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Archive-Name: sci/food-science-faq/part1

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Last-modified: 2007/12/03

FAQ - SCI.BIO.FOOD.SCIENCE Frequently-Asked Questions (1 of 3)

On behalf of Rachel Zemser and J. Ralph Blanchfield, I welcome you to

You are all encouraged to contact one of us if you have suggestions
additions, or other 'major' questions we haven't thought of. Our names and
email addresses are:

Rachel Zemser, creator of the newsgroup

J. Ralph Blanchfield, Food Science, Food Technology & Food Law Consultant,
    Chair, IFST Member Relations & Services Committee and Web Editor, IFST
    Web on the WWW <>

Paul King, Creator and Maintainer of the List of Common Abbreviations

For a glossary of scientific, marketing, industry, technical and legal
terms of relevance to food science, see FAQ 2 of 3. For a list of common
questions and answers about food and food science, see FAQ 3 of 3.

 - Paul King

FAQ  1/3- SCI.BIO.FOOD-SCIENCE Frequently-Asked Questions


The following documents have been brought to you by:

Rachel  Zemser,  creator of the newsgroup

J  Ralph Blanchfield,
    Food Science, Food Technology & Food  Law Consultant, Chair, IFST
    Member Relations & Services Committee and Web Editor, IFST Web on the
    WWW <>

Paul King, Creator and Maintainer of the List of Common
    Abbreviations <>

    This document has been created to answer questions about Food
Science and the newsgroup This  document
contains five Parts, formatted in three Files.

FILE 1/3
         I.   Guidelines for posting in
         II.  A list of Food Science related Web Sites
         III. A list of common abbreviations

FILE 2/3
         IV.  Food  Science Definitions and Interpretations that have
              been prepared by a joint working  group of the Institute of
              Food Science and Technology (IFST) and the UK Association of
              Public Analysts (APA)

FILE 3/3
         V.  Frequently  Asked  Questions About Food Science and
             that  have  been prepared by the Institute of Food Science &
             Technology (IFST), the professional qualifying body for food
             scientists and technologists; a UK-based body with
             international interests. <WWW address


     The goals of this newsgroup are:

     1. To discuss topics and issues related to food chemistry,
food microbiology, food engineering/processing, food biotechnology,
dairy science, agriculture, fermentation, nutrition, toxicology,
agribusiness, sensory science, and food safety.

     2. To share experimental methods and improved teaching

     3. To announce job vacancies for food science and technology
professionals in all relevant fields.

     4. To provide an opportunity for food science and technology
professionals to post resumes of up to 500 words.

     5. To make available, and answer questions about, abstracts
of papers for publication or presentations.

     6. To announce professional meetings, conferences, courses,
events, etc.,  world wide

     7. To discuss general areas of interest inside food science
and technology.

     8.  Postings are welcome from food science and technology
professionals, as well as from any others seeking advice or
information on  these subjects. No posting may offer for sale or hire, or
request payment for, goods, services or information

     Please make sure that your post is related to the above goals
of  the newsgroup. There are lots of other food related newsgroups and
some of them may be better for your post. Some of these groups are:,,,,,  ,, ,


         The following is a list of food science related web sites. Some
    of these may be of interest to food scientists reading this group.

         This list has been created in an effort to bring food scientists
    closer together on the internet. If you find a site that is not
    mentioned in this list please email Paul King at
    <> or Ralph Blanchfield at


         There are many food science/edu web pages. This list does not
    include every one. However, from these sites, one can link to many
    more food science/academic related sites. This list will be updated on
    a regular basis. Though the list is alphebetized, the words
    'University' or 'University of' will be ignored in the

         In addition, the web sites are sorted by country, as far as 1)
    the available information, and 2) the country code of the web site
    will allow. This is in light of the fact that the number of websites
    suggested by our subscribers have grown considerably over the past
    while, and some logical ordering is necessary. If your mailer, news
    reader or text viewer can do a case-sensitive string search, you will
    find that the spellings of the countries are capitalised.

Queensland University:
University of Ballarat:

Graz Univ of Technology, Div of Fd Chem:

University of British Colombia:
Acadia University: University
of Alberta: University of Guelph: University of Manitoba: McGill University: Memorial University of Newfoundland
(MUN) Aquaculture program:
Dalhousie University Food Sci and Tech:
University of Saskatchewan:

Royal Vetarinary and Agricultural University:

University of Helsinki:

University of Hohenheim:
University of Karlruhe:
Technical University of Munich:

Agricultural University of Athens:

University College:

Bologna University:
University of Milan:

West Indies University:

                        THE NETHERLANDS (HOLLAND)
Wageningen University:

                              NEW ZEALAND
University of Auckland:
Lincoln University:
Massey University:
University of New South Wales:
University of Otago:

                              NORTHERN IRELAND
Queen's University:

Swiss Federal Institute of Technology:

Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology:

Lund University (Fd Eng):

Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences:
Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (Zurich):

                              UNITED KINGDOM
University of Huddersfield:
University of Leeds:
University of Nottingham:
Oxford Brookes University: University of
Reading: University of Strathclyde: 
University of Surrey:
York University:

                              UNITED STATES
Arizona University:
Brigham Young University:
California Polytechnical University:
Clemson University:
University of California at Davis:
University of Colorado:
Cornell University:
University of Delaware:
University of Florida:
University of Idaho:
University of Illinois:
Kansas State University:
University of Kentucky:
Louisiana State University:
University of Maine: University of Maryland: University of Massachusetts: Michigan State University: University of Minnesota: Mississippi State University: University of Missouri: North Dakota State University:
University of Nebraska:
Oklahoma State Animal Sciences):
Ohio State University:>
Oregon State University:
Penn State University:
University of Rhode Island:
Purdue University:
Rutgers University:
Texas A&M FS and Engineering:
University of Wisconsin:
Virginia Tech:
Washington State University:
Wayne State University:


    SUNSITE.ORG.UK: By entering the complete name of this newsgroup on a
    web search form at Google Groups <>, you
    may access all past postings in this (or any) newsgroup. The listings
    of the postings will be in reverse chronological order. Where you see
    the subject line of this FAQ, follow that link, and the result is a
    copy of our FAQ, but with a differnce: All of the web links mentioned
    in FAQ 1/1 become LIVE web links. Thus, if you access this FAQ posting
    via DejaNews, all of the links mentioned below become live links which
    can be followed to academic, commercial, or government sites
    worldwide. The same is true on any other posting where a user may make
    a passing mention of a web site.

    The official place of the most up-to-date FAQ is stored at MIT:

    It is better than DejaNews in that the FAQ is in the three parts that
    we had intended; you need not press any icons for the next screenful
    of text; and any mentioned links are still live, meaning you can use
    their copy of our FAQ on Netscape to jump to an y site on the internet
    that we have listed. This service is provided to us via the University
    of Oxford. DejaNews can still be useful to look at past postings.

         This list will also be updated from time to time.

Agriculture and Agri-Food:
American Association of Cereal Chemists:
Australian Institute of Food Science and Technology Inc.:
Australian Institute of Food Science & Technology (AIFST):
Beer Info Source:
BUBL Food Science Links:
Burnaby Cook-Chill Production Center:
Canadian Institute of Food Science and Technology:
Canadian Org. of Nutritional Education: CanWine: Center For Disease Control:
Center for FS and Nutrition Research:
Center for Science in the Public Interest:
Chemistry & Industry Magazine: <> Code of Federal
Codex Alimentarius: Consumer Information
Center: Culinary Arts and FS Career
Guide: DejaNews Website: Dept. Of Agriculture and Rural Development
(N. Ireland):
Ed Blonz's FS site list:
FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition:
Federal Trade Commission (USA): Food and Agricultural
Policy Research Institute:
Food and Nutrition Information Center:
Food Chemical News Homepage:
"Food Dude" browser (USA):
Food Engineering - R. Paul Singh:
Food Law Page:
Foodnet (Canada):
Food Navigator:
Food Science Australia:
Food Science and Technology International (Journal):
Food Science Central:
Food Science FAQ on HTML:
Food Science Jobs: Functional Foods For Health: Garden State Labs HACCP Page: IFIC Foundation: IFT
Journal of Food Science:
Institute of Food Science and Technology (IFST):
Integrated Crop Management:
International Food Data Systems Project (FAO):
Institute of Food Research: Institute of
Food Science & Technology (IFST): Institute
of Food Technologists (IFT): International Food
Information Council: Internet
Resources for FS & Technology CSIRO, Australia:
Leatherhead Food Research Association:
Maize Genome Database:
Morbidity and Mortality Reports:
National Science Teacher's Association:
National Food Safety Database:
National Council Against Health Fraud:
New Zealand Institute for Crop and Food Research:
New Zealand Institute of Food Science and Technology: Nutrient Database:
Post-Harvest Horticultural Links (FS and Food Safety):
Sean Doyle's Food Science Page:
Singapore Institute of FS&T:
Society of Chemical Industry:
SoyBean Site, the Illinois Soybean Association:
Soybeans: Strategic Tools and Resources:
The World of Food Science (IFT and IUFoST):
Tufts University Nutrition Navigator:
University of California at Davis - Seafood Network Information Centre:
USDA Home Page:                <>
USDA Food and Nutrition Information Center:
USDA Food Composition Tables:
USDA Nutrient Values of Foods:
US National Center for Health Statistics:
Veggies Unite: Wild Blueberries: Wine:


Campbell Soup Company:        
<> Dole 5 A Day                 
 <> Frito-Lay                     
<> Gerber Baby food:             
<> Hershey:                      
<> Kellogs:                      
<> Mars' M&Ms Homepage           
<> McCormick and Co.             
<> Monsanto:                     
<> Nabisco:                      
<> Quaker Oats:                  
<> The Snack food Association:   
<> NutraSweet:                   

 * If anyone knows of any other web sites, email: Paul King at
   <> or Ralph Blanchfield at


         BEEF-L: A mailing list and discussion group for beef specialists
    in university, government and commercial activities.


         CANWINE: is an unmoderated mail discussion group formed to look
    at the whole spectrum of Canadian wines and the Canadian wine
    industry. To subscribe to CANWINE, send the message (no subject
    line): subscribe canwine to:          

         CHAPHALL: The Chappel-Hall Books mailing list. Chappell-Hall is
    a publishing company that publishes food science books, among others.
    Send an email with the message "subscribe chaphall-fst [your email
    address]" to:                     
    example: subscribe chaphall-fst

         DNH-PILOT The Diet, Nutrition and Health project mailing list
    covers sociology, food science and technology, agricultural economics
    and psychology. Researchers in academic institutions across the
    European Union, hopefully together with industrial partners and with
    some external funding, are involved. To subscribe send email to:


         FDMKTNEWS-MG Once a month you get a short summary of prices and
    availability of foods in the US. Sometimes, comments on new
    regulations, etc. Send email to:, with the
    message: subscribe fdmktmews-mg Food-for-thought ] This list is
    primarily intended as a forum for discussions on all aspects of food
    and eating across different disciplines. The list also provides a
    bulletin board for notices of meetings, employment opportunities, new
    publications etc.                      

         FISH: To subscribe to the Fish Mailing List, send email to
    <> with one of the following
    commands in the body of the message. You may leave the subject line
    blank. To subscribe to the Fish Mailing List enter "subscribe fish"
    (excl using quotes) in the body of your email to them. For a list of
    other commands and subscription options enter: "help" in the body of
    your email. If your mailer adds a signature, then you need to include
    the word "end" at the last line of your message body . Commands in the
    Subject line are NOT processed. 

         FOOD-COMP: This is a list dealing with food composition and data:
    Subscription (handled manually) 
    Articles: <>

         FOODENG A list for discussion and announcements on food
    engineering topics and events.
    Subscription (automatic): <>
    with the body of message reading only: "SUBSCRIBE FOODENG yourname".
    Articles: <>

         FOOD-FOR-THOUGHT is a forum for discussion on all aspects of
    food, and a bulletin board for relevant announcements. Send articles
    to: <> Subscription (automatic):
    <> with the body of message containing
    only: "JOIN FOOD_FOR-THOUGHT yourname"

         FOOD-LAW : to discuss latest developments in food law and
    regulatory issues and to share course outlines and curricula. The
    subscribe instructions are: "send the comand: "subscribe food-law
    <your name>" as the only text of an e-mail message to
    <> Articles:  

         FOODSAFE This is a mailing list and discussion group for food
    specialists in city, county and other settings. Food safety alerts are
    posted to this list when appropriate. The subscribe instructions are:
    send the command: "subscribe foodsafe yourname youremail" as the body
    of your e-mail message to:   <> Articles
    (Members only):  <>

         FOODWINE Designed to facilitate discussion among those seriously
    interested in the academic study of food and its accompaniments in the
    1990's. Send a subscription request to:

         J-FOOD-L Discussion of Japanese food, exchange of recipes.

         OZWINE Wines of Australia and New Zealand. To subscribe to
    OZWINE, please send the following command in the body of your email
    letter to <mailto:MAISER@KOALA.CS.COWAN.EDU.AU> With "subscribe ozwine
    <your name>" being the only text of your email.

         IFT : This is intended for IFT Food Science Communicators and
    other food scientists and technologists approved by the group. Its
    purpose is to permit very rapid dialogue on fast-breaking public and
    media issues affecting the food science and technology profession.

         FOODSCI. This is a closed list, restricted to academic food
    science administrators (department chairs, heads, deans or
    directors). Only they may subscribe (and hence receive e-mails), but
    anyone can post to it. It is intended to enable a single notice to be
    sent to them all simultaneously.


         NUTRITIONAL EPIDEMIOLOGY: <mailto:nutepi@db0tuill.bitnet>


The purpose of this section is to provide information on recommended texts
and reference books which would be useful to both food scientists and non
food scientists. The people recommending these books are the subscribers
to I will accept corrections and new submissions on
an ongoing basis.

The format of these entries are loosely based on the Journal of Food
SUBJECT: Author(Year). Title. Edition. City:Publisher. ISBN. Comments.

Where you would normally see "food" as part of the "SUBJECT" field, as in
"food additives" or "food chemistry", the word "food" is dropped.

        ANALYSIS: Nielsen, S. Suzanne, ed. (1994). Introduction to the
        Chemical Analysis of Foods. 1st edition. Boston: Jones and
        Barlett. ISBN 0-86720-826-0. This is an excellent introduction to
        the field, and a good "refresher" even for more experienced food

        ANTIMICROBIALS: Davidson, P.M. and Branen, A.L.(1993).
        Antimicrobials in Foods. 2nd ed. New York: Marcel Dekker. ISBN

        ADDITIVES: Branen, A.L., Davidson, P.M., and Salminen, S.(1990).
        Food Additives. New York: Marcel Dekker. ISBN 0-8247-8046-9.

        BIOCHEMISTRY: Matthews and Van Holden (1995). Biochemistry. 2nd
        ed. Benjamin-Cummings. ISBN? Very good, very mechanistic general
        biochem textbook.

        BIOCHEMISTRY: Stryer, Lubert (1995). Biochemistry. 4th ed. Freeman
        (?). ISBN? Less mechanistic, but it's pretty much the standard in
        many medical schools.

        CHEMISTRY: Belitz, H-D, and W Grosch(1987). Food Chemistry.
        Heidleberg:Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-97373-7. Translated from
        German by Dr D Hadziyev. Title in German: Lehrbuch der
        Lebensmittelchemie (2nd edition).

        CHEMISTRY: Fennema, Owen, ed. (199?). Food Chemistry. New York:
        Marcel Dekker. ISBN (Hard) 0-8247-7271-7; (Soft) 0-8247-7449-3.
        Pretty much the standard food chemistry textbook in Food Science
        departments in the United States and Canada.

        MICROBIOLOGY: Frazier, W. C., and Dennis C. Westhoff(1988). Food
        Microbiology. 4th Ed. New York: McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-021921-4.
        539 pp. Hardcover. 6 parts. Part1: Food and microbes. Part 2:Food
        Preservation. Part 3:Contamination and spoilage. Part 4:Foods and
        Enzymes Produced by Microbes. Part 5:Foodborne disease. Part
        6:Sanitation, control, and inspection.

        NUTRITION: Newstrom, Harvey(1993). The Nutrients Catalog.
        Jefferson, North Carolina: McFarland & Company, Inc. 
        ISBN: 0-89950-784-0.
        Hardbound, 538 pages, 2&3 columns of 8-point type, 5 appendices,
        index, $65.00. Monologs on 39 vitamins (subdivided into 185
        different chemicals), 43 minerals, 24 aminos, and 6
        macronutrients. covering nutrient names, classifications,
        different chemical forms, deficiency symptoms, side-effects,
        toxicity symptoms, inhibiting factors, helping factors, food
        sources with measured content levels, +/- variance in content
        measurements, possible application uses, nutritional dosages,
        therapeutic dosages, experimental dosages, toxic dosages, 11
        different versions of the USRDA and related regulations, and
        special warnings.

        ORGANIC CHEMISTRY: Fessenden, R J, and J S Fessenden(1986).
        Organic Chemistry. 3rd ed. Belmont, Calif: Wadsworth, Inc. ISBN:

        GENERAL REFERNCE: Budavari, Susan, ed.(1989). The Merck Index: An
        encyclopedia of chemicals, drugs, and biologicals. 11th Edition.
        Rahway, NJ: Merck & Co. ISBN: 911910-28-X. Contains extensive
        information on just about every organic compound for which there
        is either a use for, or a topic of scientific interest.

Aspen Publishers               <>
National Academy Press         <>


         It is not expected that you know and use all of the abbreviations
    listed below. This list should be used as a reference in the event you
    come across abbreviations that confuse you, or can't remember.

         They include names of organisations, scientific abbreviations,
    common chemical symbols, derived largely from the Merck Index.

         References given in braces {}. Where {Stryer} appears, refer to
    Lubert Stryer's _Biochemistry, _ 2nd Edition (Freeman). Where no
    reference appears the shorthand is suggested by the author. For
    suggestions and additions email to <>. For brevity
    all except the most common organic compounds are left out. Also left
    out are most of the units of measurement; both metric and Imperial.

         Also not included on this list are the generic abbreviations for
    the Internet, such as BTW, IMHO, or RTFM. You can get those in
    newsgroups of the "news.*" hierarchy, notably news.answers,
    news.announce.newusers, and for further help on these and other
    matters having strictly to do with the internet, post your queries to:

         ON SUPERSCRIPTS AND SUBSCRIPTS: There has been some concern in
    past on the matter of the transmission of superscripts and subscripts
    over the Internet. Since we are all limited to the ASCII character
    set, one cannot easily change typeface or fonts in a way that would be
    transmittable in the bodies of email messages or news messages. A case
    in point is the variable which reports the "heat effect" or
    "sterilisation effect" of a thermal process, called F. F is usually
    reported in the context of two other variables, z (the change in
    temperature needed for a tenfold increase in the amount of bacterial
    spores killed), and T (the core temperature of the can). In normal
    circumstances, we would write F with z as the superscript and T as the
    subscript. If we followed the old conventions used in this FAQ for
    reporting F, we would have to write: F^z_T, which appears illegible.
    Instead, we suggest a new convention which will make things clear for
    everyone. Report your variable with your parameters "spelled out" in
    parentheses. For example: F(z=10 degC; T=121.1 degC). Since the ASCII
    character set also has no "degree" symbol, these have to be "spelled
    out" as well. The abbreviation for "degrees Celsius" was taken from
    the list below.

    ^          Exponent (as in 6.022x10^23, i^(-1/2), e^k)
    _          Subscript (as in E_p (potential energy))
    /          Fraction  (as  in  1/2);  as below to separate
               (as in UDP/UMP/UTP); per (as in km/h)
    ~          Approximately equal to; proportional to
    =          Equal to
    !=         Not equal to {C++ programming convention}
    ==         Equivalent {C++ programming convention}
    !==        Not equivalent
    >          Greater than
    >>         Much greater than
    <          Less than (the Pac Man always eats the larger value :-) << 
           Much smaller than >=         Greater than or equal {programming
    convention} <=         Less than or equal {programming convention} +/-
           Plus or minus (note the special use of the slash) ||        
    Parallel !          Factorial @          At (as in "500g of lettuce @
    $0.45/kilogram") * or x     Multiplication

    A          Adenine; Adenosine; absorbance (extinction) {Merck}; The
               conjugate acid of an acid-base pair
    Ac         Acetyl; Acetic {Merck}
    AcOAc      Anhydrous Acetic Acid
    AcOH       Acetic Acid {Merck}
    AcOEt      Ethyl Acetate {Merck}
    Acetyl CoA Acetyl coenzyme A
    AcylSCoA   Acyl coenzyme A
    ACS        American Chemical Society {Merck}
    ADP        Adenosine diphosphate
    AIFST      Australian Institute of Food Science & Technology
    alc        Alcohol(ic); Ethanol; Ethyl Alcohol {Merck}
    alk        Alkali(ne)
    AMP        Adenosine Monophosphate
    amt(s)     Amount(s) {Merck}
    aq         aqueous
    ATCC       American Type Culture Collection
    atm        atmospheres; atmoshperic
    ATP        Adenosine triphosphate
    ATPase     Adenosine triphosphatase
    AW         Atomic weight
    Aw         Water activity

    B          Asparagine or aspartic acid {Stryer}; The conjugate base of
               an acid-base pair
    BBSRC      Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (UK)
    bp         Base pair; boiling point; boils; boils at; boiling
               at <temp> {Merck}
    BP         British Pharmacopeia {Merck}
    BPC        British Pharmaceutical Codex {Merck}
    BOD        Biochemical oxygen demand {Merck}
    BSA        Bovine Serum Albumin
    BSE        Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
    Btu        British thermal units
    Bu         Butyl

    cal        Calorie(s)
    calc       Calculate(d) {Merck}
    cAMP       Cyclic AMP
    cc         Cubic centimeter (milliliter)
    CDP        Cytidine 5'-diphosphate
    cf         Compare (confer) {Merck}
    cGMP       Cyclic GMP
    CHO        Carbohydrate
    CI         Color Index (British) {Merck}
    Ci         Curie {Merck}
    CIFST      Canadian Institute of Food Science & Technology
    CMC        Carboxymethylcellulose {cf Merck: CM-cellulose}
    CMP        Cytidine 5'-monophosphate
    CNS        Central Nervous system
    CoA/CoASH  Coenzyme A
    Conc       Concentrated; Concentration {cf Merck: concn}
    Cp         Heat capacity, constant pressure
    CP         Chemically pure {Merck}
    cpd        Compound; critical-point drying
    CTP        Cytidine 5'-triphosphate
    Cv         Heat capacity, constant volume

    d          Density {Merck}
    d-         dextrorotatory {Merck}
    D12        12th Decimal Reduction
    deg        Degree(s)
    degC       Degrees Celcius
    degF       Degrees Fahrenheit
    degK       degrees Kelvin
    degR       degrees Roentgen
    deriv      Derivative
    DFO        Department of Fisheries and Oceans (Canada)
    dil        Dilute(d) {Merck}
    DNA        Deoxyribonucleic acid
    DNAase     Deoxyribonuclease
    DMSO       Dimethylsulfoxide
    dp         Degree of polymerisation
    ds         Double stranded

    E          Glutamic Acid {Stryer}; Exponent (as in 6.022 x 10E23)(see
               also the entry for ^ )
    (E)-       Entgen (German for opposite) in naming cpds
    ECSAFoST   East,  Central  and  Southern  African Federation of Food
               Science & Technology
    ed         Edition {Merck}; editor
    eds        Editors {Merck}; editions
    ED         Effective dose
    EDTA       Ethylenediaminetetraacetic  acid. Also: Edathamil;
               Edetic acid; and Versene Acid. {Merck}
    EFFST      European Federation for Food Science & Technology
    eg         For example (exempli gratia) {Merck}
    ELISA      Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay
    EPA        Environmental Protection Agency (of the United States)
    eq/eqn     Equation {Merck} equilib    Equilibrium {Merck} equiv     
    Equivalent Et-        Ethyl et al      And others (et alii) {Merck}
    EtOH       Ethanol; Ethyl Alcohol evap       Evaporated; evaporation
    {cf. Merck: evapn} EU         European Union (was the European Common

    F          The Sterilisation Effect (see notes above on scripting) FAC
           Food Advisory Committee (of the United Kingdom) FAO        Food
    and Agriculture Organisation (of the United Nations) FAQ       
    Frequently-asked question file (this file) fd         Freeze-dried;
    Freeze-drying FDA        Food and Drug Administration (of the US; also
    USFDA) FD&C       The US Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act {Merck} ff      
      Pages following (as in "see page 23, ff") FIFSTA     Federation of
    Institutes of Food Science & Technology of
               Australia and Southeast Asia
    fp         Freezing Point
    FP         Flavoprotein
    FS         Food Science
    FT         Fourier Transform(ation)

    G1P        Glucose phosphate
    G3P        Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
    G6P        Glucose-6-phosphate
    GABA       Gamma aminobutyric Acid
    GC         Gas chromatography/ Gas Chromatograph
    GDP        Guanosine-5'-Diphosphate
    gi         Gastrointestinal (tract)
    GlcA       Gluconic Acid {Merck}
    GMP        Guanosine-5'-Monophosphate (guanylic acid) {Merck}; Good
               Manufacturing Practice
    GTP        Guanosine-5'-Triphosphate

    HACCP      Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point
    HAZOP      Hazard and Operability Studies
    Hb         Hemoglobin
    HbCO       Carbon Monoxide Haemoglobin
    HbO2       Oxyhaemoglobin
    HDL        High-density lipoprotein
    HPLC       High-Pressure (performance, power) Liquid Chromatography
    HSA        Human Serum Albumin
    HWC        Health and Welfare Canada

    IARC       International Agency for Research on Cancer {Merck}
    ICC        Interstate Commerce Commission (USA) {Merck}
    IDP        Inosine-5'-diphosphate {Merck}
    ie         That is; that is to say (id est) {Merck}
    IEF        Isoelectric Focusing {Merck}
    IFIC       International Food Information Council
    IFSTI      Institute of Food Science & Technology of Ireland
    IFST       Institute of Food Science and Technology
    ig         Intragastric
    IMP        Inosine-5'-monophosphate {Merck}
    incl       Including {Merck}; included
    inorg      Inorganic
    insol      Insoluble
    IR         Infra-red
    ISO        Internal Organisation for Standardisation {Merck}
    ISO 9000   An extension of GMP (which see) and TQM (which see),
               expanded to an internationally recognised set of quality
               control standards through improved documentation systems.
    ITP        Inosine-5'-triphosphate {Merck}
    IU         International Unit
    IUC        International Union of Chemistry {Merck}
    IUFoST     International Union of Food Science & Technology
    IUPAC      International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry
    iv         Intravenous

    J          Joule(s)

    l-         levorotatory
    LC         Lethal Concentration {Merck}
    LC50       LC for 50% of animals tested
    LD         Lethal Dose {Merck}
    LD50       LD for 50% of animals tested
    LDL        Low-Density lipoproteins
    log        Common logarithm (Base 10)
    logn       Base n logarithm, where n is a base number (as in log2) loi
           Limit of impurities {Merck} ln         Natural logarithm LPS   

    MAC        Maximum  allowable  Concentration {Merck}
    MAFF       Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Food (of the UK)
    max        Maximum; maxima {Merck} Mb         Myoglobin MbO2      
    Oxymyoglobin {Merck} MCA        Manufacturing Chemists Association
    (USA) mcg        Microgram mCi        Millicurie Me/Met     Methyl
    MetOH/MeOH Methanol; methyl alcohol mfg/mfr    Manufacture;
    manufacturing {Merck} min        Minimum; minutes MLD        Minimum
    lethal dose MO         Microorganism; Molecular Orbital MOA       
    Ministry of Agriculture (Canada) MOEE       Ministry of Environment
    and Energy (Canada) mp         Melting point ms-        Meso
    (internally compensated) {Merck} MS         Mass spectrometry mw      
      Molecular weight

    n          The Omega carbon (as in n-6 for "omega-6"); Avogandro's
               number; number of moles (as in PV=nRT).
    NAD+/NADH  Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (reduced)
    NADP/NADPH Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced)
    NBS        National Bureau of Standards (USA)
    NCAHF      National Council Against Health Fraud (USA)
    NCTC       National Collection of Type Cultures (USA)
    NDP/NMP/NTP N-5'-mono/di/triphosphate, where N is any nucleoside
    ng         Nanogram
    NIOSH      National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
    nm         Nanometers
    NMR        Nuclear Magnetic Resonance
    NRDC       National Research Development Corporation (USA) {Merck}
    NSAID      Non-Steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs {Merck} NSC       
    National Service Center (USA) {Merck} NSERC      National Science and
    Engineering Research Council (Canada) NSF        National Science
    Foundation (USA) NZIFST     New Zealand Institute of Food Science &

    o-         Ortho
    O          Oxygen; denoting attachment to an oxygen atom {Merck}
    OAA        Oxaloacetate
    OD         Optical density
    OSHA       Occupational Health and Safety Act (USA) {Merck}
    OsM        Osmolar

    p-         Para
    Pa         Pascal
    PABA       Para-Aminobenzoic Acid
    PAGE       Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis
    pH         The negative base-10 log of the H+ concentration
    pK         The  negative base-10 logarithm of the equilibrium
               K, for the reaction in question.
    ppb        Parts per billion
    ppm        Parts per million
    ppt        Precipitate(d)
    Pr         n-Propyl

    Q          Glutamine {Stryer}; Coenzyme Q (ubiquinone)
    QA         Quality Assurance
    QC         Quality Control
    qv         which see (quod vide) {Merck}

    R          Arginine {Stryer}; Universal gas constant; alkyl group
    (R)-       Rectus (Right) (naming groups around a central carbon)
    RIST       Radioimmunosorbent test {Merck}
    RNA        Ribonucleic acid
    hnRNA      Heterogenous nuclear RNA
    mRNA       Messenger RNA
    nRNA       Nuclear RNA
    rRNA       Ribosomal RNA
    snRNA      Small Nuclear RNA
    tRNA       Transfer (soluble) RNA
    RNase      Ribonuclease
    RNI        Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Canadians
    RTECS      Registry of Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances

    s-         symmetrical
    S          Serine {Stryer}; Sulfur; denoting attachment to S
    (S)-       Sinister (left) (Opposite of R) {Merck}
    sc         Subcutaneous
    SDS        Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate
    sec        Seconds
    sec-       Secondary; attachment to secondary carbon
    sg/sp gr   Specific gravity
    SI         International System of Units
    sol        Soluble; solubility
    ss         Single stranded
    STP        Standard Temperature and Pressure
    sym-       Symmetrical

    T          Threonine {Stryer}; Temperature
    T(1/2)     Half-life
    TDP/TMP/TTP Thymidine di/mono/triphosphate {Merck}
    TDT        Thermal death time (for MO's (which see))
    temp       Temperature
    tert-      Tertiary; denoting attachment to tertiary carbon
    Tris       tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane
    TQM        Total-Quality Management

    UDP/UMP/UTP Uridine di/mono/triphosphate
    UKFFoST    UK Federation for Food Science and Technology
    USD        United States Dispensatory {Merck}
    USDA       United States Department of Agriculture {Merck}
    USFDA      The United States Food and Drug Administration (also FDA)
    USP        United States Pharmacopeia {Merck} uv         Ultraviolet

    v          Volume; volt(s)
    VLDL       Very Low-Density Lipoproteins
    vol        Volume
    vs         Versus
    v/v        % Volume in volume {Merck}

    WHO        World Health Organisation (United Nations)
    wt         weight
    w/v        % Weight in volume {Merck}
    w/w        % Weight in weight {Merck}

    Z          Glutamine or glutamic acid {Stryer}; Z-Value - the change
               temperature needed to change TDT by a factor of 10.
    (Z)-       Zusammen (German for together) - or "Zame Zide" from my
               organic chemistry days :-) {Merck}



------- End of forwarded message -------

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