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soc.culture.bulgaria FAQ (monthly posting) (part 5/10)

( Part0 - Part1 - Part2 - Part3 - Part4 - Part5 - Part6 - Part7 - Part8 - Part9 )
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Last-Modified: July 17, 2000
Posting-Frequency: Monthly
Version: 4.11
URL: http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~radev/cgi-bin/bgfaq.cgi
Archive-Name: bulgaria-faq/part5

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
===============================================================================
CHAPTER  10:  ELECTRONIC CONNECTIVITY


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10-1 Major World-Wide Web Sites about Bulgaria
(by Dragomir R. Radev), last updated: 30-Oct-1995
1. The Bulgarian Home Page (at Rockefeller University)

   http://pisa.rockefeller.edu:8080/Bulgaria

   The first home page about Bulgaria. Maintained by Penyo Penev. Contains
   pointers to a variety of other sites. Also contains the USTOI on-line 
   newspaper.

2. All About Bulgaria (at Columbia University)

   http://www.cs.columbia.edu/~radev/bulgaria

   Includes a hypertext version of the FAQ, an archive of
   soc.culture.bulgaria and a hierarchical directory of all pointers on the
   Web related to Bulgaria. Maintained by Dragomir R. Radev.

3. Bulgaria-related Electronic Resources (at Arizona State University)

   http://enws121.eas.asu.edu/places/Bulgaria/

   Pretty well designed and maintained site with miscellaneous
   pointers. Contains a map-based interface to Internet servers in
   Bulgaria. The site contains also a news archive. Maintained by Plamen
   Bliznakov.

4. Bulgarian page (at bulgaria.com)

   http://www.bulgaria.com

   A startup page with a few pointers. Maintained by Jivko Kolchev.

5. Pointers on Bulgaria (at yahoo.com)

   http://www.yahoo.com/Regional_Information/Countries/Bulgaria

   A short and incomplete listing of pointers related to Bulgaria.


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10-2 Bulgarian Chat Servers
(by Jivko Kolchev), last updated: 03-Jan-1997 (This entry is in Bulgarian)
Ne znam kolko ot vas si spomnia magdanoza, no v posledno vreme toi
savsem pozasqhna i e na pqt da bqde chastichno pensioniran. Za
kompensacia obache se poiaviava nov server chat.bulgaria.com, koito e
po-lesen za poddqrjane i s poveche vqzmojnosti bi triabvalo da e dostoen
zamestnik na magdanoza. 

Za tezi koito ne znaiat kakvo e magdanoz, mogat da razberat polzvaiki
slednia URL: http://magdanoz.bulgaria.com

Eto kak mojete da se svarjete s novia server i da uchastvate v
konferencii: 

Ako pritejavate Java enabled browser ili niamate nishto protiv da
instalirate Plug-in za Netscape
        http://chat.bulgaria.com:4080

Ako predpochitate da polzvate telnet :
        telnet chat.bulgaria.com 4080

Ako predpochiate da polzvate IRC:
        irc do chat.bulgaria.com port 8067

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10-3 How to join the #bulgaria channel on IRC
(by Dragomir R. Radev), last updated: 30-Oct-1995
There is a possibility to talk to other Bulgarians in the channel
#bulgaria on irc. If you don't know what irc is, read below:

1. It is possible that you have the irc software already installed on
your system. Then type "irc" from your prompt and go to step 5.

2. If you don't have irc installed, there are two alternatives for you:
a) install your own irc client software (it takes some memory though) 
   - read step 3.
b) telnet to some publicly accessible irc server - read step 4.

3. Two possibilities: ftp or automatic. 
a) ftp should work for many different computers (IBM-PC, Macintosh, VAX, IBM 
3270, Unix, etc.). You have to do anonymous ftp to csa.bu.edu and look for 
the directory irc. Copy the README file in the directory clients/... where
... is the type of computer you have (e.g. VAX). Then follow the instructions
in that README file.
b) automatic (works only if you have a UNIX system). Type the following:
telnet sci.dixie.edu 1 | sh
(be careful to type all characters on the previous line including the "| sh"
This should install an irc client in your directory. Note that it will be
configured in a way to directly connect you to the undernet (you don't need
to know what that is - simply proceed with this algorithm).
if either a) or b) worked, then go to step 5.
 
4. To telnet to some publicly accessible irc server, read this:

Scott Yanoff's "Special Internet Connections" (aka internet-services list)
lists the following telnetable IRC clients:

  -IRC telnet server    telnet wbrt.wb.psu.edu or 146.186.78.131
		        telnet irc.demon.co.uk or 158.152.1.74
                       +telnet sci.dixie.edu 6668 or telnet 144.38.16.2 6668
    offers: Internet Relay Chat via telnet.  (Login: irc)

5. Now you shold already be on some irc/undernet server. If you are on
the undernet (i.e. you followed step 3b) you must type the following:
/server irc.netsys.com
At this point, you should be on a genuine irc server. go to step 6.

6. type the following:
/join #bulgaria
and if there is someone else you will be able to talk. For more info about
how to use irc, read the FAQ list on irc in the news.answers newsgroup.

Have fun!



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10-4 Internet providers in Bulgaria
(by mitko@cit.bg), last updated: 09-Aug-1995

CIT Ltd.                                - postmaster@cit.bg
EUnet Bulgaria / Digital Systems        - info@Bulgaria.EU.net

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
10-5 How to play 'tabla' (backgammon) against human players on the Internet
(by Dragomir R. Radev), last updated: 30-Oct-1995
Telnet to 
   205.149.189.55 4321
or 
   fibs.com 4321

and then follow the instructions

Note: If you are on a VAX, you might have to type:
telnet/port=4321 205.149.189.55 instead of the command above

 



===============================================================================
CHAPTER  11:  BULGARIAN LANGUAGE


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11-1 How to pronounce Bulgarian
(by Dragomir R. Radev)
Bulgarian uses the Cyrillic alphabet.
There are 30 letters. I will show them using a graphical description of
the capital letter (in a 7X7 bitmap).

 
01                                01   [a]
             O
            O O
           O   O
          OOOOOOO
          O     O
          O     O
          O     O
 
02                                02   [b]
          OOOOOOO
          O
          O
          OOOOOO
          O     O
          O     O
          OOOOOO
 
03                                03   [v]
          OOOOOO
          O     O
          O     O
          OOOOOO
          O     O
          O     O
          OOOOOO
 
04                                04   [g]
          OOOOOOO
          O
          O
          O
          O
          O
          O
 
05                                05   [d]
            OOO
           O   O
           O   O
           O   O
           O   O
          OOOOOOO
          O     O
 
06                                06   [e]
          OOOOOOO
          O
          O
          OOOOO
          O
          O
          OOOOOOO
 
07                                07   [3]     (as in 'vision')
          O  O  O
           O O O
            OOO
             O
            OOO
           O O O
          O  O  O
 
08                                08   [z]     (as in 'zeal')
           OOOOO
          O     O
                O
             OOO
                O
          O     O
           OOOOO
 
09                                09   [i]
          O     O
          O    OO
          O   O O
          O  O  O
          O O   O
          OO    O
          O     O
 
10                                10   [y]
            OOO
 
           O   O
           O  OO
           O O O
           OO  O
           O   O
 
11                                11   [k]
          O     O
          O    O
          O   O
          OOOO
          O   O
          O    O
          O     O
 
12                                12   [l-] superimposed hyphen on [l]:
             O                              (IPA symbol for a sound
            O O                              closer to [w] than to [l])
            O O
           O   O
           O   O
          O     O
          O     O
 
13                                13   [m]
          O     O
          OO   OO
          O O O O
          O  O  O
          O     O
          O     O
          O     O
 
14                                14   [n]
          O     O
          O     O
          O     O
          OOOOOOO
          O     O
          O     O
          O     O
 
15                                15   [o]
           OOOOO
          O     O
          O     O
          O     O
          O     O
          O     O
           OOOOO
 
16                                16   [p]
          OOOOOOO
          O     O
          O     O
          O     O
          O     O
          O     O
          O     O
 
17                                17   [r]
          OOOOOO
          O     O
          O     O
          OOOOOO
          O
          O
          O
 
18                                18   [s]
           OOOOO
          O     O
          O
          O
          O
          O     O
           OOOOO
 
19                                19   [t]
          OOOOOOO
             O
             O
             O
             O
             O
             O
 
20                                20   [u]
          O     O
          O     O
          O     O
           OOOOOO
                O
          O     O
           OOOOO
 
21                                21   [f]
             O
           OOOOO
          O  O  O
          O  O  O
          O  O  O
           OOOOO
             O
 
22                                22   [h]
          O     O
           O   O
            O O
             O
            O O
           O   O
          O     O
 
23                                23   [ts]
          O    O
          O    O
          O    O
          O    O
          O    O
          OOOOOOO
                O
                                         V
24                                24   [ts]   (this corresponds to the
          O     O                              English 'ch' as in 'chat'
          O     O
          O     O
          OOOOOOO
                O
                O
                O
                                        V
25                                25   [s]     English 'sh' as in 'show'
          O  O  O
          O  O  O
          O  O  O
          O  O  O
          O  O  O
          O  O  O
          OOOOOOO
                                        V
26                                26   [st]    English 'sht' as in
           O O O                               'fresh tea'
           O O O
           O O O
           O O O
           O O O
           OOOOOO
                O
 
27                                27   [^]  lower-mid back unrounded
          OO                                vowel: you can get an idea
           O                                from the English 'cut'
           O
           OOOOO
           O    O
           O    O
           OOOOO
 
28                                28   [y]
          O
          O
          O
          OOOOOO
          O     O
          O     O
          OOOOOO
 
29                                29   [yu]
          O  OOO
          O O   O
          O O   O
          OOO   O
          O O   O
          O O   O
          O  OOO
 
30                                30   [ya]
           OOOOOO
          O     O
          O     O
           OOOOOO
             O  O
            O   O
           O    O


 

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11-2 How to count in Bulgarian 
(by Dragomir R. Radev)
   1 - edno            (ed-NOH)
   2 - dve             (DVAY)
   3 - tri             (TREE)
   4 - chetiri         (CHAY-tee-ree)
   5 - pet             (PET)
   6 - shest           (SHEST)
   7 - sedem           (SAY-dem)
   8 - osem            (AW-sem)
   9 - devet           (DAY-vet)
  10 - deset           (DAY-set)
 

 

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11-3 Modern Bulgarian Language courses 
(by Kitty Kagay, Ken Grau, Prashant Dave, and Dragomir R. Radev)
In response to Dennis Godfrey's 20th January message regarding the U.S. State
Department's Foreign Service Institute's language course.
 
It may be of interest that there is another complete set of Bulgarian course
materials available through Slavica Press of Ohio. This course also assumes no
previous knowledge of Bulgarian or any other Slavic language. The course has
supplementary materials which are designed specifically for self-study.
 
The core-text, titled: A Course in Modern Bulgarian (by Milka Hubernova, Ana
Dzhumadanova & Milka Marinova, Columbus, Ohio: Slavica Publishing, 1983;
Library of Congress number: PG 835 K48x 1983) comes in two parts of about 300
pages each.  The two parts consists of 62 lessons with about 60 pages of
additional readings.  There is enough material in the two volumes for a 2-3
year university course sequence.  Best of all, each volume ends with a 40 page
Bulgarian-English glossary consisting of vocabulary from both volumes.  This
glossary is a student's dream supplying accents, plurals, verb conjugations
and aspect, and various irregulars.  This feature alone is worth the price of
the book.  Note that the two volumes are available separately.
 
The six-volume supplemental workbooks for self-study for so-called
"Individualized Instruction".  The materials are divided into workbooks
titled: Elementary Bulgarian 1, Elementary Bulgarian 2, Intermediate Bulgarian
1, Intermediate Bulgarian 2, Advanced Bulgarian 1, and Advanced Bulgarian 2.
Intermediate Bulgarian 2 is by Lyubomira Parpulova-Gribble and Catherine
Rudin and the other five volumes are by Charles E. Gribble and Lyubomira
Parpulova-Gribble.  In addition, each volume has a Teacher's Manual containing
tests, transcriptions of material on the tapes, etc.  There is also a set of
tapes.  The workbooks, Teacher's Manual, and tapes are available from:
 
           Center for Slavic and Eastern European Studies
           Ohio State University
           Dulles Hall
           230 West 17th Avenue
           Columbus, Ohio 43210
 
           Telephone: 614-292-8770
 
The first three workbooks cover the material in part one of the Hubenova text
and the last three workbooks part two of the Hubenova text.  These materials
add more exercises, give additional grammatical explanations, add cultural
notes, provide additional reading materials, etc.  In addition, these offer
two major features: supplementary note to the core text explaining points
which the Bulgarian authors have overlooked because of their native speakers'
"blind spot" and an answer key to the exercises.  The workbooks are available
singly with each covering several (10?) lessons.
 
Finally, a set of audio cassette tapes is available for volume one of the core
text (lessons 1-26).  These tapes include a reading of the text from each
chapter, some drills and exercises, plus a few additional readings of some
short texts.
 
The textbook and workbooks are all softbound and inexpensive.  I don't know
the price of the tapes as a set since the tapes I used were obtained by my
university.  I have read through parts of the State Department's text but it
is the Hubenova text that our class worked through systematically.  Comparing
the two, I think each has significant shortcomings as well as strengths.  My
opinion is that there is no definitive text for the study of Bulgarian (as of
now). Incidentally, I found the State Department's text in my local library
which may be an option for those who like to browse before buying (Bulgarian
Basic Courses, United State Foreign Service Institute. Dewey call number: 491
U58)
 
For those interested in the Hubenova text, the company is Slavica Publishers.
From the publishers written statement in an 1987 book of theirs:
 
"Slavica publishes a wide variety of textbooks and scholarly books on the
languages, peoples, literatures, cultures, history, etc. of the USSR and
Eastern Europe.  For a complete catalog of books and journals from Slavica,
with prices and ordering information, write to:
 
      Slavica Publishers, Inc.
      P O Box 14388
      Columbus, Ohio 43214 - 0388
      Phone: 614 - 268 - 4002

Here is a short bibliography (from "Bulgarian" by Charles A. Moser, the
George Washington University).
 
TEXTBOOKS
 
1. Charles A. Moser. Bulgarian (The George Washington University:
   Washington, DC 1991)
 
2. Albert Bates Lord. Beginning Bulgarian (The Hague: Mouton, 1962)
 
3. Milka Hubenova, Ana Dzhumadanova. A Course in Modern Bulgarian 1,2.
   Slavica Publishers: Columbus, Ohio, 1983)

   Part 1, viii + 303 p.  1983 ( ISBN:0-89357-104-0), $ 16.95
   Part 2, ix + 303 p., 1983 (ISBN: 0-89357-105-9), $ 16.95.
 
4. Charles Gribble and Lyubomira Parpulova-Gribble. Elementary Bulgarian 1,2.
   Bulgarian Individualized Instruction (Ohio State University: Columbus,
   Ohio, 1984)
 
5. Lyubomira Parpulova-Gribble and Charles Gribble. Advanced Bulgarian 1,2.
   Bulgarian Individualized Instruction (Ohio State University: Columbus,
   Ohio, 1987)
 
6. James Augerot & Nikolay Popov. Bqlgarski ezik: A University Course in the
   Bulgarian Language (Seattle, 1987)
 
GRAMMARS
 
1. Leon Beaulieux. Grammaire de la langue bulgare (Institut d'etudes slaves:
   Paris, 1950)
 
2. Ernest Scatton. A Reference Grammar of Modern Bulgarian (Slavica Publishers:
   Columbus, Ohio, 1984)
 
SPECIFIC TOPICS
 
1. Ernest Scatton. Bulgarian Phonology (Slavica Publishers: Cambridge, Massa-
   chusetts, 1975)
 
2. Charles Gribble. Reading Bulgarian Through Russian (Slavica Publishers:
   Columbus, Ohio, 1987)
 
 


-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11-4 More Bulgarian Textbooks
(by Kjetil Ra Hauge), last updated: 26-Jan-1995
Michael Holman and Mira Kovatcheva (1993): Teach Yourself Bulgarian
(coursebook and cassette), Hodder & Stoughton, ISBN 0 340 56177 7, GBP
16.99

George D. Papantchev (1994): Colloquial Bulgarian (coursebook and two
cassettes), Routledge, ISBN 0 415 07965 9



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11-5 More Bulgarian Textbooks
(by Kjetil Ra Hauge), last updated: 02-96-1938
Papantchev, George D.: Colloquial Bulgarian. A Complete Language Course
[with 2 60-min cassettes]. Routledge, 29 West 35th Street, New York NY
10001, ISBN 0-415-07965-9.

Holman, Michael and Mira KovachevA: Teach Yourself Bulgarian. A Complete
Course for Beginners. [With one 85-minute cassette] Hodder & Stoughton,
London. ISBN 0-340-56176-9.



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11-6 Teach Yourself Bulgarian (Tape)
(by Graham Crowder)

There is a book/cassette combination in the Teach Yourself
series entitled 
             Teach Yourself Bulgarian
         A complete course for beginners

by Michael Holman and Mira Kovatcheva.
Publisher: Hodder and Stoughton.

This came out just a year or two back. There is an older
title "A Course in Modern Bulgarian parts 1/2" published
by Slavica Publishers, Inc (Columbus, Ohio).



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11-7 Bulgarian and English dictionaries
(by Kamen Penev), last updated: 21-Nov-1994
 Record #8 of 130
  BRS Number: 000945202
      Author: Tchomakov, Ivan.
       Title: Bulgarian-English, English-Bulgarian dictionary / Ivan 
              Tchomakov.
     Impr/Ed: New York : Hippocrene Books, c1992.
     Edition: Hippocrene Books ed.
   Phys Desc: 323 p. ; 18 cm.
    Subjects: Bulgarian language  -- Dictionaries  -- English.
              English language  -- Dictionaries  -- Bulgarian.
Series Title: Hippocrene practical dictionary
    Language: eng
        ISBN: 0870521454 (pbk.)

 Record #57 of 130
  BRS Number: 000599608
      Author: Khubenova, Milka Gucheva.
       Title: A course in modern Bulgarian / Milka Hubenova, Ana 
              Dzhumadanova, Milka Marinova.
     Impr/Ed: Columbus, Ohio : Slavica Publishers, 1983.
   Phys Desc: 2 v. : ill., music ; 23 cm.
    Subjects: Bulgarian language  -- Grammar.
Other Author: Dzhumadanova, Ana Stefanova.
              Marinova, Milka Petrova.
       Notes: Reprint. Originally published: Bulgarski ezik. Sofia : 
              Narodna Prosveta, 1964-1968. With corrections.
              English or Bulgarian.
    Language: eng
        ISBN: 0893571040 (v. 1) 0893571059 (v. 2)

 Record #77 of 130
  BRS Number: 000419906
      Author: Lord, Albert Bates.
       Title: Beginning Bulgarian.
     Impr/Ed: 's-Gravenhage, Mouton, 1962.
   Phys Desc: 165 p. 23 cm.
    Subjects: Bulgarian language  -- Grammar.
    Language: eng
        LCCN: 65035287
        GRSN: 00424693




-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11-8 Kakvo e "Dvoyno E"?
(by Iliya Talev), last updated: 27-Jul-1995 (This entry is in Bulgarian)
V sluchaya s dvoymoto E i shirokoto Q ("nosovkata") sqshtestvuvat
dve strani na vqprosa: ezikovedcheska i politicheska. Vqtre v
ezikovedcheskite sporove, pokray chisto lingvistichnite
sqobajeniya, chesto se injektirat social-politicheski
stanovishta, koeto pqk razdelya ezikovedite na "progresivni" i
"reakcionni".
Pochti nevqzmojno e da se nameri pqlen i obektiven pregled na
pravopisnite "borbi", koito nesqmneno sa svqrzani s borbite po
oformyaneto na bqlgarskiya knijoven ezik prez minaloto stoletie.
Kakto znaete, pobediha "rusofilite". Tyahnata pobeda moje da se
obyasni, obshto vzeto, sqs slednite faktori:
1. Ogromnoto vliyanie na Ruskata pravoslavna cqrkva v duhovnoto
ptobujdane na bqlgarite ot vrorata polovina na XVIII do kraya na
XIX vek. Osnova na bqlgarskiya cqrkoven ezik stava kqsnata ruska
redakciya na Cqrkovno-slavyanski. Pokray ruskoto proiznoshenie na
cqrkovniya ezik, v Bqlgariya pristigat drugi ruski inovacii ot
leksikalno-semantichen harakter (kato administrativnata cqrkovna
terminologiya naprimer) posredstvom trebnici, slujebnici,
Chti-Minei, jitiya na pravoslavni svetci i t.n. Prez tozi period
Ruskata cqrkva investira golemi sredstva na Balkanite s
razprostranyavane na cqrkovna literatura, obuchenie na
sveshtenici i chastichno, s pomoshti pri stroeneto na hramove.
Zabelejitelno v sluchaya e, che neynite investicii v Sqrbiya
pqrvonachalno sa po-golemi, otkolkoto v Bqlgariya, no srqbskoto
vqzrajdane, pod vliyanie na hqrvatite, trqgna na pqt za ograjdane
ot rusko vliyanie.
( V tozi kontekst, sqsho taka e interesno, che Rumqnskata cqrkva,
koyato izpolzva po tova vreme Sredno-bqlgarska redakciya na
Cqrkovno-slavyanskiya ezik, silno ogranichava ruskoto vliyanie v
cqrkovniya ezik.
Misiyata na Rusiya na Balkanite, pokray chisto hristiyansko
misionerstvo, se diktkuva i ot dqrjavno-cqrkovnata doktrina za
"Tretiya Rim" (t.e., sled padaneto na Carigrad - "Vtoriya Rim",
Moskovskata patriarhiya poema funkciite na sedalishte i
tqlkovatel na pravata vyara).
2. Sqznanieto na mnogo bqlgarski vqzrojdenci, che bez pomosht
otvqn, Bqlgariya ne shte moje da se osvobodi. Tyahnata nadejda
lelji vqrhu Rusiya; te rabotyat deyno za doblijavane na noviya
bqlgarski kqm ruskiya.
3. Uchastieto vqv vqzrojdenskite procesi na mnozina energichni
bqlgari, nyakoi ot tyah s pari, koito sa zvqrzani emocionalno ili
finansovo s Rusiya. Povecheto ot tyah idvat ot podbalkanskite
gradcheta, trevnensko i gabrovsko. Spomnete si za Vasil Aprilov: 
toy se sqglasyava da pomaga finansovo na bqlgarskata kultura pri
edno uslovie: che ezikqt. makar gramaticheski da e osnovan na
trevnenskoto narechie, shte vklyuchi cherti na gabrovskite govori
kato "me, te, se" vmesto "mq, tq, sq" ("vidyah te", ne "vidyah
tq"), ili  generaliziraniya imenitelen/vinitelen padej za jenski
rod ("glava" a ne "glavq") i t.n.
Po tazi tochka sa zabelejitelni dve yavleniya:  pqrvoto e, che
nashite sqnarodnici ot Makedoniya se otnasyat hladno kqm rannata
rusifikaciya na ezika. Tova e po-skoro grqcko, otkolkoto srqbsko
kulturno vliyanie. Te sa na mnenie, che bqlgarskite, a ne ruskite
cqrkovni knigi tryabva da se izpolzvat kato iztochnik na
slovotvorchestvo, i che folklorqt tryabva da bqde moshten
iztochnik pri oformyaneto na ezika. Spomnete si za bratyata
Miladinovci i tyahnoto delo. Vtoroto yavlenie mojem uslovno da
narechem "Dyado Petko Rachov Slaveykov". Grupa bqlgari v Carigrad
rabotyat nad prevoda na protestantskata bibliya. Te tqrsyat
iztochnik za oformyaneto na ezika v narodnata novobqlgarska
literatura, glavno "damaskinite", i derivacionnite sposobi na
razlichni bqlgarski dialekti. Kolko jalko, che tozi imenno -
spored mene - pravilen podhod ne stana dominirasht.
Poslednata golyama pobeda v rusifikatorite na bqlgarskiya ezik
idva prez nyakolkoto godini na ruskata administraciya na
osvobodena Bqlgariya. Chrez uchilishtnata i
dqrjavno-administrativnata sistema te uspyavat za mnogo kratqk
srok da rusificirat leksicheski i semantichno, do neuznavaemost,
knijovniya bqlgarski ezik. V tazi oblast naprimer nishto ne e
pisano za vliyanieto na mitnicheskata slujba v leksikalnoto
oformyane na ezika (samo u Aleko: "dayte mi mene Solunskata
mitnica...!"). Eto primer: pristiga ot Avstro-Ungariya pratka s
"pironi", no mitnicharyat, po instrukciya otgore, pishe
"gvozdei".  Mnogo ot rusizmite, vlezli po onova vreme v
bqlgarski, sa izcheznali, ili izchezvat, v ruski:  "rasilen"
("baycho") ot "raz-syl'nyi", t.e. chovek, koyto se razprashta po
drebni zadachi, kurier; "lepya" (ottam, na bqlgarska osnova -
dumata "lepilo") i t.n.
Tazi dqlga, no mnogo shematichna ekskurziya za osnovata na
sqvremenniya nash knijoven ezik, beshe nujna, za da razberem i
prichinite za ustanovyavaneto na stariya pravopis sqs E-dvoynoto,
shirokoto Q, i ER-golyam i ER-malqk v kraya na dumite.
Pravopisqt, ustanoven ot ruskata shkola v Bqlgariya sledva mnogo,
mnogo tyasno oficialniya ruski pravopis ot onova vreme.
Izklyucheniyata sa malko, bukvata "yota" (spomnete si "Ivancho
Yotata"); ima sqshto izklyucheniya v tretiraneto na predstavkite
i sufiksite.
Sreshtu principite, na koito e osnovan stariyat ruski pravipis,
NE vqzrazyavat i pochti nikoi nashi vqzrojdenci ot makedonskite
zemi. Tezi principi sa ujasno udobni za obedinyavaneto na VSICHKI
bqlgarski dialekti v knijovniya ni ezik. Prosti primeri:  za
E-dvoyno, "bel-beli", "byal-beli", "byal-byali". Ili oshte
poveshe za "shirokoto Q" i ER-ovete v kraya na dumite: "pQt'-"
(apostrofqt oznachava "ER-malqk") se proiznasya v dialektite kato
"pqt", "pat", "pot" i daje "put", a malkiyat ER v kraya na dumata
pokazva palatalizaviyata v "pQt'-qt" i staroto dvoystveno chislo
vqv formata "kolko pQt-i".
No bqlgarskata uchebna sistema izpitva zatrudnieniya, oshte ot
samoto nachalo, s tozi pravopis. Negovoto ovladyavane iziskva
po-shiroka lingvistichna kultura (ili poznaniya na nyakolko
dialekta, ili na Cqrkovno-slavyanski, ili na ruski). Moje bi
glavnata prichina za tova e NE-nastoyavaneto za uednakven
pravogovor na knijovniya bqlgarski, t.e., pishi "bEl", a
proiznasyay ili "byal", ili "bel". Za lipsata na pqrvonachalni
normi na izgovaryane po onova vreme, kogato oshte  nyama radio i
TV,  ima seriozni osnovaniya - zapadnite i yujnite bqlgarski
dialekti.
I zatova oshte ot nachaloto na bqlgaristikata zapochvat sporovete
mejdu "progresivnite", glavno ot Severo-iztochna Bqlgariya, i
"reakcionerite", glavno ot Zapadna Bqlgariya, trakiyskite i
makedonskite zemi. "Progresivnite" tvqrdyat, che bqlgarskiyat
pravopis, ako se napravi "fonetichen" kato srqbskiya, shtyal da
stane dostqpen do vsichki (neshto kato Rab-Fak). "Reakcionerite",
koito sa rugani kato "elitisti", "konservatori", "otkqsnati ot
naroda", "stroeshti kuli ot slonova kost" i t.n. nablyagat na
chetiri momenta: 1) obedinyavashtite cherti na pravopisa za
vsichki bez izklyuchenie bqlgarski dialekti;  2) priemstvenostta
i posledovatelnostta v bqlgarskata nacionalna kultura prez
vekovete; 3) problemite s tqy narechenite "fonetichni principi" -
 kqde spirame s "fonetichniya, naroden" pravopis - "hlyab",
"lyab", hleb", "leb" "hlyap", "lep" i t.n?:  i 4-to - no mnogo
vajno:  poznavatelnite cherti na pravopisa (kogato edna duma ne
meni graficheskiya si oblik v razlichni gramaticheski formi, tya
se vqzpriema po-bqrzo i s po-malko usiliya ot uma na
chetyashtiya, ili s drugi dumi - tekstove s
etimologichno-morfologicheski pravopisi se chetat i vqzpriemat
po-bqrzo i lesno ot tekstove s fonetichni pravopisi.
Zemedelcite na Stamboliyski napraviha pqrviya kratkotraen, i to
mnogo nespoluchliv opit, da reformirat pravopisa. Osven
narodnyashkite im tvqrdeniya, te yavno imaha predvid doblijavane
na bqlgarskoto pismo do srqbskoto s ogled na edna eventualna
Yugoslavska federaciya.
Komunisticheskata reforma imashe chisto ideologicheski harakter i
beshe absolyutno nepodgotvena v lingvistichno otnoshenie. Tya
predi vsichko beshe motivirana kato podrajanie na bolshevishkata
pravopisna reforma (nali pomnite dumite v Internacionala, shte
razrushim tozi svyat napqlno). Posledstvieto ottuk tryabvashe da
bqde grafichesko priblijavane na ruski i bqlgarski.
Tova, koeto veche se spomena sa pisheshtite mashini, ne e shega -
bqlgarskite komunisti gotveha da izolirat Bqlgariya napqlno ot
Zapada, i sledovatelno tehnicheskata baza tryabvashe da se gradi
na sqvetskata promishlenost - pisheshti mashini i pechatarski
inventar.
Imashe oshte edna cel - da se prekqsne kulturnata vrqzka na
novite pokoleniya sqs starite bqlgarski knigi. Psihologicheski,
kniga sqs "star" pravopis tryabva da sqzdava u "homo sovieticus"
emocionalna bariera pri vqzpriemaneto na teksta: "tova e neshto
chujdo", "stranno", "ustaryalo", s drugi dumi, ne si zaslujava
vnimanieto i usiliyata da vnikna v tezi "stari" idei.
Ne na posledno myasto (makar i ne kato postavena cel), beshe
efektqt na smyanata na pravopisa - nashite polu-gramotni drugari
mojeha da opravdavat grubite si pravopisni greshki i lipsata na
elementarna ezikova kultura s noviya pravopis, koyto "ne bili
uchili v uchilishte".
Sega, tolkova godini sled komunisticheskata pravopisna reforma,
bqlgarite obshto vzeto ne znayat oficialniya pravopis na
stranata. Ot opit moga da kaja, che povechete bqlgaristi, koito
nyamat specialnata podgotovka na korektori, pravyat grubi
pravopisni greshki. Osven tova tozi "oprosten" pravopis dovede do
vseobsht kulturen nihilizqm - kolko bqlgari postoyanno se
konsultirat s rechnici, bilo to pravopisni ili tqlkovni? A
principite, izkovani nabqrzo sled Deveti septemvri, na koito se
gradi segashniyat pravopis, sa tolkova protivorechivi, che ne bez
osnovanie daje bqlgaristite ne znayat pravopisa.
Ima li izhod ot tova polojenie?
Az ne vyarvam, che restavraciya na stariya pravopis e
prakticheski vqzmojna, makar che lichno bih ya podkrepil sqs
vsichki sili. Vqzstanovyavane na do-komunisticheskiya pravopis, s
nyakoi neznachitelni izmeneniya i utochneniya po liniyata na
predlaganite promeni ot pokoyniya Stefan Mladenov, shte napravyat
bqlgarskiya pravopis otnovo instrument v okulturyavane na
naciyata. A psihologicheski, toy shte kazva na bqdnite
pokoleniya, che vrqzkata s do-komunisticheskata kultura e
vqzsatovena, dokato povecheto ot tova, koeto e pisano na
"komunisticheski, naroden" pravopis, e staro, nevyarno i chujdo
(da izpolzvame tyahnoto orqjie).
Edin drug faktor e, che dneshnoto pokolenie bqlgarski ezikovedi
sa zaangajirani s tozi pravopis, i mnogo malko ot tyah
chistosqrdechno shte se sastqpvat za restavraciya na stariya.
Az mislya, ce po-skoro, pravopisqt shte se doutochnyava i
doizkusuryava, kakto e praveno prez poslednite pet desetiletiya.
Tova, koeto obache ne e praveno, a tryabva da se pravi, e
nablyagane v obrazovatelnata sistema na seriozno izuchavane na
pravopisa. V Bqlgariya prez tezi desetiletiya e praveno mnogo
malko za rafinirane na ezikovata kultura na decata. A pravopisqt,
poneje nikoga ne moje da e sqvqrshen, tryabva da stane chrez
mnogo usiliya chast ot kulturata na choveka. Kolkoto po-dobre
chovek znae pravopisa, tolkova po-bqrzo i lesno chete (a ne si
mqrda ustnite, dokato chete, kato babite i dyadovcite po selata).

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11-9 Words in English that originate from Bulgarian
(by Julian Dontchev), last updated: 26-Mar-1996
1. bugger - comes from the word Bulgarian, a name given to a sect
of heretics who came from Bulgaria in the 11th c., afterwards to
other `heretics' (to whom abominable practices were ascribed),
also to usurers.

2. bourge - OF. boulgre a `Bulgarian', a heretic: late L.
Bulgarus an inhabitant of Bulgaria.

3. Bulgar

4. Gamza

5. lev

6. stotinka

7. okrug

8. Pomak

9. rakia

10. sharka ! (used only for pox of plums)

There are other words of course that are not just Bulgarian, for
example moussaka, tsar, vampire... but the ones listed above are used
only in Bulgarian.

From: Oxford University Press, The Oxford English Dictionary
(Second Edition) On Compact Disc



-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11-10 How to translate "million", and "billion" in Bulgarian?
(by Dragomir R. Radev), last updated: 17-Mar-1997 (This entry is in Bulgarian)
Na bqlgarski dumata "bilion" oznachava "miliard". Sqshto taka, na bqlgarski
dumata za "hilyada miliarda" e "trilion", po sqshtiya nachin kakto e i v
amerikanskiya angliyski. (Na britanski angliyski ponyakoga se izpolzuva
"miliard" za "hilyada miliona", dokato "bilion" oznachava "hilyada
miliarda" ili "edin milion miliona", a pqk "trilion" oznachava "edin milion
biliona".)  

V matematicheski format, eto kak izglejda gornoto:

                                  bqlgarski amerikanski             britanski
10^6                   1,000,000     milion     million               million
10^9               1,000,000,000    miliard     billion  one thousand million
10^12          1,000,000,000,000    trilion    trillion               billion
10^15      1,000,000,000,000,000 kvadrilion quadrillion  one thousand billion
10^18  1,000,000,000,000,000,000 kvintilion quintillion              trillion

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------
11-11 Chess terms in Bulgarian 
(by Dragomir R. Radev), last updated: 09-Jan-1997
pawn    - PESHKA   (the word is derived from "PESHAK" = "infantry soldier")
bishop  - OFITSER  ("officer")
knight  - KON      ("horse")
queen   - DAMA     ("lady")   or   TSARITSA    ("queen")
king    - TSAR     ("tsar/king")
rook    - TOP      ("cannon")

mate    - MAT
stalemate - PAT
draw    - REMI

-- 
Drago
-- 
Drago

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