/>

  for more details.  Because MachTen uses the MacOS filesystem, it has
  problems dealing with things like hard links.  It's close enough for
  many people, though.  In particular it's useful for DNS, NNTP,
  multihomed Web sites and other Internet server functions that cannot
  be handled reliably under the MacOS.

  There are development versions of both NetBSD and Linux for the Mac.
  Neither is suited for anything more than the developers at this time.
  If you're interested in working on the port, see

  <URL:http://www.mklinux.apple.com/>

  for more information.


HARD DISK AND FILE SYSTEM PROBLEMS  (3.0) 
=========================================

HELP! MY FOLDER DISAPPEARED!  (3.1)
-----------------------------------

  Try a Find on the missing filenames.  In the meantime 
  grab Disk First Aid 7.2 from ftp.support.apple.com which 
  should be able to fix this problem.  See 

  <URL:ftp://ftp.support.apple.com/pub/apple_sw_updates/US/Macintosh/Utilities/>


WHY CAN'T I THROW AWAY THIS FOLDER?  (3.2)
------------------------------------------

  Possibly the folder contains items that are locked or in use and
  can't be thrown away.  Turn off file-sharing (if it's on) and quit
  all applications.  Then try to throw the folder away.  If that
  doesn't work and you're using System 6, hold down the option-key and
  drag the folder into the trash; or, if you're using System 7, hold
  down the option key while selecting "Empty Trash" from the special
  menu.  Holding the option key down lets you throw away locked items. 
  If that doesn't work restart the computer, hold down the option key,
  and try again.  If you still can't throw away the folder, try
  throwing away the items in the folder (if any) one by one until you
  find the ones giving you trouble.  Remove them from the folder, and
  then throw the folder away.  If you still can't throw the folder
  away, you've discovered a "Folder from Hell."  Create an empty folder
  on *ANOTHER* disk with the same name as the Hell Folder.  Then copy the
  new folder onto the same disk in the same folder as the Hell Folder. 
  Click "Yes" when asked if you want to replace the Hell Folder.  Now
  you should be able to throw the just copied folder away.  If that
  doesn't work, get a copy of John Jeppson's HellFolderFix utility from

  <URL:ftp://ftp.macfaq.com/pub/>


WHY CAN'T I SHARE MY SYQUEST DRIVE?  CD-ROM?  BERNOULLI BOX?  ETC.? (3.3)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------

  Apple originally planned to treat removables like floppies
  rather than hard disks for file-sharing.  At the requests of beta
  testers file-sharing on removables was hacked into System 7.0 at 
  the last minute.  However, since file-sharing was originally to be
  implemented only on fixed drives, no means were created for the 
  host Mac to tell other Macs when a new volume went on or off-line. 
  Therefore sharing a removable volume requires that the disc or
  cartridge be inserted and mounted when filesharing is turned 
  on.  Turn filesharing off and on with the drive powered up and 
  the cartridge inserted and you should then be able to share 
  the removable.


WHY CAN'T I EJECT THIS SYQUEST CARTRIDGE?  CD-ROM?  FLOPTICAL? ETC.?  (3.4)
---------------------------------------------------------------------------

  When file-sharing is turned on it makes all disks larger 
  than two megabytes available for remote access by the owner even 
  if they aren't specifically shared.  This prevents the dismounting 
  of removable media.  Turn off file-sharing first.  Then drag the 
  volume icon to the trash.  Apple's recently released free utility
  UnmountIt will do this automagically, i.e. turn off file-sharing,
  eject the disk, and then turn file-sharing back on.  See

  <URL:ftp://ftp.macfaq.com/pub/>


WHY CAN'T I RENAME MY HARD DRIVE?  (3.5)
----------------------------------------

  Turn off file-sharing as described above.  If the disk you can't
  rename is not shared, you need to unlock the drive name.  This can
  be done by Kazu Yanagahira's freeware utility Unlock Folder or by
  Disk First Aid 7.2.  See

  <URL:ftp://ftp.support.apple.com/pub/apple_sw_updates/US/Macintosh/Utilities/>
  <URL:ftp://ftp.macfaq.com/pub/>


HOW DO I CHANGE MY HARD DISK ICON?  (3.6)
-----------------------------------------

  In System 7 you change the icon by cutting or copying an icon
  from somewhere, Getting Info on the hard drive, and pasting the 
  icon into the Get Info box.

  If the normal pasting of an icon onto your hard drive fails,
  you'll need to perform some simple software repairs. You will 
  need a utility capable of changing information bits on files 
  and volumes such as ResEdit, the $10 shareware FileTyper 4.0, 
  or the payware DiskTop.  See

  <URL:ftp://ftp.info.apple.com/Apple.Support.Area/Developer_Services/Tool_Chest/Developer_Utilities/ResEdit_2.1.3/>
  <URL:ftp://ftp.macfaq.com/pub/>

  First turn the "Has Custom Icon" bit on the hard drive OFF. This
  may be all you need to do so try pasting a new icon again. If this
  still doesn't work, you need to delete the old icon first. This
  icon is stored in a file called Icon\r on the root level of your
  hard disk. (This file may have a different name in some
  international systems.  For instance in the Danish system it's
  called Symbol\r.)  Since the Icon\r file is invisible you'll need
  to turn the Invisible bit of the file off to make the file visible.
  Then trash it.  Next create an empty folder, Get Info..., on the
  folder and paste the icon you want for your hard drive in the
  folder's Get Info box.  Make the Icon\r file inside that folder
  visible and move it to the root level of your hard drive.  (You can
  do this by dragging the file onto the icon of your hard disk.)  Now
  make the file invisible again.  Use your utility to turn the "Has
  Custom Icon" bit ON.  Finally restart the computer and rebuild 
  the desktop.

  In System 6 you must use the hard drive formatting software 
  to give the hard drive a new icon.  You'll be limited to the 
  icons included with the formatter.  You may be able to edit the 
  icons included with the formatter using a resource editing tool 
  like ResEdit.



FONTS  (4.0)
============

HOW DO I CONVERT BETWEEN WINDOWS AND MAC FONTS? TRUETYPE AND POSTSCRIPT?  (4.1)
-------------------------------------------------------------------------------

  Chris Reed's $10 shareware TTConverter 1.5 will convert back 
  and forth between Windows and Macintosh TrueType fonts.  See

  <URL:ftp://ftp.macfaq.com/pub/>

  The payware programs FontMonger ($95 street) and MetaMorphosis 
  ($89 street) convert between all types of TrueType and PostScript 
  fonts.  On the PC side the REFONT program available from 

  <URL:ftp://jasper.ora.com/pub/mac-font-tools/refont14.zip>

  will convert Macintosh Truetype fonts to PC TrueType fonts and 
  vice-versa.  It also converts Macintosh PostScript fonts to PC 
  PostScript fonts and vice-versa.  It will not, however, convert 
  between PostScript fonts and TrueType fonts.


WHICH FONT WILL MY SCREEN/PRINTER USE IF DIFFERENT TYPES ARE PRESENT?  (4.2)
----------------------------------------------------------------------------

  For screen display a Mac first looks for a bitmap font with the
  appropriate name in the appropriate size.  If it finds it, it uses 
  it. If you're running System 7 or have installed the TrueType init 
  in System 6, your Mac then looks for the the appropriate TrueType 
  font.  If it can't find the TrueType font and ATM is installed, 
  it then looks for the appropriate PostScript outline font.  As a 
  penultimate resort your Mac will scale a bitmap font to the needed 
  size.  Finally, if all else fails and the Mac simply cannot find 
  any member of the requested family, then the display will use the 
  default font, Geneva on U.S. systems, possibly something else on 
  international systems.

  On a QuickDraw printer (ImageWriter, DeskWriter, StyleWriter, 
  etc.) the Mac normally looks for fonts in the same order it does 
  for the screen.  However on some printers in some modes it may 
  look for a larger size of the requested font so it can scale 
  the font down to match the higher resolution of the printer.

  A PostScript printer looks for fonts in a different order.  First
  it looks for a PostScript outline font on the printer's hard drive
  (if any).  Then it looks for the font in the printer's ROM.  Then it
  looks for the PostScript font on the computer's hard disk.  If the
  printer can't find an appropriate PostScript outline font, then it
  will use a TrueType font.  If it can't find the TrueType font, 
  it looks for a bitmap of the font.  Finally if it can't find 
  any version of the font anywhere, it substitutes Courier with 
  predictably horrible results. 


WHERE SHOULD I PUT MY FONTS?  (4.3)
-----------------------------------

  If you're using System 7.1 or later the answer is simple: 
  Put all fonts (Truetype, PostScript outline, QuickDraw GX and bitmap) 
  in the Fonts folder inside the System Folder.  You can put them other 
  places (the Extensions folder, the System Folder itself, the system file) 
  but there's no good reason to do so.  In particular storing fonts in the 
  system file unnecessarily is a common cause of system file corruption 
  and all sorts of hard to diagnose problems.  When you upgrade to 
  System 7.1 or later, be sure to remove all fonts from the system file.

  If you're using a system older than 7.1, TrueType fonts and 
  bitmaps belong in your System file.  In System 7.0 and 7.0.1 
  PostScript outline fonts go in the Extensions folder.  In System 6
  PostScript outline fonts belong in the System Folder.

  Many older versions of font and printer utilities like ATM 
  and SendPS cannot find fonts placed in System 7.1's Fonts folder.
  Most of these utilities will work if you put your printer fonts 
  in the Extensions folder or System folder instead.  However in 
  all cases I'm aware of upgrades to these utilities that work
  with the Fonts folder are either cheap (under $10) or free.  



MISCELLANEOUS  (5.0)
====================

WHAT DOES SYSTEM ERROR XXX MEAN?  (5.1)
---------------------------------------

  Typically it means nothing at all of any use to the end user. 
  Your time is much more productively spent trying to figure out what
  actions in which application caused the crash so that you can avoid
  them in the future rather than deciphering system error numbers. 
  After all, knowing that Error 16 means a math coprocessor is not
  installed doesn't help you much in fixing the problem.  Knowing that
  this happens in QuarkXPress 3.0 every time you try to link two text
  boxes on a master page when copies of those text boxes already
  contain text does.  (And in this case the error message isn't even
  accurate.) If you really want to know what that number means, get
 
  <URL:ftp://ftp.macfaq.com/pub/>


WHAT IS A TYPE Y ERROR?  (5.2)
------------------------------

  A Type error is your Macintosh's way of telling you that it's
  sick and plans to take a nice vacation in Belview for a few days. 
  Among developers Type errors are officially known as DS errors where
  DS stands for "Deep Spaghetti" (though a somewhat more colorful
  expression is often used in place of "Spaghetti").  Your
  applications are toast.  Any unsaved data is lost.  Once you've
  been hit with a Type error there's absolutely nothing you can do
  about it.  You'll probably need to restart your Macintosh either 
  by hitting the programmer's key or by turning the Mac off and on 
  if the programmer's key isn't installed.
 
  The most common type errors are Type 1 and Type 3.  Type 1 is
  a bus error.  It's most commonly symptomatic of software that isn't
  32-bit clean.  A Type 3 error is an illegal instruction.  It's most
  often symptomatic of poorly written software.  You may occasionally 
  be able to avoid Type 1 errors by turning 32-bit addressing on or off 
  or by turning the cache on or off if you have a 68040 Mac.  Otherwise
  there is almost nothing you can do about these errors except try to 
  find out what actions, applications, and/or extensions cause them 
  so you can report them to the programmer and avoid them in the 
  future.  There is no point posting about Type errors to the net.


WHAT IS A/ROSE?  (5.3)
----------------------

  A/ROSE by any other name would still generate as much pointless
  net traffic.  Apple's Realtime Operating System Environment is not
  needed by 99.9% of the people who stumble across it.  It's only
  needed if you have an MCP NuBus card of which there were about
  six at last count.  The only even moderately common one is Apple's
  short Ethernet NuBus card.  If you don't have such a card, feel 
  free to trash A/ROSE.


EASY ACCESS: ONE ANSWER, MANY QUESTIONS  (5.4)
----------------------------------------------

  Easy Access is a *WONDERFUL* system extension from Apple, useful
  for far more than its intended purpose.  Unfortunately it's also the
  source of a lot of confusion and strange behavior on many Macs.  It's
  even been suggested that anti-virals should detect and report the
  presence of Easy Access since it produces more false virus reports
  than any other software in Macintosh history.  If you're using 
  System 7, your Mac will emit an ascending whistle for about two 
  seconds when Easy Access is turned on and a descending whistle 
  when Easy Access is turned off.  You may also hear a beep after 
  some keypresses.

  Easy Access has two pieces, Sticky Keys, which is turned on by
  hitting the Shift key five times in a row without moving the mouse,
  and Mouse Keys which is turned on by hitting Command-Shift-Clear. 
  Sticky Keys lets you type things like Command-Shift-Clear without
  doing the Rose Mary Wood shuffle.  Just hit the modifer keys you 
  want to use and then hit the regular key.  For example if Sticky Keys 
  is turned on, you could also turn on Mouse Keys by typing Command, 
  then Shift, then Clear rather than by hitting them all at once.  
  When Sticky Keys is turned on an icon appears in the menu bar 
  to the right of the application icon/menu.  Mouse Keys lets the 
  numeric keypad substitute for the mouse.  This is especially useful 
  for making precision, single-pixel adjustments in draw and paint 
  programs and for safely shutting down or restarting your computer 
  when the mouse is frozen. 


HOW CAN I KEEP MULTIPLE SYSTEM FOLDERS ON ONE HARD DISK?  (5.5)
---------------------------------------------------------------

  By far the best way is to divide your disk into multiple
  partitions, one partition for each system folder.  Then use your
  formatting software to select the partition to boot from.  This
  will, however, trash everything on your hard disk so back up first.
  Soft partitions like those created by Norton Utilities and other
  utility packages are not nearly as reliable or safe for your data
  as hard partitions created by a disk formatter like Drive7.

  If you don't want to repartition your hard drive, you can keep
  compressed archives of system folders you might want to use on your
  hard disk.  To switch system folders you'll need to boot off a
  floppy or a second hard disk, compress the old system folder, and
  uncompress the new one.  Just be sure that when you boot your Mac
  there's not more than one uncompressed System Folder on any one
  drive.
  
  Finally if you absolutely must keep multiple, bootable system
  folders on the same hard disk, Keisuke Hara's freeware System
  Switcher 1.1 or Kevin Aitken's System Picker 1.0.1 will adjust 
  the boot blocks of the hard disk so you can pick which one your 
  Mac will boot off from. See

  <URL:ftp://ftp.macfaq.com/pub/>
  <URL:ftp://ftp.macfaq.com/pub/>

  If you put a copy in the Startup Items folder of your System 7 
  system folder, and specify it as a startup item in System 6, 
  then whenever you start up you'll be offered a choice of systems.


HOW DO I ACCESS THE PROGRAMMER'S KEY?  (5.6)
--------------------------------------------

  On Macs that don't have a physical programmer's switch you 
  can restart the computer with Command-Control-Power and drop 
  into the debugger with Command-Power.  Also note that in System 7
  Command-Option-Escape will force most applications (including 
  the Finder) to quit so you no longer need to activate the debugger 
  just to kill a frozen application.


-- 
   Elliotte Rusty Harold
   elharo@shock.njit.edu
..

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM