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Archive-name: cooking/faq
Maintained-by: Victor Sack <>

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
LAST UPDATED 20 December, 2009

- a small change in section 11 (Recipe archives)

|Copyright © Victor Sack 2003-2010, Copyright © Mary Frye and Victor   |
|Sack 1999-2003, Copyright © Amy Gale 1993-1999, Copyright © Cindy     |
|Kandolf 1992-1993.  All Rights Reserved.  Portions Copyright © by     |
|their particular authors.                                             |
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An easier-to-navigate frames version of the FAQ is available at

Welcome to the FAQ list and conversion helper!

The primary purpose of this document is to help cooks from different
countries communicate with one another.  The problem is that
measurements and terms for food vary from country to country,
even if both countries speak English.

However, some confusion cannot be avoided simply by making this list.
You can help avoid the confusion by being as specific as possible.  Try
not to use brand names unless you also mention the generic name of the
product.  If you use terms like "a can" or "a box", give some indication
of how much the package contains, either in weight or volume.

A few handy hints: a kiwi is a bird, the little thing in your grocery
store is called a kiwi fruit.  Whoever said "A pint's a pound the world
around" must have believed the US was on another planet.  And cast iron
pans and bread machines can evoke some interesting discussion!

If you haven't already done so, now is as good a time as any to read
the guides to the Net and the Net etiquette which are posted to
news.announce.newusers and news.newusers.questions regularly.
They are also available via anonymous FTP from
or from
In particular, you are strongly encouraged to read the following

What is Usenet?
A Primer on How to Work With the Usenet Community
Answers to Frequently Asked Questions about Usenet
Rules for posting to Usenet
Emily Postnews Answers Your Questions on Netiquette
Hints on writing style for Usenet
Advertising on Usenet: How To Do It, How Not To Do It
How To Find the Right Place To Post

The moderators of news.newusers.questions maintain an excellent Web site
with helpful links to basic Usenet information.  The site is at

The traditionally accepted quoting style is discussed at

Another excellent introduction to Usenet is available from

You should be familiar with acronyms like FAQ, FTP and IMHO, as well as
know about smileys, followups and when to reply by email to postings.

This FAQ is currently posted to, news.answers,
rec.answers and  All posts to news.answers are
archived, and it is possible to retrieve the last posted copy via
anonymous FTP from as /pub/usenet/  Those
without FTP access should send e-mail to with
"send usenet/news.answers/finding-sources" in the body to find out how
to get archived news.answers posts by e-mail.

This FAQ was initially written by Cindy Kandolf, and has been extended
and maintained by Amy Gale since 1993.  In August 1999, Maryf and Victor
Sack have taken over the FAQ maintaining.  In July 2003, Victor Sack
became the sole maintainer.  The FAQ has always benefited from
contributions by readers of  Credits appear at
the end.

Each section begins with forty dashes ("-") on a line of their own, then
the section number.  This should make searching for a specific section

Any questions you have that are not addressed here will surely have
many people on who are able to answer them - try it,
and see.

        Comments, corrections and changes to:
        Victor Sack <>

List of Answers

1  Substitutions and Equivalents
 1.1  Flours
 1.2  Leavening Agents
 1.3  Dairy Products
 1.4  Starches
 1.5  Sugar and other sweeteners
 1.6  Fats
 1.7  Chocolates
 1.8  Meats
 1.9  Salt
2  US/UK/metric conversions
 2.1  Oven temperatures
 2.2  Food equivalencies
    2.2.1  Flours
    2.2.2  Cereals
    2.2.3  Sugars
    2.2.4  Fats and Cheeses
    2.2.5  Vegetables and Fruit
    2.2.6  Dried Fruit and Nuts
    2.2.7  Preserves
    2.2.8  Egg sizes
 2.3  American liquid measures
 2.4  British liquid measures
 2.5  British short cuts
 2.6  Energy output of cooktops
 2.7  General Conversion Tables
    2.7.1  International Liquid Measurements
    2.7.2  Weight
    2.7.3  US Liquid Measurements
    2.7.4  Miscellaneous
    2.7.5  Weight/Volume Conversion Chart
 2.8  Some Australian Conversions
    2.8.1  Metric Cups
    2.8.2  Metric Spoons
 2.9  Catties
 2.10 Some Old Measurements
 2.11 Authorities
3  Glossary of Culinary Terms
4  Cooking Methods
 4.1  Poaching
 4.2  Frying
 4.3  Sautéing (and deglazing)
 4.4  Broiling
 4.5  Caramelising (of onions)
 4.6  Braising
 4.7  Cooking with alcohol
 4.8  Roasting
5  Distilled Wisdom on Equipment
 5.1  Woks
 5.2  Cast Iron
6  History and Lore of
 6.1  Origins of
 6.2  Some Higlights in the Life of
 6.3  What's all this about xxxx?
7  This has come up once too often
8  Recipe archives and other cooking/food sites
 8.1  Recipe archives
 8.2  Other cooking/food sites
9  Food newsgroups and mailing lists
 9.7  also...
 9.8  mailing lists
10  Other culinary FAQs
  10.1  Foods
  10.2  Beverages
  10.3  Religion, lifestyle and special diets
  10.4  Miscellaneous
  10.5  Humour
11  "Unofficial" Web site
12  Sources
  12.1  Contributors
  12.2  Bibliography

1       Substitutions and Equivalents

This section contains information on where substitutions can be made,
and what they can be made with.

1.1     Flours

US all-purpose flour and UK plain-flour can be substituted for one
another without adjustment.  US cake flour is lighter than these.  It is
not used much anymore, but if it does come up, you can substitute
all-purpose/plain flour by removing three tablespoons per cup of flour
and replacing it with corn starch or potato flour.

Self-raising flour contains 1 1/2 teaspoons baking powder and 1/2
teaspoon salt for each cup of flour.  Some brands in some regions don't
contain salt.

US whole wheat flour is interchangeable with UK wholemeal flour.

1.2     Leavening agents

Baking soda is sodium bicarbonate.  It must be mixed with acidic
ingredients to work.  Baking powder contains baking soda and a powdered
acid, so it can work without other acidic ingredients.

1.3     Dairy Products

Evaporated milk and sweetened condensed milk both come in cans, both are
thick and a weird colour... but are not, as I thought when I was small,
the same thing.  Sweetened condensed milk is, as the name implies, mixed
with sugar or another sweetener already.  It isn't found everywhere, but
this recipe makes a good, quick substitute: Mix 1 cup plus 2 tablespoons
dry (powdered) milk and 1/2 cup warm water.  When mixed, add 3/4 cup
granulated sugar.  If you're not sure whether it is available in your
market, try looking with the nonrefrigerated milk products - "Good Luck"
is apparently a common brand in North America.

If a recipe calls for buttermilk or cultured milk, you can make sour
milk as a substitute.  For each cup you need, take one tablespoon of
vinegar or lemon juice, then add enough milk to make one cup.  Don't
stir.  Let it stand for five minutes before using.

The minimum milk fat content by weight for various types of cream:
                   (UK)    (US)
Clotted Cream      55%
Double Cream       48%
Heavy Cream                36%
Whipping Cream     35%     30%
Whipped Cream      35%
Single Cream       18%     (=Light Cream)
Half Cream         12%     (=Half and Half*)

* Half and Half has only 10% butterfat in British Columbia.

For the definition of a specific dairy product, see section 3.

Quark (aka quarg)       [7]
A soft, unripened cheese with the texture and flavour of sour cream,
Quark comes in two versions - lowfat and nonfat.  Though the calories
are the same (35 per ounce), the texture of lowfat Quark is richer than
that of lowfat sour cream.  It has a milder flavour and richer texture
than lowfat yoghurt.  Quark can be used as a sour cream substitute to
top baked potatoes, and as an ingredient in a variety of dishes
including cheesecakes, dips, salads and sauces.

1.4     Starches

UK cornflour is the same as US cornstarch.  Potato flour, despite its
name, is a starch, and cannot be substituted for regular flour.  It
often can be substituted for corn starch and vice versa.

In the US, corn flour means finely ground cornmeal.  If in doubt about
which type of cornflour is meant in a recipe, ask the person who gave it
to you!  A couple of rules of thumb:
- in cakes, especially sponge cakes, it's likely to mean cornstarch
- as a coating for fried okra, it's likely to mean finely ground

Cornmeal or polenta is not the same thing as cornstarch or cornflour!
What one can buy labelled 'polenta' really looks no different to
cornmeal though, so hey, lets not panic too much.

Polenta is commonly used to describe cornmeal porridge but may also be
used to mean plain cornmeal.  Beware.

If you don't have cornstarch/corn flour, you can use twice the amount
of all-purpose/plain flour.  However, unless whatever you're adding it
to is allowed to boil, the result will taste starchy.

1.5     Sugar and other sweeteners

UK castor/caster sugar is somewhat finer than US granulated sugar.
There is a product in the US called superfine sugar, which is about the
same as UK castor/caster sugar.  It is called "berry sugar" in British
Columbia.  Usually, you can use granulated sugar in recipes calling for
castor/caster sugar and vice versa, but I've got reports of times this
didn't work so well!  As usual, give the recipe a trial run with the
substitute some time when it doesn't need to be perfect.

(US) Confectioner's sugar is (UK/Aust/NZ) icing sugar.  Sometimes these
are marketed as mixtures containing about 5% cornflour (cornstarch).
This can interfere use in making candy such as marzipan.

Corn syrup is common in the US but not always elsewhere.  Sugar (golden)
syrup can be substituted.

Corn syrup comes in two flavours - dark and light.  Light corn syrup is
just sweet, dark has a mild molasses flavour.  Some people have
substituted dark corn syrup for golden syrup in ANZAC biscuits and found
it successful.  A common US brand is Karo.

Golden syrup is a thick, golden brown (fancy that) by-product of cane
sugar refining.  The taste is mostly sweet, although there is a slight
acidic, metallic component.  Lyle's is a common brand spoken about in, the New Zealand brand name is Chelsea.

If desperate, a plain sugar syrup may be a possible substitute, boil 2
parts sugar, 1 part water.  This could be messy.  You may want to thin
it out with water.  Again, you may want to try this out on your own
before making something for a special occasion.

Black treacle and blackstrap molasses are similar but not identical.

1.6     Fats

Shortening is solid, white fat made from hydrogenated vegetable oil.  (A
popular brand name is Crisco, and many people call all shortening
Crisco.)  It is common in the US, tougher to find in some other parts of
the globe.  In my experience, you can usually but not always substitute
butter or margarine for shortening.  The result will have a slightly
different texture and a more buttery taste (which in the case of, say,
chocolate chip cookies seems to be an advantage!).  Sometimes this
doesn't work too well.  Not to sound like a broken record but - try it
out before an important occasion.

Copha is a solid fat derived from coconuts, it is fairly saturated and
used in recipes where it is melted, combined with other ingredients and
left to set.

Lard can be successfully substituted in some recipes, for example it
makes very flaky pastry.

Deep frying requires fats/oils with heat-tolerant properties.  Butter
and margarine, for example, are right out, as are lard and olive oil.
Corn and peanut oils are both good.

1.7     Chocolates

If you don't have unsweetened baking chocolate, substitute three
tablespoons of unsweetened cocoa powder plus one tablespoon of fat
(preferably oil) for each one ounce square.

US dark chocolate is the same as UK plain chocolate, that is, the
darkest and least sweet of the chocolates intended for eating (also
called bittersweet).  What is called milk chocolate in the UK is called
milk chocolate in the US, too, but many people simply refer to it as
"chocolate".  The stuff called "semi-sweet chocolate" by some folks is
the US dark or UK plain.  "Bitter chocolate" is, apparently, the UK term
for high quality plain chocolate.

Some manufacturers apparently distinguish between "sweet dark,"
"semi-sweet" and "bittersweet" (Sarotti is one), but they seem to be
minor variations on a theme.

Chocolate chips are not necessarily a substitute for bar chocolates,
because the chips have something added to them to slow down melting.

1.8     Meats

If a recipe calls for spatchcocks, you can use Cornish game hens

1.9     Salt

There are basically two types of food salt: table salt and sea salt.
They are chemically identical, containing mainly sodium chloride.  Table
salt is mined from deposits left by dried-up or receded sea.  Sea salt
is extracted from evaporated sea water.

From these two types of salt several varieties are produced, differing
somewhat in composition, form, colour, taste, and intended use.  Some of
them are listed below.

- Table salt.  It is often mixed with iodine (and called iodized salt)
and often contains anti-caking agents.

- Kosher salt.  Called so, because it is used for koshering purposes,
i.e., drawing blood from meat.  It is a coarse salt which generally
contains no additives.  Because of the large size of the crystals, about
twice as much kosher salt is required to achieve the same taste
intensity as would be needed using regular table salt.  Many people
prefer it to the regular table salt.

- Pickling salt.  It is a fine-grained salt used for pickling and
canning.  Like kosher salt, it contains no additives, such as
anti-caking agents, which would cloud the brine.

- Sel gris.  Grey sea salt.  This kind of salt is unprocessed, retaining
various minerals.  Produced near the town of Guérande in Brittany,
France.  It is said to smell of the sea.  Generally used for seasoning
already cooked dishes.

- Fleur de sel.  A very expensive kind of sel gris, it is not grey but
creamy-white in colour.  Harvested from the thin white film that forms
on the surface of the salt marshes in Brittany.  Said to be prized by
some French chefs.  Some other people consider it a marketing gimmick.
Also supposed to be used for seasoning already cooked dishes.

- Indian black salt (kala namak).  Brown-to-black in colour, it has a
smoky, sulphuric flavour.  Used in some Indian dishes.

- Hawaiian alaea salt.  It takes its name and a reddish colour from the
red clay (alaea) found along the shores.  It is also generally used for
seasoning already cooked dishes.

- Rock salt.  Greyish in colour, it is an unrefined salt, containing
many minerals and impurities.  Supposed to be inedible, it is used in
ice cream machines and for melting ice and snow on the roads.

2       US/UK/metric conversions

Some of these tables were combined from various sources by Andrew
Mossberg aem(at), whose sources included Caroline Knight
cdfk(at), Fruitbat and the New York City Library Desk
Reference.  Other tables were compiled from a variety of sources.
Corrections and additions welcomed!

2.1     Oven Temperatures

   An approximate conversion chart(P):-

   Electric                    Gas mark    Description

   Fahrenheit      Celsius

   225°F           110°C       1/4         Very cool/very slow
   250°F           130°C       1/2
   275°F           140°C       1           cool
   300°F           150°C       2
   325°F           170°C       3           very moderate
   350°F           180°C       4           moderate
   375°F           190°C       5
   400°F           200°C       6           moderately hot
   425°F           220°C       7           hot
   450°F           230°C       8
   475°F           240°C       9           very hot

2.2     Food Equivalencies

   Sometimes the sources did not agree...  I've given both:-

   British measure                 American equivalent

2.2.1   Flours

   flour - white plain/strong/     sifted flour - all-purpose/
       self-raising/unbleached         unbleached white
       4 oz(P)                        1 cup
       5 oz(K)
   wholemeal/stoneground           whole wheat
       6 oz(K)                        1 cup
   cornflour                       cornstarch
       4 1/2 oz (P)                   1 cup
       5.3 oz (K)
   yellow corn meal/polenta        coarse corn meal/polenta
       6 oz(P)                        1 cup
   rye flour                       rye flour
       6 oz(P)                        1 cup

2.2.2   Cereals

   pearl barley                    pearl barley
       7 oz(P)                        1 cup
   rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat  rice/bulgur wheat/millet/wheat
       7 oz(K)                        1 cup
   semolina/ground rice/tapioca    semolina/ground rice/tapioca
       6 oz(P)                        1 cup
   fresh soft breadcrumbs/         fresh soft breadcrumbs/
       cake crumbs                     cake crumbs
       2 oz(P)                        1 cup
   dried breadcrumbs               dried breadcrumbs
       4 oz(P)                        1 cup
   porridge oats                   rolled oats
       3 1/2 oz(P)                    1 cup

2.2.3   Sugars

   light/dark soft brown sugar     light/dark brown sugar
       8 oz(P)                        1 cup (firmly packed)
   castor/caster/granulated sugar         granulated sugar
       7 1/2 oz(P)                    1 cup
   icing sugar                     sifted confectioners' sugar
       4 1/2 oz(P)                    1 cup

2.2.4   Fats and cheeses

   butter, margarine, cooking      butter, shortening, lard,
       fat, lard, dripping             drippings - solid or melted
       1 oz(P)                        2 tablespoons
       8 oz(P)                        1 cup
   grated cheese - cheddar type    grated cheese - cheddar type
       4 oz(P)                        1 cup
       1 lb(K)                        4 - 5 cups (packed)

2.2.5   Vegetables and fruit

   onion                           onion
       1 small to med                  1 cup chopped
   shelled peas                    shelled peas
       4 oz(P)                        3/4 cup
   cooked sweet corn               cooked sweet corn
       4 oz(P)                        1 cup
   celery                          celery
       4 sticks                        1 cup (chopped)
   chopped tomatoes                chopped tomatoes
       7 oz(P)                        1 cup
   button mushrooms                button mushrooms
       3-4 oz(P)                      1 cup
   chopped pickled beetroot        chopped pickled beetroot
       2 oz(P)                        1/3 cup
   black/redcurrants/bilberries    black/redcurrants/bilberries
       4 oz(P)                        1 cup
   raspberries/strawberries        raspberries/strawberries
       5 oz(P)                        1 cup

   Dried beans:
   black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/ black/lentils/chick peas/pinto/
       white                           white
       3 1/2 oz(K)                    1/2 cup

2.2.6   Dried fruit and nuts, etc.

   currants/sultanas/raisins/      currants/sultanas/raisins/
       chopped candied peel            chopped candied peel
       5-6 oz(P)                      1 cup
       2 oz(K - raisins)              1/3 cup
   glace cherries                  candied cherries
       8 oz(P)                        1 cup
   sesame seeds                    sesame seeds
       3 1/2 oz                        3/4 cup
   whole shelled almonds           whole shelled almonds
       5 oz(P)                        1 cup
   ground almonds                  ground almonds
       4 oz(P)                        1 cup
   chopped nuts                    chopped nuts
       2 oz(K)                        1/3 to 1/2 cup

   Nut butters:
   peanut/almond/cashew etc.       peanut/almond/cashew etc.
       8 oz(K)                        1 cup

2.2.7   Preserves

   clear honey/golden syrup/       clear honey/golden syrup/
       molasses/black treacle         molasses/black treacle
       12 oz(P)                       1 cup
   maple/corn syrup                maple/corn syrup
       11 oz(P)                       1 cup
   jam/marmalade/jelly             jam/marmalade/jelly
       5-6 oz(P)                      1/2 cup

2.2.8   Egg sizes

According to the BEIS (British Egg Information Service) Web site, eggs
in the UK are now sold in four different sizes: Small, Medium, Large and
Very Large (these replace the old sizes 0 to 7).

         UK egg sizes

New Size        Weight          Old Size

Very Large      73g +over       Size 0
                                Size 1

Large           63 - 73g        Size 1
                                Size 2
                                Size 3

Medium          53 - 63g        Size 3
                                Size 4
                                Size 5

Small           53g +under      Size 5
                                Size 6
                                Size 7

         US egg sizes

Egg sizes               Average weight

Jumbo                   2 1/2 oz (71g)
Extra-large             2 1/4 oz (64g)
Large                   2 oz     (57g)
Medium                  1 3/4 oz (50g)
Small                   1 1/2 oz (43g)
Peewee                  1 1/4 oz (35g)

2.3     American Liquid Measures

   1 liquid pint      473 ml ( 16 fl oz)
   1 dry pint         551 ml ( 19 fl oz)
   1 cup              237 ml (  8 fl oz)
   1 tablespoon        15 ml (1/2 fl oz)
   1 fluid ounce       30 ml

2.4     British Liquid Measures

   1 pint             568 ml ( 20 fl oz)
   1 breakfast cup           ( 10 fl oz) 1/2 pint
   1 tea cup                             1/3 pint
   1 tablespoon        15 ml
   1 dessertspoon      10 ml
   1 teaspoon           5 ml          1/3 tablespoon

And from
"Mastering the art of French cooking".  Penguin UK, issue 1961
    UK          UK oz                Metric ml       US oz

  1 quart       40                    1140           38.5
  1 pint        20                     570
  1 cup         10
  1 gill         5
  1 fluid oz     1                     28.4          0.96
  1 tbl         5/8  (1/16 cup)        17.8?
  1 dsp         1/3                    10
  1 tsp         1/6                     5

2.5     British Short Cuts   (S)

   Cheese (grated)             1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
   Cocoa or chocolate powder   1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
   Coconut (desiccated)        1 oz = 4 level tablespoons
   Flour (unsifted)            1 oz = 3 level tablespoons
   Sugar (castor/caster)       1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
         (granulated)          1 oz = 2 level tablespoons
          (icing)              1 oz = 2 1/2 level tablespoons
   Syrup (golden)              1 oz = 1 level tablespoons

2.6     Energy output of cooktops

From a post on by Andrew Nicholson

BTU - British Thermal Unit

BTU x 1054 = Joules
Watts x Seconds = Joules

BTU = Watts x (Seconds/1054) = Watts x 3.415

Gas Cooktops typically have a range of burners from about 200 BTU up
to 12,000 BTU.

Electric Cooktops typically range from 35 watts to 2900 watts.

To help you compare gas burners to electric elements:

        BTU           Watts
        -------       ---------
        100           35
        200           70      <- gas burners lowest setting
        3400          1000
        6500          1900
        8000          2300    <- most electric tops stop here
        10000         2900
        12000         3500

2.7     General Conversion Tables

Some general tables for volume and weight conversions
(mostly by Cindy Kandolf)

2.7.1   International Liquid Measurements

              standard cup      tablespoon      teaspoon

Canada           250ml            15ml            5ml
Australia        250ml        **  20ml **         5ml
New Zealand      250ml            15ml            5ml
UK               250ml            15ml            5ml

2.7.2   Weight

             1 ounce = 28.4 g  (can usually be rounded to 25 or 30)
             1 pound = 454 g
             1 kg    = 2.2 pounds

2.7.3   US Liquid Measurements

             1 litre = 1.057 quarts
                       2.1 pints
             1 quart = 0.95 litre
             1 gallon= 3.8 litres
             1/8 cup = 2 tablespoons
             1/4 cup = 4 tablespoons
             1/3  "  = 0.8 dl  = 78 ml
             1/2  "  = 1.2 dl  = 120 ml
             2/3  "  = 1.6 dl  = 160 ml
             3/4  "  = 1.75 dl = 175 ml
             7/8  "  = 2.1 dl  = 210 ml
             1 cup   = 2.4 dl  = 240 ml
             1 dl    = 2/5 cup
                     = 6 to 7 tablespoons

2.7.4   Miscellaneous

             1 UK pint is about 6 dl or 600 ml
             1 UK liquid oz is 0.96 US liquid oz.

             a "stick" of butter or margarine weighs 4 oz and is
                1/2 cup US.
             each 1/4 cup or half stick butter or margarine in
                US recipes weighs about 50 g.
             there are 8 tablespoons in 1/4 pound butter

Gelatine is available in sheets, as well as in powdered form.  The
following is from a post by Sophie Laplante.

It looks like there are different size sheets, and different size
packets (US vs Europe).  So the only way to go is to convert by weight.
In France, powdered gelatine does not come in packets; in the UK
it appears that it does, but the packets are larger than in the US.

One Knox powdered gelatine envelope (US) = 1/4 oz, about 7 grams.

1 (US) envelope     = 7 g,
                    = 7 1-gram sheets,
                    = 4 1.66-gram sheets,
                    = 3 or 3 1/2 2-gram sheets.

1 (Europe) envelope = 11 g
                    = 11 1-gram sheets,
                    = 6.5 or 7 1.66-gram sheets
                    = 5 2-gram sheets

2.7.5   Weight/Volume Conversion Chart

This chart was once posted by T. Terrell Banks who got it from a now
forgotten source.  It was then preserved on William Chuang's Web site.

                           g/    ml/     g/    g/    g/   g/    cups/   cups/
 substance                 ml     g      tsp  Tbsp  floz  cup     lb     kg
allspice                   0.42  2.36    2.1   6.4   12   100     4.5   10.0
almonds, ground            0.36  2.78    1.8   5.4   10    85     5.3   11.8
almonds, whole             0.72  1.39    3.6  10.8   20   170     2.7    5.9
anchovies                  1.02  0.98    5.1  15.3   28   240     1.9    4.2
apples, dried              0.38  2.62    1.9   5.7   10    90     5.0   11.1
apples, sliced             0.76  1.31    3.8  11.4   21   180     2.5    5.6
apricots, dried            0.64  1.57    3.2   9.5   18   150     3.0    6.7
arrowroot                  0.95  1.05    4.8  14.3   27   225     2.0    4.4
bacon fat                  0.76  1.31    3.8  11.4   21   180     2.5    5.6
baking powder              0.76  1.31    3.8  11.4   21   180     2.5    5.6
baking soda                0.87  1.15    4.3  13.0   24   205     2.2    4.9
bamboo shoots              1.14  0.87    5.7  17.2   32   270     1.7    3.7
bananas, mashed            0.97  1.03    4.9  14.6   27   230     2.0    4.3
bananas, sliced            0.76  1.31    3.8  11.4   21   180     2.5    5.6
barley, uncooked           0.78  1.28    3.9  11.8   22   185     2.5    5.4
basil, dried               0.11  9.44    0.5   1.6    3    25    18.1   40.0
beans, dried               0.85  1.18    4.2  12.7   24   200     2.3    5.0
beef, cooked               0.97  1.03    4.9  14.6   27   230     2.0    4.3
beef, raw                  0.93  1.07    4.7  14.0   26   220     2.1    4.5
biscuit mix (Bisquick)     0.55  1.82    2.8   8.3   15   130     3.5    7.7
blue corn meal             0.51  1.97    2.5   7.6   14   120     3.8    8.3
bran, unsifted             0.23  4.29    1.2   3.5    6    55     8.2   18.2
brazil nuts, whole         0.64  1.57    3.2   9.5   18   150     3.0    6.7
bread crumbs, fresh        0.25  3.93    1.3   3.8    7    60     7.6   16.7
bread crumbs, packaged     0.51  1.97    2.5   7.6   14   120     3.8    8.3
buckwheat groats           0.72  1.39    3.6  10.8   20   170     2.7    5.9
butter                     0.97  1.03    4.9  14.6   27   230     2.0    4.3
cabbage, shredded          1.44  0.69    7.2  21.6   40   340     1.3    2.9
cake crumbs, fresh         0.38  2.62    1.9   5.7   10    90     5.0   11.1
candied lemon peel         0.57  1.75    2.9   8.6   16   135     3.4    7.4
candied orange peel        0.53  1.89    2.6   7.9   15   125     3.6    8.0

                           g/    ml/     g/    g/    g/   g/    cups/   cups/
 substance                 ml     g      tsp  Tbsp  floz  cup     lb     kg
cashews, oil roasted       0.47  2.15    2.3   7.0   13   110     4.1    9.1
cauliflower fleurets       0.97  1.03    4.9  14.6   27   230     2.0    4.3
celery seed                0.51  1.97    2.5   7.6   14   120     3.8    8.3
cereal, Rice Krispies      0.09 10.73    0.5   1.4    2    22    20.6   45.5
cheese, cheddar, grated    0.51  1.97    2.5   7.6   14   120     3.8    8.3
cheese, colby, grated      0.47  2.15    2.3   7.0   13   110     4.1    9.1
cheese, cottage            0.97  1.03    4.9  14.6   27   230     2.0    4.3
cheese, cream              1.02  0.98    5.1  15.3   28   240     1.9    4.2
cheese, grated parmesan    0.76  1.31    3.8  11.4   21   180     2.5    5.6
cheese, jack, grated       0.55  1.82    2.8   8.3   15   130     3.5    7.7
chives, chopped dried      0.03 29.50    0.2   0.5    0     8    56.7  125.0
chives, chopped fresh      0.21  4.72    1.1   3.2    6    50     9.1   20.0
chocolate chips            0.76  1.31    3.8  11.4   21   180     2.5    5.6
chocolate, cocoa powder    0.47  2.15    2.3   7.0   13   110     4.1    9.1
chocolate, grated          0.42  2.36    2.1   6.4   12   100     4.5   10.0
chocolate, melted          1.02  0.98    5.1  15.3   28   240     1.9    4.2
cinnamon, ground           0.51  1.97    2.5   7.6   14   120     3.8    8.3
cloves, ground             0.40  2.48    2.0   6.0   11    95     4.8   10.5
cloves, whole              0.38  2.62    1.9   5.7   10    90     5.0   11.1
coconut, shredded          0.32  3.15    1.6   4.8    9    75     6.0   13.3
coffee, ground             0.38  2.62    1.9   5.7   10    90     5.0   11.1
coffee, instant            0.23  4.29    1.2   3.5    6    55     8.2   18.2
cornmeal                   0.72  1.39    3.6  10.8   20   170     2.7    5.9
cornstarch (cornflour)     0.64  1.57    3.2   9.5   18   150     3.0    6.7
cracker crumbs             0.25  3.93    1.3   3.8    7    60     7.6   16.7
cranberries                0.42  2.36    2.1   6.4   12   100     4.5   10.0
cream of tartar            0.64  1.57    3.2   9.5   18   150     3.0    6.7
cream of wheat             0.76  1.31    3.8  11.4   21   180     2.5    5.6
crisco, melted             0.89  1.12    4.4  13.3   25   210     2.2    4.8
crisco, solid              0.93  1.07    4.7  14.0   26   220     2.1    4.5
currants                   0.64  1.57    3.2   9.5   18   150     3.0    6.7

                           g/    ml/     g/    g/    g/   g/    cups/   cups/
 substance                 ml     g      tsp  Tbsp  floz  cup     lb     kg
dates, chopped             0.64  1.57    3.2   9.5   18   150     3.0    6.7
egg noodles                0.38  2.62    1.9   5.7   10    90     5.0   11.1
egg whites                 0.93  1.07    4.7  14.0   26   220     2.1    4.5
egg yolks                  1.14  0.87    5.7  17.2   32   270     1.7    3.7
eggs, beaten               0.97  1.03    4.9  14.6   27   230     2.0    4.3
evaporated milk            0.93  1.07    4.7  14.0   26   220     2.1    4.5
farina                     0.76  1.31    3.8  11.4   21   180     2.5    5.6
figs, dried                0.70  1.43    3.5  10.5   19   165     2.7    6.1
flour, Deaf Smith          0.55  1.82    2.8   8.3   15   130     3.5    7.7
flour, U.K. self-raising   0.47  2.15    2.3   7.0   13   110     4.1    9.1
flour, U.S. all-purpose    0.42  2.36    2.1   6.4   12   100     4.5   10.0
flour, buckwheat           0.72  1.39    3.6  10.8   20   170     2.7    5.9
flour, cake                0.38  2.62    1.9   5.7   10    90     5.0   11.1
flour, legume              0.55  1.82    2.8   8.3   15   130     3.5    7.7
flour, potato              0.72  1.39    3.6  10.8   20   170     2.7    5.9
flour, rice                0.64  1.57    3.2   9.5   18   150     3.0    6.7
flour, rye                 0.38  2.62    1.9   5.7   10    90     5.0   11.1
flour, semolina            0.74  1.35    3.7  11.1   21   175     2.6    5.7
flour, wheat bread         0.42  2.36    2.1   6.4   12   100     4.5   10.0
flour, whole wheat         0.55  1.82    2.8   8.3   15   130     3.5    7.7
fungus, wood ear           0.42  2.36    2.1   6.4   12   100     4.5   10.0
garlic                     0.68  1.48    3.4  10.2   19   160     2.8    6.3
garlic, minced             0.64  1.57    3.2   9.5   18   150     3.0    6.7
gelatin                    0.93  1.07    4.7  14.0   26   220     2.1    4.5
ginger, crystal            1.02  0.98    5.1  15.3   28   240     1.9    4.2
ginger, fresh              0.97  1.03    4.9  14.6   27   230     2.0    4.3
ginger, ground             0.51  1.97    2.5   7.6   14   120     3.8    8.3
graham cracker crumbs      0.38  2.62    1.9   5.7   10    90     5.0   11.1
grape nuts                 0.51  1.97    2.5   7.6   14   120     3.8    8.3
gumdrops                   0.68  1.48    3.4  10.2   19   160     2.8    6.3
gummi bears                0.64  1.57    3.2   9.5   18   150     3.0    6.7

                           g/    ml/     g/    g/    g/   g/    cups/   cups/
 substance                 ml     g      tsp  Tbsp  floz  cup     lb     kg
hazelnuts, whole           0.72  1.39    3.6  10.8   20   170     2.7    5.9
honey                      1.44  0.69    7.2  21.6   40   340     1.3    2.9
kasha                      0.72  1.39    3.6  10.8   20   170     2.7    5.9
lard                       0.93  1.07    4.7  14.0   26   220     2.1    4.5
lemon rind, grated         0.64  1.57    3.2   9.5   18   150     3.0    6.7
lentils                    0.85  1.18    4.2  12.7   24   200     2.3    5.0
macaroni, uncooked         0.49  2.05    2.4   7.3   13   115     3.9    8.7
margarine                  0.93  1.07    4.7  14.0   26   220     2.1    4.5
marshmallows, small        0.21  4.72    1.1   3.2    6    50     9.1   20.0
mashed potatoes            0.89  1.12    4.4  13.3   25   210     2.2    4.8
mayonnaise                 0.93  1.07    4.7  14.0   26   220     2.1    4.5
milk, evaporated           0.93  1.07    4.7  14.0   26   220     2.1    4.5
milk, powdered             0.49  2.05    2.4   7.3   13   115     3.9    8.7
molasses                   1.48  0.67    7.4  22.2   42   350     1.3    2.9
mushrooms, Chinese black   0.21  4.72    1.1   3.2    6    50     9.1   20.0
mushrooms, chopped         0.32  3.15    1.6   4.8    9    75     6.0   13.3
mushrooms, sliced          0.28  3.63    1.4   4.1    7    65     7.0   15.4
mushrooms, whole           0.25  3.93    1.3   3.8    7    60     7.6   16.7
mustard seed               0.64  1.57    3.2   9.5   18   150     3.0    6.7
mustard, dry               0.49  2.05    2.4   7.3   13   115     3.9    8.7
mustard, prepared          1.06  0.94    5.3  15.9   30   250     1.8    4.0
oatmeal, uncooked          0.34  2.95    1.7   5.1    9    80     5.7   12.5
oats, rolled               0.34  2.95    1.7   5.1    9    80     5.7   12.5
oats, steel-cut            0.68  1.48    3.4  10.2   19   160     2.8    6.3
oil, vegetable             0.89  1.12    4.4  13.3   25   210     2.2    4.8
olive oil                  0.81  1.24    4.0  12.1   22   190     2.4    5.3
olives, chopped            0.76  1.31    3.8  11.4   21   180     2.5    5.6
onion, chopped             0.64  1.57    3.2   9.5   18   150     3.0    6.7
onion, minced              0.85  1.18    4.2  12.7   24   200     2.3    5.0
onion, sliced              0.55  1.82    2.8   8.3   15   130     3.5    7.7
orange rind, grated        0.38  2.62    1.9   5.7   10    90     5.0   11.1

                           g/    ml/     g/    g/    g/   g/    cups/   cups/
 substance                 ml     g      tsp  Tbsp  floz  cup     lb     kg
oreo cookies, crushed      0.51  1.97    2.5   7.6   14   120     3.8    8.3
paprika                    0.49  2.05    2.4   7.3   13   115     3.9    8.7
parsley, fresh             0.17  5.90    0.8   2.5    4    40    11.3   25.0
pasta, egg noodles         0.38  2.62    1.9   5.7   10    90     5.0   11.1
pasta, macaroni            0.49  2.05    2.4   7.3   13   115     3.9    8.7
peanut butter              0.76  1.31    3.8  11.4   21   180     2.5    5.6
peanuts, chopped           0.68  1.48    3.4  10.2   19   160     2.8    6.3
peanuts, oil roasted       0.64  1.57    3.2   9.5   18   150     3.0    6.7
peas, uncooked             0.64  1.57    3.2   9.5   18   150     3.0    6.7
pecans, chopped            0.51  1.97    2.5   7.6   14   120     3.8    8.3
pecans, ground             0.42  2.36    2.1   6.4   12   100     4.5   10.0
pecans, shelled            0.51  1.97    2.5   7.6   14   120     3.8    8.3
peppercorns, black         0.57  1.75    2.9   8.6   16   135     3.4    7.4
peppercorns, white         0.64  1.57    3.2   9.5   18   150     3.0    6.7
peppers, chopped chili     0.72  1.39    3.6  10.8   20   170     2.7    5.9
pignolias (pine nuts)      0.53  1.89    2.6   7.9   15   125     3.6    8.0
poppy seeds                0.57  1.75    2.9   8.6   16   135     3.4    7.4
potatoes, cooked diced     0.85  1.18    4.2  12.7   24   200     2.3    5.0
potatoes, mashed           0.89  1.12    4.4  13.3   25   210     2.2    4.8
potatoes, sliced raw       0.76  1.31    3.8  11.4   21   180     2.5    5.6
pumpkin, cooked            0.76  1.31    3.8  11.4   21   180     2.5    5.6
raisins                    0.64  1.57    3.2   9.5   18   150     3.0    6.7
rice, steamed              0.68  1.48    3.4  10.2   19   160     2.8    6.3
rice, uncooked             0.89  1.12    4.4  13.3   25   210     2.2    4.8
rice, uncooked Basmati     0.83  1.21    4.1  12.4   23   195     2.3    5.1
rice, wild                 0.61  1.63    3.1   9.2   17   145     3.1    6.9
salt                       1.02  0.98    5.1  15.3   28   240     1.9    4.2
scallions (green onions)   0.21  4.72    1.1   3.2    6    50     9.1   20.0
sesame seeds               0.68  1.48    3.4  10.2   19   160     2.8    6.3
shallots                   1.02  0.98    5.1  15.3   28   240     1.9    4.2
sour cream                 0.51  1.97    2.5   7.6   14   120     3.8    8.3

                           g/    ml/     g/    g/    g/   g/    cups/   cups/
 substance                 ml     g      tsp  Tbsp  floz  cup     lb     kg
spaghetti, uncooked        0.51  1.97    2.5   7.6   14   120     3.8    8.3
spinach, cooked            0.76  1.31    3.8  11.4   21   180     2.5    5.6
split peas                 0.85  1.18    4.2  12.7   24   200     2.3    5.0
strawberries               0.64  1.57    3.2   9.5   18   150     3.0    6.7
sugar, brown               0.85  1.18    4.2  12.7   24   200     2.3    5.0
sugar, castor              0.81  1.24    4.0  12.1   22   190     2.4    5.3
sugar, confectioner's      0.55  1.82    2.8   8.3   15   130     3.5    7.7
sugar, granulated          0.81  1.24    4.0  12.1   22   190     2.4    5.3
sugar, powdered            0.55  1.82    2.8   8.3   15   130     3.5    7.7
sultanas                   0.64  1.57    3.2   9.5   18   150     3.0    6.7
sweet potatoes, cooked     1.02  0.98    5.1  15.3   28   240     1.9    4.2
sweet potatoes, raw        0.76  1.31    3.8  11.4   21   180     2.5    5.6
syrup, corn                1.48  0.67    7.4  22.2   42   350     1.3    2.9
tea                        0.32  3.15    1.6   4.8    9    75     6.0   13.3
tiger lily blossoms        0.17  5.90    0.8   2.5    4    40    11.3   25.0
tomatoes, chopped          0.68  1.48    3.4  10.2   19   160     2.8    6.3
tuna, canned               0.85  1.18    4.2  12.7   24   200     2.3    5.0
turmeric, ground           0.59  1.69    3.0   8.9   16   140     3.2    7.1
vanilla wafers, crushed    0.68  1.48    3.4  10.2   19   160     2.8    6.3
walnuts, chopped           0.49  2.05    2.4   7.3   13   115     3.9    8.7
walnuts, ground            0.36  2.78    1.8   5.4   10    85     5.3   11.8
walnuts, shelled           0.51  1.97    2.5   7.6   14   120     3.8    8.3
water                      1.00  1.00    5.0  15.1   28   237     1.9    4.2
wheat germ                 0.53  1.89    2.6   7.9   15   125     3.6    8.0
wild rice                  0.61  1.63    3.1   9.2   17   145     3.1    6.9
yeast, active dry          1.23  0.81    6.1  18.4   34   290     1.6    3.4

2.8     Some Australian Conversions

From a post on by Stephanie da Silva

2.8.1   Metric Cups

Metric Cups                             Grams           Ounces
                                        (approx)        (approx)

1 cup butter                            250             8 3/4
1 cup biscuit (cookie) crumbs           110             3 3/4
1 cup breadcrumbs, soft                 60              2
1 cup breadcrumbs, dry                  125             4 1/2
1 cup cheese, grated                    125             4 1/2
1 cup cocoa                             110             3 3/4
1 cup cornflour (cornstarch)            125             4 1/2
1 cup cornflakes                        30              1
1 cup rice bubbles (rice crispies)      30              1
1 cup coconut, desiccated (flaked)      95              3 1/4
1 cup dried split peas, lentils         200             7
1 cup dried fruit                       160             5 3/4
1 cup dates, chopped                    150             5 1/4
1 cup flour, plain, self-rising         125             4 1/2
1 cup flour, wholemeal (whole wheat)    135             4 3/4
1 cup golden syrup, honey, glucose      360             12 3/4
1 cup jam                               330             11 1/2
1 cup nuts, chopped                     125             4 1/2
1 cup oats, rolled                      90              3 1/4
1 cup rice, short grain                 210             7 1/2
1 cup rice, long grain                  200             7
1 cup salt, or crystal sugar            250             8 3/4
1 cup castor sugar (superfine)          220             7 3/4
1 cup soft brown sugar, firmly packed   170             6
1 cup icing sugar (confectioners')      150             5

1 cup = 250 ml

2.8.2   Metric Spoons

Metric spoons                           Grams           Ounces

1 level tablespoon peanut butter        20              2/3
1 level tablespoon baking powder,
  bicarb soda, cream of tartar,
  gelatine, rice, sago                  15              1/2
1 level tablespoon cocoa, cornflour,
  custard powder, nuts                  10              1/2
1 level tablespoon golden syrup,
  treacle, honey, glucose               30              1
1 level tablespoon sugar, salt          20              2/3
1 level tablespoon yeast, compressed    20              2/3

1 tablespoon = 20 ml
1 teaspoon = 5 ml

2.9     Catties

In ancient China,
        1 catty = 1.33 pound = 600 grams.

In modern China, this went with kilograms and stuff.  To make the
transition easier for the average people, they invented a new kind of
catty.  1 catty = 0.5 kilo  ( = 1.1 pound )

However, old books from Hong Kong and Taiwan still use the
old catty = 600 grams.

2.10   Some Old Measurements

This chart appears on several Web sites.  It is unclear where it

    1 wine glass           1/4 cup
    1 jigger               1.5 fluid ounces
    1 gill                 1/2 cup
    1 tea cup              a scant 3/4 cup
    1 coffee cup           a scant cup
    1 tumbler              1 cup
    1 peck                 2 gallons - dry
    1 pinch or dash        what can be picked up between thumb and first
                           two fingers; less than 1/8 teaspoon
    1/2 pinch              what can be picked up between thumb and one
    1 salt spoon           1/4 teaspoon
    1 kitchen spoon        1 teaspoon
    1 dessert spoon        2 teaspoons or 1 soupspoon
    1 spoonful             1 tablespoon more or less
    1 saucer               1 heaping cup (about)
    1 penny weight         1/20 ounce
    1 drachma              1/8 ounce

2.11     Authorities

   K = Mollie Katzen from "Still Life with Menu"
   P = Marguerite Patten from "Cookery in Colour"
   RD = Forward to British edition of "The Rotation Diet"
   S  = Ursula Sedgwick from "My Fun-to-cook-book"

3       Glossary of Culinary Terms

ADOBO - it is a sauce, a marinade, or a style of cooking, of Mexican or
Filipino origin.  Common to both versions is simmering in a marinade of
vinegar (or acidic juices), garlic and peppercorns.  In the Mexican
incarnation, the sauce is a spicy blend of chilies, herbs and vinegar.
The Filipino version replaces chilies with soy sauce.

AHI (AH-HEE) - The Hawaiian name for yellowfin, as well as bigeye tuna.

AJI - Aji (singular form) is what the Peruvians call chile peppers.  The
species in particular is capsicum baccatum.

ALLSPICE - The dried, unripe berry of a small tree.  It is available
ground or in seed form, & used in a variety of dishes such as pickles,
casseroles, cakes & puddings.  Also known as Jamaica Pepper.

AMAZU SHOGA (ah-MAH-zoo SHOH-gah) - Thinly sliced or shredded fresh
ginger pickled in a sweet vinegar marinade.  It's beige or pink, used as
a garnish for many Japanese dishes, particularly sushi.  Also known as

ARBORIO RICE (ar-BOH-ree-oh) - A high-starch Italian rice shorter and
fatter than any other short-grain rice.  It's used to make risotto, a
creamy rice dish.

ASIAN PEAR - Ripe Asian pears (also called Chinese pears and apple
pears) are quite firm to the touch, crunchy to the bite, lightly sweet
and drippingly juicy.

ATEMOYA (ah-teh-MOH-ee-yah) - A fruit that is about the size of a large
sweet bell pepper with a dusty green skin that has a rough petal-like
surface.  It has a custard-like pulp that is cream-coloured and studded
with large black seeds.  Its sweet flavour tastes like a blend of mango
and vanilla.  Makes a delicious snack eaten out-of-hand.

AUBERGINE - see eggplant

BAGEL - Chewy bread with a hole in the middle - round, and 3-4 inches in
diameter.  The origin is Russian-Jewish.  Can come with many types of
toppings on it.  Dough is boiled then baked with toppings such as onion,
garlic, poppy seeds etc.  Flavours can also be kneaded into the dough.
On the US east coast usually used as a breakfast bread but can also be
used as a sandwich bread.

BALSAMIC VINEGAR ("Aceto Balsamico di Modena") or BALSAMIC DRESSING 
("Condimento Balsamico di Reggio Emilia") - see also Traditional Balsamic
An unaged mix of red wine vinegar and concentrated grape juice (locally
grown grapes), flavoured with caramel and other ingredients, usually
used as a substitute to the "tradizionale" and actually trying to
imitate its taste. The price is in the 3-8 euros range for 0.5-liter

BASMATI RICE (BAHS-MAH-TEE) - A perfumy, nutlike-flavoured long-grain
rice with a finer texture than regular rice.  Often called for in Indian
and Middle Eastern dishes.

BEETROOT - Called beet in US.  The red, succulent root of a biennial
plant (Beta vulgaris).  Often dressed with vinegar and served cold and
sliced, but can also be served hot and is the basis of most borschts.

BELL PEPPER - see Capsicum

BERMUDA ONION - A large sweet onion with several regional names.  May
also be known as Spanish Onion, and possibly 1015 onion.

BERRY SUGAR - caster sugar

BISCUITS - in the UK, equivalent of US cookies (small, sweet cakes). In
the US, a type of non-yeast bread made of flour, milk, and shortening,
served with breakfast - small, and similar to what much of the world refers
as 'scones'.

BLACK BEAN - also called (black) turtle bean, Mexican black bean,
Spanish black bean, frijole negro.

BLACK TREACLE - see section 1.5

BOSTON BEAN - see Navy bean.

BOUQUET GARNI - A bundle of herbs tied with a string.  Generally includes
thyme, parsley, bay leaves.  Often, celery is included, too.  Sometimes,
also basil, tarragon, chervil, etc. are added.  Used in various recipes.
The bundle is removed when the cooking is complete.

BRINJAL - see Eggplant

BROASTING - A cooking process trademarked by the Broaster Company of
Beloit, Wis.  It requires the use of the Broaster stainless steel
pressure fryer, as well as the Company-produced marinade, seasonings,
coatings and condiments.  It is a high-pressure cooking method that is
supposed to make chicken moist and juicy on the inside and crispy on the
outside, i.e., not unlike plain fried chicken, but not as greasy, either.

BROCCOLRABE - A green bitter vegetable unless harvested young.  Looks
like broccoli but has skinnier stalks.  The leaves, stems and florets
are eaten.  Really good sautéed with garlic and olive oil and served
over pasta.  Also known as Italian Broccoli, rabe, rapini.

BURDOCK - Known in Japan as gobo, it is a slender root vegetable with a
rusty brown skin and greyish-white flesh with a sweet, earthy flavour
and tender-crisp texture.  Burdock can be thinly sliced or shredded and
used in soups, and with vegetables and meats.

CABANOSSI - a salami-type sausage popular in Central, Eastern and
Southern Europe.

CANNELLINO BEAN (kan-eh-LEE-no) - (plural: cannelini) Large, white
Italian kidney beans, available both in dry and canned forms.  They are
used in Italian soups and salads.

CANOLA OIL - see Rapeseed Oil

CAPSICUM - A large fleshy pepper with a sweet/mild flavour.  Can be
orange, red, yellow, green or black.  Also known as Bell Pepper.

CASTOR/CASTER SUGAR - see section 1.5

CATSUP - see Ketchup

CELERIAC (seh-LER-ay-ak) - This rather ugly, knobbly, brown vegetable is
actually the root of a special celery cultivated specifically for its
root.  It's also called celery root or celery knob and tastes like a
cross between strong celery and parsley.  Often called for raw and
shredded in salads or added to soups and stews.

CHAYOTE (CHI-OH-TAY) - Also known as mirliton.  This gourd-like fruit is
about the size and shape of a very large pear.  Under the pale green
skin is a white, rather bland tasting flesh.  They can be cooked like
any summer squash or used raw in salads.  Chayote seeds are edible, too.

CHICKEN MARYLAND - in Australia, refers to chicken leg with both thigh
and drumstick attached.  In the US, refers to any parts of chicken,
crumbed, browned in hot fat, baked and served with cream gravy.

CHICKPEAS - Cicer arietinum.  Also known as garbanzo beans, ceci beans.

CHINESE PARSLEY - see Cilantro

CHINESE VERMICELLI - Also called bean threads, glass noodles, cellophane
noodles or harusame.  These translucent, thin noodles are made of the
starch of green mung beans.  They are soaked in water to soften before
adding to recipes for side dishes.  If added to soup they do not need to
be presoaked.  They can also be deep-fried.

CHIPOTLE CHILE (chih-POHT-lay) - This is a dried, smoked jalapeño.
Chipotles are found dried or pickled and canned in adobo sauce.  Because
they are extremely spicy, they are used sparingly as a seasoning in

CHORIZO (CHOR-EE-ZOH) - A highly seasoned sausage made of coarsely
ground pork flavoured with garlic, chili powder and other spices that can
be cooked as a stand-alone meat or used in Mexican- or Spanish-style

CIDER - widely varying definitions!  A drink (almost) always made from
pressed apples, to many people but not all it is alcoholic.  US usage is
typically that 'cider' is not alcoholic and 'hard cider' is.  If in
doubt, ask the person who posts the recipe what they mean.

CILANTRO - the leaf of the coriander plant.  Also called Chinese/Thai/
Mexican parsley, and green coriander.

CLOTTED CREAM - Traditionally served with tea and scones; a 55% (min)
milkfat product made by heating shallow pans of milk to about
82 degrees C, holding them at this temperature for about an hour and
then skimming off the yellow wrinkled cream crust that forms.

COCKLES - clams

CONCH - A Mollusc Gastropod - "Strombus" - Abundant in US only off
Florida Keys, where it is illegal to take (has been for 10?  years now).
Most now comes from Caribbean islands such as Turks and Caicos,
Trinidad, or Honduras.  One Conch steak typically weighs 1/5 to 1/3 lb
approx.  These sell for prices ranging from $4.99 - $6.99 per pound.
These steaks are taken home, beaten with device such as a rolling pin
(to tenderise), then cubed for conch salad or conch fritters.


CORDIAL - in the US, a synonym for liqueur.  Similarly in France and
Belgium (e.g. Cognac, Grand Marnier).  In UK, NZ, Australia, a thick
syrup (which may or may not contain real fruit) which is diluted to give
a non-alcoholic fruit drink.

CORN FLOUR (US) - Finely ground cornmeal, seen in Southern recipes.

CORNFLOUR (UK and commonwealth) - A starch usu. made from wheat.  Used
to thicken sauces etc.  Also called cornstarch.

CORNMEAL - ground corn (maize).

COURGETTE - see Zucchini

COUSCOUS - Semolina pellets, which are rolled in flour to form tiny
balls.  It makes a terrific rice substitute that has the advantage of
being more flavourful (nutty with an interesting texture as long as it
is not over cooked) as well as about five times quicker to make than
rice.  Best known for its use in the traditional North African dish of
the same name.

CREAM OF TARTAR - A potassium salt of tartaric acid.  It is a substance
found in the juice of grapes after they have been fermented in wine
making.  It is used in baking powder, as well as in self-raising flour,
in combination with sodium bicarbonate (baking soda), with which it
reacts to produce carbon dioxide to leaven batter.

CREAM OF WHEAT - Also called farina.

CRÈME FRAÎCHE - Pasteurised cream to which a lactic bacteria culture has
been added.  Used in French cooking, it is thick and slightly acidic
without actually being sour.  Often used on ice cream in France in
Belgium after beating with sugar.

CREMINI (KRAY-MEE-NEE) - Also called crimini or portabellini.  A darker
brown, slightly firmer variation of the everyday cultivated white
mushroom (Agaricus bisporus).  They have a fuller flavour than white
mushrooms and are used raw or cooked in recipes.  The portobello (also
portabella) is the fully matured form of this mushroom.

DAIKON (DI-KUHN) - From the Japanese words dai (large) and kon (root),
this vegetable is a large Asian radish with a sweet, fresh flavour.  It
is used raw in salads, shredded as a garnish or cooked in a variety of
ways, such as in a stir-fry.

DESICCATED COCONUT - dried coconut shreds, similar to US coconut
shreds.  In the US, coconut is usually sold sweetened, this is not so
common in other countries.

DIGESTIVE BISCUITS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with a honey taste.
Can be substituted for graham crackers, but are not exactly the same

DONAX - clams.

DOUBLE CREAM - see section 1.3

EDAMAME (eh-dah-MAH-meh).  The Japanese name for fresh soybeans that
usually are bright to dark green.  They can be found frozen and should
be steamed in salted water.  When the beans are removed from the pod
they have a mild, crunchy soy flavour.  Discard the pod.  The beans can
be eaten as a snack or added to other Asian dishes, like stir-frys.

EGGPLANT - A purple, vaguely egg-shaped vegetable.  Called brinjal in
parts of India and aubergine in various other places.

ESCARGOT - Snails.  They can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine.
Escargot is the common name for the land gastropod mollusc.  The edible
snails of France have a single shell that is tan and white, and 1 to 2
inches diameter.

ESSENCE/EXTRACT - While the words may be used interchangeably US-UK all
essences are extracts, but extracts are not all essences.  A stock is a
water extract of food.  Other solvents (edible) may be oil, ethyl
alcohol, as in wine or whiskey, or water.  Wine and beer are vegetable
or fruit stocks.  A common oil extract is of cayenne pepper, used in
Asian cooking (yulada).  Oils and water essences are becoming popular as
sauce substitutes.  A common water essence is vegetable stock.  A broth
is more concentrated, as in beef broth, or bouillon.  Beef tea is shin
beef cubes and water sealed in a jar and cooked in a water bath for
12-24 hours.  Most common are alcohol extracts, like vanilla.  Not
possible to have a water extract of vanilla(natural bean) but
vanillin(chemical synth) is water sol.  There are also emulsions lemon
pulp and lemon oil and purees (often made with sugar).  Oils, such as
orange or lemon rind (zest) oil, may be extracted by storing in sugar in
sealed container. Distilled oils are not extracts or essences.  Attar of
rose (for perfume) is lard extracted rose petal oil.

FARINA - see Cream of Wheat

FAVA/BROAD BEANS - Favas as a green vegetable are popular in Europe.  In
the North, e.g. Britain and Holland they are called 'broad beans' and
grown as a summer crop, planted in early spring, and in Italy they are
planted in fall and harvested in January, and also planted in January
and eaten in April and May.  They are grown for animal forage in Italy
as well.  They come in various sizes, but in general they are large and

FEIJÃO - Portuguese for beans, the default is black beans.  Not to be
confused with:

FEIJOA - A waxy green fruit about 3" long.  Although it is not a guava
you may know it as a Pineapple Guava.  Feijoa sellowiana is an evergreen
shrub, growing to 10-16 ft.  It thrives in subtropical regions but is
hardy & once established will tolerate moderate frosts.  They are either
eaten raw (with or without the skin) or made into jellies, sauces &

FILBERTS - see Hazelnuts

FIVE-SPICE - A blend of star anise, cinnamon, cloves, fennel & Szechuan
pepper, used in Chinese cooking.

FLAGEOLET (FLA-ZHOH-LAY) - Also called fayot.  These tiny, tender French
kidney beans range in colour from pale green to creamy white and are a
classic accompaniment to lamb.

FROMAGE BLANC - Literally, 'white cheese' in French.  Smooth, creamy
low-fat fresh cheese somewhat similar to cottage cheese, with a slightly
sweet-and-sour taste.

GALANGAL - Used in Thai cooking, galangal is a rhizome similar to ginger
in many ways.  Tom ka gai (chicken in coconut milk soup) uses galangal,
chicken, green chilies, lemon grass and lime juice as well as coconut

GARBANZO BEANS - see Chickpeas

GRAHAM CRACKERS - A wholemeal biscuit (cookie) with honey and soda
taste.  Can be substituted for Digestive Biscuits but are not exactly
the same thing.

GRANULATED SUGAR - see section 1.5

GRAVLAX - Also called gravad lax.  Scandinavian cured salmon.  'Gravad'
literally means 'buried'.  Originally, salmon and other fish was
'buried' in the ground, or under snow and ice, to preserve it and to
keep it cool.  Now, the salmon is cured in salt-sugar-pepper-dill mixture
while under refrigeration.

GREEN ONIONS - see Scallions

GREEN SHALLOTS - an inaccurate but occasionally used name for Scallions.

GRILL - In the UK, the same as US broiler; in the US, a device for
cooking food over a charcoal or gas fire, outdoors.  Also see Broiling.

GRITS - Usually a breakfast item in the US Southern region.  Made from
the kernel of corn.  When corn has been soaked in lye and the casing has
been removed it becomes Hominy.  The lye is rinsed out very well and the
corn is left to harden.  Then the swollen hominy is ground up to the
texture of tiny pellets.  Grits are cooked  very much like rice, i.e.
boiled in water, usually with some salt (except you must stir grits).
Butter is most commonly added after cooking.  It's used as a side dish
for a good old fashioned Southern breakfast.  Eggs are frequently mixed
in with the grits (after having been served separately).  Sometimes they
are made with cheese and garlic for a casserole.  They are also served
with gravy, shrimps, etc.

HABANERO PEPPER -  A type of hot chili.  The Scotch Bonnet Pepper is

HALF AND HALF - a mixture of half cream and half whole milk

HARD ROLLS - A sandwich type of roll that is a little crusty on the
outside and soft on the inside.  Can be made with poppy seeds or sesame
seeds or plain.  Often called a Kaiser roll.

HARICOT - bean, in French.  Haricot blanc: white bean, usually dried.
H. gris: green string bean mottled with purplish black; also called
pélandron.  H. rouge: red kidney bean.  H. vert: green bean, usually
fresh, also called French bean.

HARISSA - Harissa is a paste of chilis and garlic used to enhance North
African food (and is fairly popular in other parts of the Mideast,
though it is probably of Berber origin).  It is fairly similar to the
Indonesian sambal olek.

HAZELNUTS - A small nut with a hard, glossy shell.  Also known as

HEAVY CREAM - see section 1.3

HERBES DE PROVENCE - A mixture of dried herbs widely used in (French)
cooking.  Consists of thyme, oregano, summer savory and marjoram.
Bayleaf is often included, too.  Depending on the dish, some or more of
the following can also be included: fennel, rosemary, basil, tarragon,
sage, lavender.

HIJIKI (HEE-JEE-KEE) - A type of dried black seaweed with an anise-type
flavour that's reconstituted in water and used as a vegetable in soups
and other dishes.

HING - Also known as asafoetida, and devil's dung.  A light brown resin
sometimes used as a substitute for garlic and onions, or in its own
right and not as a substitute for anything, it can be found in Indian
groceries.  Claimed properties : laxative, aphrodisiac, colic cure.  A
required ingredient in the Indian Tadkaa - the small amount of oil used
to roast mustard seeds and similar other ingredients before adding them
to the main dish.

HUNDREDS AND THOUSANDS - Also known as sprinkles or as nonpareils:
small round balls of multicoloured sugar used as toppings on cakes and

ICING SUGAR  -  US confectioner's sugar.

JICAMA (HEE-KAH-MAH) - Often referred to as the Mexican potato, it's a
large root vegetable with a thick brown skin and white crunchy flesh
with a slightly sweet flavour.  It should be peeled before eating raw or
boiling to cook.  Raw, it often appears in Mexican-style recipes for

KAFFIR LIME LEAVES - These leaves have a mysterious flora-citrus aroma.
They are used to liven up many Asian dishes, like soups.

KALAMATA OLIVES (kahl-uh-MAH-tuh) - An almond-shaped Greek olive that
has a rich fruity flavour; not at all like the commonly found tangy,
salty Spanish olives.

KASHA - A Russian word meaning porridge or gruel made from any kind
of cereal, the grain being either whole or variously split or cracked.
There are millet, semolina, oat, buckwheat, rice, etc., kashas.  In the
US-English, kasha, for some reason, came to mean buckwheat groats.

KETCHUP - Also called catsup.  Today, ketchup is mostly tomato-based
condiment or sauce, but numerous other versions, such as mushroom or
fruit-based ketchups, exist, too.  Vinegar, spices and sugar are often
present in the ingredient lists.  According to the OED, both ketchup and
catsup are English variant spellings of the Chinese (Amoy dialect)
'keochiap' or 'ke-tsiap', 'brine of pickled fish or shellfish'.

KEY LIMES - Citrus fruit, about the size of golf balls, and round.  The
fruits are pale yellow-green, the juice is yellow and very tart, more so
than standard limes.  Grow in Florida, the Keys and other tropical
places in the Caribbean.  Used in Key Lime Pie, with egg yolks and
condensed milk and in a Sunset Key with amaretto.

KIWANO (KEE-WAH-NOH) - This oval fruit has a bright yellow skin studded
with stubby "horns," which is why it's also called a horned melon.  The
pulp is pale yellow-green with a jelly-like texture that tastes like a
tart combination of banana and cucumbers.  Mostly eaten as a fresh

LADYFINGERS - little, fairly dry, finger-shaped sponge cakes.  "Ladies'
fingers" is another name for okra.

LEMONADE - in the US, a drink made of lemon juice, sugar and water; in
the UK, a carbonated drink that doesn't necessarily contain anything
closer to a lemon than a bit of citric acid.  Sprite (TM) and 7-Up (TM)
are examples of what would be called lemonade in many countries.  I am
informed that in France and Belgium "limonade" is used as a general term
for soft drinks (Coke/Sprite/Fanta/etc.), although when I was in France
(1998) requesting du limonade always brought me something Sprite-like
(but usually much nicer).  Perhaps it is regional, or people know that
when customers with shocking accents request "limonade" they definitely
mean lemonade.

LIMA BEAN - also called butter bean, Madagascar bean.

LOX - Brine-cured salmon, which may or may not be also cold-smoked.

MALANGA - the word used in the Spanish-speaking parts of the Caribbean
for Taro root (or a close relative of Taro).  It is prepared by either
boiling and mashing like potatoes, or slicing and frying into chips.  It
is also used in soups as a thickening agent.

MARROW - US summer squash.  Also 'vegetable marrow'.

MASA HARINA - Masa is a paste made by soaking maize in lime (similar to
the method for preparing hominy) and then grinding it up.  Masa harina
is the flour made by drying and powdering masa.  It is used in Mexican
cooking for items such as corn tortillas.  The literal meaning is "dough

MASCARPONE - A soft Italian cheese (similar to cream cheese) with around
50% butterfat.  An important ingredient in Tiramisu.

MELON - a family of fruits.  All have a thick, hard, inedible rind,
sweet meat, and lots of seeds.  Common examples: watermelon, cantaloupe
(aka rock melon).

MESCLUN (MEHS-KLUHN) - Also called salad mix and gourmet salad mix, it's
simply a potpourri of young, small salad greens.

MIRIN - sweetened sake (Japanese rice wine)

MIXED SPICE - A classic mixture generally containing caraway, allspice,
coriander, cumin, nutmeg & ginger, although cinnamon & other spices can
be added.  It is used with fruit & in cakes.  (In America 'Pumpkin Pie
Spice' is very similar).

MOLASSES - see section 1.5

MUSTARD OIL - This spicy oil is extensively used in Bengali and some
other Indian cuisines.  It is said that it is very hard, if not
impossible, to find good quality mustard oil outside of India.  In the
'Western' countries, mustard oil is required to be sold with a "for
external use only" warning, since it contains allyl isothiocyanate and
erucic acid, both of which have been implicated in some health problems.
(This entry is based on Shankar Bhattacharyya's postings)

NAM PLA (NAHM-PLAH) - Popular in Thailand, this is a salty, fermented
fish sauce, made with anchovies, with an extremely strong odour.  Also
known as nuoc nam in Vietnam and shottsuru in Japan, it is used as a

NAVY BEAN - also called Boston bean, Great Northern bean, pea bean,
pearl haricot.

NOPALES (NOH-PAH-LAYS) - Long popular in Mexico, these fleshy oval
leaves are from the prickly pear cactus.  They range in colour from pale
to dark green and have a delicate, slightly tart green-bean flavour.
Before use, the thorns must be removed with a vegetable peeler.  The
flesh is cut into small pieces or strips, simmered in water until tender
and used in a variety of dishes, from scrambled eggs to salads.

NORI (NOH-REE) - These paper-thin sheets of dried seaweed can range in
colour from dark green to dark purple to black.  They have a sweet ocean
taste and are popular at Japanese meals or are used to make sushi.

NUTELLA - A thick smooth paste made from chocolate and hazelnuts, made
by the Ferrero company of Italy.  Doesn't seem to be particularly
easy/cheap to come by in much of the US, but in many countries it is
inexpensive and common.  Can be spread on plain biscuits (cookies),
bread, toast, pancakes, or just eaten from the jar.  There are other
brands that produce a similar product, but Nutella seems to the best

OKRA - a fruit of a plant of the cotton family, native to Africa.
Appears as "bindi" or "bhindi" in Indian cooking, and as "bamiya" or
similar in the Middle East.  Also widely used in the south of the USA,
in such dishes as gumbo.  Also called "ladies' fingers".

ORZO (OHR-ZOH) - In Italian this means "barley," but it's actually a
tiny, rice-shaped pasta, slightly smaller than a pine nut.

PANKO (PAHN-KOH) - Bread crumbs used in Japanese cooking for coating
fried foods.  They're coarser than those normally used in the United
States and create a deliciously crunchy crust on foods.

PAVLOVA - A dessert (invented in NZ, not Australia :-)  The main
ingredients are sugar and egg white.  A pavlova has crisp meringue
outside and soft marshmallow inside, and has approximately the
dimensions of a deep dessert cake.  Commonly pavlovas are topped with
whipped cream and fresh fruit, especially kiwi fruit, passion fruit or

PAWPAW - Also called 'papaw'.  Papaya, also persimmons in some places,
or even a third fruit, Asimina triloba.  It's best to check with the
recipe author.  The papaya is a tropical fruit; the persimmon is from
warm temperate areas; and Asimina triloba from cooler temperate areas.

PERIWINKLES - These small relatives of the whelk are "Littorina
littorea".  Popular in Europe but not in US.  Northern (New England)
"winkles" are a different species from those found in the Gulf of

POLENTA - same as cornmeal, also, a thick porridge made from cornmeal
(also known as 'cornmeal mush', 'mamaliga')

PORTOBELLO - see Cremini

POSOLE (POH-SOH-LEH) - The dried hominy that is used to make a thick,
hearty soup consisting of pork, garlic and dried chilies.  The stew is
named for the dried hominy.

POUTINE - French fries with cheese curds and gravy.

POWDERED SUGAR - see section 1.5

PRIME RIB - In the USA, a popular term referring to a standing rib roast
of beef.  "Prime" in the term refers to one of the primal cuts of beef
and not, as is often incorrectly assumed, to the USDA grade of beef.
This usage precedes the establishment of the US beef grading standards,
which explains the confusion.  This is explicitly acknowledged by the
USDA in its publications. The USDA technical name for the cut is "beef
rib roast."

RADICCHIO (rah-DEE-kee-oh) - This red-leafed Italian chicory is most
often used in salads.

RAPESEED OIL - Neutral-tasting oil made from seeds of Brassica napus.
Also called rape oil and canola oil.

RHUBARB - Rhubarb should be cooked because cooking inhibits or destroys
the oxalic acid it contains.  The oxalic acid in raw rhubarb or in
rhubarb leaves is toxic.

RISO (REE-SOH) - In Italian this means "rice", but also rice-shaped
pasta similar to orzo.

ROCK MELON - see Melon

ROCKY MOUNTAIN OYSTERS - Lamb or cattle testicles, breaded and deep
fried (like oysters, I guess).

SAMBAL ULEK (SAMBAL OELEK) - A paste made by crushing red chillies with
a little salt.  Can be made by crushing chopped de-seeded chillies in a
mortar with salt, or purchased at some delicatessens or Asian food

SANTEN/COCONUT MILK - Can be bought in cans or in powdered form, or made
as follows: To 2.5 cups boiling water add the grated flesh of one
coconut (or 4 cups desiccated coconut).  Leave to stand 30 minutes,
squeeze coconut and strain.  Use within 24 hours.  Known as narial ka
dooth in India, santen in Indonesia and Malaysia.

SCALLION - Variety of onion with small bulbs, long stiff green leaves.
Usually eaten raw.  Also called spring onion, green onion.

SCOTCH BONNET PEPPER - Capsicum tetragonum.  Similar to Habañero

SCRAPPLE - Scrapple is boiled, ground leftover pieces of pig, together
with cornmeal and spices.  Good scrapple, particularly served with a
spicy tomato catsup, is food for the gods.  Bad scrapple, especially
with too little cornmeal, with too much grease, or undercooked, is an
abomination in the eyes of the horde.

SCUNGILLI - Also a Mollusc Gastropod - "Buccinidae" - found in more
temperate waters than conch, with a darker meat and stronger flavour,
perhaps less "sweet".  This is more properly known as "whelk".  These
are generally removed from their shell and sold already steamed and
ready to eat.  The meat is kind of a circular meat, about 1 to 2 inches
in diameter, perhaps 10 to 20 of these in a pound.

SELTZER - Plain soda water (from Selters water, the naturally effervescent
mineral water of Germany).

SHALLOTS - Small pointed members of the onion family that grow in
clusters something like garlic and have a mild, onion-y taste.  Not the
same as green/spring onion.

SHIRO GOMA (shee-roh GOH-mah) - Japanese for "sesame seed."  This
version is the hulled white sesame seed used in many Asian recipes, like

SHIITAKE MUSHROOMS (SHEE-TAH-KAY) - Also called Chinese black mushrooms
and forest mushrooms, they have a meaty flesh with a full-bodied woodsy

SINGLE CREAM - see section 1.3

SPANISH ONION - see Bermuda Onion

SPRING ONION - see Scallion

SQUASH - a family of vegetables.  All but two have a thick, hard,
usually inedible rind, rich-tasting meat, and lots of seeds.  There are
also things called summer squashes, which have edible rinds, milder
meats, and usually fewer seeds.  An example of this type is the

SWEDE - US rutabaga

SWEETBREADS - According to the OED, sweetbread is "the pancreas or
the thymus gland, of an animal, esp. as used for food (distinguished
respectively as _heart_, _stomach_, or _belly_ sweetbread and _throat_,
_gullet_, or _neck_ sweetbread): esteemed a delicacy."  Sweetbreads
generally come from young animals, usually calves or lambs, although
pigs' can also be used.  Older animals' thymus and pancreas are
significantly smaller and tend to be much stronger in flavour.

SWEETMEATS - A sweetmeat, according to the OED, is a "small shaped
piece of confectionary usu. consisting chiefly of sugar or chocolate
with flavouring or filling, or of fruit preserved in sugar."

TAHINI (TAH-HEE-NEE) - Used in Middle Eastern cooking, it is a thick
paste made of ground sesame seed that concentrates the sesame seed

TAMARI - Tamari is a type of soy sauce, usually used in Japanese food.
You can easily substitute with Chinese Light Soy or regular Japanese soy

TANGELO - Citrus fruit cross of a tangerine and a pomelo.  Larger than a
mandarin and a little smaller than an average-size orange.  Skin colour
is a bright tangerine and they mature during the late mandarin season.
Mandarins, Tangerines or Oranges may be used instead.

TERASI - A kind of pungent shrimp paste, used in very small quantities.
May be crushed with spices, grilled or fried before adding to other
ingredients.  Also known as balachan/blacan (Malaysia), kapi (Thailand)
and ngapi (Burma).

TOMATO SAUCE - in UK/NZ/Australia, a homogeneous dark red sauce
containing (typically) tomatoes, sugar, salt, acid, spices, sometimes
(blech) apple - much the same thing as US tomato ketchup.  In the US,
France, Belgium a more heterogeneous concoction, served in and on foods
such as pasta.

TRADITIONAL BALSAMIC VINEGAR (Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale) - see also
Balsamic Vinegar.
Made in Modena and Reggio Emilia (Italy) from white Trebbiano must that
is cooked for several hours over a direct flame in an open vessel
until it reaches a concentration averaging at around 50%.  It is then
aged in barrels until it is dark in colour and pungently sweet.  The
barrels need to be from at least 3 different woods including cherry,
oak, chestnut tree, ash tree and mulberry tree.  Minimum ageing is 12
years.  Frequently used in salad dressings or marinades. "Aceto
balsamico tradizionale" from both Modena and Reggio Emilia are
DOP (Protected Origin Denomination) products under Italian and European
laws.  Aceto Balsamico Tradizionale can be sold only in the particular
0.1-liter flasks labelled by the respective Consortium (Modena or Reggio
Emilia), and the prices vary from about 30 euros for the lower quality
to over 100 euros for the higher quality.

TWIGLETS - A stick-shaped cracker-textured snack.  Taste mostly of yeast
extract, but also contain cheese as an ingredient.  Have 4 calories each
and 11.4 g fat per 100 g.

UDON (OO-DOHN) - A thick Japanese noodle similar to spaghetti and used
in soups, salads and Asian noodle recipes.

UNSALTED BUTTER - What it says, butter without the 1.5 - 2% added salt
that 'normal' butter has.  Often recommended for cooking.  Many people
prefer the taste of unsalted butter.  In areas with high quality dairy
products the use of unsalted butter where it is called for may not be so
important, since the salt is not so likely to be covering the taste of a
low-quality product.  In many stores it may be kept in the freezer
section rather than refrigerator.

VEGEMITE/MARMITE - Not the same thing, but similar enough to not deserve
separate entries.  A thick brown paste made mostly from yeast extract,
most commonly spread thinly on toast or sandwiches.  The taste is mostly
salt plus yeast.  Despite the occasional rumour, neither contains any

Wasabi (WAH-SAH-BEE) - The Japanese version of horseradish comes from
the root of an Asian plant especially used as a condiment with sushi.
Can be purchased in powder form (reconstitute with water) or in tube (in
paste form).

WAX BEAN - a yellow variety of the green bean.  Also called snap bean or
string bean.

WHIPPING CREAM - in US, cream with at least 30% butterfat

ZUCCHINI - A long, green squash that looks something like a cucumber.
Also known as vegetable marrow, courgette.

4       Cooking Methods

If you would like to contribute a paragraph for one of these methods, or
add another method, please send it to me.


4.1    Poaching (thank you to Rodger Whitlock)

Poaching is cooking by simmering in water.  It is distinguished from
"boiling" in that the water temperature is kept slightly below the
boiling point.  It is distinguished from "simmering" in that poaching
applies to solid items poached in water later discarded, whereas
simmering applies to the cooking of watery foods such as sauces,
puddings, soups, and stews.  The most common poached foodstuff is the
egg.  However, other items, for example boneless chicken breasts and
some fish, can be poached.

There are great differences of opinion about the proper method of
poaching an egg, in particular how to avoid the formation of long
streamers of egg white.  This writer knows of three major variants:

1. using a special egg poaching pan
2. the "whirlpool" method
3. the "acidulation" method

This writer uses the "acidulation" method: a large shallow pan is filled
with water and brought to boiling.  It is removed from the heat, and a
small amount (5-10 ml) of apple cider vinegar is added to the water.
When the water is absolutely still, Each egg is cracked into a cup and
very slowly and gently poured into the hot water.  The heat is turned
down to a low simmer setting, the pan returned to the stove and covered,
and the eggs allowed to slowly cook until done to taste.  This writer
prefers poached eggs to have a completely set white and yolks set on the
outside but still liquid at the centre.

Eggs poached this way do not taste vinegary.  Apple cider vinegar gives
the poached eggs a very delicate hint of sweetness.

4.2       Frying

Frying is plunging a food into a bath of hot fat or oil.  It involves
'sealing and browning'.  It is important to use fat or oil heated to a
temperature that is high, but not so high that the fat begins to break
up or decompose.  Generally, the temperature should not exceed about
180°C/360°F.  A good rule of thumb is to wait until the fat begins to
smoke.  One should only use pieces of food small enough for the heat to
penetrate to the centre fairly rapidly.  Another rule to remember is to
use food that has been carefully dried.  If one uses food that is
difficult to get dry well enough, one should dip it into flour, or
breadcrumbs, or fritter batter, or pastry.

A very popular foodstuff to deep-fry is the potato.  For potato chips
(French-fried potatoes), heat the fat to about 180-190°C/360-380°F.
Potato chips are washed in cold water and carefully dried in a cloth and
then plunged into the hot fat for 5-6 minutes.  The potatoes are then
lifted from the fat and tested for consistency.  They should be soft
enough to squash between one's fingers.  The fat should be allowed to
get back to 180-190°C/360-380°F and the potatoes put back into the fat
again, for a couple of minutes.  They will become crisp and golden brown.

For safety reasons, it is recommended to use a deep pan, to fill it to
no more than 1/3 and to avoid crowding it.  If a fire occurs, dump in
baking soda and cover the pan with a lid.

4.3     Sautéing (and deglazing)

'Sauté' is the past participle of the French verb sauter (to jump, hence
to fry in shallow fat, while tossing, i.e. making to jump).  Sautéing is
thus a method of briefly cooking food in a shallow pan or skillet in a
small amount of hot fat or liquid over direct heat.  One of the primary
cooking techniques, it is similar to grilling and roasting in that it
consists of the quick sealing and browning of small pieces of food.
This method is most often used for making dishes in savoury sauces,
sautéing being just a stage in the preparation of the dish, but also as
an end in itself, as in sautéed potatoes or mushrooms.  To be
successful, sautéing should be done at the last minute.  The size of the
sauté pan should correspond with the quantity of food to be cooked.  The
pan should be large enough to accommodate food without crowding,
otherwise the food steams.  It shouldn't be *too* large, though,
because, if the base of the pan is not entirely covered with the food to
be sautéed, the fat will start to burn in the empty spaces between the
food pieces, and give a bitter taste to the sauce (if such is going to
be made).

If the food is going to be served with a sauce made with the food's own
juices, sautéing would be followed by the next step - deglazing the pan
and making a sauce.  After the food is seasoned and cooked to the
desired degree, the pieces are taken out of the pan and kept warm.  The
pan can now be deglazed, using some sort of liquid specified in the
recipe, typically wine, brandy or vinegar.  The liquid is brought to the
boil to loosen and dissolve the caramelised juices stuck to the bottom
of the pan.  Some sort of hot stock can now be added and reduced by
half or so.  The pan is then taken from the heat, and butter or cream
may be added and blended into the sauce.  The sauce is then added to the
food, which should never be cooked in the deglazing liquid (it would
turn it into a ragoût).

4.4      Broiling

In British English, 'broiling' is the same thing as 'grilling'.  In the
USA, 'broiling' refers to grilling something *under* a direct heat
source (as provided as an option in a typical electric oven, for
example), as distinct from cooking it above such a source in grilling
proper, especially if it happens outdoors on a suitable contraption.

4.5      Caramelising (of onions)

Caramelising is browning of sugars.  Heating food containing sugars
beyond a certain temperature (about 150°C (300°F) breaks sugars down in
a large number of compounds which give caramelised food its complexity
of flavour.  To start caramelising, the water in the food has to
evaporate, to enable the food to be able reach the requisite temperature
for the sugars to start browning.

Caramelising onions is an example.  Heat a pan over medium-low heat, and
add about 3 tablespoons of fat (say, a mixture of vegetable oil and
butter).  When the fat has melted, add 1 1/2 pounds of sliced onions
(sliced about 1/4 inch thick or less) and 1/2 teaspoon salt.  Cook over
the low heat, covered, for 10 minutes (the onions are "sweating" at this
point, which means they are giving off moisture).  Then uncover and
raise heat to medium high.  Cook for 20 or 25 minutes more, stirring
every now and then.  At this point, you are reducing the moisture in the
onions and the natural sugar in them is going to brown them.  The onions
will be dark brown and will have caramelised in the pan (meaning they
will be sweet to the taste).

4.6      Braising

Braising is cooking 'by exchange', i.e. food (typically meat, but also
fish or vegetables) is first browned all over in a little fat (except
fish... see below), in a tightly sealed pot, immersed to half its depth
in liquid and cooked on top of the stove or in the oven, long, slowly,
and evenly, tenderizing it and, with the help of the juices that run
out, adding flavour to the resulting sauce.

Fish is typically braised differently, namely by laying in a buttered
dish, covered over with chopped shallots or onions, immersed to half its
depth in a mixture of wine and fish stock, and then cooked in the oven,
covered with aluminium foil or greaseproof paper.

4.7      Cooking with alcohol

A 1990 study by E. Augustin et al. found evidence that alcoholic
beverages retain from 5 percent to as much as 85 percent of alcohol
after cooking.  This study has been used in the following table
published by USDA (edited for readability).

        COOKING METHOD                             ALCOHOL RETAINED (%)

        No heat, stored overnight                           70
        Stirred into hot liquid                             85
        Flamed                                              75
        Stirred in, then baked or simmered for:
                                         15 min             40
                                         30 min             35
                                         1 hr               25
                                         1.5 hr             20
                                         2 hr               10
                                         2.5 hr              5
        Not stirred in, baked for:       25 min             45

4.8      Roasting

Roasting is cooking food by exposing it to dry heat.  In this, it is
similar to baking and grilling/broiling.  It differs from the former in
that, first, roasting can take place not just in the oven, but also in
the open, i.e. directly over the fire or smouldering coals; and, second,
in that the term 'roasting' is much more often applied to meat and
poultry than to other food, though fish and even vegetables can be
roasted, too.  It differs from the latter in that roasting is a method
much better suited for thicker cuts of meat or other food, whereas the
initial searing is followed by cooking at, sometimes, slightly lower
temperatures and, more importantly, by frequent basting, typically with
the drippings from the roast.

Like some other methods, roasting is a way of cooking by 'sealing and
browning'.  The food is lightly coated or painted with fat, such as
butter, oil, or a mixture of the two, and exposed to a very high heat,
thus searing the surface, coagulating and caramelising it.  When
grilling a relatively small piece of food, this would be almost the end
of the cooking process, but with a thicker roasting piece, the inside
would still be raw at this stage.  So, one lowers the heat a bit and
continues to cook, basting the roast frequently and turning it
occasionally, or even rotating it continuously if the food happens to be
roasted on a spit over an open fire.

Since it is dry heat which is employed in roasting, it is important to
never put the lid on, or cover the roasting food, as otherwise the food
will be steaming, not roasting.  Occasionally, though, it may become
necessary to shield certain parts of the roast with foil to prevent
overcooking, or to cover (bard) certain drier meats or game with strips
of bacon or other fat, which is removed towards the end of cooking to
allow the meat to brown.

For rare meat, a rule of thumb is to roast it about 30 minutes for the
first pound and 13 to 15 minutes for each additional pound.

If a roasting pan has been used, cooking juices will have collected in
the bottom.  They can be deglazed with a little liquid, such as wine or
water, to form a delicious gravy which can be poured over the roast or
served separately, or used to prepare a more elaborate sauce.

5       Distilled Wisdom on Equipment

This section is designed to contain small articles people have put
together on various topics pertaining to cooking equipment.

5.1     Woks (thank you to Steve Hammond (and for a small correction to
        Bill Boylan))

First of all, the best wok is one made of cold-rolled steel.  Most of
them are round-bottomed and come with a ring to support it over the
burner.  The support ring with the narrower diameter side up is used for
gas stoves and the larger diameter side up is used on electric stoves.
This seems to keep it the right distance from the burner.

Electric woks can be used for table-side cooking but they do not seem
practical for real cooking.  With their thermostat, they go on and off,
on and off... the idea is to get the wok hot and keep it hot.  Electric
woks never seem to get hot enough and stay hot for most uses.

A wok right out of the box will have a coating of machine oil to prevent
it from rusting.  Wash the wok in hot water with soap.  This is the LAST
time you should ever use soap in your wok.  Next, it's a good idea to
boil some water in your new wok for 15-20 minutes to get it really

Seasoning a brand new wok involves heating the wok with some oil in it,
letting it cool, and repeating the procedure, say, three times.  Heat
the wok over high heat, then add a couple tablespoons of peanut oil and
spread it around with a paper towel, being careful not to burn yourself.
Stop when the oil begins to smoke, and let it cool.  Add more oil if
needed, and repeat a couple of times.

For actual cooking, put your wok over the burner on high for a few
minutes before cooking.  To see if it is ready to cook in, put a few
drops of water into the wok and they should dance around and evaporate
almost immediately.  Have *all* the food you need to cook, chopped and
ready.  Next, add some peanut oil and swirl around to coat the bottom.
The oil will start to smoke a little.  Immediately start adding the
ingredients for the meal you are cooking.

Clean the wok with hot water and some form of scrubbing tool.  The
bamboo things they sometimes include actually work or one can use a
nylon scrubbing pad (no brillo, SOS, or equivalent).  After the wok is
cleaned, put it back on the burner for a few minutes to heat it up and
evaporate any moisture.  Then, add a little oil to it and rub it around
with a paper towel to keep it shiny and from rusting with any moisture
it may attract in between uses.

Another thing, when you are done cooking in the wok, put some water in
it to soak while you eat.  Cleanup takes just a few work with a nylon
scrubbing pad and some hot water.

Taking good care of your cookware only requires a few minutes of time
and makes it much easier to use and cleanup.  Food doesn't stick to a
well seasoned wok.  If it starts to stick, scrub it well with something
like an S.O.S. pad and re-season.

5.2     Cast Iron (thank you to Tom Rankin)

Make sure your cast iron is clean down to bare metal.
Coat with fat, heat, repeat.
Look after by never washing in soapy water and scrubbing as little as


Initial cleaning: get off all the packaging oil, burnt food or
whatever the pan has on it.  Some suggestions for achieving this are
- Wash in hot soapy water, dry thoroughly
- Boil undiluted white vinegar in the pan for while
- Commercial beadblasting (not sandblasting)
- Steel wool
- Hot embers
- Kosher salt baked in the pan at 500°F (260°C) for 4 hours and
scraped out again
- Put in self-cleaning oven and turn on clean cycle

Fats to use: a solid vegetable fat, or lard.  Oil is not as suitable.

Seasoning process: Wipe pot inside and out with melted fat.  Do the lid
too (if it's cast iron).  At this point, authorities seem to diverge.
The common theme is "get it hot and keep it hot for considerably more
than an hour" (optionally followed by "re-coat it with fat during the
process").  Two hours at 350°F (175°C), re-wiping with fat every
30 minutes, seems sensible.

When this has been done, the seasoning process has been begun but not
yet completed.  The first few times the pan is used, it should be for
fairly fatty foods.  Fried eggs rather than tomato soup, for example.

Each time the pan is used, rinse with hot water and scrub if necessary.
Don't scour or use detergent - otherwise you will need to re-season.
Some people coat their cast iron very lightly with oil after washing,
then wipe out after an initial heating next time they use it.

6        History and Lore of

6.1      Origins of (thank you to Max Hauser) began as net.cooks, launched by friend and fellow food
fanatic Steve Upstill in Berkeley in January 1982 with a posting on
pragmatic pasta sauces, something Steve was then often cooking,
including at my place.  We were all cranking out a lot of fresh ribbon
pasta with Atlas 150 (150mm) roller/cutter machines and we needed things
to do with it.  net.cooks became in the general Great
Renaming (late 1986).  Current Google archives show Steve's original
29-Jan-82 posting, and also his 31-Jan-82 net.general announcement of
net.cooks, "All about food, cooking, cookbooks, recipes and other
alimentary effluvia."  That was the "charter" of this newsgroup. 
(Discussions by the way using the specific language of newsgroup
"charter" on net.cooks or don't appear until five years
later in 1987, an exchange between Terry Sterkel, me, and Spafford,
referring anyway to a different newsgroup.)  Posted statistics also
showed that net.cooks became popular immediately, one of the most
popular newsgroups at the time.  After the 1986 renaming, a Gene
Spafford active-newsgroups list included with summary
"Food, cooking, cookbooks, and recipes."  Steve Upstill continued to
contribute occasionally, and also to work on recipe-formatting software.
I recall him commercializing a typesetting macro package ("-MU"), and
recipe software for Mac platforms. 

6.2      Some Higlights in the Life of

-  There have been quite a few cook-ins all over the
USA, as well as a small one in Germany.  The first one was hosted by
Anne Bourget in Sacramento, California, in 1994.

-  Early in 1997, a T-shirt was produced, with the
proceeds donated to charity.  Some 220 T-shirts were sold to rfc'ers.

-  In 2002-3, a Cook.Book was published, also with the
proceeds donated to charity (City Harvest, a NYC affiliate of Second
Harvest) to help the victims of the 9/11 terrorist attacks.  There were
two printings, one late in 2002, the other early in 2003, and a total of
about 740 copies were sold, also to rfc'ers.

6.3      What's all this about xxxx?  (much of this section was copied
             verbatim from the MiniFAQ that the
             invaluable Amy Gale used to post - thank you, Amy)

This section tries to cover a few of the most commonly confusing
topics that may come up on the newsgroup.

aluminium   : has not been linked to Alzheimer's Disease in a
              reproducible experiment.

Elbonia     : a mythical country (probably in Eastern Europe).  Comes
              from Scott Adams' "Dilbert", syndicated in newspapers and
              available at

Ingrid      : Anne Bourget's Volvo, used for flattening chicken breasts.
              Now deceased, but the memory lives on.

j/nghlm     : a joke ingredient.  Spelling varies.

WWT         : (Weekend With Tammy).  Once upon a time, a long-time rfc
              poster named Tammy spent a weekend with another long-time
              poster who posted a long article describing their mainly
              food-related adventures.  Some people took exception to
              that posting, complaining about the lack of recipes (which
              were posted separately).  Many people now use the WWT
              acronym in the subject header to indicate a posting of
              similar nature.

ObFood      : 'obligatory food reference'.  An old rfc tradition.
              Many people hold that, whenever one happens to post off
              topic, one is supposed to add something that has to do
              with food, ideally something that is actually interesting
              and/or useful.

7       This has come up once too often....

This list is a (futile?) attempt to keep certain well-worn subjects from
coming up yet again.  Further suggestions always welcome.

The $250 cookie recipe

This recipe comes up often, usually here but also on other newsgroups
(where it is even less appropriate).  The story goes that a woman had a
cookie at [usually Mrs. Field's or Neiman Marcus' cafe], and liked it
so much she wanted the recipe.  The clerk said "It will cost you
two-fifty"; the woman thought that meant $2.50 and was shocked to find
it meant $250.  She is now spreading it to get revenge, since it was not

There are a number of holes in the story, and no one has ever brought
forth any evidence that it really happened.  (If you want to argue that
you know someone who knows someone who this really happened to, take it
over to alt.folklore.urban, where they will proceed to have you for
breakfast if you have no evidence.)  More importantly, it has been
posted more than enough times by now.  Some people have tried the recipe
and pronounced it good, but it ain't Mrs. Field's.  If you would like
the recipe, ask for someone to mail it to you.

It has been pointed out to me that the recipe is in the standard source
distribution for GNU Emacs and XEmacs.  If your site has that source,
look in the "etc" directory for a file named COOKIES.

Most importantly, please DO NOT post it any more.  There is also a Mrs
Fields cookbook, published by Time-Life.  This has recipes, but not the
exact ones for the ones sold in the stores, as those recipes are not
well suited to home baking.

8      Recipe archives and other cooking/food sites

8.1    Recipe archives

There are hundreds, if not thousands, of recipe archives on the net.
Here are some of the more popular and larger ones.

    The official archive, maintained by Stephanie da

    Usenet Cookbook, a collection of old alt.gourmand recipes.

    SOAR - Searchable Online Archive of Recipes.


    Amy Gale's recipe archives.

*'s archive with 25000+ recipes.

    A searchable database of 76,000+ recipes, maintained by Leon

    100,000+ recipes.

    A large, searchable recipe archive.

    The Cooking Page.  Numerous recipe links classified by language
    (English, French, German, Dutch), by food course, and by cuisine.

    A well designed and functional searchable database of thousands of
    food and recipe links.

    Ancient and medieval recipes, and cooking and food links.

    A very large, meticulous index of recipes, with a search engine.

    A comprehensive cooking Web site with over 200,000 recipes,
    including a archive.  By Valerie Whitmore.

    A collection of links to recipes, etc. of varius countries.

*   "
    A Boke of Gode Cookery.  A collection of Medieval recipes by James

*   Copycat recipes or links to them are often requested on rfc.  Two of
    the better known sites with such recipes are

8.2    Other cooking/food sites

    A general food site with a dictionary (THE FOOD LOVER'S COMPANION,
    by Sharon Tyler Herbst), recipes from well-known food magazines,

    Mimi's Cyber Kitchen, a general food site maintained by Mimi

    Gernot Katzer's Spice Pages, a Web spice encyclopedia, by Gernot

*  (and numerous mirrors)
    The Cook's Thesaurus.  By Lori Alden.  Suggests substitutions for
    thousands of cooking ingredients.

    An A-Z glossary of Indian spices and cooking terms.

    "European Cuisines" and "The Balti Page".
    By Peter Morwood & Diane Duane.

    Directory listing of over 375 recipe and cooking websites.

    Cooking guide for beginner cooks.

    "Cooking for Graduate Students and and other beginning Kitchen

    Links to sites related to Asian food and cooking, as posted
    regularly to by blacksalt.

    Linda's Culinary Dictionary.  By Linda Stradley.  A listing and
    history of cooking, food, and beverage terms.

    Italian-English-French-Spanish-German Gastronomical Dictionary.

    English-French-German-Danish-Dutch food dictionary.  By Jos and
    Marg Sparreboom.

    A glossary of spices, etc.

    "Food tales, or everything you always wanted to know about the
    migration and lore of food."

    A glossary of baking terms maintained by Fleischmann's Yeast, a
    commercial entity.

    Multilingual meat and poultry glossaries.

    Recipes, nutrition info, selection tips for vegetables, fruits, nuts
    and herbs.  By the Produce Marketing Association.

    Comprehensive, illustrated fish encylopaedia.  An FDA resource.

    Tufts University Nutrition Navigator.  Reviews and rating of
    nutrition information Web sites.

    Science of Foods Glossary.

    In A Pinch - Ingredient Substitution, a PDF file.

    Links to old culinary & brewing documents online, by Cindy Renfrow.

    A humongous list of culinary newsletters, magazines and journals.

    Cooking 101.

    Gorton's fisherman's cookbook and fish glossary.

    A wealth of culinary information, resources, recipes, etc. on a
    rather disorganised site.

    Culinary resource desk.  Lots of useful links.

    Large, useful food dictionary (but with some annoying
    mistranslations and misspellings).

    BBC's food glossary.

    The History of Eating Utensils.

    ASTA's World of Spice - The history of the Spice Trade.  By The
    American Spice Trade Association.

    International Meat Manual.  Corn-fed beef, grass-fed beef, veal,
    pork and lamb. In English, Japanese, Korean, Mandarin Chinese and
    Spanish.  By the U.S. Meat Export Federation.

    Carnegie Library of Pittsburgh -- comprehensive Food and Cooking 
    resource guide

    The Encyclopedia of Baking offers reference, formulations and 
    troubleshooting for common baking ingredients.

9       Food newsgroups and mailing lists


a.k.a. us: A group for the discussion of cooking in general.  Recipes
and requests for recipes are welcome here, as are discussions of cooking
techniques, equipment, etc.  In short, if it has to do with cooking, it
probably belongs here - though that doesn't mean it doesn't belong
somewhere else, too!


A moderated newsgroup for recipes and requests for recipes.  Each week a
FAQ explains how to post recipes or requests.  The lead moderator is
Patricia D. Hill, <>.
The rfr moderators' software automatically sets followups to rfc.
The reason is, no discussion is allowed in rfr - only recipes or
requests for same.  Since some people might wish to publicly discuss
posted recipes notwithstanding, followups to rfc serve a useful purpose.


Pretty self-explanatory.


About vegetarianism.  It also has its own FAQ list, with questions about
the myths and truths of the vegetarian diet, information on where to get
"cruelty-free" products, etc.


A moderated version of


" is a newsgroup devoted to the discussion of
recipes, equipment, and techniques of food preservation.  Current food
preservation techniques that rightly should be discussed in this forum
include canning, freezing, dehydration, pickling, smoking, salting,
distilling, and potting.  Foodstuffs are defined as produce (both fruits
and vegetables), meat, fish, dairy products, culinary and medicinal
herbs.  Discussions should be limited to home-grown or home-preserved
foods."   (From the FAQ)

9.7     also...

alt.bacchus  (an oxymoron if ever I heard one)  (mmmm....coca cola...)

9.8     mailing lists

A very popular mailing list is


     Purpose: The Chile-Heads list is intended to provide a forum
     for discussion of matters relating to chile peppers; including,
     but not limited to:

         o  Growing peppers
         o  Seed and plant sources
         o  Exchanges of seeds/plants/pods/etc.
         o  Exotic varieties
         o  Storing and preserving chiles
         o  Recipes using chiles
         o  Other related posts

     How to Subscribe to the Chile-Heads Mailing List
     All messages posted to the list are emailed immediately to
     everyone on the list.
     To subscribe to the Chile-Heads Mailing List, send email to
     and in the body of the message, put
     How to Subscribe to the Chile-Heads Digest Mailing List
     The digest will save all email messages posted to the list for
     the day and send in one email message.
     To subscribe to the Chile-Heads Digest Mailing List, send email to
     and in the body of the message, put
     Back issues are available for anonymous FTP from, in pub/Chile-Heads/digest/vNN.nMMM
     (where "NN" is the volume number, and "MMM" is the issue number).
     How to Unsubscribe to the Chile-Heads Mailing List or Digest
     Mailing List
     To unsubscribe send email to
     (depending on which version of the list you are subscribed to)
     with the body of the message containing: 

Another popular mailing list is


     The bread-bakers digest and daily-bread mailing lists are for the
     free exchange of recipes and information related to any and all
     aspects of bread baking, by hand or by machine.

     To join the bread-bakers mailing list, send mail to In the body of the
     message, place, in lower case with no indentation, the single word:


     This will subscribe you at the address that your message is sent
     from. This is almost certainly your correct address. Bestserv will
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     You must reply to the message changing the word REJECT in the
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     please write to us at
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10       Other culinary FAQs  (thank you to Damsel in dis Dress)

10.1     Foods

    ( FAQ, by B. Keith Ryder)

    ( FAQ, maintained by Darrell Greenwood)

    (Meat FAQs: Foie gras, Pig processing, Venison processing, Elk and
    caribou, Wagyu and Kobe beef; by Tanith Tyrr)

    (Dutch oven cooking)

    (BBQ FAQ, by William W. Wight)

    (Meat smoking and curing FAQ, maintained by Richard Thead)

    ( FAQ, maintained by Eric Decker)

    (Spices FAQ, by Daniel M. Germán)

    (Culinary herbs FAQ, maintained by Henriette Kress)

    (Truffles (fungi) FAQ, by Tanith Tyrr)

    (Chocolate FAQ, by Monee Kidd)

10.2     Beverages

    (Coffee and caffeine FAQ, by Alex Lopez-Ortiz)

    (Tea FAQ, by Christopher Roberson)

    (Wine FAQ, by Bradford S. Brown)

    (Winemaking FAQ, by Don Buchan)

    (Beer FAQ, by John A. Lock)

    (Absinthe FAQ, by Matthew Baggott)

10.3     Religion, lifestyle and special diets

    (Kosher food, by Pat Gold, Beth Greenfeld, and Ruth Heiges)

    ( (vegetarian) FAQ, by Michael Traub)

    (Fat-free FAQ, by Michelle Dick)

10.4     Miscellaneous

    (Commonly discussed topics, by Stephanie da Silva)

    (Cookware FAQ, by Oliver Sharp)

    (Knife FAQs: Plain vs. serrated edges, Knife sharpening,
    Steel types, by Joe Talmadge)

    (Food storage FAQ, by Alan T. Hagan)

    (Food science FAQ, by Rachel Zemser, J. Ralph Blanchfield, and Paul

10.5     Humour

    (Kool-Aid FAQ, by Paul and Bess Dawson-Schmidt)

    ( FAQ, by J.D. Falk)

11      "Unofficial" Web site

Damsel in dis Dress used to maintain what many people regarded as the
'unofficial' site, with sections devoted to rfc chat,
rfc 'signature' dishes, rfc cook-in reports, and rfc birthdays.
Chatty Cathy is currently in charge of the site, which contains all of
the above and more, particularly a link to the rfc map set up by
Christine Dabney.  The site is located at 

12      Sources

Lots of wonderful people helped compile this list - again, much
acknowledgement is due to Cindy Kandolf for putting this entire thing
together and to Amy Gale for maintaining it and adding to it for many

12.1    Contributors

The other wonderful people are :

arielle(at) (Stephanie da Silva)
jonog(at)           anita(at)
sbookey(at) (Seth Bookey)    ccd(at)
pmmuggli(at)       chu(at)
cdfk(at)                dudek(at)
aem(at)                wald(at)
harvey(at)             ed(at)
ndkj(at)            ekman(at)
otten(at)                      jane(at)
loosemore-sandra(at)         mworley(at)
kts(at)             cc(at)
lvirden(at) (Larry W. Virden)
hammond(at)niwot.scd.ucar.EDU (Steve Hammond)
dfw(at) (Doris Woods)
gibbsm(at) (MargAret D Gibbs)
rickert(at) (Keith Warren Rickert)
Simon Kershaw Simon.Kershaw(at)
Joel Offenberg offenbrg(at)
grant(at) (Grant Basham)
lmak(at) (louisa.l.mak)
twain(at) (Barbara Hlavin)
hz225wu(at) (Micaela Pantke)
sfisher(at) (Scott Fisher)
byrne(at) (Charlie Byrne)
bae(at) (Beverly Erlebacher)
rlwilliams(at) (Skip)
hwalden(at) (Heather Walden)
mcenter(at) (Mike Center, PSC)
kevin(at) (Kevin Stokker)
steven(at) (Steven Berson)
eric.decker(at) (Eric Decker)
peteo(at) (Peter Orelup)
sk10003(at) (Scott Kleinman)
David Casseres casseres(at)
Ted.Taylor(at) (Ted Taylor)
george(at) (George Minkovsky)
Alison(at) (Alison Scott)
jae(at) (Jon A Edelston)
conrad(at) (Conrad Drake)
nadel(at) (Miriam Nadel)
patricia(at) (Patricia M. Burson)
betsey(at) (Elizabeth Fike)
leah(at) (Leah Smith)
steve(at) (Steve Ladlow)
"Sudheer Apte" apte(at)
Diane Ferrell, Leslie Basel
rankin(at) (Tom Rankin)
vev(at) (Vince Vielhaber)
lenf(at) (Len Freedman)
apforz(at) (Andy Pforzheimer)
wnukoski(at) (George Wnukoski)
robinc(at) (Robin Cowdrey)
merlin(at) (Merlin Zener)
"Frank Fileccia" surplus(at)
"Rodger Whitlock" totototo(at)
Damsel in dis Dress
Shankar Bhattacharyya sbhattac(at)
Sophie Laplante laplante(at)
Andrew Nicholson andrewn(at)
Ed Keith edkeith(at)
Read rweaver(at)
T. Terrell Banks terry(at)
William Chuang wchuang(at)MIT.EDU
Scott Jordan sjordan(at)
Terry Simpson terry(at)
Bill Boylan bill.boylan(at)
Max Hauser maxREMOVE(at)
Vilco a(at)b.invalid

12.2    Bibliography

This is a new section composed of the acknowledgements previously
sprinkled through the text.  More information on these books will be

1) "Trolldom in the Kitchen"
       Pat Bjaaland and Melody Favish

2) "Larousse Gastronomique"
       ISBN 0 7493 0316 6

   Larousse Gastronomique
   The New American Edition of the World's Greatest Culinary
   By Jenifer Harvey Lang
   Hardcover, 1193 pages
   ISBN: 0517570327
   List Price: $60.00
   Random House
   Publication Date: 10/01/88

3) "Still Life with Menu"  (K)
       Mollie Katzen
   Revised trade paperback 1995
   Still Life with Menu Cookbook
   Trade Paperback, 256 Pages, Revised, Ten Speed, March 1995
   ISBN: 0898156696 (pbk)
   Author: Katzen, Mollie
   ISBN:  0898156696 (pbk.)

   Still Life With Menu Cookbook by Katzen, Mollie
   fifty new meatless menus with original art
   Berkeley, California, Ten Speed Press, 1988
   ISBN 0898152569

4) "Cookery in Colour"  (P)
       Marguerite Patten

5) "The Rotation Diet"  (RD)

6) "My Fun-to-cook-book"  (S)
       Ursula Sedgwick

7) "The New Food Lover's Companion"

8) "Michel Guérard's Cuisine Minceur"
       Michel Guérard

9) "Mastering the Art of French Cooking"
       Julia Child

10) "The Oxford Companion to Food"
       Alan Davidson

11) "Julia and Jacques Cooking At Home"
       by Julia Child and Jacques Pépin

y, California, Ten Speed Press, 1988
   ISBN 0898152569

4) "Cookery in Colour"  (P)
       Marguerite Patten

5) "The Rotation Diet"  (RD)

6) "My Fun-to-cook-book"  (S)
       Ursula Sedgwick

7) "The New Food Lover's Companion"

8) "Michel Guérard's Cuisine Minceur"
       Michel Guérard

9) "Mastering the Art of French Cooking"
       Julia Child

10) "The Oxford Companion to Food"
       Alan Davidson

11) "Julia and Jacques Cooking At Home"
       by Julia Child and Jacques Pépin

peed Press, 1988
   ISBN 0898152569

4) "Cookery in Colour"  (P)
       Marguerite Patten

5) "The Rotation Diet"  (RD)

6) "My Fun-to-cook-book"  (S)
       Ursula Sedgwick

7) "The New Food Lover's Companion"

8) "Michel Guérard's Cuisine Minceur"
       Michel Guérard

9) "Mastering the Art of French Cooking"
       Julia Child

10) "The Oxford Companion to Food"
       Alan Davidson

11) "Julia and Jacques Cooking At Home"
       by Julia Child and Jacques Pépin


User Contributions:

Mar 12, 2023 @ 8:20 pm
Regardless if you believe in God or not, this message is a "must-read"!!

All throughout time, we can see how we have been slowly conditioned coming to this point where we are on the verge of a cashless society. Did you know that the Bible foretold of this event almost 2,000 years ago?

In the last book of the Bible, Revelation 13:16-18, it states,

"He (the false prophet who deceives many by his miracles--Revelation 19:20) causes all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and slave, to receive a mark on their right hand or on their foreheads, and that no one may buy or sell except one who has the mark or the name of the beast, or the number of his name.

Here is wisdom. Let him who has understanding calculate the number of the beast, for it is the number of a man: His number is 666."

Referring to the last generation, this could only be speaking of a cashless society. Why so? Revelation 13:17 tells us that we cannot buy or sell unless we receive the mark of the beast. If physical money was still in use, we could buy or sell with one another without receiving the mark. This would contradict scripture that states we need the mark to buy or sell!

These verses could not be referring to something purely spiritual as scripture references two physical locations (our right hand or forehead) stating the mark will be on one "OR" the other. If this mark was purely spiritual, it would indicate both places, or one--not one OR the other!

This is where it really starts to come together. It is amazing how accurate the Bible is concerning the implantable RFID microchip. Here is information from a man named Carl Sanders who worked with a team of engineers to help develop this RFID chip:

"Carl Sanders sat in seventeen New World Order meetings with heads-of-state officials such as Henry Kissinger and Bob Gates of the C.I.A. to discuss plans on how to bring about this one-world system. The government commissioned Carl Sanders to design a microchip for identifying and controlling the peoples of the world—a microchip that could be inserted under the skin with a hypodermic needle (a quick, convenient method that would be gradually accepted by society).

Carl Sanders, with a team of engineers behind him, with U.S. grant monies supplied by tax dollars, took on this project and designed a microchip that is powered by a lithium battery, rechargeable through the temperature changes in our skin. Without the knowledge of the Bible (Brother Sanders was not a Christian at the time), these engineers spent one-and-a-half-million dollars doing research on the best and most convenient place to have the microchip inserted.

Guess what? These researchers found that the forehead and the back of the hand (the two places the Bible says the mark will go) are not just the most convenient places, but are also the only viable places for rapid, consistent temperature changes in the skin to recharge the lithium battery. The microchip is approximately seven millimeters in length, .75 millimeters in diameter, about the size of a grain of rice. It is capable of storing pages upon pages of information about you. All your general history, work history, criminal record, health history, and financial data can be stored on this chip.

Brother Sanders believes that this microchip, which he regretfully helped design, is the “mark” spoken about in Revelation 13:16–18. The original Greek word for “mark” is “charagma,” which means a “scratch or etching.” It is also interesting to note that the number 666 is actually a word in the original Greek. The word is “chi xi stigma,” with the last part, “stigma,” also meaning “to stick or prick.” Carl believes this is referring to a hypodermic needle when they poke into the skin to inject the microchip."

Mr. Sanders asked a doctor what would happen if the lithium contained within the RFID microchip leaked into the body. (...)

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM