Search the FAQ Archives

3 - A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - I - J - K - L - M
N - O - P - Q - R - S - T - U - V - W - X - Y - Z - Internet FAQ Archives

soc.culture.bulgaria FAQ (monthly posting) (part 7/10)

( Part0 - Part1 - Part2 - Part3 - Part4 - Part5 - Part6 - Part7 - Part8 - Part9 - MultiPage )
[ Usenet FAQs | Web FAQs | Documents | RFC Index | Cities ]
Last-Modified: July 17, 2000
Posting-Frequency: Monthly
Version: 4.11
Archive-Name: bulgaria-faq/part7

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge

15-1 Parliamentary election results, 1994
(by Bulgarian Embassy in the USA), last updated: 23-Dec-1994
                                    ELECTION RESULTS
         	Here are some elections statistics: total number of voters 
         - 6,640,000.  Of these around 75%, or about 4,980 thous. people, 
         have exercised their right to vote.  Today the 
         results from elections were as follows:
         	BSP	43.55%, or more than 2,160,000 people
         	UDF	24.11%, or about 1,200,000 voters
         	BBB*	 4.75%, or more than 236,500 people
         	NU**	 6.52%, or more than 324,500 people
         	MRF	 5.46%, or about 272,000 people
         	DAR	 3.79%, or it will most probably get no seats

         [* - Bulgarian Business Bloc, leader: George Ganchev;
         ** - National Union, of Savov-Mozer] 

         Thus the BSP, after the redistribution of the votes for those who 
         have not passed the 4% threshhold, is expected to get about 
         124-125 seats in parliament,the UDF is bound to get about 68-69 seats,
         the BBB - 13 seats, the NU - 18, and the MRF - 15.  These are the 
         results announced by a CEC member on the basis of about 70% of all 
         election protocols.  So, there might be small and insignificant 

15-2 Bulgarian Cabinet
(by CIA World Factbook, 1995), last updated: 30-Oct-1995


President ........ Zhelev, Zhelyu Mitev
Vice President ........
Prime Minister ........ Videnov, Zhan
1st Dep. Prime Min. ........ Konakchiev, Doncho
Dep. Prime Min. ........ Gechev, Rumen
Dep. Prime Min. ........ Tsochev, Kiril
Dep. Prime Min. ........ Shivarov, Svetoslav
Min. of Agriculture ........ Chichibaba, Vasil
Min. of Culture ........ Georgiev, Georgi Kostov
Min. of Defense ........ Pavlov, Dimitur
Min. of Education, Science & Technology ........ Dimitrov, Ilcho
Min. of Environment ........ Georgiev, Georgi Dimitrov
Min. of Finance ........ Kostov, Dimitur
Min. of Foreign Affairs ........ Pirinski, Georgi
Min. of Industry ........ Vuchev, Kliment
Min. of Interior ........ Nachev, Lyubomir
Min. of Justice ........ Chervenyakov, Mladen
Min. of Labor & Social Welfare ........ Koralski, Mincho
Min. of Public Health ........ Vitkova, Mimi Dr.
Min. of Territorial Development & Construction ........ Konakchiev, Doncho
Min. of Trade & Economic Cooperation ........ Tsochev, Kiril
Min. of Transportation ........ Stamenov, Stamen
Chmn., Bulgarian National Bank ........ Vulchev, Todor
Ambassador to the US ........ Botusharova, Snezhana

15-3 Brzezinski on Bulgaria
(by John Bell), last updated: 17-Mar-1997
  The attention paid to the recent speech of Zbigniew K. Brzezinski
at the Atlantic Club in Sofia shows that this political scientist,
former presidential advisor, and long-time anti-Communist has many
admirers in scb.
  They would, perhaps, be interested to read the following passage
about Bulgaria from his study of Eastern Europe, entitled -The Soviet
Bloc: Unity and Conflict-.  It clearly shows Prof. Brzezinski's
attitude toward the "constitutional order" in Bulgaria before 1944

  In Bulgaria, the Communist Party had the advantage of having enjoyed
some measure of popularity in the past and was not handicapped, as in 
the cases of Poland, Rumania, and Hungary, by nationalist anti-Russian
feelings.  In 1919, the Bulgarian Communist Party succeeded in electing
over one fifth of the deputies to the parliament and was, until outlawed,
the country's second largest party.  Subsequently, operating under the 
label of Independent Workers' Party, the Communists managed to elect
31 of the 274 deputies in the 1931 elections.  During the war they
were instrumental in setting up the Fatherland Front, an organization
of anti-Fascist parties dedicated to the overthrow of King Boris'
dictatorship.  When the Soviet Union suddenly declared war on Bulgaria


in September 1944, on the eve of a Bulgarian decision to join the Allies, 
the Fatherland Front seized power.  In the coalition government the
Communist Party obtained control of the important Ministry of the
Interior and played a major role in the "purge" of public officials 
which was immediately launched.

	-The Soviet Bloc-   p. 15. 

15-4 What are the results of the 1997 parliamentary elections
(by, last updated: 23-Apr-1997
partiq   (i %)    Deputati (i %)
ODS      2,223,714  52.26%       137   57.1%
D.Lewica   939,308  22.07%        58   24.2%
ONS        323,429   7.60%        19    7.9%
E.Lewica   234,058   5.50%        14    5.8%
BBB        209,796   4.93%        12    5.0%

15-5 What are the results of the 1997 parliamentary elections (votes cast in the USA)
(by Bulgarian Embassy, Washington DC), last updated: 20-Apr-1997

Bulgarian General Elections - April 19, 1997

Voting in the Parliamentary elections in Bulgaria on the territory
 of the USA closed on 7 p.m. Pacific time. In all, 23 polling 
stations were set up in the US and 2256 Bulgarian citizens 
exercised their right to vote. This is an increase in the 
participation in the US compared to the previous  elections. 
The United Democratic Forces were supported by 90.78 % of the 
Bulgarian voters in the US. 
The results from votes cast in the US are as follows: 

..................  Total   UtDF    DL......ANS.....EL......BBB.....Other
TOTAL:............    2256.....2048.....44.....12.....44......37.....71
1.WASHINGTON DC....... 194.....167......7........2......4......9.....5
2.NEW YORK, NY........ 248.....188.....17........2.....21......3.....17
3.NEW YORK, NY.........193.....189......0........0......0......1.....3
4.PHOENIX, AZ...........22......19......0........0......2......1.....0
5.DETROIT, MI......... 100......92......4........0......0......0.....4
6.VANCOUVER, WA.........40......39......0........0......0......0.....1
7.BELLEVUE, WA......... 53......51......0........1......0......1.....0
8.SAN FRANCISCO, CA... 156.....152......1........1......0......1.....1
9.CHICAGO, IL......... 408.....379......9........0......3......8.....9
10.ST.PETERSBURG, FL...108.....101......1........1......0......0.....5
11.BOSTON, MA......... 146.....139......0........1......3......0.....3
12.PHILADELPHIA, PA.....44......37......0........0......2......1.....4
13.BUFFALO, NY......... 35......33......0........0......0......1.....1
14.FT...LAUDERDALE, FL..41......39......0........0......0......2.....1
15.PITTSBURGH, PA...... 46......39......3........1......0......1.....2
16.SACRAMENTO, CA...... 30......29......0........0......0......1.....0
17.LOS ANGELES, CA......203... 193......1........2......1......2.....4
18.SAINT..LOUIS, MO......32.....28......0........0......0......3.....1
19.CLEVELAND, OH.........53.....52......0........0......0......1.....0
20.NEW ORLEANS, LA...... 23.....19......0........0......2......1.....1
21.CINCINATI, OH.........37.....31......1........1......1......0.....3
22.SANTA BARBARA, CA.....22.....17......0........0......0......0.....5
23.CARBONDALE, IL........22.....16......0........0......4......1.....1

Total:......    Total votes in the Voting Section
UfDF:......    Number of votes for  the: United Democratic Forces - 
......    Union of Democratic Forces,.....Democratic Party, Bulgarian 
......    Agrarian National Union, Bulgarian Social - Democratic Party
DL:......    Number of votes for  the: Democratic Left - 
......    Bulgarian Socialist Party, Political Club Ecoglasnost
ANS:......    Number of votes for  the: Alliance for National 
......    Salvation  - BANU Nikola Petkov, Movement for Rights and 
......    Freedoms, Green Party, Party of the Democratic Center, New Choice,......
......    Federation Kingdom Bulgaria
EL:......    Number of votes for  the: European Left
BBB:......    Number of votes for  the: Bulgarian Business Block 

Others:.....Number of votes cast for other parties or coalitions

15-6 Who are the Bulgarian PMs and Presidents since 1989
(by Ivan Marinov, Tatiana Christy), last updated: 01-Jan-1994

Prime Ministers:

   Georgi Atanasov - BKP
   Andrej Lukanov - BKP/BSP 
   Dimityr Popov - nezavisim
   Filip Dimitrov - SDS 11/5/91-10/28/92
   Ljuben Berov - nezavisim 12/30/92-10/17/94
   Reneta Indzhova - nezavisim 10/17/94-01/26/95
   Zhan Videnov - BSP 01/26/95- doskoro
   Stefan Sofijanski - SDS


   Petyr Mladenov - BKP/BSP
   Zhelju Zhelev - SDS
   Petyr Stojanov - SDS

15-7 What is King Simeon's e-mail address?
(by Stoyan Kenderov), last updated: 01-Apr-1997
His Majesty's e-mail is:


16-1 Short History of Bulgaria
(by Rossen Zlatev), last updated: 31-Dec-1991
    The first Bulgarian Kingdom was founded by Khan Asparouh in 681.
It was situated in what is now north-east Bulgaria, and was inhabited by
Slavs from the Byzantium Empire, and Bulgarians who came  from
an ancient Bulgarian state situated on the Volga river. The
creation of the Slavonic alphabet by brothers Cyril and Methodius
in 863 and the establishment of Christianity (East Orthodox) as a
state religion in 864 contributed to the development of the Bulgarian
nationality and created conditions for the flourishing of Bulgarian
literature and culture. From 1018 till 1185 Bulgaria remained in
the Byzantium Empire. In 1185 the Second Bulgarian Kingdom was declared
after the end of Byzantium rule and oppression. In 1393 after a long war
and fierce resistance the country fell under Turkish rule.
    After an unsuccessful revolution in 1876, Bulgaria received freedom
thanks to the Russian-Turkish Liberation War (1877-1878). The state was
separated into three parts after the Berlin Conference in 1878.
    In 1989, the country performed an unprecedented peaceful transition
from autocratic communist rule to a democratic system. A new
Parliament was elected in June, 1990 after the first free elections
in 50 years. This Parliament made a New Constitution said to be
one of the most democratic constitutions in Europe and the first among the
former socialist countries. The main tasks facing the New Parliament
(elected in the second free elections, October 1991) are creating laws
that will ensure a transition to a free market economy.
    The geographical position of Bulgaria, on the crossroads between Europe
and Asia and North and South, is reflected in the rich and ancient history
of Bulgarian culture, architecture, cuisine, customs and clothes.

16-2 Bulgarian History
(by John Bell)
Ancient Thracian, Greek, and Roman civilizations have each left their mark
on the Bulgarian lands, but the story of the modern Bulgarian people began
with the Slavic migrations into the Balkan Peninsula in the 6th and 7th
centuries. The name "Bulgaria" comes from the Bulgars, a Turkic people who
migrated from the steppe north of the Black Sea, conquered the Slavic
tribes and founded the First Bulgarian Kingdom in 681. The Bulgars were
absorbed in the larger Slavic population, a process that was facilitated by
the adoption of Orthodox Christianity by Boris I in the 9th century. Under
Boris's son, Tsar Simeon I, the kingdom reached the height of its power,
and its capital, Preslav, was said to rival Constantinople in the vigor of
its commercial and intellectual life. 

Bulgaria declined under Simeon's successors, and in 1014 the Byzantine
emperor Basil II won a battle over the Bulgarian army after which he
ordered 14,000 prisoners to be blinded. For this Basil II took the title
"Bulgaroktonus," or Bulgar slayer, and Bulgaria was ruled by Byzantium
until 1185. In that year the brothers Ivan and Peter Asen launched a
successful revolt that led to the establishment of the Second Bulgarian
Kingdom with its capital at Turnovo. Under Tsar Ivan Asen II (r. 1218-41)
Bulgaria again dominated most of the Balkans, but by the end of the century
the state was weakened by peasant revolt and attacks from Mongols, Serbs,
and finally succumbed to the invasion of the Ottoman Turks. 

During the nearly 500 years of the "Ottoman Yoke," Bulgaria's national
customs and values were preserved in the monasteries and in mountain
villages isolated from Turkish influence. In the 18th century Paissy, a
Bulgarian monk of the Khilendar Monastery on Mt Athos, used medieval texts
to prepare a history of his people, calling on them to remember their past
and former greatness. Paissy's history is regarded as the beginning of the
National Revival  that was marked by the rapid expansion of Bulgarian
schools and by the achievement of an independent Bulgarian Orthodox
Exarchate in 1870. Six years later Bulgarian revolutionaries launched the
April Uprising, whose brutal suppression created outrage in Europe and
helped to provoke the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78. The war ended with the
Treaty of San Stefano that created a large Bulgarian state, whose borders
were based on those of the Exarchate. The Western Powers, however, feared
that Bulgaria would be a satellite of Russia and insisted on a revision of
the treaty. At the Congress of Berlin in 1879 only the part of the country
between the Balkan range and the Danube was allowed to become an autonomous
principality. The lands south of the Balkan Range were given the name
"Eastern Rumelia" under a Christian governor appointed by the Porte. And
Macedonia was returned entirely to Ottoman administration. A convention
held in Turnovo adopted a constitution for the new state and chose
Alexander Battenberg as its first prince.  

In 1885, when the Bulgarians of Eastern Rumelia declared their union with
the north, Serbia attacked. Prince Alexander led the Bulgarian forces to
victory, but abdicated because he had lost the good will of
Russia. Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha was elected to the throne in 1887. 
In 1908, Ferdinand took the title of Tsar, and his desire to regain all the
lands of the San Stefano Treaty led to the formation of an alliance with
Serbia, Montenegro, and Greece. In the First Balkan War (1912) the allies
forced Turkey to relinquish its remaining Balkan territories. However, they
fell out among themselves and fought the Second Balkan War (1913), which
Bulgaria lost. Bulgaria was also on the losing side in World War I, and had
to give up territory to Serbia and Greece. Ferdinand was forced to
abdicate, and the throne passed to his son Boris III. The government was
then in the hands of  Alexander Stamboliski, leader of the Bulgarian
Agrarian National Union, who launched a dramatic series of reforms before
he was overthrown and murdered in 1923. Gradually, Tsar Boris III with the
support of the army established his personal control over the country.

During World War II, Boris was a reluctant ally of Germany. Bulgaria
declared "symbolic war" on Great Britain and the United States, but did not
send its forces into combat and declined to deport its Jewish population to
the death camps in Poland. In September 1944 the Soviet Union suddenly
declared war on Bulgaria and quickly occupied it. In conjunction with the
Soviet invasion, a Communist-led coalition, called the Fatherland Front,
seized power in Sofia. Under Georgi Dimitrov the Communists consolidated
their power, and by the end of 1947 completely eliminated their opponents.

During the Communist era, Bulgaria acquired the reputation of being the
most loyal ally of the Soviet Union, imitating Soviet collectivization and
industrialization policies. The removal from office of longtime leader
Todor Zhivkov on 10 November 1989 began the current era of political and
economic transition.  

16-3 Bulgarian Czars
(by Konstantin Zahariev), last updated: 13-Feb-1996 (This entry is in Bulgarian)
Po-dolu sledva pqlen (predpolagam) spisqk na izvestnite na istoriyata
bqlgarski hanove, knyaze i care. Pomesten e kato prilojenie kqm piesata
"Procesqt protiv bogomilite" na Stefan Canev. Prepechatvam go s malki

              I.   Pqrvo Bqlgarsko Carstvo  (337 godini).

                   681 - 700     Asparuh (19)    - han
                     ( naposledqk dobiva populyarnost teoriyata, che Asparuh
                       ne e sqzdal _nova_ dqrjava prez 681, a prosto e
                       _prisqedinil_ teritoriite na yug ot Dunav kqm
                       predishnite si vladeniya. Taka ili inache, 681 e
                       godinata na oficialnoto priznavane na han Asparuh za
                       vladetel na tezi teritorii ot vizantiyskiya imperator ) 
                   700 - 721     Tervel (21)           
                   721 - 738     Kormersiy (17)         
                   738 - 753     Sevar (15)          
                   753 - 756     Kormisosh (3)       
                   756 - 762     Vineh (6)           
                   762 - 765     Telec (3)           
                   765 - 766     Sabin (1)           
                         766     Umor (40 dena)      
                   766 - 767     Toktu (1)           
                   767 - 768     Pagan (1)           
                   768 - 777     Telerig (9)         
                   777 - 802     Kardam (25)         
                   802 - 814     Krum (12)           
                   814 - 831     Omurtag (17)        
                   831 - 836     Malamir (5)         
                   836 - 852     Presian (16)       
                   852 - 889     Boris-Mihail (37)   - han, ot 863 - knyaz
                   889 - 893     Rasate-Vladimir (4) - knyaz
                   893 - 927     Simeon (34)         - knyaz, ot 913 - car
                   927 - 970     Petqr (43)          - car
                   970 - 971     Boris II (1)        
                   971 - 977     bez car 
                   977 - 991     Roman (14)          
                  991 - 1014     Samuil (23)         
                 1014 - 1015     Gavrail-Radomir (1) 
                 1015 - 1018     Ivan-Vladislav (3)  
                    do  1185     vizantiysko robstvo (167) 
               ( 1040 - 1041     Petqr II - Delyan (1) 
                        1072     Petqr III /Konstantin Bodin/ )

            II.   Vtoro Bqlgarsko Carstvo  (210 godini).

                 1185 - 1190     Petqr IV (5)
                 1190 - 1196     Ivan Asen (6) - formalno Petqr IV 
                                                 sqshto caruva.
                 1196 - 1197     pak Petqr IV (1)
                 1197 - 1207     Kaloyan (10)
                 1207 - 1218     Boril (11)
                 1218 - 1241     Ivan Asen II (23)
                 1241 - 1246     Koloman Asen (5)
                 1246 - 1256     Mihail II Asen (10)
                        1256     Koloman II Asen
                 1256 - 1257     Mico Asen (1)
                 1257 - 1277     Konstantin Asen Tih (20)
                 1277 - 1279     Ivaylo (2)
                 1279 - 1280     Ivan Asen III (1)
                 1280 - 1292     Georgi Terter (12)
                 1292 - 1298     Smilec (6)
                        1299     Chaka (1)
                 1300 - 1321     Teodor Svetoslav /Terter/ (21)
                 1321 - 1322     Georgi Terter II (1)
                 1323 - 1330     Mihail III Shishman (7)
                 1330 - 1331     Ivan Stefan (1)
                 1331 - 1371     Ivan Aleksandqr (40)
                 1371 - 1395     Ivan Shishman (24)
                 1356 - 1396     Ivan Stracimir (40)
                    do  1878     tursko robstvo (482)

           III.   Treto Bqlgarsko Carstvo  (de facto 67 godini
                                            de jure  do dnes  ).

                 1879 - 1886     Aleksandqr Batenberg (7) - knyaz   
                        1887     Valdemar Datski - knyaz, otkazal se
                 1887 - 1918     Ferdinand (31)  - knyaz, ot 1907 - car
                 1918 - 1943     Boris III (25)  - car

            de facto                                 de jure
            --------                                 -------
   1943 - 1946     car Simeon II (3)       1943 - dnes     car Simeon II (52+)
          1944     sqvetska okupaciya
      ot  1946     "narodna republika"          

1. Yordan Andreev. "Bqlgarskite hanove i care VII -XIV vek". 
   Istoriko-hronologichen spravochnik. Izdatelstvo "Petqr Beron", 1994.
2. Ekip ot avtori. "Who's who v srednovekovna Bqlgaria". 1995.
3. Stefan Canev. Prilojenie kqm "Procesqt protiv bogomilite" - piesa. 1968-69.

16-4 Evropa i Balkanite do  Krimskata voina (1853-56 g.)
(by Plamen Stanoev) (This entry is in Bulgarian)

===>  Statiyata , koyato sledva e napisana sqs sqdeistvieto i  <===
===>  pomoshta na g-n Lyuben Boyanov i g-n Petqr Yovchev.      <===

          Evropa i Balkanite do  Krimskata voina (1853-56 g.)

"Ako predi osvobojdenieto se yaveshe nyakoi da dokazva s kakvito i da 
bilo sredstva , che prigotovlyavanata ot Rusiya voina s Turciya za 
nasheto osvobojdenie e voina , ne za osvobojdenieto na "bednyh slavyan", 
a za razshirenieto na ruskata Imperiya i za zavladyavaneto na Bqlgariya i 
Balkanite ot Rusiya, - nyamashe da se nameri nito edin bqlgarin , koito 
da go povyarva i kogoto da ne narechaha vrag na slavyanstvoto , vrag na 
bqlgarskiya narod, na negovoto osvobojdenie...." -  - taka zapochva 
predgovora na "Okupacionen fond za sqzdavane na Pusko-Dunavska oblast" 
(izdadena Sofia 1892, Ruse 1993 g.) , napisan ot D. Petkov. Kniga , 
sqdqrjashta kolkoto i interesni , tolkova i neveroyatni (spored 
dosegashnite ni predstavi) i dori potresavashti fakti za rolyata na 
"osvoboditelkata" Rusiya pri izgrajdaneto na novata bqlgarska dqrjava.
 No neka pqrvo se vqrnem malko po-nazad v istoriyata , v kraya na XVII , 
nachaloto na XIX bek. Ili dori oshte po-nazad - v XVI v.  
Bqlgarskata dqrjava oshte ne sqshtestvuva.  Car Ivan Grozni 
za prqv pqt oglasyava "osvoboditelnata misiya" na Rusiya , kato 
zayavyava nedvusmisleno , che celta mu e da zavladee Carigrad.Sqshtata 
nasochenost na ruskata politika poddqrjat i Petqr-I  i Ekaterina 
Velika. V 1880 godina tya dori obyavyava t.nar. "Grqcki proekt",
koito celi izgonvaneto na turcite ot Evropa i obrazuvane na edinna
grqcka imperiya, nachelo s vnuka na imperatricata - Konstantin.
Ot tozi period e interesna Rusko-Turksata voina, koqto zavurshva
s podpisvaneto na dogovora v Kyuchuk-Kainardja, spored koito Rusiq
stava popechitel na pravoslavieto v Osmanskata Imperiq.
Spored toigavashnite geopoliticheski shvashtaniya pqtyat za 
vqzhoda na Imperiyata kato velika sila neizbejno minava prez Bosfora i 
Dardanelite (t.n. "Protoci")- izhodnite vrati kqm svetovnite prostori. 
A znaem , che po tova vreme morskiya transpotr e bil dominirasht. Ottuk 
proizticha sledovatelno sistemnata agresivna orientaciya na Rusiya spryamo 
chernomorskite protoci i placdarma za tyah - Balkanskiya poluostrov. 
Naporistata ruska ekspanziya speshtu Osmanskata imperiya neminuemo 
porajda silno protivodeistvie ot strana na Belikobritaniya , Franciya i 
Avstriya (po-kqsno Avstro-Ungaria) , makar samo Avstriya da ima 
neposredstven i aktiven interes kqm Balkanite. No ruskata politika 
zastrashava balansa na Velikite sili, poradi koeto te ostro se 
protivopostavyat na ruskoto pronikvane v tozi region. Mejdu Rusiya i 
zapadnite dqrjavi se ochertava edno neprestanno sqpernichestvo po tozi 
vqpros, izvesten pod imeto Iztochen vqpros. Tezi protivorechiya direktno 
reflektirat vqrhu balkanskite osvoboditelni dvijeniya. Ot tova koi politicheski 
faktori i tendencii dominirat v Iztochniya vqpros , zavisi fakticheski dali 
revolyuciyata na Balkanite shte e v podem ili zastoi.
Prez pqrvata polovina na XIX v. , sled razgroma na Napoleonova Franciya 
Rusiya dominira v Iztochniya vqpros. Togava , po zarqka na carya 
Aziatskiya departament pri ruskoto vqnshno ministerstvo v Peterburg 
izrabotva cyalostna strategiya za ruskata politika na Balkanite , kato se 
opredelyat neinite osnovni prioriteti i akcenti. Za nas e lyubopitna 
gradaciyata na prioritetite: 
1.) Sqrbiya i Cherna gora , 2.) Gqrciya i 3.) Bqlgaria. 
Glavnite ruski sqpernici sa angajirani s tehni si vqtreshni problemi i 
nyamat vqzmojnost da i' se protivopostavyat. Tova razvqrzva rqcete na 
ruskiya car , koito samo chaka udoben povod za udar sreshtu Turciya. 
Takqv odhodyash povod se okazva grqckoto vqstanie prez 1821 g. 
Rusiya vednaga zastava na strana na Gqrcite i taka se stiga do 
rusko-turska voina ot 1828-1829 g. , zavqrshila s uspeh za Rusiya. 
Sqglasno Odrinskiya miren dogovor ot 1829 g. Gqrciya i Sqrbiya 
poluchavat statut na avtonomni knyajestva. Za nas obache e po-interesna 
chasta ot dogovora , otnasyashta se do bqlgarskite teritorii. Za tyah se 
spomenava v Chlen 2:
".... N.I.Velichestvo toje povrqshta ...., Bqlgaria i oblastta Dobrudja 
ot Dunava do moreto sqs Silistra , Hqrsovo , Machin , Isakcha , Tulcha , 
Babadag , Bazardjik , Varna , Provadia i vsichki drugi gradove , 
palanki i sela , koito tya vklyuchva; cyaloto protejenie na Balkana ot 
Emine-Burun do Kotel i cyalata oblast ot Balkana do moreto sqs Sliven , 
Yambol , Aitos , Karnobat , Mesemvria , Ahelo , Burgas , Sozopol , 
Kqrk-Klise , Odrin , Lyule Burgas , nai-posle vsichki gradove , palanki i 
sela i izobshto vsichki mesta , koito ruskite voiski sa okupirali v 
I taka , Rusiya vrqshta na Turciya bqlgarskite zemi , _okupirani_ veche 
ot ruski voiski. Tova edva li se vrqzva s obyavenata ot Rusiya 
osvoboditelna misiya , no oshte vednqj dokazva istinskite prichini za 
agresivnosta na Rusiya na balkanskiya poluostrov. I mejdu tezi prichini 
ne figurira osvobojdenieto va Bqlgariya kato osnovopolagashta cel. 
Interesite na ruskiya imperator sa edinstveno kqm prolivite i edin 
pprochit na drugite chlenove na dogovora pokazva , che rusiya postiga 
celite si - neinite korabi mogat svobodno da preminavat prez 
Carigradskiya kanal i Dardanelskite tesnini.
Sled kraya na tazi voina, okolo 100 000 bulgari emigrirat, v sledstvie 
na koeto, iztochno-bulgarskite zemi se obezbulgaryavat !!!

     Krimskata voina (1853-56 g.) - Carigradskata konferenciya (1876 g.)

Prez 1853 g. carskoto pravitelstvo predpriema porednata voenna kampaniya 
protiv Turciya. Rusiya predvaritelno se e opitala se podgotvi Velikite 
sili za eventualno razdelyane na Turciya. Yavno zabludena v uspeha na tezi 
svoi predvaritelni deistviya tya reshava, che Velikite sili nyama da
i' poprechat na edin pohod kum Carigrad. Protiv Rusiya se obyavyavat 
Franciya , Velikobritaniya i Avstriya. Za Franciya i Angliya voinata ot 
1853 e poveche za prestij, otkolkoto za zapazvane na Turciya.  
Britanskiyat vqnshen ministur e zagrijen nai-veche za tova Angliya da
izglejda silna v tozi moment, a ne da pomaga na Turciya ili da zapazva 
celostta i'. Taka zapopchva i tri godini prodqljava edna ot 
nai-ojestochenite voini vqv vrqzka s Iztochniya vqpros , izvestna pod 
imeto Krimska voina i zavqrshila s porajenie na Rusiya. Na posledvalata 
Parijka mirna konfrenciya prez 1856 g. na Rusiya sa nalojeni  tejki 
usloviya , mejdu koito zabrana ednostranno da pokrovitelstvuva 
balkanskite strani i da se mesi v tehnite vqtreshni raboti bez obshtoto 
sqglasie na silite-garanti ; da otstqpi Besarabia na Moldovskoto 
knyajestvo ; zabranyava na ruski voenni korabi da preminavat prez 
prolivite i dr. Po kqsno pak shte se vqrnem na vqprosa svqrzan s 
Besarabiya za da vidim edna arogantna sdelka za smetka na Bqlgariya 
pri podpisvaneto na San Stefanskiya dogovor.
Za sega , obache , ruskata agresivna politika e obektivno blagopriyaten 
vqnshnopoliticheski faktor za balkanskite osvoboditelni dvijeniya. Veche 
spomenahme za osvobojdenieto na Gqrciya i Sqrbiya. Tehniya opit , kakto i 
mnogobroinite drugi po-golemi ili po-malki vqstaniya dokazvat , che 
reshavashta rolya za postigane na uspeh ima vqnshnata podkrepa. Neka 
spomenem kato dokazatelstvo Pqrvoto srqbsko vqstanie , zapochnalo prez 
1804 god. s ruska blagosloviya i obeshtaniya za podkrepa. Podkrepata se 
okazva sqs zapochvane na nova voina sreshtu Turciya prez 1806 godina. 
Blagodarenie na nego srqbskoto vqstanie , nachelo s Kara Georgi postiga 
uspeh , koito se okazva vremenen. Nashestvieto na Napoleon prez 1812 god. 
pozvolyava na sultana da smaje mestnoto dvijenie. Uspeh to postiga sled 
pobedata na Napoleon , otnovo s aktivnata pomosht na Rusiya. Pochti po 
analogichen nachin izvoyuvat svoyata nezavisimost i Vlashko i Moldova. 
Moje bi bihme imali osnovaniya da ochakvame , che po podoben 
scenarii : vqstanie -> ruska pomosht -> nezavisimost , bi se 
razvilo i bqlgarskoto nacionalno - osvoboditelno dvijenie ako ne be 
porajenieto na Rusiya v Krimskata voina i proiztichashtite ot tova 
posledici za neinata vqnshna politika. 
I taka , prez 1876 god. s nadejda za vqnshna pomosht i bez osobeni izgledi 
za uspeh v Bqlgariya izbuhva Aprilskoto vqstanie. Samoto vqstanie ne 
dobiva razmerite , ochakvani ot negovite organizatori i biva bqrzo 
i bezmilostno smazano ot turscite. Proyavenata ot tyah obache osobena 
jestokost pri potushavaneto , opisana v statiite na Makgahan , 
kakto i proyaveni podobni zverstva pri potushavane na vqstanieto 
v Bosna-Hercegovina prez 1875 g. namirat majdunaroden otzvuk. Za zashtita 
na porobenite narodi se obyavyavat izvestni intelektualci , kato Yugo , 
Gladston i dr.

                       Krizata 1875 - 78 g.

Prez Yuli 1875 izbuhva vuztanie v Herzegovina, a sled tova - v Bosnia.  Tova
otvarq kriza na Balkanite, koqto e zreela ot zavurshvaneto na Krimskata voina.
V 1875 interesite na Velikite sili sa bili v konflikt.  Rusnacite sa bili
unijeni sled Krim - bez flota, bez pravo da minavat Prolivite.  Avstriq zavisi
ot koraboplavaneto po Dunav, kakto i ot neobhodimostta i ot koridor kum
Bqlo more.  Angliq se nujdae ot neutralen bufer (kato Otomanskata Imperiq)
za da ima "sigurni" Iztochnoto sredizemnomorie i Blizkiq Iztok - OSOBENO
sled otvarqneto na Sueckiq kanal prez 1869.  Franciq e bila seriozno
finansovo svurzana s Turciq (Angliq e bila susto, no malko po-malko
investicii ot Franciq).  Samo Germaniq e nqmala interes na Balkanite i
Bismark se e ujasqval da bude vuvlechen v kakuvto i da e konflikt, ot koito
toi ne bi imal kakvato i da e polza.  Poradi tova, Bismark e jelael takova
reshenie, koeto ste udovoletvorqva vsichki Veliki sili i koeto ste dovede
do stabilnost na Balkanite.  Krizata 1875-1878 e predizvikana ot vuztaniqta
na balkanskite narodi.  Rusiq ne e mogla da ne izpolzva tova v svoq polza i
da ne napravi nisto, Avstiq puk ne e mogla da ostavi slavqnskite narodi da
uspeqt pod patronaja na Rusiq, koqto e bila razvqvala znameto na
panslavizma po tova vreme.  Angliq se e strahuvala ot reshenie na
politicheski problemi spored nacionalno-etnicehski principi, zastoto tova
bi bilo udobno da se izpolzva za iskane na avtonomiq ot Irlandiq.
Situaciqta v Turciq se vloshava - prez 1876 izbuhva Aprilskoto vuztanie,
sled tova sultana biva prinuden da abdikira, Cherna gora i Surbiq obqvqvat
voina na Turciq.  Togava (Yuli 1876) Avstriq i Rusiq podpisvat dogovora v
Raihstad, spored koito dvete strani se obvurzvat da NE SE NAMESVAT na tozi
etap.  V Raihstad se pravqt hipotezi za teritorialni razdeleniq pri
razlichna sudba na Turciq, kato oste togava Rusiq se dogovarq da ne dopuska
suzdavaneto na golqma slavqnska durjava na Balkanite.  Prez esenta na 1876
Alexander II promenq poziciqta si po Iztochniq vupros.  Za tova prichinite
sa nqkolko.  Na purvo mqsto Surbiq i Cherna gora sa razgromeni ot Turciq,
koeto predpolaga krah na ideqta za desintegrirane na OE ot vutre.
Jestokostite na klanetata v Bulgariq sa veche publikuvani v Angliq i
Alexander schita, che pri tova polojenie, Angliq nqma da moje da se
priteche na pomost na Turciq.  Vliqnite na suvetnicite na Alexander II,
koito podurjat pan-slavqnskite idei susto e golqmo v tozi moment i prez
noemvri 1876 Alecxander II obqvqva promqna na kursa na Rusiq kum
Balkanite.  Pravi se opit da se specheli Bismark, koito da zadurja Avstriq
da bude neutralna, no Bismark makar i da nqma nisto protiv ruskite planove
otkazva da zastane srestu Avstriq.  Zaedno s tova, Bismark se strahuva, che
pri eventulana ruska pobeda ste se narushi seriozno balansa na Velikite
sili, koeto puk e nai-izgodnoto za nego.  Togava Rusiq opitva da specheli
Franciq.  Ala Franciq, osven interesite si v Turciq se opasqva ot konflikt
s Angliq, a Franciq se e nujdaela ot podrujkata na drugi Veliki sili v
eventualen konflikt s Germaniq.  Vsichko tova postavq Alexander II v edna
poziciq, koqto bi povtorila fiaskoto ot Krimskata voina - voina ne samo
srestu Turciq, no i srestu ostanalite Veliki sili.  Taka ostavat samo 2
varianta na Rusiq - opit za nqkakvo suglasie mejdu Velikite sili i sdelka s
Avstriq.  Opitvaiki purviq variant se svikva konferenciqta v Carigrad v
kraq na 1876.  Sled provalut na konferenciqta Alexandur pristupva kum
vtoriq variant i podpisva sporazumenie s Avstriq v Budapesta.  Taka sled
kato Rusiq e bila naqsno kakvi sa i shansovete za uspeh vuv voinata i do
kolko ste budat "osvobodeni" Balkanite (t.e. PREDVARITELNO e bilo qsno, che
tova ste e NEVUZMOJNO) Rusiq preminava kum voenni deistviq.

P.S.  Gornata statiya e napisana ot g-n Luben Boyanov , no ya postvam az 
s negovo razreshenie tqi kato pochah da postvam po temata...

            Carigradskata konferenciya (1876 - 77 g.)

Taka prez dekemvri na 1876 god. se svikva mejdunarodna konferenciya v 
Carigrad. Na neya uchastvuvat pqlnomoshtnici na Rusiya , Angliya , 
Franciya , Avstro-Ungaria , Germaniya i Italiya. Turski predstaviteli 
Angliya ne se sqglasyava s napravenoto ot Rusiya predlojenie za edna 
golyama avtonomna oblast. Za neya e yasno , che sled aktivnata rolya na 
Rusiya v nacionalno-osvoboditelnite borbi na Balkanskiya poluostrov , 
tya e sposobstvuvala v golyama stepen za oformyaneto za bqlgarskiya 
nacionalen duh i tova , pribaveno kqm fakta , che tya predlaga takava 
Bqlgariya  neminuemo shte zasili blagodarnostta na bqlgarite i ruskoto 
vliyanie v tozi rayon. V rezultat na napraveni otstqpki i kompromisi,obache,
markiz R.Solzbqri i graf N.Ignatiev stigat do sqglasie po vsichki osnovni 
principni vqprosi oshte na predvaritelnite pregovori. Kqm tyah se 
prisqedinyavat i ostanalite uchasnici v konferenciyata.
Spored izraboteniya proekt za reformi v evropeiska Turciya , Bqlgaria 
poluchava administrativna avtonomiya v granici , obhvashtashti oblastite 
Miziya , Trakiya , Makedoniya i Dobrudja. Tezi granici sqvpadat v obshti 
linii s teritorialniya obhvat na Bqlgarskata ekzarhiya sqglasno 
sultanskiya ferman ot 1870 g i sa _po-golemi_ ot opredelenite sled tova 
v San Stefanskiya dogovor!!!  Po nastoyavane na angliiskiya i 
avstro-ungarskiya predstavitel obache bqlgarskata avtonomna oblast e 
razdelena na 2 chasti - Iztochna s centqr Tqrnovo i Zapadna s centqr 
Sofia.  Interesno za nas e da se otbeleji , che ne samo v Angliiskoto , no 
i v Ruskoto predlojenie ne se spomenava za "svoboda" , "nezavisimost" na 
Bqlgarskata dqrjava.

                                                     -- Tulcha
                                                    |     o \  
                                                    |          \
                                                     \         _)
                                                       \      |
                                                       /      |
                                                    /         /
                                              /o~ ~          |
     /~~~~\                             _ --- Silistra       |
    |    o Vidin                      /o                     |     
     \     \_____                 __/Ruse                     |              
      |oKula      ---------~~~~~~~                            |
       \             o Oryahovo                             --
       /                    :                         Varna/
 /~~~~~             o Vraca :   Tqrnovo                  o|
(   o Nish                  :       o                      |
 \                         :                              |
   \              Sofia   :               Sliven         /
    /                o    :                 o           |
   /  o Vranya           :                               ~\
  /                      : Plovdiv                         |
 /o Tetovo                :  o                              \
|  o Skopie               :   Haskovo                         \
|                           :    o      Svilengrad  Lozengrad  /
|                            :  /~~~~~~~~~~ \ o       o      /
 \                 o Strumica /                \__/--\_____/
  |    o Bitolya /~~~~~\____/                          
   \o Ohrid     |
   /           /
  |    o Kostur  

             ***  Granici na Bqlgaria spored resheniyata na ***
             ***   Carigradskata konferenciya 1876/1877     ***

Istoricheskoto znachenie na tova sporazumenie e vqv fakta , che za prqv 
pqt podoben avtoriteten mejdunaroden forum oficialno priznava bqlgarskiya 
narod kato otdelna i samostoyatelna etnicheska obshtnost s yasno 
ochertani treritorialni granici. 
Sled postignatoto edinodushie po osnovnite vqprosi na 25 dekemvri 
sqshtata godina oficialno se otkriva Carigradskata konferenciya , koyato 
tryabva da obsqdi i reshi  vsichki neshta , svqrzani s 
ucheredyavaneto na dvete bqlgarski avtonomni oblasti. 
Chrez svoya vtori delegat na konferenciyata obache , poslannika v 
Carigrad H. Eliat , angliiskata diplomaciya dezavuira sobstveniya si 
oficialen predstavitel i postignatite ot nego predvaritelni sporazumeniya.
Osnovnata prichina za provala na tazi konferenciya, kakto i za
svikvaneto na Berlinskiya kongres po-kqsno e , che Angliq i Avstriq iskat da
predotvratyat razshiryavaneto na Ruskite imperialisticheski interesi na
Balkanite. Ot dokumentite sled 1878 g. stava  yasno, che Rusiya se e
opitala bezkompromisno da ni prevqrne v guberniya, kakto Finlandiya. V
sluchaya imperskite ambicii na Rusiya, pone v teritorialno otnoshenie
sqvpadat s nacionalnite interesi na bqlgarskiya narod i zatova idva 
spekulaciyata,che Avstriya i Angliya sa anti-bqlgarski, a Rusiya - 
pro-bqlgarska - nesto,koeto nyama nisto obsto s istinata (neka tuk 
otbelejim otnovo , che Angliya i Avstro-Ungariya sa sqglasni s 
etnicheskite granici na Bqlgariya , stiga te da sa utvqrdeni ot vsichki 
Veliki sili , a ne sa produkt samo na Rusiya).  V tozi aspekt, 
Angliya (a i drugite Veliki sili) vijda zapazvaneto na teritorialnata 
cyalost na Otomanskata Imperiya kato edinstvenoto vqzmojno za tova vreme 
praktichesko reshenie srestu ruskite ambicii.  Zaedno s tova, Angliya ne e 
vyarvala, che Rusiya shte obyavi voina na Turciya, i taka ste se zapazi 
Druga prichina za prekqsvane na konferenciyata e obyavenata ot turskoto 
pravitelstvo "konstituciya" , koyato osiguryavala "pravata na vsichki 
narodnosti i religii v stranata". Estestveno - samo na dumi , a i skoro 
sled priklyuchvane na konferenciyata tya , zaedno sqs sqzdatelite i e 
eliminirana ot politicheskiya jivot na stranata.

     Rusko - Turskata voina ot 1877 - 78 g. i San Stafanskiya miren 
     dogovor - pqrvo razpokqsvane na bqlgarskata etnicheska cyalost

Pri taka sqzdalata se obstanovka Rusiya opredeleno pochva podgotovka za 
voina s Turciya. Vsqshtnost diplomaticheskata podgotovka zapochva oshte 
prez lyatoto na 1876 godina na t.n. Raihshtadska sreshta mejdu ruskiya 
imperator Aleksandqr-II i avstroungarskiya imperator Franc Yosif. Stavalo 
duma pri razpredelenie na Osmanskata imperiya da _ne se dopuska sqzdavane na 
golyama slavyanska dqrjava_ , a da se obrazuvat dve samostoyatelni 
knyajestva (ili dve avtonomni oblasti) severno i yujno ot Balkana.
Pregovorite majdu avstriiskoto i ruskoto pravitelstva prodqljavat taino i 
prez noemvri sqshtata godina  kato Rusiya se stremi da parira 
eventualnoto neposredstveno vmeshatelstvo na Avstro-Ungaria na Balkanite.
Na 15.I.1877 god. v Budapest e podpisana t.n. "Taina konvenciya" , 
garantirashta neutraliteta na Avstro-Ungariya v predstoyashtata 
Rusko-Turska voina. Na 18.III. konvenciyata bila dopqlnena s tekstove , 
koito imat vajno znachenie za bqdeshteto na Bqlgariya. Avstro-Ungariya 
osiguryavala za sebe si Bosna i Hercegovina , a Rusiya - Besarabiya. 
Potvqrdeno bilo vzaimnoto sqglasie na Balkanite da ne se dopusne 
sqzdavaneto na golyama slavyanska dqrjava , a da se sqzdadat avtonomni 
oblasti. Tazi klauza , zadovolyavashta vzaimnite interesi na 
Avstro-Ungaria i Rusiya shte igrae osnovna rolya sled kraya na voinata i 
shte naloji svikvaneto na sqdbonosniya za bqdeshteto na Bqlgariya i 
Balkanite Berlinski kongres. Taka s tainite podpisi na dvete pravitelstva 
shansovete na bqdeshteto na edna Bqlgariya v neinata etnicheska cyalost 
bili svedeni do minimum oshte predi zapochvaneto na voennite deistviya. 
V kraya na mart 1877 g. s edin protokol , podpisan v London , 
uchastnicite v Carigradskata konferenciya predlagat otnovo Turciya da se 
sqglasi s predlojeniyata im. carigrad othvqrlya i tozi pqt protokola. 
Tova veche e povod za Rusiya. Vsichki prigotovleniya za edna voenna 
operaciya sa pochti priklyuchili. V Kishinev e sformirana i 
nyakolkohilyadna (v razgqnat stroi - 12000 dushi) dobrovolcheska voiska , 
narechena "Bqlgarsko opqlchenie". 
Na 12.IV. 1877 g. imperator Aleksandqr-II prochita v Kishinev manifesta 
za obyavyavane na voinata. Sklyuchen e dogvor s Rumqniya za preminavane 
na ruskite voiski prez neina teritoriya i uchastie na rumqnski chasti vqv 
voinata. Osven tova s cel da se osiguri neutraliteta na Angliya sqs 
zapochvane na voinata Rusiya otpravya predlojenie v zamyana na 
neutralitet i' da sqzdade avtonomna dqrjava (toest Bqlgariya) samo na 
sever ot Stara Planina. Angliya ne se sqglasyava poradi otkaza na Rusiya 
da dade garancii , che nyama da vleze v Carigrad. Po-kqsno Rusiya oteglya 
tova svoe predlojenie.
Na hoda na voinata tuk nyama da se spirame. Vseki ot nas e chel ili 
pone chuval v chasovete po istoriya za  obsadata na Pleven , 
Shipchenskata epopeya i proyaveniya geroizqm na bqlgari i rusi. 
Primirieto m-u dvete dqrjavi bilo sklyucheno na 31.I. 1878 g. ( * star 
stil) v Odrin , a na 19.II. sqshtata godina (*) voinata priklyuchila s 
podpisvane na miren ogovor v San Stefano.
Sqglasno tozi dogovor , narechen oficialno prelimaren (predvaritelen) , 
se sqzdava avtonomno tributarno knyajestvo Bqlgariya sqs svoe 
pravitelstvo i voiska. Granicite na Bqlgarskoto knyajestvo obhvashtali 
cyala Severna Bqlgariya s Yujna Dobrudja , cyala Trakiya bez Gyumurdjina 
i Odrinsko , no s obshiren izlaz na byalo more i cyala Makedoniya bez 
Solun i Halkidicheskiya poluostrov.
Teritorii , priblizitelno sqshtite , kakto sa opredeleni ot Carigradskata 
konferenciya  , no !... No ot Bqgariya za prqv pqt se otkqsvat teritorii 
za da se dadat na sqsedni nam dqrjavi.  V chlen 19 ot dogovora se vijda , 
che za izkonnata bqlgarska zemya se predvijda obiknovenna 
pokupko-prodajba. Eto kakvo glasi:
"....Opredelya se razmera na voennoto obeshtetenie na edna suma ot 1410 
miliona rubli , koyato Turciya izplashta:
a) s Dobrudja , koyato Rusiya priema ne za sebe si , a da ya zameni s 
Rumqnska Bessarabiya , aneksirana kqm Rumqniya v 1856 g. po Parijkiya dogovor
b) s Armeniya.
Tiya dve provincii se ocenyavat na 1100 miliona rubli , ostatqka ot 310 
miliona rubli shte se izplati po-kqsno"
Po tozi povod cyalata rumqnska obshtestvenost se protivopostavya na 
takava "razmyana". Nai-izvestni obshtestvenici i politici na Rumqniya 
pishat s trevoga : " V severna Dobrudja na jiveyat rumqnci i v nai-skoro 
vreme tya shte se prevqrna v "nov balkanski vqpros". Predstoi sqzdavane 
na knyajestvo Bqlgariya , to vednaga shte poiska Severna Dobrudja , 
kqdeto principqt na obshtestvenite granici , kakto i principqt na 
nacionalnostite shte bqdat v polza na neinite iskaniya" .  Rumqnskiyat 
ministqr-predsedatel Bratiyanu zayavyava: " I duma da ne stava da priemam 
Severna Dobrudja. Tam ne jiveyat rumqnci. Nashata etnicheska granica e 
Rusiya obache (s edna ugovorka v dogovorniya tekst "za srok ot 100 
godini) , vklyuchva v graniccite si Yujna Besarabiya i nalaga na Rumqniya 
Severna Dobrudja. 
I tova ne vsichko. Sqglasno dogovora , na Sqrbiya se davat Nishka oblast 
i Lyaskovac ne samo kato "nagrada" za nishtojnoto srqbsko "uchastie" v 
kraya na voinata , no i za smetka na Stara Sqrbiya ili Rashka , koyato 
ostava vqn ot teritoriite na Srqbskoto kralstvo.
Da-a-a , nyakoi mai kazvashe "bezkoristna pomosht" , "bratya slavyani"... 
kak li pqk ne!   Shirokite granici , koito Rusiya nalaga v tozi dogovor 
vqpreki angliiskata i avstro-ungarskata opoziciya , davat povod za 
oshte edna spekulaciya za osvoboditelnata misiya na Dyado Ivan. 
Izhojdaiki ot teritoriite , opredeleni ot dogovora se tvqrdeshe , che 
Rusiya vsqshtnost se bori za sqzdavaneto na edna golyama Bqlgariya , v 
ramkite na neinite etnicheski granici estestveno , a Velikite sili sa 
protiv i samo te sa prichina za posledvaloto razpokqsvane na Bqlgariya.
A se zabravyat podpisanite oshte predi zapochvane na voinata ot Rusiya 
sporazumeniya , spored koito sqzdavane na golyana slavyanska dqrjava na 
Balkanite e nedopustimo!  S tozi dogovor Rusiya prosto si podgotvya 
pochvata za po-natatqshnite si planova otnosno Bqlgariya - prevrqshtaneto 
i' v Rusko-Dunavska guberniya. 

                   Berlinskiya kongres
Pochti neposredstveno sled podpisvane na San Stefanskiya dogovor  
evropeiskata diplomaciya vlyazla nezabavno v deistvie. Povdignat bil 
vqprosa za tainoto Budapeshtensko sporazumenie ot yanuari-mart 1877 g. , 
podpisano ot Avstro-Ungariya i Rusiya. Pregovorite , koito ruskoto 
pravitelstvo pochnalo po tozi vqpros s Avstro-Ungariya pochivali na 
otnositelno blagopriyatnite predlojeniya na Viena. Avstroungarskiyat vqnshen 
ministqr Andrashi priemal Bqlgariya da ostane nedelim knyajestvo s izlaz na 
Byalo more , no zapadnata granica da se prostira do r. Vardar.
Ot Peterbur obache baveli otgovora. Bqlgariya v tezi si granici ne 
vlizala v tehnite planove. A edno eventualno podpisvane na tova 
sporazumenie shtyalo da postavi evropeiskite sili pred svqrshen fakt. 
Germaniya e zaemala neutralna poziciya po  vqprosa , a Italiya i Franciya 
sa izyavyavali samo izvestno nedovolstvo ot izlaza na Bqlgariya na 
Sredizemnomorskiya basein. Pri takiva usloviya , ostanala sama , Angliya 
edva li bi se protivipostavila na evropeiskiya koncert. No imenno straha 
na Rusiya ot eventualnata nezavisima politika na edno golyamo (i silno) 
bqlgarsko knyajestvo sposobstvuvat za posledvaloto razpokqsvane na 
V nachaloto na mai ruskiyat poslannik v London , Shuvalov , otpravya 
zapitvane do angliiskoto pravitelstvo za negovata poziciya po 
sklyucheniya San Stefanski dogovor (bez da e osigureno sqotvetnoto 
sqglasuvane s Viena po vqprosa). Angliiskiyat otgovor glasyal: 
Sanstefanska Bqlgariya da se razdeli po biloto na Stara planina na 
Severna i Yujna. Severnata da bqde avtonomna s knyajesko pravitelstvo , a 
Yujnata samo administrativno avtonomna i pryako podchinena na Visokata 
porta ; Bqlgariya da nyama izlaz na Byalo more. Okolo sredata na mai 
Shuvalov poluchil ukazanie da zapochne pregovori s anglichanite v London. 
Novata poziciya na angliiskoto pravitelstvo obache bila Bqlgariya ne samo 
da se razdeli na dve chasti , no i za izmestvane na granicata kakto na 
knyajestvoto , taka i na yujnata avtonomna oblast dalech na iztok - 
pochti tam , kqdeto spored prietite ot Carigradskata konferenciya 
resheniya se prostirala zapadnata granica na Iztochnata avtonomna oblast 
- po reka Iskqr i po sqshtata otvesna liniya otvqd Balkana. 
Na 30 mai (*) Shuvalov i angliiskiya vqnshen ministqr Solzbqri podpisvat 
priblizitelno v tozi vid taino anglo-rusko sporazumenie za razpokqsvane 
na etnicheskata bqlgarska narodnost. 
Po obshto sqglasie mejdu Velikite sili prieto bilo kongresqt po 
prerazglejdane na San Stefanskiya miren dogovor da se provede v Berlin. 
Zasedaniyata mu sa otkriti na 13 yuni (*) i prodqljili do 13 yuli (*) 
1878 god. Na tyah _ne e dopusnato nikakvo_ bqlgarsko narodnostno , 
dqrjavno ili diplomatichesko predstavitelstvo. 
Nyakolko dni predi zapochvane na kongresa Angliya sklyuchva 
taino sporazumenie s Avstro-Ungariya za edinodeistvie v zasedaniyata na 
kongresa. Tova davalo vqzmojnost angliiskiya predstavitel da postavya 
ultimativno svoite iskaniya i da zaplashva s napuskane na zasedaniyata.
Pri nalichieto na predvaritelno podpisano taino rusko-angliisko 
sporazumenie , sporovete po bqlgarskiya vqpros se vodeli glavno za tova 
dali zapadnata granica na novoto knyajestvo da bqde po reka Iskqr ili da 
vklyuchi i Sofiiska oblast. Tuk tryabva da spomenem i oshte edin 
falshificiran fakt ot proruskite istorici u nas. Kasae se za rolyata na 
germanskiya kancler Bismark. V opisaniyata na komunisticheskite 
istoriografi toi e predstavan kato "zql genii" za sqdbata na Bqlgariya i 
sqznatelno se premqlchavat posochenite po-gore stqpki na ruskata 
diplomaciya , doprinesli v nai-golyama stepen za zloshtasnoto razvitie na 
neshtata za bqlgarskiya narod. A ako raztvorim protokolite ot onova vreme 
, shte se ubedim , che vsqshtnost mejdu vsichko ostanalo Bismark e edin 
ot nai-revnostnita zashtitnici na prisqedinyavane na Sofiiska i 
Varnenska oblast kqm Knyajestvo Bqlgariya. 
Priel v kraya na zasedaniyata si tova stanovishte kongresqt priklyuchil 
na 13 yuli (*) i obyavil svoite resheniya. Bqlgarskite zemi i bqlgarskoto 
naselenie bili razpokqsani na 5 chasti: vasalnoto knyajestvo Bqlgariya 
(Miziya, Yujna Dobrudja i Sofiiska oblast), avtonomna oblast Iztochna 
Rumeliya (severna Trakiya) , Makedoniya i Odrinska trakiya (vrqshtali se 
v teritoriyata na Turciya), Severna Dobrudja (davala se kato kompensaciya 
na Rumqniya v zamyana na otstqpenata ot neya na Rusiya Besarabiya) i Nishka 
oblast i Pomoravieto (dadeni na Sqrbiya kato kompensaciya na Rashka i zaradi 
nyakolkodnevnoto i' uchastie vqv voinata). Osven tova Rusiya si 
osiguryavala znachitelna chast ot Armeniya. Angliya poluchava ostrov 
Kipqr , a Avstro-Ungariya - Dalmaciya o okupirva Bosna i Hercegovina za 
srok ot 30 godini. 
Taka , zapazil etnicheskoto si edinstvo prez cyaloto petvekovno 
tursko robstvo , preminal prez vqzrajdaneto , prolival krqvta si v 
mnogobroini vqstaniya , sqprichasten stqpka po stqpka s boevete na 
ruskite voiski prez voinata ot Svishtov do Odrin , bqlgarskiyat narod se 
okazva prez lyatoto na 1878 g. samo chastichno osvoboden , no napqlno 

            Opitite na Rusiya za prevrqshtane na Bqlgariya 
          v Rusko-Zadunavska oblast - I chast (1878 - 86 g.)

I taka , sled podpisvane na Berlinskiya dogovor , Bqlgariya pochva da 
funkcionira kato samostoyatelna dqrjava. I tuk e interesno da spomenem 
nakratko za rolyata na Rusiya v bqlgarskiya politicheski jivot.  A tazi 
rolya e dosta ednoznachna i rqkovodena ot edna osnovopolagashta cel - 
prevrqshtane na Bqlgariya v Rusko-Dunavska oblast pod pryakoto upravlenie 
na Ruskiya Imperator. Kakto shte vidim v posledstvie oshte ot pqrvite dni 
na osvobojdenieto ni igrite na ruskite diplomati sa nasocheni v 
posoka kak da postavyat Knyajestvoto v takova polojenie , che ili 
samiyat knyaz Aleksandqr , ili sam bqlgarskiyat narod da poiska 
prisqedinenieto si kqm ruskata imperiya. 
Oshte s pristiganeto na knyaz Aleksandqr v Bqlgariya ruskite diplomati 
pochvat da se oglejdat za sqyuznici v tehnite planove. Konservtorite biha 
bili dobri instrumenti v tehnite rqce , no te nyamali neobhodimata 
narodna populyarnost , bideiki v golyamata si chast sbor ot bivshi 
turski chorbadjii. V liberalite Rusiya ne bi mgla da ima doverie , 
zashtoto te bili hora dqlgi godini rabotili za bqlgarskata kauza i edva 
li biha sklonili da podpishat gotvenata prisqda nad Bqlgariya. I za da 
sqzdadat neobhodimata na ruskite diplomati obstanovka za postigane na 
tyahnata cel te se zaemat da izmenyat togavashnata konstitucionna forma 
na upravlenie s chisto monarhicheska.  V pismo ot direktora na Aziatskiya 
departament Melnikov do ruschushkiya konsul  se predava razgovora 
na Melnikov s general ot ruskiya generalen shtab Zsohywt:
"...Na vashiyat vqpros kakvo ni vliza v rabotata vqtreshniya red v 
Bqlgariya cmyatam za svoi priyaten dqlg da otgovorya na Vashe 
Prevqzhoditelstvo , che imenno vqtreshnite poryadki v Bqlgariya ni 
interesuvat poveche ot vsichko. Nashata zadacha e vqzpitatelna , nashata 
zagrijenost za Bqlgariya vqzpitava mladoto pokolenie v monarhicheska 
posoka , v uvajenie kqm pravoslavnata vyara i cqrkva. Nie ne mojem da 
dopusnem , shtoto bqdeshtoto pokolenie da bqde vqzpitavano podobno 
Karavelov i Cankov , koito otrichat vsichko svyato za pravoslavnite 
lyude. Ne ni tryabva da se obrqshtame kqm arhivnite spravki , pred nas e 
jiviyat primer na Rumqniya....
...Rumqncite , vqzpolzuvaiki se ot postignaloto cyala Rusiya 
neshtastie... (ubiistvoto na ruskiya imperator - bel. moya) ...imenno na 
14 minaliya mart se provqzglasiha za nezavisimo kralstvo nachelo s Karl 
Hohencolern. Eto vi dragi ploda na nasheto nehaino otnoshenie kqm 
...I taka , imaiki pred ochite si takqv jiv primer kato Rumqniya , nie ne 
tryabva da pravim tezi sqshtite greshki v Bqlgariya...
...Vie govorite , che ne sme voyuvali zaradi nyakakqv si princ Batenberg? 
Az sqm sqglasen s tova , no oshte po-malko sme voyuvali zaradi nyakakvi 
si Petko , Dragan i Stepan. Pod sekret shte vi kaja , che ne e bilo i 
zaradi nyakakvi si bratushki. Nashata zadacha beshe da prochistim pqtya do 
izvesten punkt , v izvesten smisql nie postignahme tova , no v Berlin ni 
pregradiha tozi  pqt , sledovatelno sme dlqjni da go postignem s drugi 
sredstva , koito sa izbrani sega ot nas. Dostiganeto na tezi celi shte e 
vqzmojno samo togava , kogato shte imame rabota samo s edno lice , a ne s 
ulichnata tqlpa , koyato bqlgarite narichat Narodno sqbranie. Kakvo mojem 
da iskame ot princ Batenberg , kakva usluga moje da ni okaje toi , kogato 
toi ne e samo tolkova ogranichen v svoyata vlast i vsichko zavisi ne ot 
nego , a ot negovite ministri i ot narodnite predstaviteli? Daite na 
knyaza prava i togava iskaite izpqlnenie na zadqljeniyata! Daite mu 
pqlnomoshtiya za samostoyatelno upravlenie na stranata i togava iskaite 
izpqlnenie na postavenite usloviya." 
Ot drugo pismo ot na diplomaticheskiya agent v Sofia do konsulite v 
Bqlgariya , posledvalo prez mai '81 godina se vijda , che neobhodimite za 
prevrata sumi sa otpusnati ot taka narecheniya "Okupacionen fond za 
ustroistvoto na Rusko-Zadunavska oblast". Tova e sekreten fond za 
"poddrqjka na yujnite slavyani" i se obrazuva sled oprazvaneto na 
Upravlenieto na Imperatorskiya komisar v Bqlgariya , ot ostatqcite ot 
prihodno-razhodnite sumi na ypravlenieto , otpusnati ot voennoto 
ministerstvo na Rusiya v razmer na 2 540 000 franka za izplashtane na 
jitelite na Rahovski okrqg za prodovolstvuvane na Rumqnskite voiski. 
Vsqshtnost jitelite na Rahovski ogrqg taka i ne poluchili parite si , 
blagodarenie na ruskata byurokraciya. Po-kqsno , prez 1881 god. po 
vishochaishe narejdane sekretniya fond e preimenuvan "okupacionen fond". 
Kqm posledniya sa prichisleni oshte 10 618 250 rubli i 43 kopeiki.
Tazi pqk suma e spomenata v "Dqrjaven vestnik" ot 10 yanuari 1884 god. 
kqdeto e publikuvan teksta na podpisanata ot Rusiya i Knyajestvo 
Bqlgariya konvenciya. V neya se kazva"
" Knyajeskoto Bqlgarsko Pravitelstvo pripoznava da dqlji na Ruskoto 
Imperatorsko Pravitelstvo za razhodite po okupaciyata ot imperatorskite 
ruski voiski , sqglasno opredeleniyata na Berlinskiya dogovor sumata 10 
miliona , 618 hulyadi 250 knijni rubli i 43 kopeiki". Tazi suma , 
izchislena po togavashen kurs na rublata spryamo zlatoto se ravnyava na 
32 tona zlato.
 Ne dqlgo sled prevrata obache , ruskata diplomaciya zapochnala da 
izpitva seriozni sqmneniya v Batenberg. Povod za tova dali i dobrite 
otzivi na Zapadnite diplomati za knyaz Batenberg , opasenieto " dali 
knyaza ne se e zagarantiral predvaritelno ot  podrqjkata na drugite 
dqrjavi za prevrata i dali v tozi sluchai rusite ne sa slepi orqdiya na 
Angliya , Avstriya i Germaniya". Nebqrzaneto na knyaza da se otreche ot 
prestola , zastavya ruskata diplomaciya da pochne po-otkrita borba s 
nego. Naznachenieto na Sobolev celyalo sblijavane s liberalite , a 
prateniya cherezvichaen imperatorski komisar v sofia Yonin imal dadeni 
slednite instrukcii:
1.) Da deistvuva za vqstanovyavane na konstituciyata 
2.) Da zastavi knyaza da se otreche ot prestola.
Pqrvata tochka ot tezi instrukcii celyala da se spechelyat sipmatiite na 
naroda , koito v po-golyamata si chast e protiv "pqlnomoshtiyata" i 
vednqj tova postignato shte e po-lesno postiganeto na vtorata cel - 
prinujdavane na knyaza da se otreche ot prestola. S pristiganeto si Yonin 
obyavyava s cirkulyar , che kqm 30 avgust , tezoimenniya den na Ruskiya car 
shte poiska ot knyaza s manifest da se otreche ot pqlnomoshtiyata i ako toi ne 
skloni - shte go prinudi da napusne stranata i da ya ostavi pod 
upravlenieto na general Sobolev kato regent.
Tezi opiti prinujdavat knyaza da tqrsi protivodeistvie. Edinstveniya 
izhod , koito toi vijdal bilo sblijavane s liberalite i vqstanovyavane na 
konstituciyata po negova iniciativa. Bilo prateno izvestie na Cankov da 
doide v Sofia i bilo ugovoreno svikvaneto na III Obiknovenno Narodno 
Sqbranie. Na 6 Septemvri 1883 godina Sqbranieto edinodushno izkazva 
jelanie za vqstanovyavane na konstituciyata. Sqshtiya den knyazqt s 
manifest obyavyava vqstanovyavane na konstituciyata i otrichane ot 
pqlnomoshtiyata. Kabinetqt na Sobolev si podava ostavka i e naznachen 
nov kabonet pod predsedatelstvoto na Cankov sqs smeseno uchastie - 
liberali i konservatori.
Porajenieto na Sobolev i Yonin bilo znak za pochvane na yavna "voina" , v 
koyato za shtastie ruskata diplomaciya bila obiknovenno gubeshta. 
Sqedinenieto na Bqlgariya s uchastieto na knyaz Alesandqr Batenberg e
za tyah nai-tejkiya udar. Ruskite vlasti sa imali svoe vijdane za 
Sqedinenieto - to sqshto shtyalo da bqde izpolzuvano kato orqjie protiv 
knyaza. Ot dokumenti stava yasno , che planovete na Rusiya sa da se 
izgoni Batenberg i neposredstveno sled tova da se obyavi Sqedineieto za 
da ne se dade vqzmojnost na bqlgarskiya narod i politici da izrazyat 
vqzmushtenieto si. No reshenieto na knyaza da se zaangajira sqs 
Sqedinenieto vqpreki zabranata na ruskiya car ostavya ruskata diplomaciya 
bez orqjie. Bilo resheno da se demonstrira kolkoto se moje po-nagledno 
nagoduvanieto na ruskiya car i negovoto neodobrenie spramo sqedinenieto. 
Za tazi cel sa dadeni instrukcii na vsichki konsuli da svikat ruskite 
oficeri ot garnizonite i da im se iska mnenie kak maksimalno da se 
"uslojni i zatrudni oshte poveche polojenieto na bqlgarskata voiska , za 
da ne bqde godna za edna voina?"   Namereno bilo i reshenie - "vednaga da 
se povikat ruskite oficeri ot Bqlgariya i vsichkite parahodcheta ot 
Dunava". V Peterburg odobryavat tova reshenie i zapovyadvat na Voenniya 
ministqr Katakuzen i na vsichki oficeri da napusnat Bqlgariya. Osven tiya 
deistviya na oficerite ruskata diplomaciya upotrebyava i drugi sredstva 
pred evropeiskite kabineti za da osueti Sqedinenieto. Na svikanata 
Carigradska mejdunarodna konferenciya ruskite diplomati predlagat _turski 
voiski da okupirat Yujna Bqlgariya_ . V Plovdiv ruskiyat konsul na 
sqbranie na grajdanite v Gimnaziyata zayavyava , che Rumeliici tryabva da 
se otkajat ot Sqedinenieto , zashtoto "krasnie feski idut uje" , a Rusiya 
nyama da gi zashtiti. 
Neuspeha na tazi tyahna politika gi prinujdava da nasqrchat i bez tuy 
nedovolniya ot bqlgarskoto sqedinenie srabski kral Milan za voina s 
Bqlgariya. Vqzpolzuvan ot sluchaya , che ruskite oficeri sa napusnali 
bqlgarskata armiya i sled kato bil uvedomen ot ruskiya agent v Belgrad , 
che Carya bi poglednal mnogo blagosklonno na eventualno obyavyavane na 
voina Milan go pravi. Na 6 i 7 noemvri , kogato stavat nai-reshitelnite 
bitki pri Slivnica , upravlyavashtiya ruskoto konsulstvo Bogdanov 
zasedava v Mitropoliyata s dyado Kliment , Cankov , Slaveikov i drugi , 
kak da se posreshnat sqrbite i koga da se obyavi knyaza svalen ot 
prestola ot imeto na ruskiya car.
Za golyamo sqjalenie na ruskite diplomati obache , srqbskite 
nashestvenici bivat razbiti. 

       Opitite na Rusiya za prevrqshtane na Bqlgariya v
        Rusko-Zadunavska oblast - II chast ( 1886 -  )

Tova gi prinujdava da nameryat novi pqtishta a postigane na celite. 
Ruskite oficeri sa napusnali Bqlgariya , tryabva da se nameryat novi hora 
izmejdu samite bqlgari , koito da deistvuvat za svalyane na knyaza. Ot 
dokumentite se vijda , che ruskoto pravitelstvo otpuska ogromni sumi za 
da vodi agitaciya protiv knyaza.
Obrazuvani bili izpqlnitelni komiteti , a na chelo na 
tiya komiteti v Sofia sa opredeleni ot samoto agentstvo:Cankov , 
Balabanov i Burmov. 
Vqprosqt za izgonvaneto na knyaza se obsqjdal dosta otkrito.
Na 9 avgust 1886 godina knyaz Batenberg e svalen ot prestola.
Oshte na drugiya den - 10 avgust - po iskane na Gruev , knyaz 
Dolgorukov e naznachen za carski pratenik i namestnik. V sqshtoto
vreme Stambolov se obyavyava protiv prevrata i se proglasyava
za diktator ot imeto na izgoneniya knyaz. V Plovdiv Mutkurov 
deistvuva solidarno sqs Stambolov. Prevratqt ne uspyava. Sofiiskoto
pravitelstvo se vijda izolirano i prestava da deistvuva. Knyaza se 
vrqshta v Sofia , no sled kato otpravya zapitvane do ruskiya car i 
poluchava obezokurajitelen otgovor - abdikira. Ostaveno e regentstvo
sqstoyashto se ot Stambolov , Mutkurov i Karavelov. Posledniya , 
vqpreki uchastieto si v zagovora protiv knyaza , e vklyuchen za da
ne se dava povod za razceplenie. Ruskoto pravitelstvo ne ostava 
osobeno doovolno ot noviya red. Vse pak , sega planoivete na Carya
imat poveche shansove za osqshtestvyavane. 
Za diplomaticheski agent v stranata e izpraten Kaulbars. Toi reshitelno
se obyavyava protiv predvidenite izbori za Veliko Narodno Sqbranie , 
koeto da izbere nov knyaz. Zashtoto vqpreki , che regentstvoto e gotovo
da napravi otstqpki i da izbere onzi kandidat , kogoto Rusiya predloji
, na zapitvaniyata na Pqrviya Regent Stambolov , Kaulbars otgovaryal:
"Rusiya oshte nyama kandidat". A Rusiya ne e imala kandidat , zashtoto 
tya ne e dopuskala da ima izbor na knyaz. Instrukciite na Kaulbars sa
ednoznachni v tova otnoshenie:
1.) Da otstrani ot vlast "nezakonnite" bqlgarski regenti i upraviteli
2.) Da se obrazuva novo pravitelstvo ot lica , deistvitelno 
predanni na Rusiya ( tova se spomenava i v sekretno sqobshtenie
na nachalnika na Aziatskiya departament do imperskiya poslannik v 
Bukuresht ot 20.XII.1887 g. N.3159 - "..tamoshnoto ministerstvo
da se sqstavi ne ot lica, prinadlejashti na razlichni politicheski
partii v Bqlgariya , a ot tezi , koito predvaritelno shte izyavyat
svoyata gotovnost da izpqlnyat iskaniyata na imperatorskoto 
pravitelstvo i za koito gen.-mayor baron Kaulbars svoevremenno dovede
do znanieto na shtats-sekretarya Girs")
3.) Da se osvobodyat vsichki arestuvani oficeri po izpqjdaneto na 
Batenberg i da im se vqzvqrnat predishnite dlqjnosti
4.) Da se snema voennoto polojenie i da se otsrochat za neopredeleno 
vreme izborite za Veliko N.S. 
5.) Da se vqstanovi poryadqka i spokoistvieto , novoto ministerstvo shte 
hodataistvuva pred Imperatorskoto pravitelstvo za popqlvane na 
bqlgarskata voiska s ruski konni i pehotni polkove i artileriya.
6.) Da se uvolnyat v ostavka oniya ot bqlgarskite oficeri , koito sa bili 
privqrjenici na Batenberg.
7.) Sled kato se izpqlnyat gornite instrukcii da se svika Veliko N.S. , 
na koeto da se predloji volyata na Carya za da se sloji na Negovo 
Velichestvo titlata "Velikii knyaz na Bqlgariya". Imperatorskiya 
namestnik shte bqde naznachen mejdu bqlgarite.
8.) Konstituciyata , svobodata i nezavisimostta na Knyajestvoto shte 
bqdat vechno zapazeni.
9.) Da se uveri naselenieto , che nito knyaz Batenberg , nito nekoi ot 
negovite bratya , pod nikakvi usloviya na mogat da se vqrnat v Bqlgariya 
i da stqpyat na prestola.
No vqpreki opita za prikritie na tezi celi , regentstvoto veroyatno e 
razbralo celta na Kaulbrasovata misiya i otblqsva katekorichno vsichki 
negovi iskaniya. Velikoto narodno sqbranie izbira Valdemar Datski za knyaz 
na Bqlgariya. Toi ne priema. Togava Sqbranieto izbira delegaciya , koyato 
natovarva da otide v Evropa i da tqrsi podhodyasht kandidat za knyaz. 
Tozi hod na bqlgarskite upravnici predizvikva reakciyata na Carya - toi 
izteglya ot Bqlgariya vsichki konsuli i prekqsva otnosheniyata si s neya. 
Taka zavqrshva misiyata na Kaulbars. Do tuk sa i oficialnite otnosheniya 
s Rusiya. Ot tuk natatqk borbata se prenasya na nelegalna pochva. Rusiya 
zayavyava oficialno , che ne priznava nishto zakonno v Bqlgariya i che 
vsichko , koeto bqlgarite vqrshat v ochite na Carya i negovata 
diplomaciya shte se schita za uzurpaterstvo , nasilie i bqzzakonie.
Ruskoto pravitelstvo dava na ruskiya diplomat v Bukuresht Hitrovo 
neogranicheno pravo da izrazhodva otpusnatite nemu sredstva za 
predizvikvane na bunt. Bunta izbuhma v Silistra i  Ruse , no biva bqrzo 
potushen. Prez mesec yuni na 1886 godina regenstvoto svikva pak Velikoto 
Narodno Sqbranie i predlaga kanditaturata na knyaz Ferdinant. Izbirat go 
edinodushno i skoro toi polaga kletva v Tqrnovo i poema upravlenieto. 
Ruskoto pravitelstvo reagira po nachin , pokazan v shifrovana telegrama 
na nachalnika na Aziaskiya departament do imperatorskiya poslannik v 
Bukuresht ot 10.avgust.1887 god. V neya chetem:
"... Imeratorskoto pravitelstvo okonchatelno e reshilo: da priznae princ 
Koburgotski kato uzurpator , namirasht se izvqn vsyakakvi zakoni , na 
osnovanie na tova i deistviyata  nasocheni lichno protiv Koburgotski za 
otstranyavaneto mu ot Bqlgariya , ne mogat da se schitat osqditelni i 
Predavaiki za gorespomenatoto okonchatelno reshenie na imperatorskoto 
pravitelstvo , nai-pokorno vi molya , pochitaemi gospodine , da 
blagovolite da okajete sqdeistvie na lica blagonadejni , izyavyavashti 
gotovnost da vzemat deino uchastie v otstranyavaneto na princ Koburgotski 
ot Bqlgariya."
Podhodyashtite hora se yavyavat v liceto na mayor Panica i kapitan 
Nabokov. Pregovorite s Panica zapochvat oshte prez oktomvri 1887 god. 
Ochevidno usloviyata , postaveni ot Panica ne sa udovoletvorili Rusiya , a 
sa izkazani i sqmneniya otnosno negovata blagonadejost ; ruskite diplomati 
predpochitat Nabokov. Pak v pismo na nachalnika na Aziatskiya departament 
do Hitrovo v Bukuresht se kazva slednoto: " Kato predpochita 
ekspediciyata na Nabokov pred vsekakvi sqglasheniya s bqlgarski oficeri , 
Imperatorskoto ministerstvo prashta v Carigrad pqrviya sekretar pri 
poverenata bam Imperatorska Misiya , za da sklyuchi okonchatelnite 
usloviya s kapitan Nabokov , kakto i redqt po koito shte se upravlyavat 
zavzetite ot nego mestnosti v Bqlgariya , do pristiganeto na 
podkrepleniya ot Odesa" !!!
Sled provala na ekspediciyata na Nabokov sa podnoveni pregovorite s 
Panica. Ot telegramite se vijda , che deloto na Panica (zavqrshilo s 
proval) e bilo delo vqrsheno s doznanieto , s parite i predpisanieto na 
ruskata diplomaciya. Na podrobnosti nyama da se spirame , no ot vsichko 
spomenato gore stava yasno , che nashite "osvoboditeli" sa se grijili 
seriozno da ni osvobodyat sqvsem ot Bqlgariya.
Tuk shte slojim tochka v po-natatqshnoto razglejdane na sqbitiyata. Na 
kraya samo shte spomenem mnenieto na edin balgarin otnosno 
osvoboditelnata misiya na Rusiya. Eto nyakolko negovi citati:
"... Voinite na Rusiya s turciya bdqhvaha nadejda i u bqlgarite za 
osvobojdenie s pomoshta na Rusiya , sqzdavaha simpatii u tyah kqm neya. 
Naistina voinite na Rusiya na Balkanskiya poluostrov , za vodeneto na 
koito poslednata iztqkvashe ne samo jelanieto si da osvobodi uj 
hristiyanite , a vsqshtnost gi vodeshe samo sqs zavoevatelni celi , 
vodeha kqm zabavyane na obshtonacionalnoto dvijenie...
...Po takqv nachin v selskata masa i drebnata borjuaziya u nas se sqzdade
predstavlenie za Rysiya kato za nai-silnata , nai-bogatata strana , a za 
ruskite care kato za "osvoboditeli" i "pokroviteli" na Bqlgariya , bez 
koito tya ne moje da sqshtestvuva , bez koito ne moje nishto da napravi , 
pqk i ne bivada pravi , za da ne gi rqzsqrdi i da ne si dignat ot neya 
svoeto "pokrovitelstvo"..."
Bivshite komsomolski aktivisti , ako sa si vqrsheli sqvestno 
"zadqljeniyata" veroyatno veche sa poznali tova proizvedenie i negoviya 
avtor. Za vsichki ostanali shte go kajem - gornite citati sa ot "Prinos 
kqm istoriyata na socializma v Bqlgariya" , publikuvana prez 1906 g. i s 
avtor Dimitqr Blagoev. 
Kak se menyat vremenata , a s tyah i misleneto , nali? 


16-5 When was Bulgaria declared independent 
(by Luben Boyanov)
Na 22 Septemvri 1908 godina, v Turnovskata cherkva "Sveti 40 muchenici"
v turzhetvena obstanovka e obyavena nezavisimosta na Bulgariya.


16-6 What did Leland Buxton write about Bulgarians
(by Luben Boyanov)
From "The Black Sheep of the Balkans", by Leland Buxton, 1920.  pp 94-96.
                Chapter IV - 'Vae Victis'
        "The Bulgarians, though believed to be of Turanian origin, have been
so completely Slavised that they may now be regarded as a branch of the
Southern Slavs, with whom they must eventually throw in their lot. So
efficient have they shown themselves to be, during the last fifty years, in
almost every field except those of propaganda and diplomacy, that many
people besides themselves have thought them entitled to become the leading
power in the Balkans. This was always an idle dream. Even if they had
obtained possession of Macedonia it could never have become a permanent
reality, for they are less numerous than the Serbs, the Romanians, or the
Greek. But a Southern Slav Federation, including an autonomous Bulgaria and
an autonomous Macedonia with ports on the Aegean, would be an effective
barrier against any Central European Imperialism on the north and against
Hellenic Imperialism on the south, thus insuring Slav predominance in the
        It is unwise to express any other opinion, favourable or otherwise,
of the Bulgarians, for any one who does so is suspected of being a dupe
either of the Bulgarians themselves or of their enemies. To some people the
Bulgar is so objectionable and inhuman that they become almost frenzied in
their attempts to describe him; to others he appears to combine the virtues
of Don Quixote, St. Anthony, and the Admirable Crichton. Impartial writers,
however, usually describe him as industrious, practical, tenacious,
patient, courageous, honest and truthful; but silent, unexpansive,
grasping, and obstinate. He compels admiration rather than affection, but
Englishmen generally find him, in spite of his impenetrable reserve, less
irritating than some of his neighbours. He does not, however, possess the
attractive manners of the Serb or the Albanian. To the French temperament
he is antipathetic, and it was unfortunate for Bulgaria that the country
has been mainly in French occupation instead of British or Italian. Middle
class Bulgars, most of whom are sons of peasants, are often painfully
self-conscious and too much aware of their lack of polish, and their
unfortunate desire to keep up appearances sometimes creates an impression
of snobbishness."

16-7 Who was Ferdinand I Coburg-Gotha?
(by Luben Boyanov), last updated: 18-Jun-1995

        Ferdinand I (Maximilian-Karl-Leopold-Maria) of Coburg-Gotha, Tsar
(King) of the Bulgarians was born in Vienna on February 26, 1861.  He was
the third son and the youngest child of five of prince Augustus
Saxe-Coburg-Gotha and Princess Clementine of Orleans, daughter of Louis
Philippe, the "Citizen King" of the French.

        Aged 26 and a retired lieutenant of the Austrian Army, he was
elected Prince of Bulgaria by the Great National Assembly in Turnovo on
July 7th, 1887, after the abdication of Prince Alexander Battenberg.

        Upon his arrival in Sofia, he worked with the great Prime Minister
of the day, Stefan Stambolov and his government; secretly supported by
Austria and England, he managed to counter the opposition of Russia, which
had been trying to prevent the Great Powers from recognizing him.  His
marriage to a Catholic, Mary Louise, daughter of Robert, Duke of Parma, in
1893, increased Russia's hostility.  However, after the death of Tsar
Alexander III and the murder of Stefan Stambolov in 1895, relations with
St. Petersburg improved.  Prince Ferdinand won the support of the new
Russian Tsar, Nicholas I, by baptizing Boris, heir to the Bulgarian throne,
in the Eastern Orthodox faith in 1896.  Following the baptism, Ferdinand
was officially recognized by Russia, and the other Powers.  The Pope, Leo
XIII, vehemently disapproving, promptly excommunicated the Prince.  Some
years later, Pope Pius X reinstalled him to the faith.

        Having stabilized Bulgaria's position, Ferdinand and his government
pursued active domestic and foreign policies.  During the late summer of
1908, taking advantage of the difficulties besetting the Ottoman Empire, he
declared Bulgaria's independence and proclaimed himself Tsar of the
Bulgarians on October 6th.  During the following year, this too was
recognized by the Powers.

        Prompted by the mood of his nation to liberate and unite Bulgarians
still living under Ottoman rule, he exploited Turkey's problems (war with
Italy since 1911), and entered into a secret treaty with Serbia in March
1912, followed by similar accords with Montenegro and Greece.  He assumed
supreme command of the Bulgarian army when the First Balkan War started.
The spectacular successes of the victorious Bulgarian army kindled great
ambitions in him and he supported his government to seek the full
unification of the Bulgarian people.

        The second Balkan War started on June 16th, 1913 and ended with the
crushing defeat of Bulgaria and the Treaty of Bucharest.  The betrayal of
Bulgaria by her ex-allies Serbia, Montenegro and Greece influenced Tsar
Ferdinand to accept his government's policy decision to side with the
Central Powers during World War I, which Bulgaria entered in 1915.  The war
ended in defeat for Bulgaria and Ferdinand abdicated on October 3rd, 1918
in favour of his son Boris III.  He left the country on the same day and
settled in Germany where he died on September 10th, 1948.

        King Ferdinand was known as a skillful diplomat and strong and
gifted Head of State.  His reign left a significant and lasting impact on
the political, cultural and social life of Bulgaria.  The progress of the
fledgling Bulgarian State to a level where it was regarded as the strongest
and most advanced Balkan country, was due in no small measure, to its first
Tsar of modern times and his innovative spirit, which guided it into the
Twentieth Century.

16-8 Medals given during the 3rd Bulgarian kingdom
(by Martin Mintchev)
There are several traditional military orders associated with the Third 
Bulgarian Kingdom. The most popular one is probably "Za Hrabrost" ("For 
Bravery"), which is a cross of special design that comes with or without 
swords. The cross is in dark metallic red color, with a green engrave at the 
center (as far as I remember), the swords and the crown between the 
hanger and the cross are silverplated. At the center of the cross (from 
the front side) there is a crowned lion, from the back side the cyrillic 
letter F can be seen (for Ferdinand). 

The other is "St. Alexander", which is a white cross, in the center is 
the date 19 February 1878 (March 3 new style, the Liberation Day) from 
one side and the words "St. Alexander". It has different degrees, and (as 
far as I remember) comes also with or without swords.

A third one is "Za Voenna Zasluga", "For Military Contribution". It is 
also a cross but with three edges at the end of each arm. I don't 
remember very well its other features.

16-9 The Carnegie Report 
(by Luben Boyanov)
The Carnegie Report about the causes and the behaviour of some
European countries during the First and Second Balkan Wars was
published again.

"The other Balkan Wars: 1914 Carnegie Endowment Report..."


The Brookings Institution
Dept. 029
Washington, D.C. 20042-0029

or call:

(toll-free)  1-800-275-1447  (for a credit card service)


16-10 The Economy of Bulgaria (1878-1939), summary
(by Ivaylo Izvorski), last updated: 19-Mar-1996
	Before starting with the economic issues, we make two short
diversion which will be useful down the line.

1. Territory

	After the Berlin treaty (1878) the combined territory of the
Principality of Bulgaria (Knjazhestvo Bylgaria) and Eastern Roumelia
(Iztochna Rumelia) was 97,985.1 sq. km. Table 1 lists the (numerical)
changes in the total territory of Bulgaria between the years 1878 and
1939. The table, thus, does not include events such as the Krajova
agreement with Roumania in 1940 from which the territory of the
Kingdom was increased by 7,695.8 sq. km.

Table 1. Territory of Bulgaria (1878-1939) in sq. km
	 (last column is total area) 

Berlin Congress (1878)

	Principality of Bulgaria          62,776.8
	Eastern Roumelia                  35,208.3              
Carigrad Treaty (1886)
	Ceded to Turkey                    1,639.6
Bukurest treaty (1914)
	Ceded to Roumania                  7,695.8
	Obtained from Turkey              23,187.2
Agreement with Turkey (1915)
	Obtained from Turkey               2,587.6
Treaty of Neuille (1919)
	Ceded to Yugoslavia                2,566.3
	Ceded to Greece                    8,712.0

2. Population

	The population of the principality in 1881 was 2,852,600, in
1906 a little over 4 million, and in 1939 6,272,900. It is to be noted
that the population increase due to the increase in territory was
minimal - the total external increase in population from the 1913-1919
period was a mere 4,810 people. Much more significant was the
population increase with the Krajova aggreement (1940) of almost
300,000 people but this is outside the current survey.

	It is interesting to compare the change in population over
1878-1939 with the change over 1944-1994. This is left as a homework
exercise for the reader.

16-11 Bulgaria and World War II 
(by Luben Boyanov)
Basically, the person who was taking the major decisions
but not all !!! during the years around 1940 was King Boris III.
Both points are important as there are some controvercies and also
some propaganda.  While it is true, that almost all general
decisions were masterminded by Boris III, it is also true that
the cabinet and the Prime Minister had some freedom to act and
did not consult the King on so many of their actions.

The entire story should be started back in the years 1932-35 when
it turned out that it is only Germany who is buying the agricultural
production of Bulgaria and in return was providing some high quality
industrial goods on low prices, from Bulgaria.  In several years time
(Boris tried to convince Britain and France to allow more BG trade with
them, to get more of their products on the BG market on competitive prices,
but neither country gave a damn on that matter), Bulgaria was conducting
something like 65% (o even more) of its export and import with
Germany.  The country became almost totaly dependent on Germany.
The overall situation was not bad for Bulgaria, as gave a good
market for BGs production and in return, the German tools/machines
were very well regarded for their quality and reliability in Bulgaria.

When WWII started, Bulgaria declared to stay neutral.  Relations
with all major powers were good.  It happened that there was a chance
to recover the purely Bulgarian land of Southern Dobruja, which was
lost to Romania after the Second Balkan war and then again - after
WWI.  Russia, England, Germany were pressing Rumania but at the end
it was under German pressure that Romania returned the land. So - apart
from the huge economic dependance, a feeling of help and concern
was received from the German action.  Still Boris was determined to keep BG
out of the war.  There are numerous documents showing that Boris didn't like
and even despised Hitler and he was also rather scared what will next decide
to do the decorator from Austria.  After some time, with the opening of
the war in Greece, Hitler got determined to get his troops there (I think
Gregory explained this well and why was so). .  The German troops have
moved in Romania (if I'm not wrong about the time) and at some time Bulgaria
given 2 choices - to get on the side of the Germans, or to be crossed as
enemy by the Vermaht.  There was absolute no support from England or France
(as far as I remember, Boris tried to get some help from there) and the
internal situation (no anti-German feelings, huge economic dependency) was
not helping at all.  It was clear, that if Boris has refused to join
the Germans, a pro-German pupet regime would have been installed
in days, after the German army enters Bulgaria  (BG had no army
after WWI !!! but even if they had, I doubt what could BG army on
its own, without British or French, or US help stand against the
Germans) and full colaboration of that pupet regime would have

Boris chose the other option.  He put a lot of conditions to the
joining of the Axis - like no BG soldiers for Germany, no interference
of Germany in BG gov, etc, etc, then he appointed a Germanophille
(or maybe it was earlier he appointed him) Prime Minister - Filov
and he binded towards the pressure from Hitler.  The memoirs of his
Chief of Staff show how much upset he was for that decision.  Still
he was in some control of the situation, and for the next years, he managed
to influence few major events, despite the oposite pressure from
Germany and his own government - namely to help saving the
Bulgarian Jews being sent to camps in Poland, to give soldiers to
the German army, and to declare war on the USSR.  Bulgaria was
a unique country, where German and Russian missions (diplomatic)
were together during the war.

Of course, the King was not able to avoid many of the stupid things
his pro-German PM did, but he couldn't do anything else, in order to
play the game of cat and mouse with Hitler.  And the game was to
avoid doing anything Hitler wanted, and still to pretend being
a true ally to him.  Boris was extremely angry that Filov's gov
declared war to Britain and the US but he was unable to avoid this.

In 1943, after a stormy meeting with Hitler, when Boris refused
again to give troops and to deport the Jews (under various
explanations), Boris died from mysterious death.  There are
speculations whetgher he was poisoned and by whom, but from
what Iv'e read, it seems that he just couldn't stand that pressure
any more and had a heart attack.

It is also documented, that earlier in 1943, Boris was preparing
a pro-British/American government but if/how/when he would have
broken with Hitler and joined the other camp is a mere speculation
and mystery, which will be never solved as the death of the King
ruined all plans he had or might have had.

16-12 The Macedonian Question
(by John Bell)
The "Macedonian Question" is actually a complex of questions, both
historical and current. Geographically, the term "Macedonia" has designated
different parts of the Balkans, a fact that often contributes to
contemporary confusion and controversy. Since the Balkan Wars, which
established today's political boundaries, the region of Macedonia is
generally understood to include the territory of the former Yugoslav
republic of Macedonia, the northern Greek province of the same name, and
the Pirin region of Bulgaria, whose provincial capital is Blagoevgrad. 

The ethnic and linguistic identity of the Macedonians has a long and
controversial history. Until the late nineteenth century, to nearly all
investigators the term "Macedonia" designated a geographic area only; its
population was considered primarily Bulgarian along with an admixture of
Greeks, Serbs, and other nationalities. Many figures prominent in
Bulgaria's national awakening and in its later cultural, political, and
economic life were born in Macedonia and gave no evidence during their
lives of considering themselves anything but Bulgarian. Macedonians were
also active in the creation of the Bulgarian Exarchate in 1870, and the
population voted overwhelmingly to join it. When Macedonia was restored to
Ottoman control by the Treaty of Berlin, Macedonian notables protested
their separation from their "co-nationals." 

After the Balkan and First World Wars, however, Bulgaria received only the
Pirin region, while the bulk of Macedonia was divided between Greece and
Serbia. "Ethnic cleansing" and population transfers largely removed
Slavophones from Greek Macedonia and Greek speakers from the rest of the
territory. This, combined with Serbian efforts to denationalize the
population led to a vast number of refugees resettling in Bulgaria, so that
today approximately a quarter of the Bulgarian population traces its roots
to Macedonia. During the period between the two world wars, the Internal
Macedonian Revolutionary Organization (IMRO) conducted a campaign of
terrorism against Serbian authorities, often abetted by the Bulgarian
government or by sympathetic Bulgarian citizens. 

At the end of World War II, Tito's regime adopted the position that
Macedonians were a distinct nationality and recognized the former "South
Serbia" as the Macedonian Republic, one of the five republics of the
Yugoslav federation, and sought to transfer to it the Pirin region from
Bulgaria. Because Stalin favored this plan, the Bulgarian Communists
carried out a census in 1946 that forced nearly seventy per cent of the
Pirin region's inhabitants to declare themselves to be "Macedonian."
Although Stalin's break with Tito ended the plan of detaching the Pirin
region from Bulgaria, when Khrushchev sought a rapprochement with
Yugoslavia in 1956, Bulgaria again was pressured to find a Macedonian
nationality in the Pirin. This pressure disappeared by the early 1960s, and
in the 1965 census only .5 per cent of the population of Pirin identified
itself as "Macedonian."  

In the Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, authorities worked to foster a sense of
Macedonian national feeling, creating a literary language, emphasizing
orthographical, lexical, and syntactical differences with Bulgarian, to be
taught in the schools and developing an official history that projected a
separate Macedonian national identity into the past. 

Following the break-up of Yugoslavia, Bulgaria welcomed the creation of an
independent Macedonia, and in January 1991 was the first country to extend
it full diplomatic recognition, despite the objections of neighboring
Greece. Bulgarians have been reluctant, however, to acknowledge the
existence of a Macedonian nationality or that the Macedonian language is
anything other than a dialect of Bulgarian, points that the Macedonian
government has insisted on emphasizing. 

Some inhabitants of the Pirin region have asserted that they belong to a
separate Macedonian nationality and have created the "United Macedonian
Organization - Ilinden" to promote national consciousness. When the group
was first formed in 1990, Bulgarian authorities subjected its member to
harassment and blocked its attempt to publish a newspaper. Bulgarian courts
refused to register UMO-Ilinden on the grounds that its activities were
"directed against the sovereignty and territorial unity of the country" and
were thus unconstitutional. State Prosecutor Ivan Tatarchev, himself born
in the Pirin, was especially vigorous in using police powers to attempt to
suppress the organization, bringing down the condemnation of international
human rights organizations. Researchers at the American University in
Blagoevgrad, find a strong regional identity, but little sense of belonging
to a separate nationality.

                    In the Pirin Mountains /photo/
Linguists differ on the criteria used to distinguish a dialect from a
separate language. It is sometimes stated that "a language is a dialect
with an army and navy." When Macedonian President Kiro Gligorov recently
visited Bulgaria, he insisted on bringing an interpreter to his meeting
with Bulgarian President Zhelev; for his part, Zhelev insisted that he
understood everything without need for assistance. The signing of a
protocol on this meeting also had to be abandoned when the Macedonian side
insisted on a statement that it was written in "the Macedonian language."  

President Zhelev has called for a solution to the Macedonian Question
through the establishment of open borders between the two states, and
Bulgarian assistance has been vital during the Greek economic blockade. In
a recent speech, Zhelev said that Bulgaria could not wish harm to Macedonia
any more than a mother could wish harm to her children. This was, perhaps,
less reassuring to the Macedonians than Zhelev intended.

For its part, the Macedonian Republic has not been sympathetic toward its
citizens who wish to express a Bulgarian ethnicity. The recently completed
census found only 1,547 Bulgarians in the country, and those for the most
part immigrants from Bulgaria outside the Pirin District. 


17-1 Who is John Atanasoff (by Luben Boyanov) Subject: The inventor of the modern digital computer - of Bulgarian origin The name John Atanasoff is not very well known but this is the man who has created the modern digital computer. 50 years have passed since John Atanasoff has created the first digital computer. President Bush has awarded the 1990 National prize for Technical achievement, - the highest American Technical award (I've used non-English text to translate the name of the prize so the correct name of the award may be a different one) to Prof. John Atanasoff. For long time it has been considered that the first electronic digital computer was ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) and one can find that name in almost any Computer Science books as the first example of the first generation digital computer systems. ENIAC was built at the University of Pennsylvania under the direction of John Mauchly and J. P. Eckert. Work on ENIAC began in 1943 and it was completed in 1946. However, in the early seventies it was proven that the ideas behind ENIAC were taken from the ABC (Atanasoff-Berry Computer) computer. John Atanasoff was born in Hamilton, New York in 1903. He was educated at the University of Florida, Iowa State College, and the University of Wisconsin (PhD, physics, 1930). With the help of Clifford Berry, Atanasoff built a working model of the Atanasoff-Berry Computer (ABC) in 1942. The ABC computer was a special-purpose machine for solving simultaneous linear equations. It was a serial, binary, electro-mechanical machine, and employed various new techniques that Atanasoff invented, including novel uses of logical circuitry and regenerative memory. Only recently has Atanasoff achieved recognition as one of the "fathers" of the digital computer. During his last visit in Bulgaria to the birth-place of his father - an emigrant orphan from the April Uprising against the Turks, John Atanasoff said: "Like a Bulgarian I am also a restless and creative person and the Slav root in my blood has helped me a great deal in life". John Atanasoff - junior, president of "Cybernetics Products, Inc" has also visited Bulgaria recently. He considers as good the chances of cooperation between his company and the newly emerging Bulgarian private businesses. It's not bad to remember that the inventor of the first modern digital computer is of Bulgarian origin. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17-2 Who is John Atanasoff (by John Bell), last updated: 19-Jun-1995 John V. Atanasoff, 91, who invented the first electronic computer in 1939 and later saw others take credit for his discovery, died of a stroke June 15 at his home in Monrovia, Md. Dr. Atanasoff, whose pioneenng work ultimately was aclmowledged during lengthy patent litigation in the 1970s, never made money off bis invention, which was the first computer to separate data processing from memory. It heads the famiky tree of today's personal computers and mainframes. Two other scientists, J. Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly, drew on Dr. Atanasoff's research. In the mid-1940s, they were the first to patent a digital computing device, which they called the ENIAC (electronic numerical integrator and computer). They said they had worked out the concept over ice cream and coffee in a Philadelphia restaurant. For many years, they were acclaimed as the fathers of modern computing. But a court battle 20 years ago between two corporate giants, Honeywell and Sperry Rand, directed the spotlight to Dr. Atanasoff. He said the idea in fact, had come to him over bourbon and water in a roadhouse in Illinois in 1937. He was out on a drive >from Iowa State University, in Ames, where he taught mathematics and physics, and had stopped to think about the computing devices he had been working on since 1935. He needed a machine that could do the complex mathematicat work he and his graduate students had been trying on desk calculators. He and two others at Iowa State already had build an analog catculator called a laplaciometer, which analyzed the geometry of surfaces. It was that evening in the tavern, he said, that the possibility of regenerative memory and the concept of logic circuits came to him. The machine he envisioned was different from anything conceived before. It would be electronically operated and would use base-two (binary) numbers instead of the traditional base-10 numbers. It would have condensers fro memory and a regenerative process to preclude loss of memory from electrical failures. It would use direct logical action for computing rather than the counting system used in analog processes. Within months, he and a talented graduate student, Clifford Berry, had developed a crude prototype of an electronic computer. Although it used a mechanical clock system, the computing was electronic. It had two rotating drums containing capacitors, which held the electrical charge for the memory. Data were entered using punch cards. For the first time, vacuum tubes were used in computing. The project, which cost $1,000, was detailed in a 35- page manuscript, and university lawyers sent a copy to a patent lawyer. The next year, Mauchly, a physicist at Ursinus College, near Philadelphia, whom Dr. Atanasoff had met at a conference, came to see Dr. Atanasoff's work. Mauchly stayed several days at the Atanasoff home, where he was briefed extensively about the computer project and saw it demonstrated. He left with papers describing its design. That same year, Dr. Atanasoff tried to interest Remington Rand in his invention, saying he believed it could lead to a "computing machine which will perform all the operations of the standard tabulators and many more at much higher speeds," but the company turned him down. Years later, it would eagerly seek his assistance. Dr. Atanasoff had hoped to file a patent for his computer, but he was called away to Washington at the start of World War II to do physics research for the Navy. And there were complications with Iowa State, which held rights to his work but had discontinued efforts to secure a patent. By the time the computer industry was off and running, Dr. Atanasoff was involved with other areas of defense research and out of touch with computer development. The Iowa State prototype had been dismantled while he was away working for the Navy. But he had kept his research papers. He later said he "wasn't possessed with the idea I had invented the first computing machine. If I had knovn the things I had in my machine, I would have kept going on it." The Atanasoff prototype finally was recognized as the father of modern computing when, in a patent infringement case Sperry Rand brought against Honeywell, a federal judge voided Sperry Rand's patent on the ENIAC, saying it had been derived from Dr. Atanasoff's invention. It was "akin to finding a new father of electricity to replace Thomas Edison," said a writer on the computer industry. The decision made news in the industry, but Dr. Atanasoff, th this time retired, continued to live in relative obscurity in Frederick County. Later, in 1988, two books about his work were published: "The First Electronic Computer: The Atanasoff Story," by Alice R. Burns and Arthur W. Burns, and "Atanasoff, Forgotten Father of the Computer," by Clark R. Mollenhoff. Other articles were published in the Annals of the History of Computing, Scientific American and Physics Today. In 1990, President George Bush acknowledged Dr. Atanasoff's pioneering work by awarding him the National Medal of Technology. John Vincent Atanasoff was born in Hamilton, N.Y. He was an electrical engineering graduate of the University of Florida and received a master's degree in mathematics from Iowa State University, where he taught for 15 years. He received a doctorate in physics from the Uni- versity of Wisconsin. Dr. Atanasoff left Iowa State in the early 1940s to become director of the underwater acoustics program at the Naval Ordnance Laboratory at White Oak, now the Naval Surface Weapons Center, where he worked largely with mines, mine countermeasures and depth charges. He participated in the atomic weapons tests at Bikini Atoll after World War II and became chief scientist for the Army Field Forces, at Fort Monroe, Va., in 1949. He re- turned to the ordnance laboratory after two years to be director of the Navy Fuze programs, and in 1952 he began his own company, Ord- nance Engineering Corp. That company was sold to Aerojet Engineering Corp. in 1956, and Dr. Atanasoff was named a vice president. After he retired in 1961, he was a consultant and continued to work in computer education for young people. He also developed a phonetic alphabet for computers. His honors included the Navy's Distinguished Civilian Service Award, five honorary doctorates, the Computer Pioneer Medal of the Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers, the Holley Medal of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers and the Distinguished Achievement Citation of Iowa State University. He was a member of the Iowa Inventors Hall of Fame. Dr. Atanasoff, whose father was born in Bulgaria, also was awarded Bulgaria's highest science award and was a member of the Bulgarian Academy of Science. He was a member of the Phi Beta Kappa, Pi Mu Epsilon and Tau Beta Pi honorary societies and the Cos- mos Club. Dr. Atanasoff's marriage to Lura Meeks Atanasoff ended in divorce. Survivors include his wife, Alice Crosby Atanasoff of Monrovia; three children from his first marriage, Elsie A. Whistler of Rockville, Joanne A. Gathers of Mission Viejo, Calif., and John V. Atanasoff II of Boulder, Colo.; four sisters; three brothers; 10 grandchildren; and seven great-grandchildren. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 17-3 Elias Kaneti (by Konstantin G. Zahariev) Chetiri dni sled smyrtta mu germanski izdateli sqobshtiha za smqrtta i pogrebenieto na rodeniya v Bqlgaria svetovnoizvesten pisatel Elias Kaneti. Toy e pochinal v shveycarskiya grad Cyurih na 89-godishna vqzrast i e bil pogreban v sryada v mestnoto grobishte Flunteri do groba na genialniya irlandski pisatel Djeims Djoys, sqobshti izdatelstvo "Karl Hanser". Spored gradskiya sqvet v Cyurih Kaneti e pochinal vnezapno. Predpolaga se, che vqzpomenatelnata ceremoniya za konchinata mu shte se sqstoi na 25 Septemvri v mestniya gradski teatqr. Kaneti e Nobelov laureat za 1981 i vchera Lars Gilensten - sekretar na komiteta, koyto vrqchva nagradite, nareche pisatelya klyuchiva figura v centralnoevropeyskata kultura i literatura. "Toy beshe gigant kato Franc Kafka", zayavi Gilensten. Kaneti e priznat za edin ot nay-golemite pisateli, tvoryashti na nemski ezik, i prez 1972 poluchava nagradata "Georg Byuhner" - nay-visokoto otlichie v nemskata literatura. Sred nay-izvestnite mu proizvedeniya sa romanite "Zaslepenieto", "Spaseniyat ezik", "Istoriyata na edno detstvo", "Fakel v uhoto" i dr. Toy e roden prez 1905 v Ruse v semeystvo na ispanski evrei, prez 1911 semeystvoto mu se prehvqrlya v Manchestqr, a dve godini po-kqsno - vqv Viena. Progonen ot nacistkata okupaciya na Avstriya prez 1938 toy otiva v London, kqdeto poluchava britansko grajdanstvo, koeto zapazva do kraya na dnite si. -- Drago -- Drago

User Contributions:

Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic:

Part0 - Part1 - Part2 - Part3 - Part4 - Part5 - Part6 - Part7 - Part8 - Part9 - MultiPage

[ Usenet FAQs | Web FAQs | Documents | RFC Index ]

Send corrections/additions to the FAQ Maintainer: (Dragomir R. Radev)

Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:11 PM