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soc.culture.bulgaria FAQ (monthly posting) (part 8/10)

( Part0 - Part1 - Part2 - Part3 - Part4 - Part5 - Part6 - Part7 - Part8 - Part9 )
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Last-Modified: July 17, 2000
Posting-Frequency: Monthly
Version: 4.11
Archive-Name: bulgaria-faq/part8

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge

18-1 What are Bulgaria's national holidays 
(by Dragomir R. Radev)
New Year's Day                                                 Jan  1

National Holiday (Liberation from the Turks)                   Mar  3

Easter (not on the same day as in Western Europe) 

Labor Day                                                      May  1

St. Cyril and St. Methodius Day (Education and Culture Day,    May 24
		also Day of the Slavic Heritage)

Christmas                                                      Dec 25

18-2 Bulgarian Folk Festivals and Customs
(by Rossen Zlatev), last updated: 31-Dec-1991

    Many of the national customs originated in the Christian religion.
But there are also many traditions that bring with them a
spirit from ancient times. One of them is the traditional "horo" dance
which can be simple or sophisticated, gentle or wild. 

18-3 Trifon Zarezan (Wine-grower's Day)
(by Rossen Zlatev), last updated: 31-Dec-1991
14 February. Dressed in their Sunday-best, wine-growers prune the vines
and sprinkle them with wine for a good harvest. Everyone then gathers
for a delicious meal.

18-4 What do Bulgarian celebrate on March 1 
(by by Luben Boyanov)
On the first day of March, Bulgarians wish each other health and happiness
with "Chestita baba Marta" - (in English "Happy Grandma Marta"). "Marta"
comes from the word for March (Mart) in Bulgarian. This is an ancient
Bulgarian (pagan) tradition (well - I can't tell you how old but I think
that it's more than one thousand years old) and symbolizes the end of the
cold winter and the coming of the spring. Usually we put something in red
and white (a thread in the past and commercialized plastic junk at present)
on ourselves (on our wrist or clothes) and when we see the first stork
(supposed to come back from the south and not the one in the Zoo) we throw
the red and white thread on a tree. The red and white colours symbolize the
snow and the blood from an old story where, a stork brings the blessing for
health to a small child from its parents, who are far away. The giving of the
"marteniza" makes you feel to expect the Spring very soon. The "arrival" of
the stork indicates that this has happened. I don't have time now to tell
the entire story but I'm sure somebody will.
The lack of "real" winter and "storks" (not a lot of them in the cities :-()
raises some difficulties in implementing this tradition nowadays but
Bulgarians are still celebrating and very fond of the 1st of March (in a
traditional and "modern" way at the same time).

                      __        __
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                     \   \    /  /
                      \   \  /  /
                       \   \/  /
                          /  \
                         /    \
                        /      \
                       /        \
                      /          \
                     X            X
                    /|\          /|\
                   //|\\        //|\\
                  ///|\\\      ///|\\\
                 ////|\\\\    ////|\\\\
                /////|\\\\\  /////|\\\\\

18-5 How is the date of the Orthodox Easter calculated
(by Konstantin Zahariev), last updated: 06-Apr-1996
The URLs are below. For those of you who do not have an easy access to the
Web, here is a quote from from

Between AD326 and AD1582, Christianity determined Easter using an algorithm
approved by a Church Council in AD325, with the equinox defined as March 20
(the date in the Julian calendar of the equinox in AD325). From AD1054 (when
the Orthodox and Catholic Churches split) through AD1582 both the Catholic and
Orthodox Churches celebrated Easter on the same date, still using the
algorithm from AD325. The Julian Calendar was used by the European (and
Christian) communities until the Gregorian reform of 1582. 

Since AD1582 October (when the Gregorian Calendar was adopted by much of
Catholic Europe),  the Orthodox Easter usually falls on dates different than
the Western Christian Easter, although apparently the Churches are discussing
using the same formula to determine Easter - probably a formula different than
that currently used by either Church. 

The Orthodox Easter is determined in the Julian Calendar, and is never
before or on the Jewish Feast of Passover (14 Nisan in the Hebrew Calendar).
>From  1900 until 2099 the Eastern Easter will fall one, four, or five
weeks after the Western Easter - and rarely on the same date.

Alex Kochergin ( has sent the
following information about the Eastern Easter: It has a cycle that
(in the Julian Calendar) repeats itself every 532 (19x28) years (since the
Julian Solar calendar repeats every 28 years and the Metonic Lunar cycle is
19 years). Because of the strict concordance with the lunar cycle, the
Eastern Easter occurs only after Passover. The Gregorian Easter (on the
other hand) does not track Passover. For example: in 1997, Passover is
22 April; Western Easter is three weeks EARLIER (30 March) and the Eastern
Easter is the Sunday following Passover (27 April).

Alex also provided the following algorithm derived by the German mathematician
Gauss. This algorithm calculates the number of days AFTER March 21 (Julian)
that Easter occurs (Note: It is a much simpler calculation than the Western
Easter. RMD(x,y) = remainder when x is divided by y.)


The number RC ranges from 1 to 35 which corresponds to March 22 to April 25
in the Julian Calendar (currently April 4 to May 8 on the Gregorian). The
Julian Calendar is now 13 days behind the Gregorian, and will be until
March 1, 2100 when it will be 14 days behind the Gregorian Calendar.

For more details on the Orthodox Easter date rules, check out

For the Catholic Easter date rules, see

For the Hebrew calendar:

Finally, for you Matlab users, I could not resist but write the above algorithm
as a Matlab program - 

It accepts any year between 1583 and 2099.

18-6 Orthodox Easter Dates for 1997-2099
(by Konstantin Zahariev), last updated: 20-Mar-1997
 In 1997 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 27.
 In 1998 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 19.
 In 1999 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 11.
 In 2000 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 30.
 In 2001 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 15.
 In 2002 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, May  5.
 In 2003 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 27.
 In 2004 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 11.
 In 2005 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, May  1.
 In 2006 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 23.
 In 2007 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April  8.
 In 2008 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 27.
 In 2009 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 19.
 In 2010 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April  4.
 In 2011 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 24.
 In 2012 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 15.
 In 2013 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, May  5.
 In 2014 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 20.
 In 2015 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 12.
 In 2016 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, May  1.
 In 2017 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 16.
 In 2018 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April  8.
 In 2019 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 28.
 In 2020 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 19.
 In 2021 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, May  2.
 In 2022 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 24.
 In 2023 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 16.
 In 2024 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, May  5.
 In 2025 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 20.
 In 2026 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 12.
 In 2027 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, May  2.
 In 2028 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 16.
 In 2029 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April  8.
 In 2030 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 28.
 In 2031 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 13.
 In 2032 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, May  2.
 In 2033 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 24.
 In 2034 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April  9.
 In 2035 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 29.
 In 2036 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 20.
 In 2037 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April  5.
 In 2038 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 25.
 In 2039 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 17.
 In 2040 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, May  6.
 In 2041 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 21.
 In 2042 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 13.
 In 2043 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, May  3.
 In 2044 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 24.
 In 2045 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April  9.
 In 2046 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 29.
 In 2047 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 21.
 In 2048 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April  5.
 In 2049 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 25.
 In 2050 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 17.
 In 2051 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, May  7.
 In 2052 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 21.
 In 2053 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 13.
 In 2054 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, May  3.
 In 2055 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 18.
 In 2056 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April  9.
 In 2057 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 29.
 In 2058 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 14.
 In 2059 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, May  4.
 In 2060 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 25.
 In 2061 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 10.
 In 2062 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 30.
 In 2063 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 22.
 In 2064 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 13.
 In 2065 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 26.
 In 2066 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 18.
 In 2067 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 10.
 In 2068 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 29.
 In 2069 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 14.
 In 2070 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, May  4.
 In 2071 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 19.
 In 2072 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 10.
 In 2073 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 30.
 In 2074 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 22.
 In 2075 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April  7.
 In 2076 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 26.
 In 2077 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 18.
 In 2078 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, May  8.
 In 2079 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 23.
 In 2080 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 14.
 In 2081 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, May  4.
 In 2082 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 19.
 In 2083 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 11.
 In 2084 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 30.
 In 2085 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 15.
 In 2086 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April  7.
 In 2087 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 27.
 In 2088 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 18.
 In 2089 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, May  1.
 In 2090 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 23.
 In 2091 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April  8.
 In 2092 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 27.
 In 2093 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 19.
 In 2094 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 11.
 In 2095 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 24.
 In 2096 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 15.
 In 2097 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, May  5.
 In 2098 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 27.
 In 2099 the Orthodox Easter is on Sunday, April 12.

18-7 What is Gergyovden (St. George's Day)
(by by Luben Boyanov)
There are a lot of rituals and celebrations, concerning St. George's day
(Gergiovden). It is celebrated on the 6th of May, although some calendar
changes brought by the Orthodox Church (all dates for celebration of the
saints have been changed some time ago).
Saint George the Victorious ("Pobedonosez") was cannonized by the Church
because of what he has done. He is usually painted on an icon as riding a
white horse, holding a lance in his hand, stabbed in the throat of a beast
- the dragon ("lamia"). According to the legend, a dragon used to attack
the shepherds and their sheep and each time the dragon used to steal a
sheep or a lamb. The shepherds were desperate. Then St. George appeared and
killed the dragon. Since that day, the shepherds celebrate St. George
everyyear and make a "kurban" - slaughter of a lamb (sacrifice for St. George).
In every house of a village, a lamb is slaughtered. Before that some
flowers are put on the lamb's horns and even a prayer is read. All village
gates (doors) are covered with flowers. Early in the morning, people go to
the river to wash themselves. On this days, people has to check their
weight ("pretegliam se") - it has been the "only" day of the year when
people checked their weight. There has also been a tradition that people
goto a swing ("lyulka") on that day.
St. George's day (Gergiovden) has been pronounced (some years after the
liberation of Bulgaria) as the day of the Army - the Bravery day. The main
Army parade used to take place on this day. Recently, this festivity
has been restored.
As far as the 1st of May is concerned, it hasn't been a traditional
celebrational day. However, on this day everybody has been trying to cheat
somebody else (like on the 1st of April, nowadays). If one succeeds (in his
"cheating") - he says :"Mai, mai, zamayah te" (difficult to translate - a
play of words meaning - I've cheated you).
Traditionally on St. Paul's day (St. Pavel) - the 11th (or 29th) of June
people don't work and don't lit fires ("ogniove"). The next day is St.
Peter's day - when a chicken is to be eaten.

18-8 What is the origin of Petkovden (by Peter Yovchev)
(by Peter Yovchev) (This entry is in Bulgarian)
Prep. Paraskeva (Petka) pravoslavnata cqrkva chestva na 14 oktomvri. Tova e 
nepodvizhen cqrkoven praznik. Tja e rodena v grad Epivat-Trakija, prez X vek. 
Oshte na mladini se obricha v sluzhba na Boga. Naj-silno i povlijali 
Evangelskite slova, koito vednqzh chula v hrama: "Ako njakoj iska da vqrvi 
sled Mene, da se otkazhe ot sebe si". Celija si zhivot prep. Paraskeva 
prekarala v Jordanskata pustinja. Prez 1025 g. netlennite j moshti bili 
preneseni v Tqrnovo, a po-kqsno - v gr. JAsh - Rumqnija, kqdeto sa i do dnes.

18-9 Lazarouvane
(by Rossen Zlatev), last updated: 31-Dec-1991
1 April. The ancient festival of youth and spring. Young women and girls
dressed in national costumes with garlands of flowers on their heads
visit all the houses in the village, chanting traditional songs, dancing
and wishing health, happiness and fertility.

18-10 Bqlgarski obichai po kolednite praznici
(by Vladimir Marangozov), last updated: 30-Dec-1995 (This entry is in Bulgarian)
        Pravoslavniyat hristiyanski kalendar postavya za nachalo na
praznichnata godina 1 septemvri, makar grqko-rimskiat ezicheski obreden cikql
da e zapochval ot pqrvi yanuari. Sled pribiraneto na rekoltata idva redqt na
tradicionnite kalendarni praznici. Prez IV vek grqko-rimskoto duhovenstvo
vqvejda golemiyat praznik, nepoznat dotogava, Rojdestvo Hristovo, prikrepen kqm
denya na zimniya slqnchev krqgovrat, 25 dekemvri. Dqlgo vreme predi tova, a i
po-kqsno, v predelite na Rimskata imperiya sa se chestvali tqy narechenite
Kalendi, predhojdani ot drugi podobni praznici prez dekemvri, glavno
Saturnaliite. Bezsilna da gi otstrani napqlno, cqrkvata gi sqglasuva s novite
hristiyanski vqzgledi. Ot druga strana u nyakoi slavyanski narodi kolednite
obredi sa svqrzani s novogodishnite. U nas obache ima dva otdelni praznika -
Koleda i Vasilovden (Nova godina).
        Kak praznikqt Koleda e bil chestvan nyakoga? Shtom premine Nikulden
(6 dekemvri), kogato se chestva svetecqt, pokrovitel na zastrashenite po more
pqtnici, i nastqpi Ignajden (20 dekemvri), koyto po nyakoi mesta se smyata dori
za nachalo na novata godina, zapochva podgotovkata na netqrpelivo ochakvanata
Koleda. Na Nikulden se pravi kurban ot sharan. V denya na sveti Ignat, narichan
u naroda "polezov den", se gleda koy chovek shte doyde prqv (shte polazi) v
kqshtata i spored nego, spored haraktera mu i blagopoluchieto mu, se gadae za
shtastliva ili losha godina. Denyat sreshtu Koleda se naricha nyakqde "Bojik",
t.e. den na mladiya bog. Togava se otsicha v gorata debel pqn (dqb ili buk),
narechen "bqdnik", koyto tryabva da gori prez cyalata nosht. Prez tova vreme
semeystvoto buduva (bdi) i vnimava da ne zagasne ogqnyat. Dumata "bqdnik" i
ottam - Bqdni vecher - proizliza tqkmo ot tova bdenie. Bqdni vecher se praznuva
mnogo tqrjestveno s trapeza ot postni yastiya (sarmi, fasul, oshav, chesqn i
t.n.). Raznoobrazieto e zadqljitelno, za da moje prez godinata da ima ot
vsichko. Na tozi den strogo se spazvat nay-raznoobrazni obichai za predugajdane
na bqdeshteto i za vqvejdane na zdrave i blagodat v kqshtata. Na mnogo mesta
predi vecheryata nyakoy otiva v gradinata i zamahva s bradva po bezplodnite
drqvcheta sqs zakanata: "Shte preseka tova dqrvo!" Drug go spira: "Zashto shte
go sechesh" - "Oti ne rajda." - "Ostavi go, otsega shte rodi." Tova se povtarya
tri pqti. Po sqshtiyat nachin se plashat bezdetni jeni i neprohodili deca.
Posle mqjqt slaga na paleshnika ogqn i tamyan i prekajda tri pqti trapezata.
Pqrviyat zalqk ne se yade - sutrinta se dava na dobitqka; momata spi s nego i
ako sqnuva, che go yade s nyakoy momqk, shte se omqji za nego. Sled vecheryata
se chupyat orehi, za da se vidi kqsmeta na vseki - hubavata yadka oznachava
zdrave i spoluka, a razvalenata - bolest. Edna cyala yadka se ostavya za sv.
Bogorodica - tya sluji za lek, kakto i drugite zapazeni ot tazi vecher neshta.
A kogato se nahranyat, vsichki stavat vkupom, za da se izmqtyat yaycata pod
kvachkata zaedno, da ne se razpilyavat kokoshkite, piletata i pchelite.
Domakinqt pristqpya naveden dozemi, za da bqdat klasovete na nivata pqlni i
privedeni ot jito i t.n.
        Na sutrinta na 25 dekemvri, Golyama Koleda, se gleda v kqshtata
nay-napred da doyde momiche ili mlada jena, ta agnetata da bqdat vse jenski.
Vajno myasto v cyalata obrednost imat pesnite na koledarite, koito se
izpqlnyavat ot drujina koledari vecherta sreshtu praznika i zaranta na drugiya
den. Mladi momci podgotvyat nyakolko dni po-rano praznichnite pesni, zapomneni
ot staro vreme. V urechen chas te trqgvat da "slavyat" Rojdestvo Hristovo,
obikalyayki vsichki kqshti na seloto. V atmosfera, nasitena ot nay-hubavi
nedejdi i ot radost na mladi i stari, pevcite poseshtavat vsyaka kqshta,
noseyki "blagata vest" za zdrave i uspeh. Pesnite, koito prozvuchavat
nay-tqrjestveno prez noshtta, ne sa sluchayna dobavka kqm religiozno chestvane.
Te predstavlyavat negov osnoven dyal, bez koyto ne moje da se misli za nikakvo
povisheno nastroenie i nikakva vyara v prorocheskoto znachenie na dumite, koito
se kazvat. Vsichki useshtat nastqpvaneto na nov godishen period i se nadyavat
na blagodenstvie i bereket. Pesnite sa sqobrazeni s vqzrastta, polejenieto v
semeystvoto i chastnite interesi ili mechti na vseki, kato se polaga golyama
grija da ne bqde zabraven nikoy i da ne se sgreshi v reda na chestvaneto.
Pqrvata vqzhvala e prednaznachena za domakina - "stanenik" ili za "chudnoto
dqrvo", bqdnika, simvol na ochakvanata blagodat. Dqrvoto se misli za vqzvisheno
do nebeto spusnalo kloni do zemyata. Po nego sliza sam Gospod ("Mlada Boga"),
za da daruva shtedro momi i momci, mayki i dqshteri, bashti i sinove, deca i
starci sqs "suho zlato, dreben biser" i da predricha pqlna kqshta s "drebni
deca, agnenca, telenca, prasenca" i t.n. Vsyaka pesen za domakina zavqrshva sqs
stereotipno zaklyuchenie:
                Tebe peem, stanenine,
                Tebe peem, blagoslovi!
                Ot boga ti mnogo zdrave,
                ot drujina veselbina!
        S shiroko sqrce i vesel duh domakinqt simvolichno e gotov da
oblagodetelstva drujinata s vsichko onova, koeto moje da ya radva i nasqrchava.
        Sreshtu sv. Vasil (1 yanuari) se pravi kadena vecher ("vtori Bqdni
vecher"). Na trapezata se slaga banica ili mlin, v koyto ima malki dryanovi
prqchki s pqpki i edna srebqrna para. Koyto nameri parata shte bqde nay-bogat i
shtastliv, a na kogoto se padne nyakoe ot klonchetata - toy shte poluchi
kqsmeta, koyto e narechen na tova klonche - zdrave, svatba, nova kqshta i t.n.
Drugo tradicionno yastie e pachata ot svinska glava. Na sutrinta po-mladite
momcheta trqgvat da survakat za zdrave s otrano prigotvenite survaknici ot
ukraseni dryanovi klonki. Navsyakqde gi daruvat s pari, orehi i kravai.
        Sreshtu 2 yanuari, sv. Silvestriy, se pravi "rivanka" ili "rivane" na
oborite. Po mrqknaloto, cheta momci trqgva s gaydi i pesni, vliza vqv vsyaka
kqshta i izriva torta ot oborite, koito ne sa chisteni ot Bqdni vecher.
Navsyakqde gi chaka torba s kravai, bqklica vino, nadenica ili pecheno svinsko
meso. Domakinite ne gi posreshtat, no ostavyat portite otvoreni, a kuchetata
vqrzani. Rinachite peyat iz ulicite, igrayat okolo bayrak i na drugiya den
prodavat sqbranata slanina i s parite pravyat nova goshtavka.
        Na 6 yanuari se praznuva Bogoyavlenie ili Vodici. Togava se krqshtava
vodata i ot tozi den prestava da hodi karakondjo, koyto e obikalyal prez
dvanadesette "poganni dni". Sveshtenikqt pravi vodosvet na rekata, ezeroto ili
moreto, kqdeto se otiva s ikoni i horugvi, i hvqrlya krqsta vqv vodata. Momcite
skachat da go vadyat i posle obikalyat s nego i sqbirat bakshish. Momi i ergeni
zaedno obikalyat imennicite i im miyat licata sqs specialna voda, koyato nosyat
sqs sebe si. Vyarva se, che ako zamrqzne kitkata na popa pri vodosveta,
godinata shte bqde plodorodna. Bolni i deca se kqpyat s drehite v rekata, a
"krqstenata voda" se pie za zrdave na gladno sqrce. Nyakoi krqshtavat s neya
vinoto i razsola, za da ne se razvalyat.
        Posledniyat ppraznik ot tozi cikql e Babinden. Na nego maykite s malki
deca gostuvat na svoite "babi" (t.e. akusherki), nosyat im darove i im polivat
da se izmiyat, sled koeto se otdavat na veselo i shumno ugoshtenie. Ponyakoga,
babite bivat otkarvani do rekata i okqpani.
        S veselie i bogati trapezi se praznuvat i mnogo imenni dni, svqrzani s
praznicite na hristiyanskite svetci:
        - 4 dekemvri e denyat na velikomqchenica Varvara
        - 5 dekemvri e denyat na sv. Sava;
        - 6 dekemvri e Nikulden
        - 20 dekemvri e denyat na sveshtenomqchenik Ignatiy-Bogonosec- Ignajden
        - 22 dekemvri e denyat na velikomqchenica Anastasiya, chestvana v
             narodniya kalendar i katp sv. Ana;
        - 25 dekemvri _ Koleda - e denyat, kogato praznuvat vsichki Hristovci
        - 27 dekemvri e Stefanovden;
        - 1 yanuari e Vasilovden
        - 2 yanuari e denyat na sv. Silvestqr, papa Rimski;
        - 6 yanuari - Bogoyavleniue - e Yordanovden, togava praznuvat i vsichki
        - 7 yanuari e Ivanovden, praznikqt na sv. Yoan Krqstitel;
        - 18 yanuari e Atanasovden.
        Surva, surva godina,
        vesela godina!
        Zelen klas na niva,
        golyam grozd na loze,
        jqlt mamul na lesa,
        chervena yabqlka v gradina,
        pqlna kqshta s koprina,
        jivo-zdravo dogodina,
        dogodina, do amina!

18-11 Koleduvane (Christmas Carol Singing)
(by Rossen Zlatev), last updated: 31-Dec-1991
24 December. An old national custom. Young men dressed in national
costumes go from house to house, chanting carols for health, happiness
and fertility.

18-12 The Festival of Roses
(by Rossen Zlatev), last updated: 31-Dec-1991
The Festival of Roses is celebrated during the first half of June in the
Valley of Roses. Rose picking starts early, before dawn, while the roses
are still glistening with dew. The rose petals are picked before sunrise, 
otherwise the precious fragrance will be lost. Two thousand petals are
needed for a single gram of attar of roses. On the international market
seventy per cent of rose attar comes from Bulgaria. It is bought by
all the famous perfumeries and is an essential component of the best
and most expensive perfumes.

18-13 New Year's traditions (in Bulgarian)
(by Iliya Talev), last updated: 27-Dec-1995
         "Sorcova, vesela,
         sa traesti, sa imbatranesti...
         la anul si la multi ani!.."

         [= "Surva, vesela,
         da si zdrav, da jiveesh dqlgo...
         dogodina i za mnogo godini!"]

Taka nashite severni sqsedi se survakat na vrqh Nova godina.  A v 
uchilishte sa gi uchili, che survakaneto e "dreven dakiyski obichay", 
koyto e unikalen za rumqncite... (izliza sqshto kato gaydata i 
vardarskite makedonci)!

Tazi magicheska formulirovka, ochevidno, ne e na originalniya ezik: 
prilagatelnite "sorkova, vesela" sa v jenski rod, no lipsva 
poyasnyavanata ot tyah duma - "godina"!  Kato dadem bqlgarskiya 
variant, shte vidim, che na bqlgarski frazata naistina ima zavqrshen vid, 
kakto podobava ba magicheski formuli:

         "Surva, surva godina, vesela godina...
         Jivi-zdravi dogodina, dogodina - do amina!"

Tova e originalqt - rumqnskiyat prevod e po-nov, vtorichen.  No 
obichayat e pqrvichen i u dvata naroda, dokolkoto te sa izgradeni ot 
pochti ednakvi etnicheski komponenti.

Podoben obichay namirame v nyakoi rayoni na Yujna Chuvashiya. 
Chuvashkiyat narod e amalgama na voljski bqlgari i finskoto pleme 
mordva. Ukrasenoto klonche, s koeto decata tam survakat, se naricha 
"survak", a prilagatelnoto "survali" v tezi dialecti oznachava "zdrav", 
"jiznoradosten". Po vsyaka veroyatnost ima nyakakva genetichna 
vrqzka;  standartnoto obyasnenie v bqlgarskata etnografiya, che 
"surva", "susrvachka" idvali ot "suroviya dryan", ot koyto se pravi 
survachkata, e nezadovolitelno. "Surva godina" v takqv sluchay shte e 
bezmislica.  Daje neshto poveche - nikoy nyama da pojelae na blizkite 
si "surova godina" (sravni "surovi izpitaniya")!  Az lichno sqm sklonen 
da vyarvam, che v "surva godina", "survachka", "survakari" i t.n. 
korenqt "surv-" e izolirano yavlenie v ezika, nyama drugi semantichni 
realizacii v bqlgarski i e relikva ot ezik, koyto ne razbirame. Vtorichno 
dokazatelstvo e fonetichnata  korupciya na dumata v rumqnski - 
"sorcova", duma kakto za survachka, taka i nachalna duma v 
blagosloviyata na survakarite.  Za men e yasno, che govoreshtite 
bqlgarski v Rumqniya ne sa mogli da prevedat na rumqnski dumite 
"surva", "survak", i zatova te sa absorbirani ot rumqnski spored 
fonetichnite pravila na ezika (v rumqnski, ot ukrasenata s mnogocvetni 
parcalcheta ili knijki survachka, "sorcova" znachi oshte bezvkusica - 
sinonim na izraza "kato ciganski gashti").

Bqlgarskite novogodishni obryadi se proyavyavat kakto v survakane, 
taka i v maskisrane i predskazaniya za bqdeshteto.  V tova otnoshenie 
se zabelyazva razdelyane na bqlgarskata etnicheska teritoriya na yugo-
iztochna i severo-zapadna. Maskiraneto v trakiyskite rayoni (kukerite), 
kakto i mominskoto gadaene (laduvaneto) sa svqrzani s proletnite, a ne 
s novogodishnite praznici.  Tuk zabelyazvame vrqzka s albanskoto 
"survakane".  Albanskite deca survakat na pqrvi mart, s cqfnali 
dryanovi prqchki (narecheni "lilidona"), a denyat se naricha "dita 
colindrave" [=koleden den];  magmicheskata formula e podobna na 
bqlgaro-rumqnskata, "da ste jivi i zdravi dogodina i do amina".  

Edno vqzmojno obyasnenie e, che pqrvonachalno novata godina e 
praznuvana po rimski obichay na pqrvi mart.  Po-kqsno, s vqvejdaneto 
na hristiyanskiya kalendar, pqrviyat den na godinata stava 
Vasilyovden.  Pod vliyanie na prabqlgarite, doshli ot sever, starite 
balkanski proletni novogodishni praznici se sqchetavat s prabqlgarskite 
severni, zimni  praznici. Imenno Trakiya e teritoriyata, na koyato e 
nyamalo prabqlgarsko prisqstvie, i zatova starite rimski novogodishni 
obryadi s maskirane, pantonimen teatqr, gadaene i t.n. ne se 
prehvqrlyat v zimata (no tova e samo predpolojenie).

Koeto ni e ostanalo dnes ot starite novogodishni tradicii e survakaneto i 
elementi ot gadaeneto (sqs skritata para za kqsmet v novogodishnata 
banica).  Dnes glavno deca hodyat da survakat, a v Rumqniya decata 
sa vse oshte maskirani, ili pone licata im sa dekizirani s vqglen ili 
maminoto chervilo.

Survachkata se pravi ot sveja, napqpila dryanova prqchka.  Pone edno 
klonche tryabva da e previto nadolu, kato egipetskiya simvol na 
dqlgoletie "ankh";  obiknoveno dve kloncheta sa previti, i survachkata 
ima formata na nashata bukva "f", dvoen "ankh".  Prqchkata se 
ukrasyava s mnogocvetni parcalcheta, ushiti kato po-drebni cvetya i 
golemi gyulove (rozi).  Ddnes tova se pravi ot mnogocvetna meka 
hartiya.  Survachkite sega se kopuvat gotovi ot ciganite (poslednite 
paziteli na nashite tradicii!), a ne se pravyat ot semeystvoto mejdu 
Koleda i Nova godina.  Po tradiciya, survachkite sa se pazeli do 
proletta i sa se izgaryali ceremonialno na kladi pri proletnoto maskirane 
na Zagovezni, a decata preskachali ogqnya za zdrave..

"Nova godina" e sravnitelno nov izraz v bqlgarskiya ezik.  Tradicionno 
praznikqt se naricha "Survaki", "Surva", "Surova", "Suroka", 
"Surozdru", "Vasilyovden", "Vasilica", "Vasiliya" - v zavisimost ot 
dialekta i oblastta.

Dochakvaneto na Novata godina stava na dqlga vecherya, narichana na 
mesta "vtora kadena vecher" (vtora, sled Bqdni vecher). Tya se 
otlichava ot Bqldni vecher i po tova, che sega se kanyat i ne-chlenove 
na semeystvoto.  Tradicionna hrana e varena svinska glava, a pri po-
bednite, koito ne sa zaklali svoya svinya - svinska pacha, i banica 
(mlin) s ukrita para i drugi nabelyazani i narecheni predmetcheta, 
obiknoveno pqpki ot dryan.  Osven s namirane na "kqsmeta" v 
banicata, gadaeneto se proyavyava v hvqrlyane na sharen bob, 
hvqrlyane na ashici (ocveteni kokqlcheta ot agneshko kolyano), leene 
na kurshum (izlivane na raztopeno olovo v panica sqs svetena voda), 
laduvane (gadaene s prqsteni v "mqlchaliva voda", t.e., voda, koyato e 
donesena ot kladeneca pri pqlno mqlchanie na noseshtite ya, i daje  - 
po-sqvremennoto gledane na kafe.

Dokqm kraya na 30-te godini, survakaneto prez noshta sreshtu Nova 
godina se e izvqrshvalo ot maskirani drujini mladi mqje (narichani 
"survakari", "survaskari", "vasilichari", "starci", "babugeri", 
"djamalari").  Maskiranite predstavyat obiknoveno uchastnici v svatba, 
mechkar i mechka, drugi jivotni, i razigravat pantomimi sqs zachatqci 
na primitiven naroden teatqr. Izpolzvat se zvqnci i se vdiga mnogo 
shum, daje se gqrmi s lovdjiyski pushki, za da se progonyat zlizte 
duhove, talasqmite i karakondjulite.  Vsichko tova dnes e pochti 
zabraveno, kato funkciyata na survakane se e prehvqrlila vqrhu decata.

Dneshnite urbanizirani bqlgari sa zapazili obichta si kqm praznika.  
Daje i v nay-mizerni godini, vinagi e imalo dostatqcho hrana i napitki 
za Nova godina - za semeystvoto i priyatelite, i dostatqchno stotinki v 
djoba sa mladite survakari.  A ot magikata na narodnoto gadaene i 
predrichane na bqdeshteto e ostanalo u vsichki "novogodishnoto 
obeshtanie", t.e., che ot Nova godina shte stanem razlichni, i moje bi, 
po-dobri hora.

Za mnogo godini!


19-1 What are the roots of Bulgarian Orthodoxy
(by by Luben Boyanov)
Bulgaria accepted Orthodoxy during the reign of Boris I.  His son - Simeon I
(the greatest Bulgarian King) made the Bulgarian Church independent from
the Byzantine one.  During the First Bulgarian Empire, the Bulgarian Church
(Patriarchate) had 2 'headquarters' (sorry don't know more details now) - one
in Turnovo and one in Ohrid. After the fall of the First Bulgarian Empire
(the Bulgarian capital of the last Bulgarian king of the First Bulgarian
Empire -  Tzar Samuil was Ohrid) Emperor Basil II (the Bulgar-slayer) did not
abolish the Bulgarian Patriarchate in Ohrid. It survived (and was called
Bulgarian, even that it was headed by Greek clergy for a long time) until 1766
when it was abolished by the intrigues of the Phanariotes (this was part of
the Megali-Idea persued by the clergy of Constantinopol). The Patriarchate in 
Turnovo was  reestablished with the reestablishment of the Second Bulgarian
Empire and abolished with its fall - in 1393 (or maybe it was 1396 - the year
I remember given as the start of the Ottoman yoke).

Due to different reasons, Bulgarians know little on the one of the greatest
(and most important) events in their modern history -  the reestablishment
of their own national church in the Ottoman Empire.  This came after several
decades of struggle of the Bulgarians with the Phanariotes of Constantinopol
(Istanbul) (and the Russian diplomacy).  The struggle (which actually
started in 1833 when the Bulgarians in Skopie and Samokov refused to continue
accepting the Greek clergy) ended with success (even the treath of converting
the Bulgarians to Catolicism was used) and on March 10th, 1870 (old style),
the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire issued a famous ferman (order), which 
established the Bulgarian autocephalous Church under a primate entitled
Exarch, whose residence was at Constantinopol. On the 16th of Sept 1872,
the Greek Orthodox Patriarchy declared the Bulgarian Exrarchate schismatic
and the schism lasted until the late 1940-ies (or maybe early 50-ies, and
after that Bulgaria's church leader is Patriarch).  The jurisdiction of the
Exarchate during its establishment was over 15 dioceses ('mitropolii'),
including Nish, Pirot and Veles (but not Varna !!!).  Other dioceses were to
be added in case at least 2/3rd of the Christian local population so desired
(this was a not well known but truly democratic act during the 19th century  
on the Balkans). In virtue of that, the Porte (i.e. the Ottoman administrati-
on) subsequently allowed Bulgarian bishops in Ohrid, Uskub (at present - Sko-
pie, Monastir, Nevrokop (at present - Goce Delchev), Dibra, and Strumitsa. The
Bulgarian Exarch was resident in Constantinopol until the Balkan Wars after
which (in 1913), he (at that time - Exarch Joseph) withdrew to Sofia.

19-2 What are the features of Orthodox religion 
(by Jan Terziyski)
	Copied without authors' permission from a pamphlet of the
 "Sveti Nikolai" church (Ochanomizu, Chyoda-ku, Tokyo).

		              FAIR USE ONLY.

		Our Guide Lines for Holy Communion

	Orthodox Christians are expected to take Confession before Holy
Communion. Let us prepare ourselves with prayers and fasting from the night

	Holy Communion in the Orthodox Church is shared only by Orthodox
Christians. Even though there are non-Orthodox Churches which encourage and
permit their faithful to take Communion in the Orthodox Church, it is not 
allowed to do so in the Orthodox Church. Like wise, Orthodox Christians
may not take Communion in non-Orthodox Churches.

	When you are taking Holy Communion in a parish other than your
own, please notify the priest before-hand, no later than at the time of

	Due to the fact that we receive faithful from all aver the world, 
sometimes it is difficult to identify a person from other denominations,
so please be sure to be able in some way to prove yourself to be Orthodox.

	Although we deeply regret that it must be, there may be some cases
where it is impossible to fully verify the Orthodoxy of the visitor.
Therefore, we may ask you to present some form of identification before
we can give you Communion. Please be sure to talk with one of the priests as
early as possible to avoid such unfortunate incident. Wee thank you for your

19-3 Orthodox Christianity in Bulgaria
(by Plamen Sivov)

                NEDELNO UCHILISHTE - S.C.B.
             DAY 1 - THE CREED (SIMVOL-VERUJU)

     Most of  the systematic  explanations of  the  Orthodox
faith are  based on  the Nicene Creed, which is the ultimate
expression and  synthesis of  the dogma of Orthodoxy and the
basis of its teaching and sacramental life.
     The Creed was adopted between 325 and 381 A.D., shortly
after Christianity  was no  longer persecuted  in the  Roman
Empire. The  adoption took  place at  an Ecumenical  Council
(Vselenski Subor), which is the only form, recognized by the
Orthodox Church  even until  nowadays for the highest church
authority. In  this respect  it differs very much from Rome,
which historically  has concentrated much spiritual power in
the person  of the  Bishop  of  Rome,  e.g.  the  Pope.  The
Orthodox Church  recognizes 7  Ecumenical  Councils  in  its
entire history.
     Originally the  Creed was  used by  the Early Church at
baptismal services,  when the person who was to be baptized,
had to  acknowledge his true Christian faith. This baptismal
formula,  however,   later  developed   into  a  short,  but
extremely profound  in its  theological meaning statement of
faith, which  has ever  since been used as a "testing paper"
for any  new teaching;  in the  Creed, it is often said, one
can find the whole Bible condensed. In nowadays the Creed is
recited (or  sung) at  every Liturgy,  at the  moment of the
consecration of the bread and the wine.
     Here is  the complete  text of  the  Creed.  (Our  next
topics will  deal with  the truths of faith revealed in each
of its sections.)


1. I  believe in one God, Father Almighty, Creator of Heaven
and Earth, and of all things visible and invisible.
2. And  in one  Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God, the only-
begotten, begotten of the Father before all ages:
3. Light of light, true God of true God, begotten, not made;
of one  essence with  the Father;  by Whom  all things  were
4. Who  for us  men and  for our  salvation came  down  from
heaven and  was incarnate  of the Holy Spirit and the Virgin
Mary, and was made man;
5. And  was crucified  also for us under Pontius Pilate; and
suffered and was burried;
6. The third day He rose again according to the Scriptures;
7. And  ascended into  heaven, and sits at the right hand of
the Father;
8. And  He shall  come again  with glory to judge the living
and the dead; Whose kingdom shall have no end.
9. And  I believe  in the Holy Spirit, the Lord and Giver of
Life, Who  proceeds from the Father, Who with the Father and
the Son  together is  worshipped and glorified, Who spoke by
the prophets.
10. I believe in One Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church.
11. I acknowledge one baptism for the remission of sins.
I look  for the resurrection of the dead and the Life of the
world to come.


     Veruju vo  edinago Boga  Otca,  Vsederzhitelja,  Tvorca
nebu i  zemli, vidimim  zhe vsem  i nevidimim.  I vo edinago
Gospoda Iisusa  Hrista, Sina  Bozhija edinorodnago,  izhe ot
Otca rozhdennago  prezhde vseh  vek: sveta  ot  sveta,  Boga
istinna  ot   Boga  istinna,   rozhdenna,   ne   sotvorenna,
edinosushtna Otcu,  imzhe vsja  bisha. Nas  radi chelovek  i
nashego radi spasenija shedshago s nebes, i voplotivshegosja
ot Duha Svjata i Marii Devi, i vochelovechshasja. Razpjatago
zhe za  ni pri Pontijstem Pilate, i stradavsha, i pogrebena.
I vozkresshago  v tretij  den po pisaniem. I vozshedshego na
nebesa i  sedjashta otdesnuju  Otca. I  paki grjadushtago so
slavoju, suditi  zhivim i mertvim, ego zhe carstvie ne budet
     I v  Duha Svetago,  Gospoda, zhivotvorjashtago, izhe ot
Otca izhodjashtago,  izhe so  Otcem i  Sinom spoklonjaema  i
sslavima,  glagolavshago   proroki.   Vo   edinu   svjatuju,
sobornuju i apostolskoju Cerkov. Izpoveduju edino kreshtenie
vo ostavlenie  grehov. Chaju  voskresenija mertvih  i zhizni
budushtago veka. Amin.

     In the next days we will examine (very briefly) the
meaning of all these somewhat extravagantly sounding
sentences. Believe me, it is not as simple as it looks!

                   SUNDAY SCHOOL - DAY 2

                      THE ACT OF FAITH


     Originally the  Creed was  recited with  "We  believe",
affirming the  "common mind and one heart", the universality
of the  Church and  therefore the  emphasis was  laid on the
collective, rather than the personal aspect of faith. Later,
with the  development of  the Church  consciousness and  the
refinement of  the elements  of personal religiousness, they
started reciting  it as  a personal,  rather than collective
statement of faith.
     But is what is "to believe"? What is "faith"? Is it the
self-deceiving whimsical  picture of  a world,  governed  by
supreme powers,  combined with subconscious fear of personal
death, that  stimulates the  mind to  create the  images  of
Heaven and  Hell? Is  it just  another  ideology?  Is  it  a
psychological deviation?  What is  the relation  between  "I
believe" and  "I  know"?  These  are  questions,  that  have
troubled the  minds of  many generations, including our own.
Contrary to  many people's  expectations,  the  progress  of
science and  technology did not bring about ultimate answers
to  the   ancient  questions;   the  only  effect  that  the
technocratic age  has had upon the problem of personal faith
and the existence of God is that it distracted the attention
of whole  generations from its clear realization. The result
is not  the  problem's  disappearance,  but  the  decreasing
number of individuals, who face it in their lifetimes.
     The Scripture itself explores the different aspects and
proper modes  of faith. But there is also in it a definition
of faith,  although very  brief. It  it to  be found  in the
Epistle to the Hebrews, usually ascribed to St. Paul, one of
the Twelve  apostles: "Now  faith is the substance of things
hoped for,  the evidence  of things  not seen. For by it the
elders (i.e.  the Jews in the Old Testament - P.S.) obtained
a good  testimony. By  faith we  understand that  the worlds
were fraimed  by the  word of  God, so that the things which
are seen  were not  made of things which are visible." (Heb.
11:1). This  short statement  is one  of the  most  explored
passages in  the Bible, especially nowadays, with the recent
development  of   gnoseology,  the   science   of   rational
perception and knowledge.
     Therefore a  statement a  faith presupposes  knowledge,
but not  the kind  of knowledge we all know from our sensual
or mental  experience. As  it refers  to a reality different
from our  material world and beyond it (transcendental), the
tools of  natural science  are useless, if we want to get to
know it. The spiritual reality, the existence of God and the
angelic powers  cannot be  "detected" with any technological
means or  by the  rational  means  of  analysis.  The  usual
question of  the non-believers  "Where is  God? Show  Him to
me!"  thus   has  no   meaning  and   is  a  consequence  of
misunderstanding of the difference between the two realities
- the created and the uncreated one (e.g. the material world
- the  Universe), and  the transcendent  existence  of  God,
which  is   beyond  the   borders  of   our  knowledge   and
     A natural  question would  be "Where  do  we  get  this
supernatural knowledge  about God,  then?  Since  He  is  so
unreachable by  any human  means, how  would we even know of
His existence?"
     This is  the problem  of  the  sources  of  the  divine
revelation. We can distinguish several such sources:
     - the  material world  itself. The  law  of  cause  and
effect could  be applied  to trace  the  mere  fact  of  the
Being's existence (which in itself is an effect) to its pre-
existential cause, which, according to the believers, is God
himself. This is called "the ontological argument".
     - the  moral law  in Man.  The ability  to  distinguish
between good and evil, the subtle sensitivity about an ever-
existing  supreme   justice;  inspite   of  many  behavioral
explanations of  the moral  phenomena, still one of the most
profound and  convincing explanations  are  the  theological
     -  the  feeling  of  a  purpose  in  the  life  of  the
individual and  the existence  of the  Universe. This is the
"teleological argument".
     - the  recorded Revelation  - the  Bible or the Word of
God. It  consists of the Old and the New Testaments, the Old
being the  sacred writings  of the Jewish nation, covering a
long period of its history and actually regarding the events
of this  hisotry as a manifestation of God's intervention in
human history in general. The New Testament is an account of
the  fulfillment   of  the  expectations  of  a  Messiah,  a
legendary figure,  expected by the ancient Jews and foreseen
in their prophetic writings. The Messiah is Jesus Christ the
Nazarene, a  real figure,  who has  lived during the rule of
Herod, king of the Roman province of Judea. In the person of
Christ, according  to Orthodoxy,  the ultimate revelation is
to be  completed - God Himself takes human nature and "walks
among  us  in  flesh".  The  meaning  and  purpose  of  this
incarnation will be discussed later.
     Generally speaking,  there is  nothing in  the physical
reality that  can not  serve as some sort of revelation; all
human cultures have developed different imagery, stories and
beliefs to  express something  common for  all mankind - the
deeply rooted  in every  human being religiousness, i.g. the
possibility, the  potential of  religious faith,  of  direct
perception of the divine.
     Therefore, when  an Orthodox  Christian starts  his/her
statement of  faith with  "I believe...", he is not speaking
to himself and is not proclaiming a desired state of things,
having nothing  to do with reality. He is rather answering a
supernatural call  for obedience and recognition, that comes
from outside,  and at  the ame  time from  his own  personal
depths. It  is the  outward expression of Man's personal act
of faith,  carried out again and again, reaching to find his
own self-identity  in a  complicated world.   In  those  two
simple words  there is  a  whole  ontology  (vision  of  the
essence of  being) and  a clear  anthropology (vision of the
essence of  Man); a  picture of  a created  Universe  and  a
response from  a living  soul to  the divine  call from  its
     The act  of faith is a necessary first step on the path
of Christian fulfillment. Without faith the secret knowledge
of God will not be revealed; the virtues cannot be practiced
effectively and  salvation cannot  be  achieved.  There  are
dozens of  examples  in  the  Bible  on  the  importance  of
personal faith  for receiving  the grace of God, His loving-
kindness and  forgiveness. Strictly speaking the nonbeliever
is in  a different state or mode of being than the believer,
he/she has a different supernatural status - not only in the
eyes  of   God,  but   objectively,  in   his  own   nature.
Reproachful, as  it may  sound, this  is an  argument,  upon
which many  religions agree (I mean the status of Man before
and after  the personal  act of  faith). Believers  know the
difference and that is one of the main drives for evangelism
(please do  not associate  it with street or TV evangelism),
of sharing  the Good  News with others and thus helping them
to partake  in the  divine nature and to perceive the truths
from the "other reality" I already mentioned.

     In my  next posting I will deal in brief with the other
part of the first section of the Creed, namely, the dogma of
the Holy Trinity and His three persons (hipostasis).

VOCABULARY: Godhead  - Bozhestvo. The Holy Trinity, regarded
in its  unity, rather  than in the aspect of the differences
between the three Persons.
     Religion  -  from  re-legare,  a  Latin  word  for  "to
reunite", to  join together  something that  has  previously
been broken or cut apart.
     Bible -  from "biblia"  (Greek word  for "books"), i.g.
the collection  of the  sacred writings  of Christianity.  A
general agreement  on the  contents of the Bible was reached
no earlier  than the 3-4th century, when there was a need of
a common  written source  for all  Christians. This concerns
only the  books of  the New Testament; the Old Testament  is
basically all the major books of the Jewish Torrah (The Five
Books, ascribed  to Moses)  and the  writings  of  prophets,
poets, hitorians,  etc. -  but every  book deals  with  some
aspect of the revelation of God to the Jewish nation.

                 NEDELNO UCHILISHTE - DAY 3

(I believe) IN ONE GOD...

     The first section of the Creed deals with the object of
the Orthodox  religious worship  - the Holy Trinity, who has
revealed to  mankind His presence and role in the history of
the nations, as well as in the personal lives of millions of
     All religions  worship some sort of a divine Person, or
Being, or  Essence. Some  tend to  depersonalize the Godhead
and often  talk about the Spirit of Nature, or the Spirit of
the Universe,  who has not any aspects, similar to the Man's
personality.  This   group  of   religions  constitute   the
pantheism, the "all-is-God" view, associated mainly with the
religious systems  of Buddhism, Hinduism, etc. The religious
experience for  them can  be very strong, even ecstatic, but
never personal, i.e. promoting the individual uniqueness and
the person-to-person relation with God.
     For us Christians God is doubtlessly a Person, although
not in  the same  sense  in  which  man  is  a  person.  The
psychological sciences  have achieved  a lot  to explain the
process of the formation of individuality and personality in
Man; obviously,  this process  has a  lot  to  do  with  the
external influences  (from the parents or the society). This
is not  the case  with God. His Person has never been formed
and is  not a  subject to any change or development (because
God exists  beyond Space and Time). More importantly, He has
a Being-in-Himself,  that is,  he does not owe His existence
to an external cause, as we all do; He is self-sufficient in
His Divinity.
     The problem  of the  Person of  God is  one of the most
difficult to understand. One of the reasons for this is that
it is  very much  related with the problem of the Essence of
God, which  is beyond  any human  understanding.  The  other
reason is  the fact  that  we,  having  been  granted  human
personalities by  God, often  tend to  "create" a God of our
own "image  and likeness".  No matter  how tempting this may
seem, it  has ever  to be  avoided by  the true seekers. The
anthropocentricity, as  this is called, can be overcome only
by a  real personal  relation with God; a relation dominated
not by  pride, but  by humiliation  and an  honest desire to
know God  better, which  is a  natural desire,  implanted in
every man's soul, no matter how distorted it may be.
     The detailed  history of  God's revelation  as One  God
(opposed to  the polytheism  of most  of the nations at that
time) is  to be  found  throughout  the  books  of  the  Old
Testament, since the very first page.


     Now probably  some people  may think: "Well, if that is
not anthropomorphism  (ascribing aspects of the human nature
to God),  then I don't know what is". Calling the Godhead "a
Father",   and    therefore   ascribing    to    it    human
characteristics, may seem strange and primitive.
     Actually there  are a  lot of  reasons for  calling God
"Father". First, our relationship with Him is very much like
a fatherhood  and a sonhood, as He is our Creator and we owe
Him our  existence. Second,  the love  of a  father for  his
children is  an image  of God's love for every individual of
mankind. There are also many other theological arguments for
this name.  But, above  all, God  Himself is  calling us His
sons and Jesus referred to Him as "Father".
     It has  been become  a fashion recently for some groups
to talk  about the  "feminine aspect  of God" and to address
Him by  other names.  But for  an Orthodox  Christian, it is
clear  that   God  is   above  any   sexuality  and  gender;
nevertheless He  Himself has  taught us  to address  Him  as
Father. Sometimes,  especially  in  the  spiritual  matters,
obedience  is   more  important   than   understanding   and
understanding of  a spiritual  truth comes  after a  certain
period of obedience.
     Also, the  Father is  the name  of  one  of  the  three
Persons (hypostaseis)  of the  Godhead, the  other two being
the Son  (Jesus Christ)  and the  Holy Spirit.  The relation
between God's  unity and  diversity at the same time will be
examined later.


     These are words, referring to some of the attributes of
God. He is almighty, (omnipotent; in Slavonic: Vsederzhitel)
that is,  His  powers  and  abilities  transcend  any  human
imagination  or  understanding.  The  omnipotence  of  God's
divine nature expresses itself in the creation of the world,
that  is,   the  Universe.   "Heaven  and  Earth"  does  not
necessarily mean  the physical  sky and the planet Earth; it
includes the  whole  Nature,  the  Cosmos,  all  dimensions,
planets, stars and aspects of the material being, both known
and unknown  to Man.  The things which are "visible" are the
realities of the physical Universe, while "invisible" refers
to  the   spiritual  realities  (for  example,  the  angelic
     The act  of Creation  is  one  of  the  ultimate  self-
expressions of  God. Not that He needs such self-expression,
but because it is a sign of His Divine Love. ("God is Love",
the Gospel  says, and  through Love  we find Him. Therefore,
Christians view this world as an enigmatic signature of God;
by exploring  the material aspects of Nature many scientists
have come  to a greater faith in God - such as Isaac Newton,
for example.)

VOCABULARY: Omnipotence  - the  unlimited and  unconditional
powers and abilities of God to dispose of His own creation.
     Omnipresence (vezdesushtnost)  - God  is  not  "living"
somewhere beyond  the borders  of  the  known  Universe  and
actually He  is not  occupying any  particular space  at any
particular time.  Being above  the dimensions,  He is at the
same time  ever-present in  all of  them, everywhere and all
the time. Being a "Superperson" He is also able to relate to
each  and   everyone  of   all  the  human  beings,  without
neglecting anybody and fully present any time we call on His
holy name.
     Angelic powers  - spiritual  beings, created before the
first men, which do not possess material shape or nature and
only occasionally  can appear  as visible messengers of God.
The angelic  powers are  not completely  revealed to  us; we
know very  little of  them. But the Scripture makes it quite
clear that:  1) they exist; 2) part of them have turned away
from God,  using their  free will for disobedience; they are
called demons; 3) there are multitudes of them and they form
a certain  hierarchy (the Orthodox church formally agrees on
seven angelic  ranks, although  for some  of them  virtually
nothing is  known, except  that they  are mentioned  in  the
Scripture.) It  should be  pointed out, that knowledge about
the  teaching  of  the  Church  on  the  angelic  powers  is
extremely important  today, when  many people speculate with
the spiritual  hunger of  the people  and  claim  to  be  in
contact with  spirits, extraterrestrials,  angels, etc.  The
Church has  been dealing  with such  "paranormal" cases  for
centuries and  has worked  out many  rules  for  our  proper
relation to such phenomena.

19-4 Orthodox Calendar 
(by Plamen Sivov) (This entry is in Bulgarian)

Tqj kato istorijata na kalendarnoto razminavane beshe veche nakratko
izjasnena, shte opisha s dve dumi segashnata situacija - kakva e pozici-
jata na Pravoslavieto po tozi vqpros.

Pqrvo, ne biva da zabravjame, che vqv vsjaka svetovna religija kalendarqt
ima osobeno mjasto. Za razlika ot svetskoto letobroene, koeto e poveche 
ili po-malko pragmatichno otchitane na vremeto na bazata na obshtoprieti
standarti, cqrkovnoto vreme e neshto sqvsem drugo. Ne e sluchajno, che sq-
vremennata civilizacija otchita vremeto si sprjamo tochno opredelena toch-
ka vqv vremeto - predpolagaemata godina na razhdaneto na Iisus ot Nazaret.
No dokato za sveta tova e prosto kulturen fenomen, za Cqrkvata toj ima dql-
boko religiozno sqdqrzhanie; v razhdaneto na Hrista vjarvashtite vizhdat
grandiozno sqbitie s kosmicheski izmerenija, tochkata na presichane na
Bozhestvenoto i choveshkoto i nachaloto na spasitelnata misija za chovesh-
kija rod. S edna duma za Cqrkvata vremeto ne e prosta fizicheska velichina,
no izmerenie sqs sakramentalno znachenie. Sledvajki podobni sqobrazhenija
nikoj ne bi obvinil v "konservatizqm" evreite, kitajcite ili mjusulmanite, 
che si imat svoj sobstven kalendar. Prosto vqprosqt ne e prjako svqrzan s 
pragmatichnata strana na neshtata...

Taka praznicite v Cqrkvata se razlichavat ot svetskite praznici. Godishnijat
cikql na bogosluzhenijata e zatvoren, kato tazi ciklichnost simvolizira bez-
krajnostta na Boga, a vseki praznik ne e prosto pripomnjane na vazhno sqbi-
tie, a prichastjavane s tazi bezkrajnost. Eto zashto vqprosite okolo kalen-
dara ne sa ednoznachni i ne iziskvat zadqlzhitelno pragmatichnija podhod za
razreshavaneto im, za razlika ot podobni razlichija v svetskite merni sis-
temi (kontinentalnata metrichna i amerikanskata, naprimer).

Oshte edin faktor trjabva da se otchita, kogato stava vqpros za kalendarni
razlichija mezhdu Pravoslavieto i Rimokatolicizma - shizmata (razdelenieto),
kojato razdeli ednata Hristova, Vselenska i Apostolska Cqrkva prez 11 vek.
Vzaimnite podozrenija, obvinenija i nedoverie ne sa se prekratili nito za
mig ottogava. I dori kogato Rim e pravil novovqvedenija, potiknat ne ot zla
umisql, a ot sqobrazhenija za praktichnost, Iztokqt e predpochital da ne se
sqobrazjava s nego. Obratnoto sqshto se e sluchvalo nevednqzh.

Shto se otnasja do kalendara obache, v momenta v pravoslavnija svjat preob-
ladavat novokalendarcite. Do kraja na I sv. vojna vsichki pravoslavni izpo-
lzvat starija stil, ili Julianskija kalendar, kojto, kakto stana jasno, dnes
izostava ot Gregorianskija s 13 dni. Prez 1923 Vselenskijat Patriarh (tradi-
cionnata titla na episkopa na Konstantinopol (sega Istanbul)) svikva Mezhdu-
pravoslaven kongres, na kojto prisqstvat delegati ot Sqrbija, Rumqnija,
Gqrcija i Kipqr. Patriarsite na Ierusalim i Antiohija otkazvat da izpratjat
delegati, Aleksandrijskijat Patriarh dori ne otgovarja na pokanata. Bqlgar-
skata Cqrkva ne e pokanena. Sred njakolkoto vqprosi, s koito se zanimava 
kongresqt, e i kalendarqt, i po-tochno predlozhenieto za priemane na zapad-
nija stil. Prez 1924 g. Konstantinopol vqvezhda novija stil i skoro sqshtoto
pravjat cqrkvite v Aleksandrija, Antiohija, Gqrcija, Kipqr, Rumqnija i Pol-
sha. (Bqlgarija priema novija stil prez 1968 g.) Cqrkvite na Rusija, Ieru-
salim, Sqrbija, kakto i manasitrite v Sveta Gora ne priemat novovqvedenieto.
Prakticheski obache cjalata Pravoslavna Cqrkva praznuva Velikden pochti vi-
nagi ednovremenno sqs Zapada, a Finlandskata pravoslavna cqrkva izcjalo se
sqobrazjava s Gregorianskija kalendar.

Za mnogo pravoslavni priemaneto na novija stil se svqrzva s kapitulacija 
pred "shizmaticite", sirech, pred Rim i razumnite osnovanija za edna taka-
va stqpka, kojato bi sqdejstvala za svetovnoto hristijansko edinstvo prosto
se prenebregvat v imeto na starata vrazhda. V mnogo pravoslavni strani, 
vkljuchitelno i v BG, se pojaviha grupi na "starokalendarcite", nastojava-
shti za vrqshtane kqm starija stil, pozovavajki se na argumenta, che spored
kanonichnoto pravo promjanata na kalendara iziskva obshtoto sqglasie na vsi-
chki pravoslavni cqrkvi i sledovatelno reshenijata, vzeti v Konstantinopol
sa nishtozhni. No dokato monasite ot Sveta Gora, othvqrljajki novija kalen-
dar, ne prekqsvat edinenieto si s Konstantinopolskija Patriarh, njakoi kraj-
ni grupi se objavjavat za "istinskata" i "chista" pravoslavna cqrkva, iz-
kljuchvajki se ot svetovnoto pravoslavno obshtenie. V Bqlgarija tova e gru-
pata na Rosen Siromahov, provqzglasen za "Episkop Triadicki" i rqkopolozhen
ot grqcki starokalendarski episkop.

Amerikanskata Pravoslavna Cqrkva, makar che e pod jurisdikcijata na Ruskija
Patriarh, sqbljudava novija stil, koeto pokazva, che kalendarqt ne e prob-
lem, zaradi kojto si zasluzhava da se razdelja Cqrkvata. Taka pone mislja 
az. :-)

19-5 What is Theophany (Bogoyavlenie/Yordanov Den)
(by Plamen Sivov) (This entry is in Bulgarian)
                      GOD) - 6 January

     Chestit imen den na Jordanovcite (malko e ranichko, ama
nishto).   Eto   nakratko   smisula   na   praznika   spored
Pravoslavnata curkva:

     Na tozi  den se  praznuva krushtenieto na Iisus Hristos
vuv vodite na reka Jordan (ottuk - Jordanovden). Subitieto e
opisano ot  vsichki evangelisti  (Mateja 3:13-17, Marko 1:9-
11, Luka  3:21-23 i Ioan 1:29-34) i se naricha Bogojavlenie,
zashtoto  pred   prisustvashtite  na  nego  ednovremenno  se
otkrivat trite lica na Svetata Troica - Iisus Hristos - Sina
Bozhi, krushtavan v rekata, Svetija Duh, slizasht vuv vid na
gulub nad  nego i  glasa na  Otca, proglasjavasht ot nebeto:
"Tova e mojat vuzlyuben sin, v kogoto e moeto blagovolenie".

ENGLISH: The  Orthodox Church attaches a great importance to
this feast,  because of  its deep  theological significance.
What is selebrated is not so much the historical fact of the
manifestation of  the Holy Trinity to the world for the very
first time,  nor the  beginning of Christ's public life, nor
again the  baptism, administered  by John the Baptist: it is
rather the  manifestation of  God's glory,  of His  love for
mankind, of His mercy and compassion expressed in the person
of Jesus  Christ, Who  assumed flesh and became Man in order
to become  a sacrifice of salvation for the sake of all men.
"The grace of God our Savior has appeared to all men" (Tit.,
     Inspired by  the baptism of Christ and by this stirring
of  divine   life,  poured   forth  for  the  salvation  and
sanctification of  mankind, the  early Church  reserved this
day for the baptism of catechumens (in Slavonic "oglasheni",
e.g. those who are preparing themselves for the sacrament of
baptism,  but   are  not   members  of   the  Church   yet),
increasingly repeating  with St.  Paul: "As  many have  been
baptized into  Christ have  put on  Christ." ("Vie, koito se
krustihte v Hrista, v Hrista se i obljakohte").

     Na praznika  se pravi  Vodosvet, za  da pomnim,  che  s
krushtenieto si  Gospod osveti  vodata, a  s neja  i cjaloto

ENGLISH: Blessed  water  will  be  used  by  the  priest  to
sprinkle  the   homes  of  the  faithful.  The  priest  thus
consecrates to  God their lives and works and sufferings. "O
Lord, be in our thoughts, in our words, in our deeds, in our
tears and in our laughter. O Lord, let your presence be felt
in this  house, and  in those  who enter  therein, as it was
felt by  John as  You were  baptized in  the Jordan  River."
(from the ritual)

PRAYER, recited  by the  priest: "Today the land and the sea
divide between  them the  joy of the world, and the world is
filled with  rejoicing. The  waters behold  You, O Lord: the
waters behold You and they fear; the Jordan River turns back
its course as it beholds the fire of the Godhead coming down
upon it and entering it in the flesh; the Jordan River turns
back its  course as it beholds the Holy Spirit descending in
the likeness  of a  dove, and  hovering above it; the Jordan
River turns back its course as it beholds the Invisible made
visible, the  Creator existing  in the flesh, and the Master
in the  likeness of  a servant;  the Jordan River turns back
its course, and the mountains shout with glee as they behold
God in  the flesh. And the clouds give voice, and are filled
with awe  by the One who is coming, Light of Light, true God
of true  God; the  One who, in the Jordan River, has drowned
the death of sin, the thorn of error, and the bond of Hades,
and granted  the baptism  of salvation to the world. So also
am I,  your unworthy and sinful servant, encompassed by fear
as I  proclaim your  great wonders; and I cry out reverently
to you.

19-6 Annunciation
(by Plamen Sivov), last updated: 31-Jul-1994 (This entry is in Bulgarian)

25 Maj - Blagoveshtenie. (Annunciation)

	Edin ot naj-svetlite pravoslavni praznici. V neznachitelnoto gradche
Nazaret edna mlada devica, sgodena za vdoveca Josif, poluchava otkrovenieto,
za koeto vekove nared sa mechtali pokolenija evrejski zheni - da bqdat udo-
stoeni s chestta da rodjat i vqzpitat bqdeshtija Mesija, spasitelja ne samo 
na evreite, no i na celija choveshki rod ot okovite na greha i smqrtta.
	Ot oskqdnite biblejski tekstove i apokrifnata ranna hristijanska li-
teratura Maria ni se otkriva kato neobiknovena zhena, nesluchajno izbrana za
velikata misija na bogovqplqshtenieto. NeSluchajno Cqrkvata ja naricha s naj-
razlichni imena, otrazjavashti nravstvenata j chistota i pokornost sprjamo
Boga - "prechista", "presveta"; kakto i osnovnoto j kachestvo - Bogorodica,
zhenata, ot kojato Bog poluchava chovechestvoto si, neobhodimo za pqlnotata
na izkupitelnata misija na Hrista.

	Simvolichno vseki ot nas nosi Hrista v sebe si, v mjarata na vjarata
si i dobrite si dela. Za da napredvame v hristijanskite dobrodeteli obache,
neobhodimo e kato Maria da se pokorim na Boga, da se smirim "dori do smqrt",
za da poluchim blagodatta v pqlnota.
	Neka na tozi den si pozhelaem duhovni ochi da vizhdame angela do se-
be si i neka se podgotvim da posreshtnem v duh na smirenie i chistota veli-
kata vest za Hristovoto vqzkresenie. Amin.

		Sledvat molitvite za tozi den, cheteni na liturgijata:

Molitva kqm Bogorodica (Bogorodice, Devo; Hail Mary) - na slavjanski:

	Bogorodice, Devo, radujsja! Blagodatnaja Marie, Gospod s toboju;
	Blagoslovena si v zhenah i blagosloven plod chreva tvoego, jako
	Spasa rodila esi dush nashih.

	Rejoice, Virgin of God! Blessed Mary, God is with you; 
	Blessed are you amongst women and blessed is the fruit of your womb,
	because you have given birth to the Savior of our souls.

Dostojno est (Meet It Is):

	Dostojno est jako voistinu blazhiti tja Bogorodicu,
	prisnoblazhennuju i preneporochnuju i mater Boga nashego.
	Chestnejshuju heruvim i slavnejshuju bez sravnenija serafim;
	Bez iztlenija Boga Slova rozhdshuju, sushtuju Bogorodicu tja 

	It is right and just to bless you, Oh Theotokos,
	everblessed and pure and the Mother of our God.
	More honorable than the cherubim and more glorious beyond compare
	than the seraphim; 
	Without defilement you gave birth to God the Word;
	True Theotokos, we magnify you.

19-7 Holy Thursday and Holy Friday 
(by Plamen Sivov), last updated: 31-Jul-1994

	    (repost from an Orthodox listserver)

   "The vigil on the eve of Holy Thursday is dedicated exclusively to
the Passover Supper which Christ celebrated with his twelve apostles.
The main theme of the day is the meal itself at which Christ commanded
that the Passover of the New Covenant is to be eaten in remembrance of
himself, of his body broken and his blood shed for the remission of
sins. In addition, the betrayal of Judas and Christ's washing of the
disciple's feet is also central to the liturgical commemoration of the
day...The liturgical celebration of the Lord's Supper on Holy Thursday
is not merely the annual remembrance of the 'institution' of the
sacrament of Holy Communion. Indeed the very event of the Passover
Meal itself was not merely the last-minute action by the Lord to
'institute' the central sacrament of the Christian Faith before his
passion and death. On the contrary, the entire mission of Christ, and
indeed the very purpose for the creation of the world in the first
place, is so that God's beloved creature, made in his own divine image
and likeness, could be in the most intimate communion with him for
eternity, sitting at the table with him, eating and drinking in his
unending kingdom...Thus the 'Mystical Supper of the Son of God' which
is continually celebrated in the Divine Liturgy of the Christian
Church, is the very essence of what life in God's Kingdom will be for
eternity..."      "The Matins of Holy Friday is generally celebrated
Thursday night. The main feature of this service is the reading of
twelve selections from the Gospels, all of which are accounts of the
passion of Christ...The first service belonging to Holy Saturday,
called in the Church the Blessed Sabbath, is the Vespers of Good
Friday. It is usually celebrated in the mid-afternoon to commemorate
the burial of Jesus..." [From, "Worship"--"The Orthodox Faith" by Fr.
Thomas Hopko.]


20-1 How did Bulgaria perform at the World Football (Soccer) Cups 
(by Karel Stokkermans)
*** World Cup 1962 (Chile, May 30-June 17)
Group IV (Rancagua)
Argentina       1-0 Bulgaria           1.HUNGARY          3  2  1  0   8- 2  5
Hungary         2-1 England            2.ENGLAND          3  1  1  1   4- 3  3
Argentina       1-3 England            3.Argentina        3  1  1  1   2- 3  3
Bulgaria        1-6 Hungary            4.Bulgaria         3  0  1  2   1- 7  1
Argentina       0-0 Hungary            (England takes quarterfinal spot ahead
Bulgaria        0-0 England             of Argentina on goal average.)
*** World Cup 1966 (England, July 11-30)
Group III (Liverpool and Manchester)
Brazil          2-0 Bulgaria           1.PORTUGAL         3  3  0  0   9- 2  6
Portugal        3-1 Hungary            2.HUNGARY          3  2  0  1   7- 5  4
Hungary         3-1 Brazil             3.Brazil           3  1  0  2   4- 6  2
Portugal        3-0 Bulgaria           4.Bulgaria         3  0  0  3   1- 8  0
Portugal        3-1 Brazil
Hungary         3-1 Bulgaria
*** World Cup 1970 (Mexico, May 31-June 21)
Group IV (Leon)
Peru            3-2 Bulgaria           1.WEST GERMANY     3  3  0  0  10- 4  6
Morocco         1-2 West Germany       2.PERU             3  2  0  1   7- 5  4
Peru            3-0 Morocco            3.Bulgaria         3  0  1  2   5- 9  1
Bulgaria        2-5 West Germany       4.Morocco          3  0  1  2   2- 6  1
Peru            1-3 West Germany
Bulgaria        1-1 Morocco
*** World Cup 1974 (West Germany, June 13-July 7)
Group III (D"usseldorf, Hannover and Dortmund)
Sweden          0-0 Bulgaria           1.NETHERLANDS      3  2  1  0   6- 1  5
Uruguay         0-2 Netherlands        2.SWEDEN           3  1  2  0   3- 0  4
Netherlands     0-0 Sweden             3.Bulgaria         3  0  2  1   2- 5  2
Bulgaria        1-1 Uruguay            4.Uruguay          3  0  1  2   1- 6  1
Bulgaria        1-4 Netherlands
Sweden          3-0 Uruguay
*** World Cup 1986 (Mexico, May 31-June 29)
Group I (Ciudad de Mexico and Puebla)
Bulgaria        1-1 Italy              1.ARGENTINA        3  2  1  0   6- 2  5
Argentina       3-1 South Korea        2.ITALY            3  1  2  0   5- 4  4
Italy           1-1 Argentina          3.BULGARIA         3  0  2  1   2- 4  2
South Korea     1-1 Bulgaria           4.South Korea      3  0  1  2   4- 7  1
South Korea     2-3 Italy
Argentina       2-0 Bulgaria
Ciudad de Mexico
Mexico          2-0 Bulgaria

20-2 How did the Bulgarian soccer team perform in the qualifications for WC 94
(by Dragomir R. Radev)
Bulgaria  -   France 2:0         France   -  Bulgaria 1:2
Bulgaria  -  Finland 2:0         Finland  -  Bulgaria 0:3
Bulgaria  -   Israel 2:2         Israel   -  Bulgaria 0:2
Bulgaria  -   Sweden 1:1         Sweden   -  Bulgaria 2:0
Bulgaria  -  Austria 4:1         Austria  -  Bulgaria 3:1

                      P  W  D  L   F   A  Pts   GD
Sweden               10  6  3  1  19   8   15  +11
Bulgaria             10  6  2  2  19  10   14  + 9
France               10  6  1  3  17  10   13  + 7
Austria              10  3  2  5  15  16    8  - 1
Finland              10  2  1  7   9  18    5  - 9 
Israel               10  1  3  6  10  27    5  -17


20-3 Bulgaria in WC94 
(by Dragomir R. Radev), last updated: 31-Jul-1994
preliminary round

   Bulgaria - Nigeria 0:3
   Bulgaria - Greece 4:0
   Bulgaria - Argentina 2:0

Rankings in Group D:

           W T L    GF GA   PTS
Nigeria    2 0 1     6  2     6  *
Bulgaria   2 0 1     6  3     6  *
Argentina  2 0 1     6  3     6  *
Greece     0 0 3     0 10     0

* - qualifies for next round

1/8 finals

   Bulgaria - Mexico 4:2 (p.k., 1:1 in regulation and OT)

1/4 finals

   Bulgaria - Germany 2:1

1/2 finals

   Bulgaria - Italy 1:2

3-4 place game

   Bulgaria - Sweden 0:4

total record:

4 wins (including one on p.k.)
1 tie
3 losses

10-11 goal differential


6 - Stoichkov
2 - Lechkov
1 - Sirakov
1 - Borimirov

20-4 Bulgaria in the European Championships (1960)
(by Yulian Donchev)
1958 - 1960 (This was the first one)

31.5.1959 Belgrade: Yugoslavia - Bulgaria 2:0
25.10.1959 Sofia: Bulgaria - Yugoslavia 1:1


20-5 Schedule of our group for soccer World Cup 1998
(by Konstantin Kostov, Dragomir R. Radev), last updated: 03-Jan-1997
Match schedule for the 1998 World Cup European qualifying group five which
was decided on Monday:

 September 1 - Israel v Bulgaria     2:1
               Russia v Cyprus       4:0
 September 8 - Luxembourg v Bulgaria 1:2
 October 9   - Israel v Russia       1:1
 November 10 - Cyprus v Israel       2:0
             - Luxembourg v Russia   0:4
 December 14 - Cyprus v Bulgaria     1:3
 December 15 - Israel v Luxembourg   1:0
 March 29     - Cyprus v Russia
 March 30     - Luxembourg v Israel
 April 30     - Israel v Cyprus
              - Russia v Luxembourg
 June 8       - Russia v Israel
              - Bulgaria v Luxembourg
 August 20    - Bulgaria v Israel
 September 7  - Luxembourg v Cyprus
 September 10 - Bulgaria v Russia
 October 11   - Russia v Bulgaria
              - Cyprus v Luxembourg

20-6 Hristo Stoichkov 
(by Iskander Ayari), last updated: 31-Jul-1994
        Name: Hristo Stoichkov

        Citizenship: Bulgarian

        Born on 08/02/1966 in Plovdiv (Bulgaria)
        Height: 1m78
        Weight: 73 Kg
        Position: FW
        Previous clubs: Maritza Plovdiv, USM, Youri Gagarine,
                        Hebross, CSKA Sofia, FC Barcelona.
        Palmares: Champion of Bulgaria (1987, 89, 90), Bulgarian
                cup winner (1985, 87, 88, 89), Bulgarian super-cup
                winner (1989), Champion of Spain (1991, 92, 93), 
                Spanish super-cup winner (1992), EC1 winner (1992),
                Golden boot "Soulier d'Or" 1990 (38 goals),
                "Onze d'Or" 1992.

        He is the son of a former employee at the Ministery of Defense.
Hristo Stoichkov started his football life in Plovdiv. As a "Number 5"
then switched to all positions. Un "exile" at Hebross Harmanli (near the
turkish frontier), and then the fabulous player moves in 1984 to the
militarians of CSKA Sofia. He was already distinguishable for his strong

        Despite the incidents that occured during the 1985 cup final,
which opposed his team to Levski Spartak Sofia and that costs him to
be banned for life (PBG manager was in Bulgaria in that time and remembers
perfectly that game in which GK Mihailov from Levski was banned too).
The ban was then reduced to a 1 year suspension. "The bitch", renamed
later as "The fool" (because of all the things he says, and of his
extravagant behaviour), is going to reveal its talents.

       Elected three years in a row as "best player of the year", he
is going to win almost everything with CSKA. "Golden Boot" in 1990,
tying Hugo Sanchez, he moves to Barcelona.

        Despite a mitigated start, a new two month suspension and
conflictual relations with El Mister Cruijff -his past idole- (who
is going to make him be a "number 8"), the president Nunez and 
the refereeing staff, "Itso" becomes quickly Camp Nou's darling.

        On May 21st, 1992, he brings back the EC1 trophy to Barcelone.
Approached by Napoli, Inter and PSG, he finally decides to stay with
Barc~a (his contract runs till 96). After a terrific start of season
-he loses the "Golden Ball" (Ballon d'Or) with just a few votes
difference- he deceived last season. But this season, he rapidly
got to his optimal level, and is ready to face Milan in the final
of EC1, and to bring the Bulgarian National team its first win in
a World-Cup competition game.

20-7 Bulgarian teams in the UEFA cups.
(by Plamen Petkov), last updated: 01-Aug-1995

Champion's Cup (EC1)                   Cup Winers' Cup (EC2)

KA (Akueyri) Isl  - CSKA   1-0 0-3    FC Sliven - Juventus 0-2 1-6


Bayern Munich    - CSKA    4-0 3-0

FC Slavia   - Omonia (Nicosia) 2-1 2-4 


(EC1)                                 (EC2)
FC Kaiserslautern - ETAR 2-0 1-1      FC Levski - Ferencvarosi (Hun) 2-3 1-4 

FC Slavia - CA Ossasuna Esp  1-0 0-4
CSKA - PARMA               * 0-0 1-1 
Hamburger Ger - CSKA         2-0 4-1


(EC1)                                  (EC2)
FK Austria Vienna -CSKA     3-1 2-3   FK Levski - Lucerne (Swi) 2-1 0-1*
FC Lokomotiv (Plovdiv) - AJ Auxerre        2-2 1-7
Fenerbahce (Tur)     - Botev (Plovdiv)     3-1 2-2


(EC1)                                      (EC2) 
Rangers (Glasgow)  - FK Levski  3-2 1-2*     CSKA - Balzers (Lie) 8-0 3-1 
FC Levski - Werder (Bremen)     2-2 0-1      Benfika - CSKA       3-1 3-1

Lazio   - FC Lokomotiv (Plovdiv) 2-0 2-0 
Botev (Plovdiv) - Olympiakos     2-3 1-5    


(EC1)                      (EC2)
                            Preliminary round
Mjamame predstavitel       FC Pirin (Blagoevgrad) - FC Schaan (Lie) 3-0 1-0  
                           Pirin - Panathinaikos  0-2 0-6 

Preliminary round
CSKA       -    Ararat (Yerevan) 3-0 0-0
Olimpija (Ljubjana) - FC Levski  3-2 2-1
CSKA   - Juventus                3-2* 1-5

* v posledstvie UEFA prisadi sluzebna pobeda (0-3) za Juventus zashtoto 
Mihtarski , ne e bil kartotikiran navreme i e njamal pravo da igrae v tozi 
mach za CSKA.

	Pechalnata statistika po otbori za poslednite 5 sezona

          uchastia  pobedi  ravni  zagubi  specheleni tochki  tochkov prinos
                                           za UEFA rankings   za uchastie
1. Pirin     1        2       0      2            4                4
2. CSKA      5        5       3     10           13                2.6 
3. Slavia    2        2       0      2            4                2
4. Levski    4        2       1      5            5                1.25
5. Etar      1        0       1      1            1                1
6. Botev     2        0       1      3            1                0.50
7. Loko Pl   2        0       1      3            1                0.50
8. Sliven    1        0       0      2            0                0

        	Statistika po godini za rodniat ni kluben futbol
             P    R    Z        Tochki        Broi na Otborite    Koeficient
1990-91      2    0    6          4                  3               1.333 
1991-92      1    3    6          5                  4               1.25
1992-93      2    2    4          6                  4               1.5
1993-94      3    1    8          7                  4               1.75
1994-95      3    1    6          7                  3               2.333


20-8 How did Bulgarian teams perform in the 1993-94 UEFA cups
(by Dragomir R. Radev)
1st round (Sept. 15 and Sept. 29):
    Botev Plovdiv - *Olympiakos 2:3 1:5 (UEFA Cup)
    Glasgow Rangers - *Levski 3:2 1:2 (Champions' Cup)
    *CSKA - Balzers Liechtenstein 8:0 3:1 (Cup Holders' Cup)
    Lokomotiv Plovdiv - *Lazio 0:2 0:2 (UEFA Cup)

    Note: the teams marked with * advance to the second round.

2nd round (Oct. 20 and Nov. 3):

    Levski - *Werder Bremen 2:2 0:1
    *Benfica - CSKA 3:1 3:1

    Note: the teams marked with * advance to the third round.

20-9 How did Bulgaria perform at the 1992 Olympic Games
(by Dragomir R. Radev)
Ivan Ivanov                 Weightlifting 52 kg
Nikolay Boukhalov           Canoe 500 m singles
Nikolay Boukhalov           Canoe 1000 m singles
Valentin Getsov             Free-style wrestling 68 kg
Vessela Letcheva            Air-Rifle
Nonka Matova                Smallbore Rifle - 3 positions
Nikolai Peshalov            Weightlifting 60 kg
Yoto Yotov                  Weightlifting 67.5 kg
Tsvetanka Khristova         Discus
Valentin Yordanov           Free-Style Wrestling 114.5 lb. (???? kg)
Maria Zdravkova (Grozdeva?) Air-Pistol
Yordanka Donkova            100 m Hurdles
Svilen Roussinov            Boxing 201+ lb. (????? kg)
Martin Marinov, Blagovest Stoyanov     Canoe 500 doubles
Stefan Botev                Weightlifting 110 kg

In weightlifting (after all events) : 4 medals ONLY.
In rhythmic gymnastics : NO medal
Spelling : according to the official spelling used in the newspapers.

20-10 Who are the most famous Bulgarian athletes of all times 
(by Dragomir R. Radev)
I am accepting nominations for this entry.
So far (not in any specific order);

Georgi Asparuhov (Gundi) - football(soccer)
Dan Kolov - wrestling
Manuela Maleeva - tennis
Magdalena Maleeva - tennis
Katerina Maleeva - tennis
Stefka Kostadinova - track & field (high jump)
Yordanka Donkova - track & field (100 m hurdles)
Nurair Nurikyan - weightlifting
Stefan Botev - weightlifting
Antonio Krqstev - weightlifting
Naum Shalamanov (Naim Suleymanov) - weightlifting
Stefan Topurov - weightlifting
Hristo Markov - track & field (triple jump)
Tanya Bogomilova - swimming
Hristo Stoichkov - football(soccer)
Yordanka Hristova - track & field (discus)
Anelia Ralenkova - gymnastics
Iliana Raeva - gymnastics
Lili Ignatova - gymnastics
Petqr Georgiev - diving

...and a lot more

20-11 Who is Magdalena Maleeva?
(by Dragomir R. Radev), last updated: 31-Jul-1995

                             MAGDALENA MALEEVA

Birthdate              April 1, 1975         
Birthplace             Sofia, Bulgaria
Residence              Sofia, Bulgaria
Height                 5'6" (1.68m)
Weight                 109 lbs. (49kg)
Plays                  Righthanded
Turned Pro             1989
Coach                  Youlia Berberian
WTA Tour Singles Rank  7

1995 Review

     Singles Record  19-8
     Singles Titles  1
     Prize Money     $283,248

Career Highlights

     Singles Titles  4
     Doubles Titles  1
     Prize Money     $1,228,452

1994 Best Results

     Winner        Chicago
     Finalist      Hilton Head, Berlin
     Semifinalist  Tokyo, Amelia Island, Hamburg

Grand Slam History - Singles

                          Career Record 95  94  93  92 91  90
              Australian       9-5      1st 4th4th 1st 4th  -
              French Open      8-6      2nd 1st4th 3rd 1st 3rd
              U.S. Open        11-5      -  4th4th  QF 2nd 1st
              Wimbledon        4-5       -  2nd3rd 1st 1st 2nd

Year-End Ranks

                        1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994
                         211   72   38   20   16   11

20-12 Top Chess Players from Bulgaria
(by Dragomir R. Radev), last updated: 09-Jan-1997

     1  Kasparov, Gary....................g  RUS  2795   11  13.04.63
     2  Anand, Viswanathan................g  IND  2765    9  11.12.69
     3  Karpov, Anatoly...................g  RUS  2760   52  23.05.51
     4  Kramnik, Vladimir.................g  RUS  2740   41  25.06.75
     5  Ivanchuk, Vassily.................g  UKR  2740   32  18.03.69
***  6  Topalov, Veselin..................g  BUL  2725   44  15.03.75
     7  Kamsky, Gata......................g  USA  2720   29  02.06.74
     8  Gelfand, Boris....................g  BLR  2700   52  24.06.68
     9  Shirov, Alexei....................g  ESP  2690   49  04.07.72
    10  Short, Nigel D....................g  ENG  2690   22  01.06.65
*** 27  Georgiev, Kiril...................g  BUL  2645   24  28.11.65
*** 85  Spasov, Vasil.....................g  BUL  2585   46  17.02.71


    1  Polgar, Judit (GM)................g  HUN  2645   58  23.07.76
    2  Polgar, Zsuzsa (GM)...............g  HUN  2565    0  19.04.69
    3  Cramling, Pia (GM)................g  SWE  2545   37  23.04.63
    4  Chiburdanidze, Maia (GM)..........g  GEO  2535   36  17.01.61
    5  Ioseliani, Nana (IM)..............g  GEO  2510   39  12.02.62
    6  Xie, Jun (GM).....................g  CHN  2500   20  30.10.70
    7  Zhu, Chen.........................g  CHN  2495   34  16.03.76
    8  Arakhamia, Ketevan (IM)...........g  GEO  2490   21  19.07.68
    9  Matveeva, Svetlana................g  RUS  2475   26  04.07.69
    10  Polgar, Sofia (IM)................g  HUN  2470   45  02.11.74
*** 18  Stefanova, Antoaneta..............g  BUL  2410   43  19.04.79

Antoaneta Stefanova is ranked third in the world in the girls (younger than
20 years) ranking.

20-13 Futbolisti na godinata, 1995
(by Dragomir R. Radev), last updated: 18-Jan-1996 (This entry is in Bulgarian)
Krasimir Balqkov e roden na 29.03.1966 godina vqv Veliko Tqrnovo. Igral e v
Etqr, Sporting (Lisabon) i Shtutgart.

Krayno klasirane za 1995.

 1. Krasimir Balqkov, Sporting, Stuttgart     570
 2. Hristo Stoichkov, Barcelona, Parma        415
 3. Emil Kostadinov, Bayern                   262
 4. Yordan Lechkov, Hamburger                 198
 5. Trifon Ivanov, Xamax, Rapid Vienna        140
 6. Borislav Mihaylov, Botev Plovdiv, Redding  61
 7. Zlatko Yankov, Levski, Jurdingen           54
 8. Plamen Nikolov, Levski                     38
 9. Luboslav Penev, Valencia, Atletico Madrid  36
10. Emil Kremenliev, Levski, Olympiakos        29


Petar Hubchev (Hamburger), Marian Hristov (Slaviya, Levski),
Vlado Shalamanov (Slaviya, Altay), Tsanko Tsvetanov (Levski, Waldhof),
Iliyan Iliev (Levski, Benfica), Daniel Borimirov (Levski, Muenchen 1860),
Radostin Kishishev (Neftohimik), Diyan Petkov (Loko Sf), Simeon Chilibonov
(Slaviya, Loko Sf), Kostadin Vidolov (Botev), Ivo Georgiev (Korabostroitel,
Spartak Vn), Petar Aleksandrov (Xamax, Lucerne), Valqntin Dartilov (Levski,

20-14 Futbolisti na godinata - 1961-1995
(by Dragomir R. Radev), last updated: 18-Jan-1996 (This entry is in Bulgarian)
1961 Georgi Naydenov (CSKA)
1962 Ivan Kolev (CSKA)
1963 Aleksandar Shalamanov (Slaviya)
1964 Nikola Kotkov (Loko Sf)
1965 Georgi Asparuhov (Levski)
1966 Aleksandar Shalamanov (Slaviya)
1967 Dimitar Penev (CSKA)
1968 Simeon Simeonov (Slaviya)
1969 Hristo Bonev (Loko Pd)
1970 Stefan Aladjov (Levski)
1971 Dimitar Penev (CSKA)
1972 Hristo Bonev (Loko Pd)
1973 Hristo Bonev (Loko Pd)
1974 Kiril Ivkov (Levski)
1975 Kiril Ivkov (Levski)
1976 Bojidar Grigorov (Slaviya)
1977 Pavel Panov (Levski)
1978 Rumen Goranov (Loko Sf)
1979 Atanas Mihaylov (Loko Sf)
1980 Andrey Jelyazkov (Slaviya)
1981 Georgi Velinov (CSKA)
1982 Radoslav Zdravkov (CSKA)
1983 Stoycho Mladenov (CSKA)
1984 Plamen Nikolov (Levski)
1985 Georgi Dimitrov (CSKA)
1986 Borislav Mihaylov (Levski)
1987 Nikolay Iliev (Levski)
1988 Luboslav Penev (CSKA)
1989 Hristo Stoichkov (CSKA)
1990 Hristo Stoichkov (CSKA, Barcelona)
1991 Hristo Stoichkov (Barcelona)
1992 Hristo Stoichkov (Barcelona)
1993 Emil Kostadinov (Porto)
1994 Hristo Stoichkov (Barcelona)
1995 Krasimir Balakov (Sporting, Stuttgart)

20-15 The Soccer Champions of Bulgaria
(by Yulian Dontchev), last updated: 03-Jan-1997
1924 -
1925 Vladislav (Varna)
1926 Vladislav (Varna)
1927 - 
1928 Slavia (Sofia)
1929 Botev (Plovdiv)
1930 Slavia (Sofia)
1931 AC 23 (Sofia)
1932 Shipchenski sokol (Varna)
1933 Levski (Sofia)
1934 Vladislav (Varna)
1935 Sportclub (Sofia)
1936 Slavia (Sofia)
1937 Levski (Sofia)
1937-1938 Ticha (Varna)
1938-1939 Slavia (Sofia)
1939-1940 ZhSK (Sofia)
1941 Slavia (Sofia)
1942 Levski (Sofia)
1943 Slavia (Sofia)
1944 - 
1945 Lokomotiv (Sofia)
1946 Levski (Sofia)
1947 Levski (Sofia)
1948 Septemvri pri CDNV (Sofia)
1948-1949 Levski (Sofia)
1950 Levski (Sofia)
1951 CDNA (Sofia)
1952 CDNA (Sofia)
1953 Levski (Sofia)
1954 CDNA (Sofia)
1955 CDNA (Sofia)
1956 CDNA (Sofia)
1957 CDNA (Sofia)
1958 CDNA (Sofia)
1958-1959 CDNA (Sofia)
1959-1960 CDNA (Sofia)
1960-1961 CDNA (Sofia)
1961-1962 CDNA (Sofia)
1962-1963 Spartak (Plovdiv)
1963-1964 Lokomotiv (Sofia)
1964-1965 Levski (Sofia)
1965-1966 CSKA Cherveno zname (Sofia)
1966-1967 Botev (Plovdiv)
1967-1968 Levski (Sofia)
1968-1969 CSKA Septemvrijsko zname (Sofia)
1969-1970 Levski-Spartak (Sofia)
1970-1971 CSKA Septemvrijsko zname (Sofia)
1971-1972 CSKA Septemvrijsko zname (Sofia)
1972-1973 CSKA Septemvrijsko zname (Sofia)
1973-1974 Levski-Spartak (Sofia)
1974-1975 CSKA Septemvrijsko zname (Sofia)
1975-1976 CSKA Septemvrijsko zname (Sofia)
1976-1977 Levski-Spartak (Sofia)
1977-1978 Lokomotiv (Sofia)
1978-1979 Levski-Spartak (Sofia)
1979-1980 CSKA Septemvrijsko zname (Sofia)
1980-1981 CSKA Septemvrijsko zname (Sofia)
1981-1982 CSKA Septemvrijsko zname (Sofia)
1982-1983 CSKA Septemvrijsko zname (Sofia)
1983-1984 Levski-Spartak (Sofia)
1984-1985 ?
1985-1986 Beroe (Stara Zagora)
1986-1987 CFKA Sredets (Sofia)
1987-1988 FC Vitosha (Sofia)
1988-1989 CSKA (Sofia)
1989-1990 CSKA (Sofia)
1990-1991 Etar (Veliko Tarnovo)
1991-1992 CSKA (Sofia)
1992-1993 Levski (Sofia)
1993-1994 Levski (Sofia)
1994-1995 Levski (Sofia)
1995-1996 Slaviya (Sofia)


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