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Islam FAQ (Part 7/15): Women In Islam

( Part1 - Part2 - Part3 - Part4 - Part5 - Part6 - Part7 - Part8 - Part9 - Part10 - Part11 - Part12 - Part13 - Part14 - Part15 )
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Archive-name: islam-faq/part7
Posting-Frequency: monthly
Last-modified: 1995/3/27
Version: 3.3
Organization: Alumni Association, Caltech, Pasadena, California

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
        Copyright 1993,1994,1995  Asim Mughal (mughal@caltech.edu) 

        Redistribution  for  profit,    or   in  altered  content/format
        prohibited without explicit  written  permission  of the author.
        Any other redistribution must  include this copyright notice and
        attribution. 



                       Frequently Asked Questions: Part 7
                       __________________________________
        

        This message  is  automatically  posted  to 'soc.religion.islam'
        every  month  and  when  updated.  This  lists  answers  to most
        commonly asked questions on  the  forum. Contributions & changes
        are requested and should be directed to: mughal@caltech.edu 



        OVERVIEW:  The   Frequently   Asked   Questions   document   for
        Islam  has  been  divided  in  parts.  Below is the index. 


        Part 1 - Welcome & Index
        Part 2 - Info on Islamic News Groups
        Part 3 - Introduction to Islam
        Part 4 - God & Worship
        Part 5 - Islam, Quran & Muhammad (PBUH)
        Part 6 - Marriage Laws in Islam
        Part 7 - Women In Islam
        Part 8 - Life after Death, Moral System & Human rights in Islam
        Part 9 - Islam: Prophethood, Jesus & Trinity
        Part 10 - Islam: Farrakhism & Malcom X
        Part 11 - Islamic Internet Guide: Islamic Resources on Internet
        Part 12 - Other Islamic Resource Guides on Internet
        Part 13 - Islamic Literature: Books & Video
        Part 14 - Islamic Calendar & Prayer Time Table for 1994
        Part 15 - Misc: List of Halal Foods


            ________________________________________________________

                             PART 7: Women In Islam
        

				    Contents				    

				 --Articles--
 1. Hijab (Veil) and Muslim Women ...................... from Ms.Naheed Mustafa 
 2. Women In Islam .................................................. from IINN 
 3. Women's Liberation through Islam ............................... from III&E 
 4. Human Rights - Equality ........................................ from III&E 
 5. Civil Rights - Freedom of Choice & ............................. from III&E 
 6. Social Rights .................................................. from III&E 
 7. Political Rights ............................................... from III&E 
 8. Economic Rightrs ............................................... from III&E 
 9. Rights of a Wife ............................................... from III&E 
10. Duties of a Wife ............................................... from III&E 
11. Conclusion - Rights of Women ................................... from III&E 
12. Who Practices Polygamy? ........................................ from III&E 
				--Announcements--
13. Archive Info .............................................................. 
14. Credits ................................................................... 



 Articles .....................................................................


 1. Hijab (Veil) and Muslim Women ...................... from Ms.Naheed Mustafa 


    "My body is my own business" by Naheed in The Globe 

    >Dated: 25 Sep 1993 16:35:02 -0500 


    MULTICULTURAL VOICES: A Canadian-born  Muslim woman has taken to wearing
    the traditional hijab scarf. It tends to make people see her as either a
    terrorist or a  symbol  of  oppressed   womanhood,  but  she  finds  the
    experience LIBERATING. 


    I OFTEN wonder whether people see me as a radical, fundamentalist Muslim
    terrorist packing an AK-47 assault  rifle  inside my jean jacket. Or may
    be they see me as the poster girl  for  oppressed  womanhood everywhere.
    I'm not sure which it is. 

    I get the whole gamut of strange looks,  stares, and covert glances. You
    see, I wear the hijab, a scarf that  covers my head, neck, and throat. I
    do this because I am a  Muslim  woman  who  believes her body is her own
    private concern. 

    Young Muslim women are reclaiming the  hijab, reinterpreting it in light
    of its original purpose -- to  give  back  to  women ultimate control of
    their own bodies. 

    The Qur'an teaches us that men  and  women  are  equal, that individuals
    should not be judged according to gender,  beauty, wealth, or privilege.
    The only thing that makes one  person  better than another is her or his
    character. 

    Nonetheless, people have a difficult time relating to me. After all, I'm
    young, Canadian born and raised,  university-educated  -- why would I do
    this to myself, they ask. 

    Strangers speak to me  in  loud,  slow  English  and  often appear to be
    playing charades. They politely inquire  how I like living in Canada and
    whether or not the cold bothers me.  If I'm in the right mood, it can be
    very amusing. 

    But, why would I, a woman with all  the  advantages  of a North American
    upbringing, suddenly, at 21, want to cover myself so that with the hijab
    and the other clothes I choose to wear, only my face and hands show? 


    Because it gives me freedom. 

    -o-o-o- 

    WOMEN are taught from early  childhood  that their worth is proportional
    to their attractiveness. We feel compelled to pursue abstract notions of
    beauty, half realizing that such a pursuit is futile. 

    When women reject this  form  of  oppression,  they  face  ridicule  and
    contempt. Whether it's women who refuse to wear makeup or to shave their
    legs, or to expose  their  bodies,  society,  both  men  and women, have
    trouble dealing with them. 

    In the Western world, the  hijab  has  come  to  symbolize either forced
    silence or radical, unconscionable militancy. Actually, it's neither. It
    is simply a woman's assertion that judgment of her physical person is to
    play no role whatsoever in social interaction. 

    Wearing the hijab has given  me  freedom  from  constant attention to my
    physical  self.  Because  my  appearance  is  not  subjected  to  public
    scrutiny, my beauty, or perhaps  lack  of  it, has been removed from the
    realm of what can legitimately be discussed. 

    No one knows whether my hair looks as  if I just stepped out of a salon,
    whether or not I can pinch an inch,  or even if I have unsightly stretch
    marks. And because no one knows, no one cares. 

    Feeling that one has to meet the impossible  male standards of beauty is
    tiring and often humiliating. I should  know, I spent my entire teen-age
    years trying to do it. It was a  borderline  bulimic  and spent a lot of
    money I didn't have on potions and lotions in hopes of becoming the next
    Cindy Crawford. 

    The definition of beauty is  ever-changing;  waifish is good, waifish is
    bad, athletic is good --  sorry,  athletic  is  bad. Narrow hips? Great.
    Narrow hips? Too bad. 

    Women are not going to  achieve  equality  with  the right to bear their
    breasts in public, as some people  would  like to have you believe. That
    would only make us party to our own  objectification. True equality will
    be had only when women don't need to display themselves to get attention
    and won't need  to  defend  their  decision  to  keep  their  bodies  to
    themselves. 

    Naheed Mustafa graduated from the  University  of Toronto last year with
    an honours degree in political and  history.  She  is currently studying
    journalism at Ryerson Polytechnic University 

    NOTE: 

    This article appeared  in  IINN  (Islamic  Information  &  News Network)
    publications.  The  Permission  of    Reprinting   granted  by  "Islamic
    Information & News Network" (Muslims @ Asuacad.Bitnet). 




 2. Women In Islam .................................................. from IINN 

    

    Source: Islamic Center of Southern California 

    Typed in by: Ms.Iraj Ali 

    SEPARATING FACTS FROM FICTION 


    o Islam gave woman the right  to  reject  a  marriage proposal free from
    pressure and by mutual  agreement  to  specify  in the marriage contract
    that she has the right to  divorce.  If  she  deems the marriage to have
    failed beyond repair. 

    o Islam does not require woman to change her name at marriage. 

    o Islam protects  the  family  and  condemns  the  betrayal  of  marital
    fidelity. It recognize only one type  of family, husband and wife united
    by authentic marriage contract. 

    o "Heaven is at the feet of mothers" is a basic Islamic teachings. 


    This article appeared  in  IINN  (Islamic  Information  &  News Network)
    publications.  The  Permission  of    Reprinting   granted  by  "Islamic
    Information & News Network" (Muslims @ Asuacad.Bitnet). 




 3. Women's Liberation through Islam ............................... from III&E 


    Today people think that women  are  liberated  in  the West and that the
    women's liberation movement  began  in  the  20th century. Actually, the
    women's liberation movement was  not  begun by women but was revealed by
    God to a man in the seventh  century  by  the name of Muhammad (peace be
    upon him), who is known as the last Prophet of Islam. The Qur'an and the
    Traditions of the Prophet (Hadith or  Sunnah) are the sources from which
    every Muslim woman derives her rights and duties. 




 4. Human Rights - Equality ........................................ from III&E 


    Islam, fourteen centuries ago, made  women equally accountable to God in
    glorifying and  worshipping  Him  -  setting  no  limits  on  her  moral
    progress. Also, Islam  established  a  woman's  equality in her humanity
    with men. 

    In the Qur'an, in the first verse  of  the chapter entitled "Women," God
    says, "O mankind! Be careful of  your  duty to your Lord Who created you
    from a single soul and from it its  mate  and from them both have spread
    abroad a multitude of men  and  women.  Be  careful  of your duty toward
    Allah in Whom you claim (your  rights)  of  one another, and towards the
    wombs (that bore you). Lo! Allah has been a Watcher over you." (4:1) 

    Since men and women both came from  the  same essence, they are equal in
    their humanity. Women cannot  be  by  nature  evil  (as  some  religious
    believe) or then men would be evil  also.  Similarly, neither gender can
    be superior because it would be a contradiction of equality. 




 5. Civil Rights - Freedom of Choice & ............................. from III&E 


    In Islam, a woman has the basic  freedom  of choice and expression based
    on recognition of her  individual  personality.  First,  she  is free to
    choose her religion.  The  Qur'an  states:  "There  is  no compulsion in
    religion. Right has been made distinct from error." (2:256) 

    Women are encouraged in Islam to  contribute  their  opinions and ideas.
    There are many traditions of  the  Prophet  (pbuh)  which indicate women
    would pose questions directly to him and offer their opinions concerning
    religion, economics and social matters. 

    A Muslim woman chooses her husband and  keeps her name after marriage. A
    Muslim woman's testimony is valid  in  legal disputes. In fact, in areas
    in which women are more familiar, their evidence is conclusive. 




 6. Social Rights .................................................. from III&E 


    The Prophet (pbuh)  said:  "Seeking  knowledge  is  a  mandate for every
    Muslim (male and female)." This includes knowledge of the Qur'an and the
    Hadith as well as other knowledge. Men  and women both have the capacity
    for learning and  understanding.  Since  it  is also their obligation to
    promote good behavior and condemn  bad  behavior in all spheres of life,
    Muslim women must acquire the appropriate education to perform this duty
    in accordance with their own natural talents and interests. 

    While maintenance of  a  home,  providing  support  to  her husband, and
    bearing, raising and teaching of  children  are among the first and very
    highly regarded roles for a woman, if she has the skills to work outside
    the home for the good of  the  community,  she  may do so as long as her
    family obligations are met. 

    Islam recognizes and fosters  the  natural  differences  between men and
    women despite their equality. Some  types  of work are more suitable for
    men and other types for women. This in no way diminishes either's effort
    nor its benefit. God will  reward  both  sexes  equally for the value of
    their work, though it may not necessarily be the same activity. 

    Concerning motherhood, the Prophet  (pbuh)  said: "Heaven lies under the
    feet of mothers." This  implies  that  the  success  of a society can be
    traced to the mothers that raised  it.  The first and greatest influence
    on a person comes from the sense  of  security,  affection, and training
    received from the  mother.  Therefore,  a  woman having children must be
    educated and conscientious in order to be a skillful parent. 




 7. Political Rights ............................................... from III&E 


    A right given to Muslim women  by  God  1400  years  ago is the right to
    vote. On  any  public  matter,  a   woman  may  voice  her  opinion  and
    participate in politics. One example, narrated in the Qur'an (60:12), is
    that Muhammad (pbuh) is told that  when  the believing women come to him
    and swear their allegiance  to  Islam,  he  must accept their oath. This
    established the right of  women  to  select  their  leader  and publicly
    declare so.  Finally,  Islam  does  not  forbid  a  woman  from  holding
    important positions in government.  Abdur-Rahman  Ibn Auf consulted many
    women before he recommended Uthman Ibn Affan to be the Caliph. 




 8. Economic Rights ................................................ from III&E 


    The Qur'an states: "By the creation of the male and female; Verily, (the
    ends) ye strive for are diverse." (92:3-4) 

    In these verses, God  declares  that  He  created  men  and  women to be
    different, with unique roles, functions and skills. As in society, where
    there is a division of  labor,  so  too  in  a  family;  each member has
    different  responsibilities.  Generally,  Islam  upholds  that women are
    entrusted with the nurturing  role,  and  men,  with  the guardian role.
    Therefore, women are given the right of financial support. 

    The Qur'an states: "Men are the  maintainers  of women because Allah has
    made some of them to excel others and because they spend of their wealth
    (for the support of women)." (4:34) 

    This guardianship and greater financial  responsibility is given to men,
    requires that they provide women with not only monetary support but also
    physical protection and kind and respectful treatment. 

    The Muslim woman has  the  privilege  to  earn  money,  the right to own
    property, to enter into legal contracts  and to manage all of her assets
    in any way she pleases. She can run  her own business and no one has any
    claim on her earnings including her husband. The Qur'an states: 

    "And in no wise covet those  things  in  which  Allah  hath bestowed His
    gifts more freely on some of you than on others; to men is allotted what
    they earn, and to women, what they  earn;  but  ask Allah of His bounty,
    for Allah hath full knowledge of all things." (4:32) 

    A woman inherits from her  relatives.  The Qur'an states: "For men there
    is a share in what parents and relatives leave, and for women there is a
    share of what parents and relatives  leave, whether it be little or much
    - an ordained share." (4:7) 




 9. Rights of a Wife ............................................... from III&E 


    The Qur'an states: "And among His signs is that He created for you mates
    from among yourselves that you may  live  in tranquillity with them, and
    He has put love and mercy  between  you;  Verily,  in that are signs for
    people who reflect." (30:21) 

    Marriage is therefore not just a physical or emotional necessity, but in
    fact, a sign from God!  It  is  a  relationship  of  mutual  rights  and
    obligations based on  divine  guidance.  God  created men and women with
    complimentary natures, and in the  Qur'an,  He laid out a system of laws
    to support harmonious interaction between the sexes. 

    "...They are your garments and you are their garments." (2:187) 

    Clothing provides physical  protection  and covers the beauty and faults
    of the body. Likewise, a spouse is  viewed  this  way. Each protects the
    other and hides the faults and  compliments  the  characteristics of the
    spouse. 

    To foster the love and security  that  comes with marriage, Muslim wives
    have various rights. The first of the  wife's rights is to receive mahr,
    a gift from the husband  which  is  part  of  the  marriage contract and
    required for the legality of the marriage. 

    The second right of a wife is  maintenance.  Despite  any wealth she may
    have, her husband is obligated  to  provide  her  with food, shelter and
    clothing. He is not forced, however,  to spend beyond his capability and
    his wife is not entitled  to  make   unreasonable  demands.  The  Qur'an
    states: "Let the man of means spend  according to his means, and the man
    whose resources are restricted,  let  him  spend according to what Allah
    has given him. Allah puts  no  burden  on  any person beyond what He has
    given him." (65:7) 

    God tells  us  men  are  guardians  over  women  and  are  afforded  the
    leadership in the family. His responsibility  for obeying God extends to
    guiding his family to obey God at all times. 

    A wife's rights also extend beyond material  needs. She has the right to
    kind treatment. The Prophet (pbuh) said: "The most perfect believers are
    the best in conduct. And the best of you are those who are best to their
    wives." God  tells  us  He  created  mates  and  put  love,  mercy,  and
    tranquillity between them. 

    Both men and women have a need for  companionship  and sexual needs, and
    marriage is designed to fulfill those needs. For one spouse to deny this
    satisfaction to the other, temptation exists to seek it elsewhere. 




10. Duties of a Wife ............................................... from III&E 


    With  rights  come  responsibilities.   Therefore,  wives  have  certain
    obligations to their husbands. The Qur'an states: "The good women in the
    absence of their husbands guard their  rights as Allah has enjoined upon
    them to be guarded." (4:34) 

    A wife is to keep  her  husband's  secrets  and  protect  their  marital
    privacy. Issues of intimacy or  faults  of  his that would dishonor him,
    are not to be shared by the wife,  just  as  he is expected to guard her
    honor. 

    A wife must also guard her  husband's  property.  She must safeguard his
    home and possessions, to the best of  her ability, from theft or damage.
    She should manage the household affairs  wisely so as to prevent loss or
    waste. She should not allow anyone  to  enter the house whom her husband
    dislikes nor incur any expenses of which her husband disapproves. 

    A Muslim woman must cooperate  and  coordinate  with  her husband. There
    cannot, however, be cooperation  with  a  man who is disobedient to God.
    She should not fulfill  his  requests  if  he  wants her to do something
    unlawful. A husband also should  not  take advantage of his wife, but be
    considerate of her needs and happiness. 




11. Conclusion - Rights of Women ................................... from III&E 


    The Qur'an states: "And it becomes  not  a  believing man or a believing
    women, when Allah and His Messenger (Muhammad) have decided on an affair
    (for them), that they should (after that) claim any say in their affair;
    and whoso is rebellious  to  Allah  and  His  Messenger,  he verily goes
    astray in error manifest." (33:36) 

    The Muslim woman was given a role, duties and rights 1400 years ago that
    most women do not enjoy today, even  in the West. These are from God and
    are designed to keep balance in society; what may seem unjust or missing
    in one place is compensated for or explained  in another place. Islam is
    a complete way of life. 

    -- Mary Ali and Anjum Ali 




12. Who Practices Polygamy? ........................................ from III&E 


    Polygamy has been practiced by  mankind  for thousands of years. Many of
    the ancient Israelites were  polygamous,  some having hundreds of wives.
    King Solomon (peace be upon him) is said to have had seven hundred wives
    and three hundred concubines.  David  (Dawood) had ninety-nine and Jacob
    (Yacub, peace be upon them both)  had  four. Advice given by some Jewish
    wise men state that no man should  marry  more than four wives. No early
    society  put  any  restrictions  on  the  number  of  wives  or  put any
    conditions about how they were  to  be  treated.  Jesus was not known to
    have spoken against polygamy. As  recently  as  the seventeenth century,
    polygamy was practiced and accepted by the Christian Church. The Mormons
    (Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day  Saints) has allowed and practiced
    polygamy in the United States. 

    Monogamy was introduced into Christianity  at the time of Paul when many
    revisions took place  in  Christianity.  This  was done in order for the
    church to conform to the  Greco-Roman  culture where men were monogamous
    but owned many slaves who  were  free  for  them to use: in other words,
    unrestricted polygamy. 

    Early Christians invented ideas  that  women  were "full of sin" and man
    was better off to "never marry." Since  this would be the end of mankind
    these same people compromised and said "marry only one." 

    In the American society many  times  when  relations  are  strained, the
    husband simply deserts his wife.  The  he  cohabits with a prostitute or
    other immoral woman without marriage.  Actually there are three kinds of
    polygamy practiced in Western  societies:  (1) serial polygamy, that is,
    marriage, divorce, marriage, divorce, and so on any number of times; (2)
    a man married to  one  woman  but  having  and  supporting  one  or more
    mistresses; (3) an unmarried man  having  a  number of mistresses. Islam
    condones but discourages the first and forbids the other two. 

    Wars cause the number of women to greatly exceed the number of men. In a
    monogamous society these women, left without husbands or support, resort
    to prostitution,  illicit  relationships  with  married men resulting in
    illegitimate children with no responsibility  on the part of the father,
    or lonely spinsterhood or widowhood. 

    Some Western men take the position that  monogamy protects the rights of
    women. But are these men really concerned about the rights of women? The
    society has so many practices which  exploit and suppress women, leading
    to women's  liberation  movements  from  the  suffragettes  of the early
    twentieth century to the feminists of today. 

    The truth of the matter is that monogamy  protects men, allowing them to
    "play around" without responsibility.  Easy birth control and easy legal
    abortion has opened the door of  illicit  sex  to woman and she has been
    lured into the so-called sexual revolution. But she is still the one who
    suffers the trauma of abortion and the side effects of the birth control
    methods. Taking aside the plagues of  venereal disease, herpes and AIDS,
    the male continues to  enjoy  himself  free  of  worry. Men are the ones
    protected by monogamy  while  women  continue  to  be  victims  of men's
    desires. Polygamy is very  much  opposed  by  the male dominated society
    because it would force men to face up to responsibility and fidelity. It
    would  force  them  to  take   responsibility   for   their   polygamous
    inclinations and would protect and provide for women and children. 

    Among all the polygamous  societies  in  history  there  were none which
    limited the number of wives. All of the relationships were unrestricted.
    In Islam, the regulations concerning  polygamy limit the number of wives
    a man can have  while  making  him  responsible  for  all  of  the women
    involved. 

    "Marry women of your choice, two or  three or four; but if you fear that
    you shall not be able to  deal  justly  with  them, then only one or one
    that your right hands possess.  That  will  be more suitable, to prevent
    you from doing injustice." (Qur'an 4:3) 

    This verse from the Qur'an allows a man to marry more than one woman but
    only if he can deal justly with  them.  Another verse says that a person
    is unable to deal  justly  between  wives,  thus  giving  permission but
    discouraging. 

    "You will never be able to deal  justly  between  wives however much you
    desire (to do so). But (if  you  have  more  than  one wife) do not turn
    altogether away (from one), leaving her in suspense..." (Qur'an 4:129) 

    While the provision for polygamy makes the social system flexible enough
    to deal with all kinds of conditions,  it is not necessarily recommended
    or preferred by Islam. Taking the example of the Prophet Muhammad (peace
    be upon him) is instructive. He was  married to one woman, Khadijah, for
    twenty-five years. It was only  after  her death when he had reached the
    age of  fifty  that  he  entered  into   other   marriages   to  promote
    friendships, create alliances or to  be an example of some lesson to the
    community; also to show  the  Muslims  how  to treat their spouses under
    different conditions of life. 

    The Prophet (peace be upon him)  was  given inspiration from Allah about
    how to deal with  multiple  marriages  and  the difficulties encountered
    therein. It is not an easy  matter  for  a  man to handle two wives, two
    families, and two households and  still  be just between the two. No man
    of reasonable intelligence  would  enter  into  this situation without a
    great deal of thought and very compelling reasons (other than sexual). 

    Some people have said  that  the  first  wife  must  agree to the second
    marriage. Others have said that the  couple can put it into the marriage
    contract that the man  will  not  marry  a  second  wife.  First of all,
    neither the  Qur'an  nor  Hadith  state  that  the  first  wife  need be
    consulted at  all  concerning  a  second  marriage  let  alone  gain her
    approval. Consideration and  compassion  on  the part of the man for his
    first wife should prompt him to  discuss  the  matter with her but he is
    not required to do so or to gain her  approval. Secondly, the Qur'an has
    explicitly given permission for a  man  to marry "two or three or four."
    No one has the authority to make a  contract  forbidding  something that
    has been granted by Allah. 

    The bottom line in  the  marriage  relationship  is  good  morality  and
    happiness, creating a just and  cohesive  society where the needs of men
    and women are well taken care  of.  The  present  Western society, which
    permits  free  sex  between  consenting  adults,  has  given  rise to an
    abundance  of  irresponsible  sexual   relationships,  an  abundance  of
    "fatherless" children, many  unmarried  teenage  mothers; all becoming a
    burden on the country's  welfare  system.  In  part, such an undesirable
    welfare burden has given rise to  bloated  budget deficits which even an
    economically powerful country like the United States cannot accommodate.
    Bloated budget  deficits  have  become  a  political  football  which is
    affecting the political system of the United States. 

    In short, we find that artificially created monogamy has become a factor
    in ruining the family structure, and  the social, economic and political
    systems of the country. 

    It must be a prophet, and indeed it  was Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon
    him) who directed Muslims to get  married  or observe patience until one
    gets married. 'Abdullah b. Mas'ud reported  Allah's messenger as saying,
    "Young man, those of you who  can  support  a  wife should marry, for it
    keeps you  from  looking  at  strange   women  and  preserves  you  from
    immorality; but those who cannot  should  devote  themselves to fasting,
    for it is a means of suppressing sexual desire." (Bukhari and Muslim) 

    Islam wants people to be married and to develop a good family structure.
    Also Islam realizes the  requirements  of the society and the individual
    in special circumstances where polygamy can be the solution to problems.
    Therefore, Islam has allowed  polygamy,  limiting the number of wives to
    four, but does not require or even recommend polygamy. 

    In the Muslim  societies  of  our  times,  polygamy  is  not  frequently
    practiced despite legal permission  in  many  countries. It appears that
    the American male  is  very  polygamous,  getting  away  with not taking
    responsibility for the families he should be responsible for. 

    --Mary Ali 

    (NOTE: In this article polygamy  has  been used to mean polygyny meaning
    having two or more wives. Islam forbids  polyandry meaning having two or
    more husbands.) 




 Announcements ................................................................


13. Archive Info .............................................................. 


    This FAQ is archived  at  several  sites  and  is  available  for public
    retrieval thru anonymous FTP, E-MAIL, Gopher & World Wide Web. 


                              -- Anonymous FTP --
    


	Login: anonymous
	Password: Your e-mail address



	Site: rtfm.mit.edu 
	Dir: /pub/usenet/news.answers/islam-faq/

	Site: ftp.uu.net
	Dir: /pub/usenet/news.answers/islam-faq/
	
	Site: ftp.cco.caltech.edu
	Dir: /pub/calmsa/islam-faq/



                                  -- E-MAIL --
    

    Send E-mail to: mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu 

    Text of E-mail Message: 


    send usenet/news.answers/islam-faq/part7
    quit



                                  -- GOPHER --


        Site:         gopher.caltech.edu 70
        Path:                 Computing Information/
                              CCO anonymous ftp archive/
                              pub/
                              calmsa/
			      islam-faq/


        Site:          latif.com 70
        Path:                 Resources relating to Islam/
                                Soc.Religion.Islam




                           -- World-Wide-Web (WWW) --
    

    One recommended interface is 'mosaic,' below are mosaic 'home pages.' 



URL at USENET Archive site:
http://www.cis.ohio-state.edu/hypertext/faq/usenet/islam-faq/faq.html


URL at Caltech MSA site:
http://www.cco.caltech.edu/~calmsa/links.html






14. Credits ................................................................... 


    The author wishes to thank all those who contributed in any capacity for
    the original one part FAQ or this multi-part FAQ. 


                                 -- SOURCES --
    

    The basic  introduction  and  literature  presented  in  the FAQ is from
    brochures on Islam distributed  by  Institute  of  Islamic Information &
    Education (III&E). These  brochures  were  typed  in  electronic form by
    Ms.M.Ahmed. 

    The  information  on   soc.religion.islam  forum  (in  Part  2) has been
    compiled  from   USENET   archives   and  administrative  logs  of
    Soc.Religion.Islam moderator panel. 

    What is III&E? 

    III&E is an acronym for the Institute of Islamic Information & Education
    which was  established  in  Chicago,  Illinois  in  1985.  The  III&E is
    registered in the  State  of  Illinois  and  recognized  by the Internal
    Revenue Service (IRS) as a not-for-profit religious organization. 

    More information can be obtained by  contacting Dr. M. Amir, III&E, P.O.
    Box 41129, Chicago, IL  60641-0129,  U.S.A.;  Tel:  (312)  777-7443 Fax:
    (312) 777-7199.



                                  -- FORMAT --
    

    The format of the FAQ series  has  been  done  by utilizing resources of
    Islamic Information & News  Network  (IINN).  A  custom program, Nebula,
    written by editors of IINN for generating newsletters has been used. 


    What is IINN? 

    Islamic Information & News Network  is  a forum dedicated to educate the
    network community on issues relating to Islam and Muslims in an academic
    & non-political environment.  Weekly  digest is available on internet by
    subscribing to  MUSLIMS@ASUACAD.BITnet  (A  Bitnet listserv list) and on
    USENET: bit.listserv.muslims. 



                               -- Permissions --
    

    Permission to  post  this  multi-part  FAQ  has  been  obtained  by  the
    following: 

	o	Institute of Islamic Information & Education (III&E)
	o 	Islamic Information & News Network (Muslims@PSUVM.bitnet) 
	o 	Moderator(s) of News.Answers (Thomas Khoenig & P.Huang)


# End of Islam FAQ Part 7 #

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM