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RFC 8040 - RESTCONF Protocol


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Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                        A. Bierman
Request for Comments: 8040                                     YumaWorks
Category: Standards Track                                   M. Bjorklund
ISSN: 2070-1721                                           Tail-f Systems
                                                               K. Watsen
                                                        Juniper Networks
                                                            January 2017

                           RESTCONF Protocol

Abstract

   This document describes an HTTP-based protocol that provides a
   programmatic interface for accessing data defined in YANG, using the
   datastore concepts defined in the Network Configuration Protocol
   (NETCONF).

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 7841.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc8040.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must
   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................5
      1.1. Terminology ................................................5
           1.1.1. NETCONF .............................................6
           1.1.2. HTTP ................................................6
           1.1.3. YANG ................................................7
           1.1.4. NETCONF Notifications ...............................7
           1.1.5. Terms ...............................................8
           1.1.6. URI Template and Examples ..........................10
           1.1.7. Tree Diagrams ......................................11
      1.2. Subset of NETCONF Functionality ...........................11
      1.3. Data-Model-Driven API .....................................12
      1.4. Coexistence with NETCONF ..................................13
      1.5. RESTCONF Extensibility ....................................14
   2. Transport Protocol .............................................15
      2.1. Integrity and Confidentiality .............................15
      2.2. HTTPS with X.509v3 Certificates ...........................16
      2.3. Certificate Validation ....................................16
      2.4. Authenticated Server Identity .............................16
      2.5. Authenticated Client Identity .............................16
   3. Resources ......................................................17
      3.1. Root Resource Discovery ...................................18
      3.2. RESTCONF Media Types ......................................20
      3.3. API Resource ..............................................20
           3.3.1. {+restconf}/data ...................................21
           3.3.2. {+restconf}/operations .............................22
           3.3.3. {+restconf}/yang-library-version ...................22
      3.4. Datastore Resource ........................................23
           3.4.1. Edit Collision Prevention ..........................23
      3.5. Data Resource .............................................24
           3.5.1. Timestamp ..........................................25
           3.5.2. Entity-Tag .........................................25
           3.5.3. Encoding Data Resource Identifiers in the
                  Request URI ........................................26
           3.5.4. Default Handling ...................................29
      3.6. Operation Resource ........................................30
           3.6.1. Encoding Operation Resource Input Parameters .......31
           3.6.2. Encoding Operation Resource Output Parameters ......36
           3.6.3. Encoding Operation Resource Errors .................38
      3.7. Schema Resource ...........................................40
      3.8. Event Stream Resource .....................................41
      3.9. "errors" YANG Data Template ...............................41
   4. RESTCONF Methods ...............................................42
      4.1. OPTIONS ...................................................43
      4.2. HEAD ......................................................43
      4.3. GET .......................................................43
      4.4. POST ......................................................45

           4.4.1. Create Resource Mode ...............................45
           4.4.2. Invoke Operation Mode ..............................47
      4.5. PUT .......................................................48
      4.6. PATCH .....................................................50
           4.6.1. Plain Patch ........................................50
      4.7. DELETE ....................................................51
      4.8. Query Parameters ..........................................52
           4.8.1. The "content" Query Parameter ......................54
           4.8.2. The "depth" Query Parameter ........................54
           4.8.3. The "fields" Query Parameter .......................55
           4.8.4. The "filter" Query Parameter .......................56
           4.8.5. The "insert" Query Parameter .......................57
           4.8.6. The "point" Query Parameter ........................57
           4.8.7. The "start-time" Query Parameter ...................58
           4.8.8. The "stop-time" Query Parameter ....................58
           4.8.9. The "with-defaults" Query Parameter ................59
   5. Messages .......................................................60
      5.1. Request URI Structure .....................................61
      5.2. Message Encoding ..........................................62
      5.3. RESTCONF Metadata .........................................63
           5.3.1. XML Metadata Encoding Example ......................64
           5.3.2. JSON Metadata Encoding Example .....................65
      5.4. Return Status .............................................65
      5.5. Message Caching ...........................................66
   6. Notifications ..................................................66
      6.1. Server Support ............................................66
      6.2. Event Streams .............................................67
      6.3. Subscribing to Receive Notifications ......................68
           6.3.1. NETCONF Event Stream ...............................70
      6.4. Receiving Event Notifications .............................70
   7. Error Reporting ................................................73
      7.1. Error Response Message ....................................75
   8. RESTCONF Module ................................................79
   9. RESTCONF Monitoring ............................................85
      9.1. restconf-state/capabilities ...............................86
           9.1.1. Query Parameter URIs ...............................87
           9.1.2. The "defaults" Protocol Capability URI .............87
      9.2. restconf-state/streams ....................................88
      9.3. RESTCONF Monitoring Module ................................89
   10. YANG Module Library ...........................................93
      10.1. modules-state/module .....................................93
   11. IANA Considerations ...........................................94
      11.1. The "restconf" Relation Type .............................94
      11.2. Registrations for New URIs and YANG Modules ..............94
      11.3. Media Types ..............................................95
           11.3.1. Media Type "application/yang-data+xml" ............95
           11.3.2. Media Type "application/yang-data+json" ...........96

      11.4. RESTCONF Capability URNs .................................97
      11.5. Registration of "restconf" URN Sub-namespace .............98
   12. Security Considerations .......................................99
   13. References ...................................................100
      13.1. Normative References ....................................100
      13.2. Informative References ..................................104
   Appendix A. Example YANG Module ..................................105
     A.1. "example-jukebox" YANG Module .............................106
   Appendix B. RESTCONF Message Examples ............................112
     B.1. Resource Retrieval Examples ...............................112
       B.1.1. Retrieve the Top-Level API Resource ...................112
       B.1.2. Retrieve the Server Module Information ................114
       B.1.3. Retrieve the Server Capability Information ............117
     B.2. Data Resource and Datastore Resource Examples .............118
       B.2.1. Create New Data Resources .............................118
       B.2.2. Detect Datastore Resource Entity-Tag Change ...........119
       B.2.3. Edit a Datastore Resource .............................121
       B.2.4. Replace a Datastore Resource ..........................122
       B.2.5. Edit a Data Resource ..................................122
     B.3. Query Parameter Examples ..................................123
       B.3.1. "content" Parameter ...................................123
       B.3.2. "depth" Parameter .....................................126
       B.3.3. "fields" Parameter ....................................130
       B.3.4. "insert" Parameter ....................................132
       B.3.5. "point" Parameter .....................................133
       B.3.6. "filter" Parameter ....................................134
       B.3.7. "start-time" Parameter ................................134
       B.3.8. "stop-time" Parameter .................................135
       B.3.9. "with-defaults" Parameter .............................135
   Acknowledgements .................................................137
   Authors' Addresses ...............................................137

1.  Introduction

   There is a need for standard mechanisms to allow Web applications to
   access the configuration data, state data, data-model-specific Remote
   Procedure Call (RPC) operations, and event notifications within a
   networking device, in a modular and extensible manner.

   This document defines a protocol based on HTTP [RFC7230] called
   "RESTCONF", for configuring data defined in YANG version 1 [RFC6020]
   or YANG version 1.1 [RFC7950], using the datastore concepts defined
   in the Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF) [RFC6241].

   NETCONF defines configuration datastores and a set of Create, Read,
   Update, Delete (CRUD) operations that can be used to access these
   datastores.  NETCONF also defines a protocol for invoking these
   operations.  The YANG language defines the syntax and semantics of
   datastore content, configuration, state data, RPC operations, and
   event notifications.

   RESTCONF uses HTTP methods to provide CRUD operations on a conceptual
   datastore containing YANG-defined data, which is compatible with a
   server that implements NETCONF datastores.

   If a RESTCONF server is co-located with a NETCONF server, then there
   are protocol interactions with the NETCONF protocol; these
   interactions are described in Section 1.4.  The RESTCONF server MAY
   provide access to specific datastores using operation resources, as
   described in Section 3.6.  The RESTCONF protocol does not specify any
   mandatory operation resources.  The semantics of each operation
   resource determine if and how datastores are accessed.

   Configuration data and state data are exposed as resources that can
   be retrieved with the GET method.  Resources representing
   configuration data can be modified with the DELETE, PATCH, POST, and
   PUT methods.  Data is encoded with either XML [W3C.REC-xml-20081126]
   or JSON [RFC7159].

   Data-model-specific RPC operations defined with the YANG "rpc" or
   "action" statements can be invoked with the POST method.  Data-model-
   specific event notifications defined with the YANG "notification"
   statement can be accessed.

1.1.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

1.1.1.  NETCONF

   The following terms are defined in [RFC6241]:

   o  candidate configuration datastore

   o  configuration data

   o  datastore

   o  configuration datastore

   o  running configuration datastore

   o  startup configuration datastore

   o  state data

   o  user

1.1.2.  HTTP

   The following terms are defined in [RFC3986]:

   o  fragment

   o  path

   o  query

   The following terms are defined in [RFC7230]:

   o  header field

   o  message-body

   o  request-line

   o  request URI

   o  status-line

   The following terms are defined in [RFC7231]:

   o  method

   o  request

   o  resource

   The following term is defined in [RFC7232]:

   o  entity-tag

1.1.3.  YANG

   The following terms are defined in [RFC7950]:

   o  action

   o  container

   o  data node

   o  key leaf

   o  leaf

   o  leaf-list

   o  list

   o  mandatory node

   o  ordered-by user

   o  presence container

   o  RPC operation

   o  top-level data node

1.1.4.  NETCONF Notifications

   The following term is defined in [RFC5277]:

   o  notification replay

1.1.5.  Terms

   The following terms are used within this document:

   o  API resource: the resource that models the RESTCONF root resource
      and the sub-resources to access YANG-defined content.  It is
      defined with the YANG data template named "yang-api" in the
      "ietf-restconf" module.

   o  client: a RESTCONF client.

   o  data resource: a resource that models a YANG data node.  It is
      defined with YANG data definition statements.

   o  datastore resource: the resource that models a programmatic
      interface using NETCONF datastore concepts.  By default, RESTCONF
      methods access a unified view of the underlying datastore
      implementation on the server.  It is defined as a sub-resource
      within the API resource.

   o  edit operation: a RESTCONF operation on a data resource using
      either a POST, PUT, PATCH, or DELETE method.  This is not the same
      as the NETCONF edit operation (i.e., one of the values for the
      "nc:operation" attribute: "create", "replace", "merge", "delete",
      or "remove").

   o  event stream resource: a resource that represents an SSE
      (Server-Sent Events) event stream.  The content consists of text
      using the media type "text/event-stream", as defined by the SSE
      specification [W3C.REC-eventsource-20150203].  Event stream
      contents are described in Section 3.8.

   o  media type: HTTP uses Internet media types [RFC2046] in the
      "Content-Type" and "Accept" header fields in order to provide open
      and extensible data typing and type negotiation.

   o  NETCONF client: a client that implements the NETCONF protocol.
      Called "client" in [RFC6241].

   o  NETCONF server: a server that implements the NETCONF protocol.
      Called "server" in [RFC6241].

   o  operation: the conceptual RESTCONF operation for a message,
      derived from the HTTP method, request URI, header fields, and
      message-body.

   o  operation resource: a resource that models a data-model-specific
      operation that is in turn defined with a YANG "rpc" or "action"
      statement.  It is invoked with the POST method.

   o  patch: a PATCH method on the target datastore or data resource.
      The media type of the message-body content will identify the patch
      type in use.

   o  plain patch: a specific media type for use with the PATCH method;
      see Section 4.6.1.  It can be used for simple "merge" edit
      operations.  It is specified by a request Content-Type of
      "application/yang-data+xml" or "application/yang-data+json".

   o  query parameter: a parameter (and its value, if any), encoded
      within the query component of the request URI.

   o  resource type: one of the RESTCONF resource classes defined in
      this document.  One of "api", "datastore", "data", "operation",
      "schema", or "event stream".

   o  RESTCONF capability: an optional RESTCONF protocol feature that is
      advertised by a particular server if the feature is supported on
      that server.  The feature is identified by an IANA-registered
      NETCONF Capability URI and advertised with an entry in the
      "capability" leaf-list defined in Section 9.3.

   o  RESTCONF client: a client that implements the RESTCONF protocol.

   o  RESTCONF server: a server that implements the RESTCONF protocol.

   o  retrieval request: a request using the GET or HEAD methods.

   o  schema resource: a resource that is used by the client to retrieve
      a YANG schema with the GET method.  It has a representation with
      the media type "application/yang".

   o  server: a RESTCONF server.

   o  "stream" list: the set of data resource instances that describe
      the event stream resources available from the server.  This
      information is defined in the "ietf-restconf-monitoring" module as
      the "stream" list.  It can be retrieved using the target resource
      "{+restconf}/data/ietf-restconf-monitoring:restconf-state/streams/
      stream".  The "stream" list contains information about each
      stream, such as the URL to retrieve the event stream data.

   o  stream resource: an event stream resource.

   o  target resource: the resource that is associated with a particular
      message, identified by the "path" component of the request URI.

   o  yang-data extension: a YANG external statement that conforms to
      the "yang-data" extension statement, found in Section 8.  The
      yang-data extension is used to define YANG data structures that
      are meant to be used as YANG data templates.  These data
      structures are not intended to be implemented as part of a
      configuration datastore or as an operational state within the
      server, so normal YANG data definition statements cannot be used.

   o  YANG data template: a schema for modeling protocol message
      components as conceptual data structures using YANG.  This allows
      the messages to be defined in an encoding-independent manner.
      Each YANG data template is defined with the "yang-data" extension,
      found in Section 8.  Representations of instances conforming to a
      particular YANG data template can be defined for YANG.  The XML
      representation is defined in YANG version 1.1 [RFC7950] and
      supported with the "application/yang-data+xml" media type.  The
      JSON representation is defined in "JSON Encoding of Data Modeled
      with YANG" [RFC7951] and supported with the
      "application/yang-data+json" media type.

1.1.6.  URI Template and Examples

   Throughout this document, the URI template [RFC6570] syntax
   "{+restconf}" is used to refer to the RESTCONF root resource outside
   of an example.  See Section 3.1 for details.

   For simplicity, all of the examples in this document use "/restconf"
   as the discovered RESTCONF API root path.  Many of the examples
   throughout the document are based on the "example-jukebox" YANG
   module defined in Appendix A.1.

   Many protocol header lines and message-body text within examples
   throughout the document are split into multiple lines for display
   purposes only.  When a line ends with a backslash ("\") as the last
   character, the line is wrapped for display purposes.  It is to be
   considered to be joined to the next line by deleting the backslash,
   the following line break, and the leading whitespace of the
   next line.

1.1.7.  Tree Diagrams

   A simplified graphical representation of the data model is used in
   this document.  The meanings of the symbols in these diagrams are as
   follows:

   o  Brackets "[" and "]" enclose list keys.

   o  Abbreviations before data node names: "rw" means configuration
      data (read-write), "ro" means state data (read-only), and "x"
      means operation resource (executable).

   o  Symbols after data node names: "?" means an optional node, "!"
      means a presence container, and "*" denotes a list and leaf-list.

   o  Parentheses enclose choice and case nodes, and case nodes are also
      marked with a colon (":").

   o  Ellipsis ("...") stands for contents of subtrees that are not
      shown.

1.2.  Subset of NETCONF Functionality

   RESTCONF does not need to mirror the full functionality of the
   NETCONF protocol, but it does need to be compatible with NETCONF.
   RESTCONF achieves this by implementing a subset of the interaction
   capabilities provided by the NETCONF protocol -- for instance, by
   eliminating datastores and explicit locking.

   RESTCONF uses HTTP methods to implement the equivalent of NETCONF
   operations, enabling basic CRUD operations on a hierarchy of
   conceptual resources.

   The HTTP POST, PUT, PATCH, and DELETE methods are used to edit data
   resources represented by YANG data models.  These basic edit
   operations allow the running configuration to be altered by a
   RESTCONF client.

   RESTCONF is not intended to replace NETCONF, but rather to provide an
   HTTP interface that follows Representational State Transfer (REST)
   principles [REST-Dissertation] and is compatible with the NETCONF
   datastore model.

1.3.  Data-Model-Driven API

   RESTCONF combines the simplicity of HTTP with the predictability and
   automation potential of a schema-driven API.  Knowing the YANG
   modules used by the server, a client can derive all management
   resource URLs and the proper structure of all RESTCONF requests and
   responses.  This strategy obviates the need for responses provided by
   the server to contain Hypermedia as the Engine of Application State
   (HATEOAS) links, originally described in Roy Fielding's doctoral
   dissertation [REST-Dissertation], because the client can determine
   the links it needs from the YANG modules.

   RESTCONF utilizes the YANG library [RFC7895] to allow a client to
   discover the YANG module conformance information for the server, in
   case the client wants to use it.

   The server can optionally support the retrieval of the YANG modules
   it uses, as identified in its YANG library.  See Section 3.7 for
   details.

   The URIs for data-model-specific RPC operations and datastore content
   are predictable, based on the YANG module definitions.

   The RESTCONF protocol operates on a conceptual datastore defined with
   the YANG data modeling language.  The server lists each YANG module
   it supports using the "ietf-yang-library" YANG module defined in
   [RFC7895].  The server MUST implement the "ietf-yang-library" module,
   which MUST identify all of the YANG modules used by the server, in
   the "modules-state/module" list.  The conceptual datastore contents,
   data-model-specific RPC operations, and event notifications are
   identified by this set of YANG modules.

   The classification of data as configuration data or non-configuration
   data is derived from the YANG "config" statement.  Behavior related
   to the ordering of data is derived from the YANG "ordered-by"
   statement.  Non-configuration data is also called "state data".

   The RESTCONF datastore editing model is simple and direct, similar to
   the behavior of the :writable-running capability in NETCONF.  Each
   RESTCONF edit of a data resource within the datastore resource is
   activated upon successful completion of the edit.

1.4.  Coexistence with NETCONF

   RESTCONF can be implemented on a device that supports the NETCONF
   protocol.

   The following figure shows the system components if a RESTCONF server
   is co-located with a NETCONF server:

         +-----------+           +-----------------+
         |  Web app  | <-------> |                 |
         +-----------+  RESTCONF | network device  |
                                 |                 |
         +-----------+           |   +-----------+ |
         | NETCONF   | <-------> |   | datastore | |
         | Client    |  NETCONF  |   |           | |
         +-----------+           |   +-----------+ |
                                 +-----------------+

   The following figure shows the system components if a RESTCONF server
   is implemented in a device that does not have a NETCONF server:

         +-----------+           +-----------------+
         |  Web app  | <-------> |                 |
         +-----------+  RESTCONF | network device  |
                                 |                 |
                                 +-----------------+

   There are interactions between the NETCONF protocol and RESTCONF
   protocol related to edit operations.  It is possible that locks are
   in use on a RESTCONF server, even though RESTCONF cannot manipulate
   locks.  In such a case, the RESTCONF protocol will not be granted
   write access to data resources within a datastore.

   If the NETCONF server supports :writable-running, all edits to
   configuration nodes in {+restconf}/data are performed in the running
   configuration datastore.  The URI template "{+restconf}" is defined
   in Section 1.1.6.

   Otherwise, if the device supports :candidate, all edits to
   configuration nodes in {+restconf}/data are performed in the
   candidate configuration datastore.  The candidate MUST be
   automatically committed to running immediately after each successful
   edit.  Any edits from other sources that are in the candidate
   datastore will also be committed.  If a confirmed commit procedure is
   in progress by any NETCONF client, then any new commit will act as
   the confirming commit.  If the NETCONF server is expecting a

   "persist-id" parameter to complete the confirmed commit procedure,
   then the RESTCONF edit operation MUST fail with a "409 Conflict"
   status-line.  The error-tag "in-use" is used in this case.

   If the NETCONF server supports :startup, the RESTCONF server MUST
   automatically update the non-volatile startup configuration
   datastore, after the "running" datastore has been altered as a
   consequence of a RESTCONF edit operation.

   If a datastore that would be modified by a RESTCONF operation has an
   active lock from a NETCONF client, the RESTCONF edit operation MUST
   fail with a "409 Conflict" status-line.  The error-tag value "in-use"
   is returned in this case.

1.5.  RESTCONF Extensibility

   There are two extensibility mechanisms built into RESTCONF:

   o  protocol version

   o  optional capabilities

   This document defines version 1 of the RESTCONF protocol.  If a
   future version of this protocol is defined, then that document will
   specify how the new version of RESTCONF is identified.  It is
   expected that a different RESTCONF root resource will be used, which
   will be located using a different link relation (see Section 3.1).

   The server will advertise all protocol versions that it supports in
   its host-meta data.

   In this example, the server supports both RESTCONF version 1 and a
   fictitious version 2.

   The client might send the following:

      GET /.well-known/host-meta HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/xrd+xml

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Content-Type: application/xrd+xml
      Content-Length: nnn

      <XRD xmlns='http://docs.oasis-open.org/ns/xri/xrd-1.0'>
          <Link rel='restconf' href='/restconf'/>
          <Link rel='restconf2' href='/restconf2'/>
      </XRD>

   RESTCONF also supports a server-defined list of optional
   capabilities, which are listed by a server using the
   "ietf-restconf-monitoring" module defined in Section 9.3.  This
   document defines several query parameters in Section 4.8.  Each
   optional parameter has a corresponding capability URI, defined in
   Section 9.1.1, that is advertised by the server if supported.

   The "capability" leaf-list can identify any sort of server extension.
   Currently, this extension mechanism is used to identify optional
   query parameters that are supported, but it is not limited to that
   purpose.  For example, the "defaults" URI defined in Section 9.1.2
   specifies a mandatory URI identifying server default-handling
   behavior.

   A new sub-resource type could be identified with a capability if it
   is optional to implement.  Mandatory protocol features and new
   resource types require a new revision of the RESTCONF protocol.

2.  Transport Protocol

2.1.  Integrity and Confidentiality

   HTTP [RFC7230] is an application-layer protocol that may be layered
   on any reliable transport-layer protocol.  RESTCONF is defined on top
   of HTTP, but due to the sensitive nature of the information conveyed,
   RESTCONF requires that the transport-layer protocol provide both data
   integrity and confidentiality.  A RESTCONF server MUST support the
   Transport Layer Security (TLS) protocol [RFC5246] and SHOULD adhere
   to [RFC7525].  The RESTCONF protocol MUST NOT be used over HTTP
   without using the TLS protocol.

   RESTCONF does not require a specific version of HTTP.  However, it is
   RECOMMENDED that at least HTTP/1.1 [RFC7230] be supported by all
   implementations.

2.2.  HTTPS with X.509v3 Certificates

   Given the nearly ubiquitous support for HTTP over TLS [RFC7230],
   RESTCONF implementations MUST support the "https" URI scheme, which
   has the IANA-assigned default port 443.

   RESTCONF servers MUST present an X.509v3-based certificate when
   establishing a TLS connection with a RESTCONF client.  The use of
   X.509v3-based certificates is consistent with NETCONF over TLS
   [RFC7589].

2.3.  Certificate Validation

   The RESTCONF client MUST either (1) use X.509 certificate path
   validation [RFC5280] to verify the integrity of the RESTCONF server's
   TLS certificate or (2) match the server's TLS certificate with a
   certificate obtained by a trusted mechanism (e.g., a pinned
   certificate).  If X.509 certificate path validation fails and the
   presented X.509 certificate does not match a certificate obtained by
   a trusted mechanism, the connection MUST be terminated, as described
   in Section 7.2.1 of [RFC5246].

2.4.  Authenticated Server Identity

   The RESTCONF client MUST check the identity of the server according
   to Section 3.1 of [RFC2818].

2.5.  Authenticated Client Identity

   The RESTCONF server MUST authenticate client access to any protected
   resource.  If the RESTCONF client is not authenticated, the server
   SHOULD send an HTTP response with a "401 Unauthorized" status-line,
   as defined in Section 3.1 of [RFC7235].  The error-tag value
   "access-denied" is used in this case.

   To authenticate a client, a RESTCONF server SHOULD require
   authentication based on TLS client certificates (Section 7.4.6 of
   [RFC5246]).  If certificate-based authentication is not feasible
   (e.g., because one cannot build the required PKI for clients), then
   HTTP authentication MAY be used.  In the latter case, one of the HTTP
   authentication schemes defined in the "Hypertext Transfer Protocol
   (HTTP) Authentication Scheme Registry" (Section 5.1 in [RFC7235])
   MUST be used.

   A server MAY also support the combination of both client certificates
   and an HTTP client authentication scheme, with the determination of
   how to process this combination left as an implementation decision.

   The RESTCONF client identity derived from the authentication
   mechanism used is hereafter known as the "RESTCONF username" and
   subject to the NETCONF Access Control Model (NACM) [RFC6536].  When a
   client certificate is presented, the RESTCONF username MUST be
   derived using the algorithm defined in Section 7 of [RFC7589].  For
   all other cases, when HTTP authentication is used, the RESTCONF
   username MUST be provided by the HTTP authentication scheme used.

3.  Resources

   The RESTCONF protocol operates on a hierarchy of resources, starting
   with the top-level API resource itself (Section 3.1).  Each resource
   represents a manageable component within the device.

   A resource can be considered as a collection of data and the set of
   allowed methods on that data.  It can contain nested child resources.
   The child resource types and the methods allowed on them are specific
   to the data model.

   A resource has a representation associated with a media type
   identifier, as represented by the "Content-Type" header field in the
   HTTP response message.  A resource has one or more representations,
   each associated with a different media type.  When a representation
   of a resource is sent in an HTTP message, the associated media type
   is given in the "Content-Type" header.  A resource can contain zero
   or more nested resources.  A resource can be created and deleted
   independently of its parent resource, as long as the parent resource
   exists.

   The RESTCONF resources are accessed via a set of URIs defined in this
   document.  The set of YANG modules supported by the server will
   determine the data-model-specific RPC operations, top-level data
   nodes, and event notification messages supported by the server.

   The RESTCONF protocol does not include a data resource discovery
   mechanism.  Instead, the definitions within the YANG modules
   advertised by the server are used to construct an RPC operation or
   data resource identifier.

3.1.  Root Resource Discovery

   In line with the best practices defined by [RFC7320], RESTCONF
   enables deployments to specify where the RESTCONF API is located.
   When first connecting to a RESTCONF server, a RESTCONF client MUST
   determine the root of the RESTCONF API.  There MUST be exactly one
   "restconf" link relation returned by the device.

   The client discovers this by getting the "/.well-known/host-meta"
   resource ([RFC6415]) and using the <Link> element containing the
   "restconf" attribute:

   Example returning /restconf:

   The client might send the following:

      GET /.well-known/host-meta HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/xrd+xml

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Content-Type: application/xrd+xml
      Content-Length: nnn

      <XRD xmlns='http://docs.oasis-open.org/ns/xri/xrd-1.0'>
          <Link rel='restconf' href='/restconf'/>
      </XRD>

   After discovering the RESTCONF API root, the client MUST use this
   value as the initial part of the path in the request URI, in any
   subsequent request for a RESTCONF resource.

   In this example, the client would use the path "/restconf" as the
   RESTCONF root resource.

   Example returning /top/restconf:

   The client might send the following:

      GET /.well-known/host-meta HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/xrd+xml

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Content-Type: application/xrd+xml
      Content-Length: nnn

      <XRD xmlns='http://docs.oasis-open.org/ns/xri/xrd-1.0'>
          <Link rel='restconf' href='/top/restconf'/>
      </XRD>

   In this example, the client would use the path "/top/restconf" as the
   RESTCONF root resource.

   The client can now determine the operation resources supported by the
   server.  In this example, a custom "play" operation is supported:

   The client might send the following:

      GET /top/restconf/operations HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+json

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Cache-Control: no-cache
      Last-Modified: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 16:00:14 GMT
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      { "operations" : { "example-jukebox:play" : [null] } }

   If the Extensible Resource Descriptor (XRD) contains more than one
   link relation, then only the relation named "restconf" is relevant to
   this specification.

   Note that any given endpoint (host:port) can only support one
   RESTCONF server, due to the root resource discovery mechanism.  This
   limits the number of RESTCONF servers that can run concurrently on a
   host, since each server must use a different port.

3.2.  RESTCONF Media Types

   The RESTCONF protocol defines two application-specific media types to
   identify representations of data that conforms to the schema for a
   particular YANG construct.

   This document defines media types for XML and JSON serialization
   of YANG data.  Other documents MAY define other media types for
   different serializations of YANG data.  The
   "application/yang-data+xml" media type is defined in Section 11.3.1.
   The "application/yang-data+json" media type is defined in
   Section 11.3.2.

3.3.  API Resource

   The API resource contains the RESTCONF root resource for the RESTCONF
   datastore and operation resources.  It is the top-level resource
   located at {+restconf} and has the media type
   "application/yang-data+xml" or "application/yang-data+json".

   YANG tree diagram for an API resource:

     +---- {+restconf}
           +---- data
           | ...
           +---- operations?
           | ...
           +--ro yang-library-version    string

   The "yang-api" YANG data template is defined using the "yang-data"
   extension in the "ietf-restconf" module, found in Section 8.  It
   specifies the structure and syntax of the conceptual child resources
   within the API resource.

   The API resource can be retrieved with the GET method.

   The {+restconf} root resource name used in responses representing the
   root of the "ietf-restconf" module MUST identify the "ietf-restconf"
   YANG module.  For example, a request to GET the root resource
   "/restconf" in JSON format will return a representation of the API
   resource named "ietf-restconf:restconf".

   This resource has the following child resources:

        +----------------------+---------------------------------+
        | Child Resource       | Description                     |
        +----------------------+---------------------------------+
        | data                 | Contains all data resources     |
        | operations           | Data-model-specific operations  |
        | yang-library-version | "ietf-yang-library" module date |
        +----------------------+---------------------------------+

                           RESTCONF API Resource

3.3.1.  {+restconf}/data

   This mandatory resource represents the combined configuration and
   state data resources that can be accessed by a client.  It cannot be
   created or deleted by the client.  The datastore resource type is
   defined in Section 3.4.

   Example:

   This example request by the client would retrieve only the
   non-configuration data nodes that exist within the "library"
   resource, using the "content" query parameter (see Section 4.8.1).

      GET /restconf/data/example-jukebox:jukebox/library\
          ?content=nonconfig HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+xml

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Cache-Control: no-cache
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+xml

      <library xmlns="https://example.com/ns/example-jukebox">
        <artist-count>42</artist-count>
        <album-count>59</album-count>
        <song-count>374</song-count>
      </library>

3.3.2.  {+restconf}/operations

   This optional resource is a container that provides access to the
   data-model-specific RPC operations supported by the server.  The
   server MAY omit this resource if no data-model-specific RPC
   operations are advertised.

   Any data-model-specific RPC operations defined in the YANG modules
   advertised by the server MUST be available as child nodes of this
   resource.

   The access point for each RPC operation is represented as an empty
   leaf.  If an operation resource is retrieved, the empty leaf
   representation is returned by the server.

   Operation resources are defined in Section 3.6.

3.3.3.  {+restconf}/yang-library-version

   This mandatory leaf identifies the revision date of the
   "ietf-yang-library" YANG module that is implemented by this server.
   In the example that follows, the revision date for the module version
   found in [RFC7895] is used.

   Example:

      GET /restconf/yang-library-version HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+xml

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Cache-Control: no-cache
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+xml

      <yang-library-version
        xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-restconf">\
        2016-06-21\
      </yang-library-version>

3.4.  Datastore Resource

   The "{+restconf}/data" subtree represents the datastore resource,
   which is a collection of configuration data and state data nodes.

   This resource type is an abstraction of the system's underlying
   datastore implementation.  The client uses it to edit and retrieve
   data resources, as the conceptual root of all configuration and state
   data that is present on the device.

   Configuration edit transaction management and configuration
   persistence are handled by the server and not controlled by the
   client.  A datastore resource can be written directly with the POST
   and PATCH methods.  Each RESTCONF edit of a datastore resource is
   saved to non-volatile storage by the server if the server supports
   non-volatile storage of configuration data, as described in
   Section 1.4.

   If the datastore resource represented by the "{+restconf}/data"
   subtree is retrieved, then the datastore and its contents are
   returned by the server.  The datastore is represented by a node named
   "data" in the "ietf-restconf" module namespace.

3.4.1.  Edit Collision Prevention

   Two edit collision detection and prevention mechanisms are provided
   in RESTCONF for the datastore resource: a timestamp and an
   entity-tag.  Any change to configuration data resources updates the
   timestamp and entity-tag of the datastore resource.  In addition, the
   RESTCONF server MUST return an error if the datastore is locked by an
   external source (e.g., NETCONF server).

3.4.1.1.  Timestamp

   The last change time is maintained, and the "Last-Modified" header
   field (Section 2.2 of [RFC7232]) is returned in the response for a
   retrieval request.  The "If-Unmodified-Since" header field
   (Section 3.4 of [RFC7232]) can be used in edit operation requests to
   cause the server to reject the request if the resource has been
   modified since the specified timestamp.

   The server SHOULD maintain a last-modified timestamp for the
   datastore resource, defined in Section 3.4.  This timestamp is only
   affected by configuration child data resources and MUST NOT be
   updated for changes to non-configuration child data resources.
   Last-modified timestamps for data resources are discussed in
   Section 3.5.

   If the RESTCONF server is co-located with a NETCONF server, then the
   last-modified timestamp MUST be for the "running" datastore.  Note
   that it is possible that other protocols can cause the last-modified
   timestamp to be updated.  Such mechanisms are out of scope for this
   document.

3.4.1.2.  Entity-Tag

   The server MUST maintain a unique opaque entity-tag for the datastore
   resource and MUST return it in the "ETag" (Section 2.3 of [RFC7232])
   header in the response for a retrieval request.  The client MAY use
   an "If-Match" header in edit operation requests to cause the server
   to reject the request if the resource entity-tag does not match the
   specified value.

   The server MUST maintain an entity-tag for the top-level
   {+restconf}/data resource.  This entity-tag is only affected by
   configuration data resources and MUST NOT be updated for changes to
   non-configuration data.  Entity-tags for data resources are discussed
   in Section 3.5.  Note that each representation (e.g., XML vs. JSON)
   requires a different entity-tag.

   If the RESTCONF server is co-located with a NETCONF server, then this
   entity-tag MUST be for the "running" datastore.  Note that it is
   possible that other protocols can cause the entity-tag to be updated.
   Such mechanisms are out of scope for this document.

3.4.1.3.  Update Procedure

   Changes to configuration data resources affect the timestamp and
   entity-tag for that resource, any ancestor data resources, and the
   datastore resource.

   For example, an edit to disable an interface might be done by setting
   the leaf "/interfaces/interface/enabled" to "false".  The "enabled"
   data node and its ancestors (one "interface" list instance, and the
   "interfaces" container) are considered to be changed.  The datastore
   is considered to be changed when any top-level configuration data
   node is changed (e.g., "interfaces").

3.5.  Data Resource

   A data resource represents a YANG data node that is a descendant node
   of a datastore resource.  Each YANG-defined data node can be uniquely
   targeted by the request-line of an HTTP method.  Containers, leafs,
   leaf-list entries, list entries, anydata nodes, and anyxml nodes are
   data resources.

   The representation maintained for each data resource is the
   YANG-defined subtree for that node.  HTTP methods on a data resource
   affect both the targeted data node and all of its descendants,
   if any.

   A data resource can be retrieved with the GET method.  Data resources
   are accessed via the "{+restconf}/data" URI.  This subtree is used to
   retrieve and edit data resources.

3.5.1.  Timestamp

   For configuration data resources, the server MAY maintain a
   last-modified timestamp for the resource and return the
   "Last-Modified" header field when it is retrieved with the GET or
   HEAD methods.

   The "Last-Modified" header field can be used by a RESTCONF client in
   subsequent requests, within the "If-Modified-Since" and
   "If-Unmodified-Since" header fields.

   If maintained, the resource timestamp MUST be set to the current time
   whenever the resource or any configuration resource within the
   resource is altered.  If not maintained, then the resource timestamp
   for the datastore MUST be used instead.  If the RESTCONF server is
   co-located with a NETCONF server, then the last-modified timestamp
   for a configuration data resource MUST represent the instance within
   the "running" datastore.

   This timestamp is only affected by configuration data resources and
   MUST NOT be updated for changes to non-configuration data.

3.5.2.  Entity-Tag

   For configuration data resources, the server SHOULD maintain a
   resource entity-tag for each resource and return the "ETag" header
   field when it is retrieved as the target resource with the GET or
   HEAD methods.  If maintained, the resource entity-tag MUST be updated
   whenever the resource or any configuration resource within the
   resource is altered.  If not maintained, then the resource entity-tag
   for the datastore MUST be used instead.

   The "ETag" header field can be used by a RESTCONF client in
   subsequent requests, within the "If-Match" and "If-None-Match" header
   fields.

   This entity-tag is only affected by configuration data resources and
   MUST NOT be updated for changes to non-configuration data.  If the
   RESTCONF server is co-located with a NETCONF server, then the
   entity-tag for a configuration data resource MUST represent the
   instance within the "running" datastore.

3.5.3.  Encoding Data Resource Identifiers in the Request URI

   In YANG, data nodes can be identified with an absolute XPath
   expression, defined in [XPath], starting from the document root to
   the target resource.  In RESTCONF, URI-encoded path expressions are
   used instead.

   A predictable location for a data resource is important, since
   applications will code to the YANG data model module, which uses
   static naming and defines an absolute path location for all data
   nodes.

   A RESTCONF data resource identifier is encoded from left to right,
   starting with the top-level data node, according to the "api-path"
   rule in Section 3.5.3.1.  The node name of each ancestor of the
   target resource node is encoded in order, ending with the node name
   for the target resource.  If a node in the path is defined in a
   module other than its parent node or its parent is the datastore,
   then the module name followed by a colon character (":") MUST be
   prepended to the node name in the resource identifier.  See
   Section 3.5.3.1 for details.

   If a data node in the path expression is a YANG leaf-list node, then
   the leaf-list value MUST be encoded according to the following rules:

   o  The identifier for the leaf-list MUST be encoded using one path
      segment [RFC3986].

   o  The path segment is constructed by having the leaf-list name,
      followed by an "=" character, followed by the leaf-list value
      (e.g., /restconf/data/top-leaflist=fred).

   o  The leaf-list value is specified as a string, using the canonical
      representation for the YANG data type.  Any reserved characters
      MUST be percent-encoded, according to Sections 2.1 and 2.5 of
      [RFC3986].

   o  YANG 1.1 allows duplicate leaf-list values for non-configuration
      data.  In this case, there is no mechanism to specify the exact
      matching leaf-list instance.

   o  The comma (",") character is percent-encoded [RFC3986], even
      though multiple key values are not possible for a leaf-list.  This
      is more consistent and avoids special processing rules.

   If a data node in the path expression is a YANG list node, then the
   key values for the list (if any) MUST be encoded according to the
   following rules:

   o  The key leaf values for a data resource representing a YANG list
      MUST be encoded using one path segment [RFC3986].

   o  If there is only one key leaf value, the path segment is
      constructed by having the list name, followed by an "=" character,
      followed by the single key leaf value.

   o  If there are multiple key leaf values, the path segment is
      constructed by having the list name, followed by the value of each
      leaf identified in the "key" statement, encoded in the order
      specified in the YANG "key" statement.  Each key leaf value except
      the last one is followed by a comma character.

   o  The key value is specified as a string, using the canonical
      representation for the YANG data type.  Any reserved characters
      MUST be percent-encoded, according to Sections 2.1 and 2.5 of
      [RFC3986].  The comma (",") character MUST be percent-encoded if
      it is present in the key value.

   o  All of the components in the "key" statement MUST be encoded.
      Partial instance identifiers are not supported.

   o  Missing key values are not allowed, so two consecutive commas are
      interpreted as a comma, followed by a zero-length string, followed
      by a comma.  For example, "list1=foo,,baz" would be interpreted as
      a list named "list1" with three key values, and the second key
      value is a zero-length string.

   o  Note that non-configuration lists are not required to define keys.
      In this case, a single list instance cannot be accessed.

   o  The "list-instance" Augmented Backus-Naur Form (ABNF) [RFC5234]
      rule defined in Section 3.5.3.1 represents the syntax of a list
      instance identifier.

   Examples:

      container top {
          list list1 {
              key "key1 key2 key3";
               ...
               list list2 {
                   key "key4 key5";
                   ...
                   leaf X { type string; }
               }
           }
           leaf-list Y {
             type uint32;
           }
       }

   For the above YANG definition, the container "top" is defined in the
   "example-top" YANG module, and a target resource URI for leaf "X"
   would be encoded as follows:

       /restconf/data/example-top:top/list1=key1,key2,key3/\
          list2=key4,key5/X

   For the above YANG definition, a target resource URI for
   leaf-list "Y" would be encoded as follows:

       /restconf/data/example-top:top/Y=instance-value

   The following example shows how reserved characters are
   percent-encoded within a key value.  The value of "key1" contains
   a comma, single-quote, double-quote, colon, double-quote, space,
   and forward slash (,'":" /).  Note that double-quote is not a
   reserved character and does not need to be percent-encoded.  The
   value of "key2" is the empty string, and the value of "key3" is the
   string "foo".

   Example URL:

      /restconf/data/example-top:top/list1=%2C%27"%3A"%20%2F,,foo

3.5.3.1.  ABNF for Data Resource Identifiers

   The "api-path" ABNF [RFC5234] syntax is used to construct RESTCONF
   path identifiers.  Note that this syntax is used for all resources,
   and the API path starts with the RESTCONF root resource.  Data
   resources are required to be identified under the "{+restconf}/data"
   subtree.

   An identifier is not allowed to start with the case-insensitive
   string "XML", according to YANG identifier rules.  The syntax for
   "api-identifier" and "key-value" MUST conform to the JSON identifier
   encoding rules in Section 4 of [RFC7951]: The RESTCONF root resource
   path is required.  Additional sub-resource identifiers are optional.
   The characters in a key value string are constrained, and some
   characters need to be percent-encoded, as described in Section 3.5.3.

   api-path = root *("/" (api-identifier / list-instance))

   root = string  ;; replacement string for {+restconf}

   api-identifier = [module-name ":"] identifier

   module-name = identifier

   list-instance = api-identifier "=" key-value *("," key-value)

   key-value = string  ;; constrained chars are percent-encoded

   string = <an unquoted string>

   identifier = (ALPHA / "_")
                *(ALPHA / DIGIT / "_" / "-" / ".")

3.5.4.  Default Handling

   RESTCONF requires that a server report its default-handling mode (see
   Section 9.1.2 for details).  If the optional "with-defaults" query
   parameter is supported by the server, a client may use it to control
   the retrieval of default values (see Section 4.8.9 for details).

   If a leaf or leaf-list is missing from the configuration and there is
   a YANG-defined default for that data resource, then the server MUST
   use the YANG-defined default as the configured value.

   If the target of a GET method is a data node that represents a leaf
   or leaf-list that has a default value and the leaf or leaf-list has
   not been instantiated yet, the server MUST return the default value
   or values that are in use by the server.  In this case, the server
   MUST ignore its "basic-mode", described in Section 4.8.9, and return
   the default value.

   If the target of a GET method is a data node that represents a
   container or list that has any child resources with default values,
   for the child resources that have not been given values yet, the

   server MAY return the default values that are in use by the server in
   accordance with its reported default-handling mode and query
   parameters passed by the client.

3.6.  Operation Resource

   An operation resource represents an RPC operation defined with the
   YANG "rpc" statement or a data-model-specific action defined with a
   YANG "action" statement.  It is invoked using a POST method on the
   operation resource.

   An RPC operation is invoked as:

      POST {+restconf}/operations/<operation>

   The <operation> field identifies the module name and rpc identifier
   string for the desired operation.

   For example, if "module-A" defined a "reset" RPC operation, then
   invoking the operation would be requested as follows:

      POST /restconf/operations/module-A:reset HTTP/1.1
      Server: example.com

   An action is invoked as:

      POST {+restconf}/data/<data-resource-identifier>/<action>

   where <data-resource-identifier> contains the path to the data node
   where the action is defined, and <action> is the name of the action.

   For example, if "module-A" defined a "reset-all" action in the
   container "interfaces", then invoking this action would be requested
   as follows:

      POST /restconf/data/module-A:interfaces/reset-all HTTP/1.1
      Server: example.com

   If the RPC operation is invoked without errors and if the "rpc" or
   "action" statement has no "output" section, the response message
   MUST NOT include a message-body and MUST send a "204 No Content"
   status-line instead.

   All operation resources representing RPC operations supported by the
   server MUST be identified in the "{+restconf}/operations" subtree,
   defined in Section 3.3.2.  Operation resources representing YANG
   actions are not identified in this subtree, since they are invoked
   using a URI within the "{+restconf}/data" subtree.

3.6.1.  Encoding Operation Resource Input Parameters

   If the "rpc" or "action" statement has an "input" section, then
   instances of these input parameters are encoded in the module
   namespace where the "rpc" or "action" statement is defined, in an XML
   element or JSON object named "input", which is in the module
   namespace where the "rpc" or "action" statement is defined.

   If the "rpc" or "action" statement has an "input" section and the
   "input" object tree contains any child data nodes that are considered
   mandatory nodes, then a message-body MUST be sent by the client in
   the request.

   If the "rpc" or "action" statement has an "input" section and the
   "input" object tree does not contain any child nodes that are
   considered mandatory nodes, then a message-body MAY be sent by the
   client in the request.

   If the "rpc" or "action" statement has no "input" section, the
   request message MUST NOT include a message-body.

   Examples:

   The following YANG module is used for the RPC operation examples in
   this section.

   module example-ops {
     namespace "https://example.com/ns/example-ops";
     prefix "ops";

     organization "Example, Inc.";
     contact "support at example.com";
     description "Example Operations Data Model Module.";
     revision "2016-07-07" {
       description "Initial version.";
       reference "example.com document 3-3373.";
     }

     rpc reboot {
       description "Reboot operation.";
       input {
         leaf delay {
           type uint32;
           units "seconds";
           default 0;
           description
             "Number of seconds to wait before initiating the
              reboot operation.";
         }
         leaf message {
           type string;
           description
             "Log message to display when reboot is started.";
         }
         leaf language {
           type string;
           description "Language identifier string.";
           reference "RFC 5646.";
         }
       }
     }

     rpc get-reboot-info {
       description
         "Retrieve parameters used in the last reboot operation.";
       output {
         leaf reboot-time {
           type uint32;
           description
             "The 'delay' parameter used in the last reboot
              operation.";
         }
         leaf message {
           type string;
           description
             "The 'message' parameter used in the last reboot
              operation.";
         }
         leaf language {
           type string;
           description
             "The 'language' parameter used in the last reboot
              operation.";
         }
       }
     }
   }

   The following YANG module is used for the YANG action examples in
   this section.

   module example-actions {
     yang-version 1.1;
     namespace "https://example.com/ns/example-actions";
     prefix "act";
     import ietf-yang-types { prefix yang; }

     organization "Example, Inc.";
     contact "support at example.com";
     description "Example Actions Data Model Module.";
     revision "2016-07-07" {
       description "Initial version.";
       reference "example.com document 2-9973.";
     }

     container interfaces {
       description "System interfaces.";
       list interface {
         key name;
         description "One interface entry.";
         leaf name {
           type string;
           description "Interface name.";
         }

         action reset {
           description "Reset an interface.";
           input {
             leaf delay {
               type uint32;
               units "seconds";
               default 0;
               description
                 "Number of seconds to wait before starting the
                  interface reset.";
             }
           }
         }

         action get-last-reset-time {
           description
             "Retrieve the last interface reset time.";
           output {
             leaf last-reset {
               type yang:date-and-time;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "Date and time of the last interface reset, or
                  the last reboot time of the device.";
             }
           }
         }
       }
     }

   }

   RPC Input Example:

   The client might send the following POST request message to invoke
   the "reboot" RPC operation:

      POST /restconf/operations/example-ops:reboot HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+xml

      <input xmlns="https://example.com/ns/example-ops">
       <delay>600</delay>
       <message>Going down for system maintenance</message>
       <language>en-US</language>
      </input>

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server

   The same example request message is shown here using JSON encoding:

      POST /restconf/operations/example-ops:reboot HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      {
        "example-ops:input" : {
          "delay" : 600,
          "message" : "Going down for system maintenance",
          "language" : "en-US"
        }
      }

   Action Input Example:

   The client might send the following POST request message to invoke
   the "reset" action:

      POST /restconf/data/example-actions:interfaces/\
         interface=eth0/reset HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+xml

      <input xmlns="https://example.com/ns/example-actions">
        <delay>600</delay>
      </input>

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server

   The same example request message is shown here using JSON encoding:

      POST /restconf/data/example-actions:interfaces/\
        interface=eth0/reset HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      { "example-actions:input" : {
          "delay" : 600
        }
      }

3.6.2.  Encoding Operation Resource Output Parameters

   If the "rpc" or "action" statement has an "output" section, then
   instances of these output parameters are encoded in the module
   namespace where the "rpc" or "action" statement is defined, in an XML
   element or JSON object named "output", which is in the module
   namespace where the "rpc" or "action" statement is defined.

   If the RPC operation is invoked without errors, and if the "rpc" or
   "action" statement has an "output" section and the "output" object
   tree contains any child data nodes that are considered mandatory
   nodes, then a response message-body MUST be sent by the server in the
   response.

   If the RPC operation is invoked without errors, and if the "rpc" or
   "action" statement has an "output" section and the "output" object
   tree does not contain any child nodes that are considered mandatory
   nodes, then a response message-body MAY be sent by the server in the
   response.

   The request URI is not returned in the response.  Knowledge of the
   request URI may be needed to associate the output with the specific
   "rpc" or "action" statement used in the request.

   Examples:

   RPC Output Example:

   The "example-ops" YANG module defined in Section 3.6.1 is used for
   this example.

   The client might send the following POST request message to invoke
   the "get-reboot-info" operation:

      POST /restconf/operations/example-ops:get-reboot-info HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+json

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      {
        "example-ops:output" : {
          "reboot-time" : 30,
          "message" : "Going down for system maintenance",
          "language" : "en-US"
        }
      }

   The same response is shown here using XML encoding:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+xml

      <output xmlns="https://example.com/ns/example-ops">
        <reboot-time>30</reboot-time>
        <message>Going down for system maintenance</message>
        <language>en-US</language>
      </output>

   Action Output Example:

   The "example-actions" YANG module defined in Section 3.6.1 is used
   for this example.

   The client might send the following POST request message to invoke
   the "get-last-reset-time" action:

      POST /restconf/data/example-actions:interfaces/\
         interface=eth0/get-last-reset-time HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+json

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      {
        "example-actions:output" : {
          "last-reset" : "2015-10-10T02:14:11Z"
        }
      }

3.6.3.  Encoding Operation Resource Errors

   If any errors occur while attempting to invoke the operation or
   action, then an "errors" media type is returned with the appropriate
   error status.

   If (1) the RPC operation input is not valid or (2) the RPC operation
   is invoked but errors occur, then a message-body containing an
   "errors" resource MUST be sent by the server, as defined in
   Section 3.9.

   Using the "reboot" RPC operation from the example in Section 3.6.1,
   the client might send the following POST request message:

      POST /restconf/operations/example-ops:reboot HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+xml

      <input xmlns="https://example.com/ns/example-ops">
        <delay>-33</delay>
        <message>Going down for system maintenance</message>
        <language>en-US</language>
      </input>

   The server might respond with an "invalid-value" error:

      HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+xml

      <errors xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-restconf">
        <error>
          <error-type>protocol</error-type>
          <error-tag>invalid-value</error-tag>
          <error-path xmlns:ops="https://example.com/ns/example-ops">
            /ops:input/ops:delay
          </error-path>
          <error-message>Invalid input parameter</error-message>
        </error>
      </errors>

   The same response is shown here using JSON encoding:

      HTTP/1.1 400 Bad Request
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      { "ietf-restconf:errors" : {
          "error" : [
            {
              "error-type" : "protocol",
              "error-tag" : "invalid-value",
              "error-path" : "/example-ops:input/delay",
              "error-message" : "Invalid input parameter"
            }
          ]
        }
      }

3.7.  Schema Resource

   The server can optionally support the retrieval of the YANG modules
   it uses.  If retrieval is supported, then the "schema" leaf MUST be
   present in the associated "module" list entry, defined in [RFC7895].

   To retrieve a YANG module, a client first needs to get the URL for
   retrieving the schema, which is stored in the "schema" leaf.  Note
   that there is no required structure for this URL.  The URL value
   shown below is just an example.

   The client might send the following GET request message:

      GET /restconf/data/ietf-yang-library:modules-state/\
          module=example-jukebox,2016-08-15/schema HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+json

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      {
        "ietf-yang-library:schema" :
         "https://example.com/mymodules/example-jukebox/2016-08-15"
      }

   Next, the client needs to retrieve the actual YANG schema.

   The client might send the following GET request message:

      GET https://example.com/mymodules/example-jukebox/\
         2016-08-15 HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Content-Type: application/yang

         // entire YANG module contents deleted for this example...

3.8.  Event Stream Resource

   An event stream resource represents a source for system-generated
   event notifications.  Each stream is created and modified by the
   server only.  A client can retrieve a stream resource or initiate a
   long-poll server-sent event stream [W3C.REC-eventsource-20150203],
   using the procedure specified in Section 6.3.

   An event stream functions according to the "NETCONF Event
   Notifications" specification [RFC5277].  The available streams can be
   retrieved from the "stream" list, which specifies the syntax and
   semantics of the stream resources.

3.9.  "errors" YANG Data Template

   The "errors" YANG data template models a collection of error
   information that is sent as the message-body in a server response
   message if an error occurs while processing a request message.  It is
   not considered as a resource type because no instances can be
   retrieved with a GET request.

   The "ietf-restconf" YANG module contains the "yang-errors" YANG data
   template, which specifies the syntax and semantics of an "errors"
   container within a RESTCONF response.  RESTCONF error-handling
   behavior is defined in Section 7.

4.  RESTCONF Methods

   The RESTCONF protocol uses HTTP methods to identify the CRUD
   operations requested for a particular resource.

   The following table shows how the RESTCONF operations relate to
   NETCONF protocol operations.

   +----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
   | RESTCONF | NETCONF                                               |
   +----------+-------------------------------------------------------+
   | OPTIONS  | none                                                  |
   |          |                                                       |
   | HEAD     | <get-config>, <get>                                   |
   |          |                                                       |
   | GET      | <get-config>, <get>                                   |
   |          |                                                       |
   | POST     | <edit-config> (nc:operation="create")                 |
   |          |                                                       |
   | POST     | invoke an RPC operation                               |
   |          |                                                       |
   | PUT      | <copy-config> (PUT on datastore)                      |
   |          |                                                       |
   | PUT      | <edit-config> (nc:operation="create/replace")         |
   |          |                                                       |
   | PATCH    | <edit-config> (nc:operation depends on PATCH content) |
   |          |                                                       |
   | DELETE   | <edit-config> (nc:operation="delete")                 |
   +----------+-------------------------------------------------------+

                         CRUD Methods in RESTCONF

   The "remove" edit operation attribute for the NETCONF <edit-config>
   RPC operation is not supported by the HTTP DELETE method.  The
   resource must exist or the DELETE method will fail.  The PATCH method
   is equivalent to a "merge" edit operation when using a plain patch
   (see Section 4.6.1); other media types may provide more granular
   control.

   Access control mechanisms are used to limit what CRUD operations can
   be used.  In particular, RESTCONF is compatible with the NETCONF
   Access Control Model (NACM) [RFC6536], as there is a specific mapping
   between RESTCONF and NETCONF operations.  The resource path needs to
   be converted internally by the server to the corresponding YANG
   instance identifier.  Using this information, the server can apply
   the NACM access control rules to RESTCONF messages.

   The server MUST NOT allow any RESTCONF operation for any resources
   that the client is not authorized to access.

   The implementation of all methods (except PATCH [RFC5789]) is defined
   in [RFC7231].  This section defines the RESTCONF protocol usage for
   each HTTP method.

4.1.  OPTIONS

   The OPTIONS method is sent by the client to discover which methods
   are supported by the server for a specific resource (e.g., GET, POST,
   DELETE).  The server MUST implement this method.

   The "Accept-Patch" header field MUST be supported and returned in the
   response to the OPTIONS request, as defined in [RFC5789].

4.2.  HEAD

   The RESTCONF server MUST support the HEAD method.  The HEAD method is
   sent by the client to retrieve just the header fields (which contain
   the metadata for a resource) that would be returned for the
   comparable GET method, without the response message-body.  It is
   supported for all resources that support the GET method.

   The request MUST contain a request URI that contains at least the
   root resource.  The same query parameters supported by the GET method
   are supported by the HEAD method.

   The access control behavior is enforced as if the method was GET
   instead of HEAD.  The server MUST respond the same as if the method
   was GET instead of HEAD, except that no response message-body is
   included.

4.3.  GET

   The RESTCONF server MUST support the GET method.  The GET method is
   sent by the client to retrieve data and metadata for a resource.  It
   is supported for all resource types, except operation resources.  The
   request MUST contain a request URI that contains at least the root
   resource.

   The server MUST NOT return any data resources for which the user does
   not have read privileges.  If the user is not authorized to read the
   target resource, an error response containing a "401 Unauthorized"
   status-line SHOULD be returned.  The error-tag value "access-denied"
   is returned in this case.  A server MAY return a "404 Not Found"
   status-line, as described in Section 6.5.4 in [RFC7231].  The
   error-tag value "invalid-value" is returned in this case.

   If the user is authorized to read some but not all of the target
   resource, the unauthorized content is omitted from the response
   message-body, and the authorized content is returned to the client.

   If any content is returned to the client, then the server MUST send a
   valid response message-body.  More than one element MUST NOT be
   returned for XML encoding.  If multiple elements are sent in a JSON
   message-body, then they MUST be sent as a JSON array.  In this case,
   any timestamp or entity-tag returned in the response MUST be
   associated with the first element returned.

   If a retrieval request for a data resource representing a YANG
   leaf-list or list object identifies more than one instance and XML
   encoding is used in the response, then an error response containing a
   "400 Bad Request" status-line MUST be returned by the server.  The
   error-tag value "invalid-value" is used in this case.  Note that a
   non-configuration list is not required to define any keys.  In this
   case, the retrieval of a single list instance is not possible.

   If a retrieval request for a data resource represents an instance
   that does not exist, then an error response containing a "404 Not
   Found" status-line MUST be returned by the server.  The error-tag
   value "invalid-value" is used in this case.

   If the target resource of a retrieval request is for an operation
   resource, then a "405 Method Not Allowed" status-line MUST be
   returned by the server.  The error-tag value
   "operation-not-supported" is used in this case.

   Note that the way that access control is applied to data resources
   may not be completely compatible with HTTP caching.  The
   "Last-Modified" and "ETag" header fields maintained for a data
   resource are not affected by changes to the access control rules for
   that data resource.  It is possible for the representation of a data
   resource that is visible to a particular client to be changed without
   detection via the "Last-Modified" or "ETag" values.

   Example:

   The client might request the response header fields for an XML
   representation of a specific "album" resource:

      GET /restconf/data/example-jukebox:jukebox/\
         library/artist=Foo%20Fighters/album=Wasting%20Light HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+xml

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+xml
      Cache-Control: no-cache
      ETag: "a74eefc993a2b"
      Last-Modified: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 14:02:14 GMT

      <album xmlns="http://example.com/ns/example-jukebox"
             xmlns:jbox="http://example.com/ns/example-jukebox">
        <name>Wasting Light</name>
        <genre>jbox:alternative</genre>
        <year>2011</year>
      </album>

   Refer to Appendix B.1 for more resource retrieval examples.

4.4.  POST

   The RESTCONF server MUST support the POST method.  The POST method is
   sent by the client to create a data resource or invoke an operation
   resource.  The server uses the target resource type to determine how
   to process the request.

      +-----------+------------------------------------------------+
      | Type      | Description                                    |
      +-----------+------------------------------------------------+
      | Datastore | Create a top-level configuration data resource |
      | Data      | Create a configuration data child resource     |
      | Operation | Invoke an RPC operation                        |
      +-----------+------------------------------------------------+

                     Resource Types That Support POST

4.4.1.  Create Resource Mode

   If the target resource type is a datastore or data resource, then the
   POST is treated as a request to create a top-level resource or child
   resource, respectively.  The message-body is expected to contain the
   content of a child resource to create within the parent (target
   resource).  The message-body MUST contain exactly one instance of the
   expected data resource.  The data model for the child tree is the
   subtree, as defined by YANG for the child resource.

   The "insert" (Section 4.8.5) and "point" (Section 4.8.6) query
   parameters MUST be supported by the POST method for datastore and
   data resources.  These parameters are only allowed if the list or
   leaf-list is "ordered-by user".

   If the POST method succeeds, a "201 Created" status-line is returned
   and there is no response message-body.  A "Location" header field
   identifying the child resource that was created MUST be present in
   the response in this case.

   If the data resource already exists, then the POST request MUST fail
   and a "409 Conflict" status-line MUST be returned.  The error-tag
   value "resource-denied" is used in this case.

   If the user is not authorized to create the target resource, an error
   response containing a "403 Forbidden" status-line SHOULD be returned.
   The error-tag value "access-denied" is used in this case.  A server
   MAY return a "404 Not Found" status-line, as described in
   Section 6.5.4 in [RFC7231].  The error-tag value "invalid-value" is
   used in this case.  All other error responses are handled according
   to the procedures defined in Section 7.

   Example:

   To create a new "jukebox" resource, the client might send the
   following:

      POST /restconf/data HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      { "example-jukebox:jukebox" : {} }

   If the resource is created, the server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 201 Created
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Location: https://example.com/restconf/data/\
          example-jukebox:jukebox
      Last-Modified: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      ETag: "b3a3e673be2"

   Refer to Appendix B.2.1 for more resource creation examples.

4.4.2.  Invoke Operation Mode

   If the target resource type is an operation resource, then the POST
   method is treated as a request to invoke that operation.  The
   message-body (if any) is processed as the operation input parameters.
   Refer to Section 3.6 for details on operation resources.

   If the POST request succeeds, a "200 OK" status-line is returned if
   there is a response message-body, and a "204 No Content" status-line
   is returned if there is no response message-body.

   If the user is not authorized to invoke the target operation, an
   error response containing a "403 Forbidden" status-line SHOULD be
   returned.  The error-tag value "access-denied" is used in this case.
   A server MAY return a "404 Not Found" status-line, as described in
   Section 6.5.4 in [RFC7231].  All other error responses are handled
   according to the procedures defined in Section 7.

   Example:

   In this example, the client is invoking the "play" operation defined
   in the "example-jukebox" YANG module.

   A client might send a "play" request as follows:

      POST /restconf/operations/example-jukebox:play HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      {
        "example-jukebox:input" : {
          "playlist" : "Foo-One",
          "song-number" : 2
        }
      }

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server

4.5.  PUT

   The RESTCONF server MUST support the PUT method.  The PUT method is
   sent by the client to create or replace the target data resource.  A
   request message-body MUST be present, representing the new data
   resource, or the server MUST return a "400 Bad Request" status-line.
   The error-tag value "invalid-value" is used in this case.

   Both the POST and PUT methods can be used to create data resources.
   The difference is that for POST, the client does not provide the
   resource identifier for the resource that will be created.  The
   target resource for the POST method for resource creation is the
   parent of the new resource.  The target resource for the PUT method
   for resource creation is the new resource.

   The PUT method MUST be supported for data and datastore resources.  A
   PUT on the datastore resource is used to replace the entire contents
   of the datastore.  A PUT on a data resource only replaces that data
   resource within the datastore.

   The "insert" (Section 4.8.5) and "point" (Section 4.8.6) query
   parameters MUST be supported by the PUT method for data resources.
   These parameters are only allowed if the list or leaf-list is
   "ordered-by user".

   Consistent with [RFC7231], if the PUT request creates a new resource,
   a "201 Created" status-line is returned.  If an existing resource is
   modified, a "204 No Content" status-line is returned.

   If the user is not authorized to create or replace the target
   resource, an error response containing a "403 Forbidden" status-line
   SHOULD be returned.  The error-tag value "access-denied" is used in
   this case.

   A server MAY return a "404 Not Found" status-line, as described in
   Section 6.5.4 in [RFC7231].  The error-tag value "invalid-value" is
   used in this case.  All other error responses are handled according
   to the procedures defined in Section 7.

   If the target resource represents a YANG leaf-list, then the PUT
   method MUST NOT change the value of the leaf-list instance.

   If the target resource represents a YANG list instance, then the key
   leaf values, in message-body representation, MUST be the same as the
   key leaf values in the request URI.  The PUT method MUST NOT be used
   to change the key leaf values for a data resource instance.

   Example:

   An "album" child resource defined in the "example-jukebox" YANG
   module is replaced, or it is created if it does not already exist.

   To replace the "album" resource contents, the client might send the
   following:

      PUT /restconf/data/example-jukebox:jukebox/\
          library/artist=Foo%20Fighters/album=Wasting%20Light HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      {
        "example-jukebox:album" : [
          {
            "name" : "Wasting Light",
            "genre" : "example-jukebox:alternative",
            "year" : 2011
          }
        ]
      }

   If the resource is updated, the server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Last-Modified: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      ETag: "b27480aeda4c"

   The same request is shown here using XML encoding:

      PUT /restconf/data/example-jukebox:jukebox/\
          library/artist=Foo%20Fighters/album=Wasting%20Light HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+xml

      <album xmlns="http://example.com/ns/example-jukebox"
             xmlns:jbox="http://example.com/ns/example-jukebox">
        <name>Wasting Light</name>
        <genre>jbox:alternative</genre>
        <year>2011</year>
      </album>

   Refer to Appendix B.2.4 for an example using the PUT method to
   replace the contents of the datastore resource.

4.6.  PATCH

   The RESTCONF server MUST support the PATCH method for a plain patch
   and MAY support additional media types.  The media types for the
   PATCH method supported by the server can be discovered by the client
   by sending an OPTIONS request and examining the "Accept-Patch" header
   field in the response (see Section 4.1).

   RESTCONF uses the HTTP PATCH method defined in [RFC5789] to provide
   an extensible framework for resource patching mechanisms.  Each patch
   mechanism needs a unique media type.

   This document defines one patch mechanism (Section 4.6.1).  Another
   patch mechanism, the YANG Patch mechanism, is defined in
   [YANG-Patch].  Other patch mechanisms may be defined by future
   specifications.

   If the target resource instance does not exist, the server MUST NOT
   create it.

   If the PATCH request succeeds, a "200 OK" status-line is returned if
   there is a message-body, and "204 No Content" is returned if no
   response message-body is sent.

   If the user is not authorized to alter the target resource, an error
   response containing a "403 Forbidden" status-line SHOULD be returned.
   A server MAY return a "404 Not Found" status-line, as described in
   Section 6.5.4 in [RFC7231].  The error-tag value "invalid-value" is
   used in this case.  All other error responses are handled according
   to the procedures defined in Section 7.

4.6.1.  Plain Patch

   The plain patch mechanism merges the contents of the message-body
   with the target resource.  The message-body for a plain patch MUST be
   present and MUST be represented by the media type
   "application/yang-data+xml" or "application/yang-data+json".

   Plain patch can be used to create or update, but not delete, a child
   resource within the target resource.  Please see [YANG-Patch] for an
   alternate media type supporting the ability to delete child
   resources.  The YANG Patch media type allows multiple suboperations
   (e.g., "merge", "delete") within a single PATCH method.

   If the target resource represents a YANG leaf-list, then the PATCH
   method MUST NOT change the value of the leaf-list instance.

   If the target resource represents a YANG list instance, then the key
   leaf values, in message-body representation, MUST be the same as the
   key leaf values in the request URI.  The PATCH method MUST NOT be
   used to change the key leaf values for a data resource instance.

   After the plain patch is processed by the server, a response will be
   returned to the client, as specified in Section 4.6.

   Example:

   To replace just the "year" field in the "album" resource (instead of
   replacing the entire resource with the PUT method), the client might
   send a plain patch as follows:

      PATCH /restconf/data/example-jukebox:jukebox/\
          library/artist=Foo%20Fighters/album=Wasting%20Light HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      If-Match: "b8389233a4c"
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+xml

      <album xmlns="http://example.com/ns/example-jukebox">
       <year>2011</year>
      </album>

   If the field is updated, the server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Last-Modified: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      ETag: "b2788923da4c"

4.7.  DELETE

   The RESTCONF server MUST support the DELETE method.  The DELETE
   method is used to delete the target resource.  If the DELETE request
   succeeds, a "204 No Content" status-line is returned.

   If the user is not authorized to delete the target resource, then an
   error response containing a "403 Forbidden" status-line SHOULD be
   returned.  The error-tag value "access-denied" is returned in this
   case.  A server MAY return a "404 Not Found" status-line, as
   described in Section 6.5.4 in [RFC7231].  The error-tag value
   "invalid-value" is returned in this case.  All other error responses
   are handled according to the procedures defined in Section 7.

   If the target resource represents a configuration leaf-list or list
   data node, then it MUST represent a single YANG leaf-list or list
   instance.  The server MUST NOT use the DELETE method to delete more
   than one such instance.

   Example:

   To delete the "album" resource with the key "Wasting Light", the
   client might send the following:

      DELETE /restconf/data/example-jukebox:jukebox/\
          library/artist=Foo%20Fighters/album=Wasting%20Light HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com

   If the resource is deleted, the server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 204 No Content
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server

4.8.  Query Parameters

   Each RESTCONF operation allows zero or more query parameters to be
   present in the request URI.  Which specific parameters are allowed
   will depend on the resource type, and sometimes the specific target
   resource used, in the request.

   o  Query parameters can be given in any order.

   o  Each parameter can appear at most once in a request URI.

   o  If more than one instance of a query parameter is present, then a
      "400 Bad Request" status-line MUST be returned by the server.  The
      error-tag value "invalid-value" is returned in this case.

   o  A default value may apply if the parameter is missing.

   o  Query parameter names and values are case sensitive.

   o  A server MUST return an error with a "400 Bad Request" status-line
      if a query parameter is unexpected.  The error-tag value
      "invalid-value" is returned in this case.

   +---------------+---------+-----------------------------------------+
   | Name          | Methods | Description                             |
   +---------------+---------+-----------------------------------------+
   | content       | GET,    | Select config and/or non-config data    |
   |               | HEAD    | resources                               |
   |               |         |                                         |
   | depth         | GET,    | Request limited subtree depth in the    |
   |               | HEAD    | reply content                           |
   |               |         |                                         |
   | fields        | GET,    | Request a subset of the target resource |
   |               | HEAD    | contents                                |
   |               |         |                                         |
   | filter        | GET,    | Boolean notification filter for event   |
   |               | HEAD    | stream resources                        |
   |               |         |                                         |
   | insert        | POST,   | Insertion mode for "ordered-by user"    |
   |               | PUT     | data resources                          |
   |               |         |                                         |
   | point         | POST,   | Insertion point for "ordered-by user"   |
   |               | PUT     | data resources                          |
   |               |         |                                         |
   | start-time    | GET,    | Replay buffer start time for event      |
   |               | HEAD    | stream resources                        |
   |               |         |                                         |
   | stop-time     | GET,    | Replay buffer stop time for event       |
   |               | HEAD    | stream resources                        |
   |               |         |                                         |
   | with-defaults | GET,    | Control the retrieval of default values |
   |               | HEAD    |                                         |
   +---------------+---------+-----------------------------------------+

                         RESTCONF Query Parameters

   Refer to Appendix B.3 for examples of query parameter usage.

   If vendors define additional query parameters, they SHOULD use a
   prefix (such as the enterprise or organization name) for query
   parameter names in order to avoid collisions with other parameters.

4.8.1.  The "content" Query Parameter

   The "content" query parameter controls how descendant nodes of the
   requested data nodes will be processed in the reply.

   The allowed values are:

    +-----------+-----------------------------------------------------+
    | Value     | Description                                         |
    +-----------+-----------------------------------------------------+
    | config    | Return only configuration descendant data nodes     |
    |           |                                                     |
    | nonconfig | Return only non-configuration descendant data nodes |
    |           |                                                     |
    | all       | Return all descendant data nodes                    |
    +-----------+-----------------------------------------------------+

   This parameter is only allowed for GET methods on datastore and data
   resources.  A "400 Bad Request" status-line is returned if used for
   other methods or resource types.

   If this query parameter is not present, the default value is "all".
   This query parameter MUST be supported by the server.

4.8.2.  The "depth" Query Parameter

   The "depth" query parameter is used to limit the depth of subtrees
   returned by the server.  Data nodes with a "depth" value greater than
   the "depth" parameter are not returned in a response for a GET
   method.

   The requested data node has a depth level of "1".  If the "fields"
   parameter (Section 4.8.3) is used to select descendant data nodes,
   then these nodes and all of their ancestor nodes have a "depth" value
   of "1".  (This has the effect of including the nodes specified by the
   fields, even if the "depth" value is less than the actual depth level
   of the specified fields.)  Any other child node has a "depth" value
   that is 1 greater than its parent.

   The value of the "depth" parameter is either an integer between 1 and
   65535 or the string "unbounded".  "unbounded" is the default.

   This parameter is only allowed for GET methods on API, datastore, and
   data resources.  A "400 Bad Request" status-line is returned if used
   for other methods or resource types.

   By default, the server will include all sub-resources within a
   retrieved resource that have the same resource type as the requested
   resource.  The exception is the datastore resource.  If this resource
   type is retrieved, then by default the datastore and all child data
   resources are returned.

   If the "depth" query parameter URI is listed in the "capability"
   leaf-list defined in Section 9.3, then the server supports the
   "depth" query parameter.

4.8.3.  The "fields" Query Parameter

   The "fields" query parameter is used to optionally identify data
   nodes within the target resource to be retrieved in a GET method.
   The client can use this parameter to retrieve a subset of all nodes
   in a resource.

   The server will return a message-body representing the target
   resource, with descendant nodes pruned as specified in the
   "fields-expr" value.  The server does not return a set of separate
   sub-resources.

   A value of the "fields" query parameter matches the following rule:

    fields-expr = path "(" fields-expr ")" / path ";" fields-expr / path
    path = api-identifier [ "/" path ]

   "api-identifier" is defined in Section 3.5.3.1.

   ";" is used to select multiple nodes.  For example, to retrieve only
   the "genre" and "year" of an album, use "fields=genre;year".

   Parentheses are used to specify sub-selectors of a node.  Note that
   there is no path separator character "/" between a "path" field and a
   left parenthesis character "(".

   For example, assume that the target resource is the "album" list.  To
   retrieve only the "label" and "catalogue-number" of the "admin"
   container within an album, use
   "fields=admin(label;catalogue-number)".

   "/" is used in a path to retrieve a child node of a node.  For
   example, to retrieve only the "label" of an album, use
   "fields=admin/label".

   This parameter is only allowed for GET methods on API, datastore, and
   data resources.  A "400 Bad Request" status-line is returned if used
   for other methods or resource types.

   If the "fields" query parameter URI is listed in the "capability"
   leaf-list defined in Section 9.3, then the server supports the
   "fields" parameter.

4.8.4.  The "filter" Query Parameter

   The "filter" query parameter is used to indicate which subset of all
   possible events is of interest.  If not present, all events not
   precluded by other parameters will be sent.

   This parameter is only allowed for GET methods on an event stream
   resource.  A "400 Bad Request" status-line is returned if used for
   other methods or resource types.

   The format of this parameter is an XPath 1.0 expression [XPath] and
   is evaluated in the following context:

   o  The set of namespace declarations is the set of prefix and
      namespace pairs for all supported YANG modules, where the prefix
      is the YANG module name and the namespace is as defined by the
      "namespace" statement in the YANG module.

   o  The function library is the core function library defined in
      XPath 1.0, plus any functions defined by the data model.

   o  The set of variable bindings is empty.

   o  The context node is the root node.

   The "filter" query parameter is used as defined in Section 3.6 of
   [RFC5277].  If the boolean result of the expression is "true" when
   applied to the conceptual "notification" document root, then the
   event notification is delivered to the client.

   If the "filter" query parameter URI is listed in the "capability"
   leaf-list defined in Section 9.3, then the server supports the
   "filter" query parameter.

4.8.5.  The "insert" Query Parameter

   The "insert" query parameter is used to specify how a resource should
   be inserted within an "ordered-by user" list.

   The allowed values are:

   +--------+----------------------------------------------------------+
   | Value  | Description                                              |
   +--------+----------------------------------------------------------+
   | first  | Insert the new data as the new first entry.              |
   |        |                                                          |
   | last   | Insert the new data as the new last entry.               |
   |        |                                                          |
   | before | Insert the new data before the insertion point, as       |
   |        | specified by the value of the "point" parameter.         |
   |        |                                                          |
   | after  | Insert the new data after the insertion point, as        |
   |        | specified by the value of the "point" parameter.         |
   +--------+----------------------------------------------------------+

   The default value is "last".

   This parameter is only supported for the POST and PUT methods.  It is
   also only supported if the target resource is a data resource, and
   that data represents a YANG list or leaf-list that is
   "ordered-by user".

   If the values "before" or "after" are used, then a "point" query
   parameter for the "insert" query parameter MUST also be present, or a
   "400 Bad Request" status-line is returned.

   The "insert" query parameter MUST be supported by the server.

4.8.6.  The "point" Query Parameter

   The "point" query parameter is used to specify the insertion point
   for a data resource that is being created or moved within an
   "ordered-by user" list or leaf-list.

   The value of the "point" parameter is a string that identifies the
   path to the insertion point object.  The format is the same as a
   target resource URI string.

   This parameter is only supported for the POST and PUT methods.  It is
   also only supported if the target resource is a data resource, and
   that data represents a YANG list or leaf-list that is
   "ordered-by user".

   If the "insert" query parameter is not present or has a value other
   than "before" or "after", then a "400 Bad Request" status-line is
   returned.

   This parameter contains the instance identifier of the resource to be
   used as the insertion point for a POST or PUT method.

   The "point" query parameter MUST be supported by the server.

4.8.7.  The "start-time" Query Parameter

   The "start-time" query parameter is used to trigger the notification
   replay feature defined in [RFC5277] and indicate that the replay
   should start at the time specified.  If the stream does not support
   replay per the "replay-support" attribute returned by the
   "stream" list entry for the stream resource, then the server MUST
   return a "400 Bad Request" status-line.

   The value of the "start-time" parameter is of type "date-and-time",
   defined in the "ietf-yang-types" YANG module [RFC6991].

   This parameter is only allowed for GET methods on a
   "text/event-stream" data resource.  A "400 Bad Request" status-line
   is returned if used for other methods or resource types.

   If this parameter is not present, then a replay subscription is not
   being requested.  It is not valid to specify start times that are
   later than the current time.  If the value specified is earlier than
   the log can support, the replay will begin with the earliest
   available notification.  A client can obtain a server's current time
   by examining the "Date" header field that the server returns in
   response messages, according to [RFC7231].

   If this query parameter is supported by the server, then the "replay"
   query parameter URI MUST be listed in the "capability" leaf-list
   defined in Section 9.3, and the "stop-time" query parameter MUST also
   be supported by the server.

   If the "replay-support" leaf has the value "true" in the "stream"
   entry (defined in Section 9.3), then the server MUST support the
   "start-time" and "stop-time" query parameters for that stream.

4.8.8.  The "stop-time" Query Parameter

   The "stop-time" query parameter is used with the replay feature to
   indicate the newest notifications of interest.  This parameter MUST
   be used with, and have a value later than, the "start-time"
   parameter.

   The value of the "stop-time" parameter is of type "date-and-time",
   defined in the "ietf-yang-types" YANG module [RFC6991].

   This parameter is only allowed for GET methods on a
   "text/event-stream" data resource.  A "400 Bad Request" status-line
   is returned if used for other methods or resource types.

   If this parameter is not present, the notifications will continue
   until the subscription is terminated.  Values in the future are
   valid.

   If this query parameter is supported by the server, then the "replay"
   query parameter URI MUST be listed in the "capability" leaf-list
   defined in Section 9.3, and the "start-time" query parameter MUST
   also be supported by the server.

   If the "replay-support" leaf is present in the "stream" entry
   (defined in Section 9.3), then the server MUST support the
   "start-time" and "stop-time" query parameters for that stream.

4.8.9.  The "with-defaults" Query Parameter

   The "with-defaults" query parameter is used to specify how
   information about default data nodes should be returned in response
   to GET requests on data resources.

   If the server supports this capability, then it MUST implement the
   behavior described in Section 4.5.1 of [RFC6243], except applied to
   the RESTCONF GET operation instead of the NETCONF operations.

   +-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
   | Value             | Description                                   |
   +-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+
   | report-all        | All data nodes are reported                   |
   |                   |                                               |
   | trim              | Data nodes set to the YANG default are not    |
   |                   | reported                                      |
   |                   |                                               |
   | explicit          | Data nodes set to the YANG default by the     |
   |                   | client are reported                           |
   |                   |                                               |
   | report-all-tagged | All data nodes are reported, and defaults are |
   |                   | tagged                                        |
   +-------------------+-----------------------------------------------+

   If the "with-defaults" parameter is set to "report-all", then the
   server MUST adhere to the default-reporting behavior defined in
   Section 3.1 of [RFC6243].

   If the "with-defaults" parameter is set to "trim", then the server
   MUST adhere to the default-reporting behavior defined in Section 3.2
   of [RFC6243].

   If the "with-defaults" parameter is set to "explicit", then the
   server MUST adhere to the default-reporting behavior defined in
   Section 3.3 of [RFC6243].

   If the "with-defaults" parameter is set to "report-all-tagged", then
   the server MUST adhere to the default-reporting behavior defined in
   Section 3.4 of [RFC6243].  Metadata is reported by the server as
   specified in Section 5.3.  The XML encoding for the "default"
   attribute sent by the server for default nodes is defined in
   Section 6 of [RFC6243].  The JSON encoding for the "default"
   attribute MUST use the same values, as defined in [RFC6243], but
   encoded according to the rules in [RFC7952].  The module name
   "ietf-netconf-with-defaults" MUST be used for the "default"
   attribute.

   If the "with-defaults" parameter is not present, then the server MUST
   adhere to the default-reporting behavior defined in its "basic-mode"
   parameter for the "defaults" protocol capability URI, defined in
   Section 9.1.2.

   If the server includes the "with-defaults" query parameter URI in the
   "capability" leaf-list defined in Section 9.3, then the
   "with-defaults" query parameter MUST be supported.

   Since the server does not report the "also-supported" parameter as
   described in Section 4.3 of [RFC6243], it is possible that some
   values for the "with-defaults" parameter will not be supported.  If
   the server does not support the requested value of the
   "with-defaults" parameter, the server MUST return a response with a
   "400 Bad Request" status-line.  The error-tag value "invalid-value"
   is used in this case.

5.  Messages

   The RESTCONF protocol uses HTTP messages.  A single HTTP message
   corresponds to a single protocol method.  Most messages can perform a
   single task on a single resource, such as retrieving a resource or
   editing a resource.  The exception is the PATCH method, which allows
   multiple datastore edits within a single message.

5.1.  Request URI Structure

   Resources are represented with URIs following the structure for
   generic URIs in [RFC3986].

   A RESTCONF operation is derived from the HTTP method and the request
   URI, using the following conceptual fields:

        <OP> /<restconf>/<path>?<query>

          ^       ^        ^       ^
          |       |        |       |
        method  entry  resource  query

          M       M        O        O

       M=mandatory, O=optional

       where:

         <OP> is the HTTP method
         <restconf> is the RESTCONF root resource
         <path> is the target resource URI
         <query> is the query parameter list

   o  method: the HTTP method identifying the RESTCONF operation
      requested by the client, to act upon the target resource specified
      in the request URI.  RESTCONF operation details are described in
      Section 4.

   o  entry: the root of the RESTCONF API configured on this HTTP
      server, discovered by getting the "/.well-known/host-meta"
      resource, as described in Section 3.1.

   o  resource: the path expression identifying the resource that is
      being accessed by the RESTCONF operation.  If this field is not
      present, then the target resource is the API itself, represented
      by the YANG data template named "yang-api", found in Section 8.

   o  query: the set of parameters associated with the RESTCONF message;
      see Section 3.4 of [RFC3986].  RESTCONF parameters have the
      familiar form of "name=value" pairs.  Most query parameters are
      optional to implement by the server and optional to use by the
      client.  Each optional query parameter is identified by a URI.
      The server MUST list the optional query parameter URIs it supports
      in the "capability" leaf-list defined in Section 9.3.

   There is a specific set of parameters defined, although the server
   MAY choose to support query parameters not defined in this document.
   The contents of any query parameter value MUST be encoded according
   to Section 3.4 of [RFC3986].  Any reserved characters MUST be
   percent-encoded, according to Sections 2.1 and 2.5 of [RFC3986].

   Note that the fragment component is not used by the RESTCONF
   protocol.  The fragment is excluded from the target URI by a server,
   as described in Section 5.1 of [RFC7230].

   When new resources are created by the client, a "Location" header
   field is returned, which identifies the path of the newly created
   resource.  The client uses this exact path identifier to access the
   resource once it has been created.

   The target of a RESTCONF operation is a resource.  The "path" field
   in the request URI represents the target resource for the RESTCONF
   operation.

   Refer to Appendix B for examples of RESTCONF request URIs.

5.2.  Message Encoding

   RESTCONF messages are encoded in HTTP according to [RFC7230].  The
   "utf-8" character set is used for all messages.  RESTCONF message
   content is sent in the HTTP message-body.

   Content is encoded in either JSON or XML format.  A server MUST
   support one of either XML or JSON encoding.  A server MAY support
   both XML and JSON encoding.  A client will need to support both XML
   and JSON to interoperate with all RESTCONF servers.

   XML encoding rules for data nodes are defined in [RFC7950].  The same
   encoding rules are used for all XML content.  JSON encoding rules are
   defined in [RFC7951].  Additional JSON encoding rules for metadata
   are defined in [RFC7952].  This encoding is valid JSON, but it also
   has special encoding rules to identify module namespaces and provide
   consistent type processing of YANG data.

   The request input content encoding format is identified with the
   "Content-Type" header field.  This field MUST be present if a
   message-body is sent by the client.

   The server MUST support the "Accept" header field and the "406 Not
   Acceptable" status-line, as defined in [RFC7231].  The response
   output content encoding formats that the client will accept are
   identified with the "Accept" header field in the request.  If it is
   not specified, the request input encoding format SHOULD be used, or
   the server MAY choose any supported content encoding format.

   If there was no request input, then the default output encoding is
   XML or JSON, depending on server preference.  File extensions encoded
   in the request are not used to identify format encoding.

   A client can determine if the RESTCONF server supports an encoding
   format by sending a request using a specific format in the
   "Content-Type" and/or "Accept" header field.  If the server does not
   support the requested input encoding for a request, then it MUST
   return an error response with a "415 Unsupported Media Type"
   status-line.  If the server does not support any of the requested
   output encodings for a request, then it MUST return an error response
   with a "406 Not Acceptable" status-line.

5.3.  RESTCONF Metadata

   The RESTCONF protocol needs to support the retrieval of the same
   metadata that is used in the NETCONF protocol.  Information about
   default leafs, last-modified timestamps, etc. is commonly used to
   annotate representations of the datastore contents.

   With the XML encoding, the metadata is encoded as attributes in XML,
   according to Section 3.3 of [W3C.REC-xml-20081126].  With the JSON
   encoding, the metadata is encoded as specified in [RFC7952].

   The following examples are based on the example in Appendix B.3.9.
   The "report-all-tagged" mode for the "with-defaults" query parameter
   requires that a "default" attribute be returned for default nodes.
   These examples show that attribute for the "mtu" leaf.

5.3.1.  XML Metadata Encoding Example

      GET /restconf/data/interfaces/interface=eth1
          ?with-defaults=report-all-tagged HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+xml

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+xml

      <interface
        xmlns="urn:example.com:params:xml:ns:yang:example-interface">
        <name>eth1</name>
        <mtu xmlns:wd="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:default:1.0"
          wd:default="true">1500</mtu>
        <status>up</status>
      </interface>

5.3.2.  JSON Metadata Encoding Example

   Note that RFC 6243 defines the "default" attribute with the
   XML Schema Definition (XSD), not YANG, so the YANG module name has to
   be assigned instead of derived from the YANG module.  The value
   "ietf-netconf-with-defaults" is assigned for JSON metadata encoding.

      GET /restconf/data/interfaces/interface=eth1\
          ?with-defaults=report-all-tagged HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+json

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      {
        "example:interface" : [
          {
            "name" : "eth1",
            "mtu" : 1500,
            "@mtu" : {
               "ietf-netconf-with-defaults:default" : true
            },
            "status" : "up"
          }
        ]
      }

5.4.  Return Status

   Each message represents some sort of resource access.  An HTTP
   "status-line" header field is returned for each request.  If a status
   code in the "4xx" range is returned in the status-line, then the
   error information SHOULD be returned in the response, according to
   the format defined in Section 7.1.  If a status code in the "5xx"
   range is returned in the status-line, then the error information MAY
   be returned in the response, according to the format defined in
   Section 7.1.  If a status code in the "1xx", "2xx", or "3xx" range is
   returned in the status-line, then error information MUST NOT be
   returned in the response, since these ranges do not represent error
   conditions.

5.5.  Message Caching

   Since the datastore contents change at unpredictable times, responses
   from a RESTCONF server generally SHOULD NOT be cached.

   The server MUST include a "Cache-Control" header field in every
   response that specifies whether the response should be cached.

   Instead of relying on HTTP caching, the client SHOULD track the
   "ETag" and/or "Last-Modified" header fields returned by the server
   for the datastore resource (or data resource, if the server supports
   it).  A retrieval request for a resource can include the
   "If-None-Match" and/or "If-Modified-Since" header fields, which will
   cause the server to return a "304 Not Modified" status-line if the
   resource has not changed.  The client MAY use the HEAD method to
   retrieve just the message header fields, which SHOULD include the
   "ETag" and "Last-Modified" header fields, if this metadata is
   maintained for the target resource.

   Note that access control can be applied to data resources, such that
   the values in the "Last-Modified" and "ETag" headers maintained for a
   data resource may not be reliable, as described in Section 4.3.

6.  Notifications

   The RESTCONF protocol supports YANG-defined event notifications.  The
   solution preserves aspects of NETCONF event notifications [RFC5277]
   while utilizing the Server-Sent Events [W3C.REC-eventsource-20150203]
   transport strategy.

6.1.  Server Support

   A RESTCONF server MAY support RESTCONF notifications.  Clients may
   determine if a server supports RESTCONF notifications by using the
   HTTP OPTIONS, HEAD, or GET method on the "stream" list.  The server
   does not support RESTCONF notifications if an HTTP error code is
   returned (e.g., a "404 Not Found" status-line).

6.2.  Event Streams

   A RESTCONF server that supports notifications will populate a stream
   resource for each notification delivery service access point.  A
   RESTCONF client can retrieve the list of supported event streams from
   a RESTCONF server using the GET method on the "stream" list.

   The "restconf-state/streams" container definition in the
   "ietf-restconf-monitoring" module (defined in Section 9.3) is used to
   specify the structure and syntax of the conceptual child resources
   within the "streams" resource.

   For example:

   The client might send the following request:

      GET /restconf/data/ietf-restconf-monitoring:restconf-state/\
          streams HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+xml

   The server might send the following response:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+xml

      <streams
        xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-restconf-monitoring">
         <stream>
            <name>NETCONF</name>
            <description>default NETCONF event stream</description>
            <replay-support>true</replay-support>
            <replay-log-creation-time>\
               2007-07-08T00:00:00Z\
            </replay-log-creation-time>
            <access>
               <encoding>xml</encoding>
               <location>https://example.com/streams/NETCONF\
               </location>
            </access>
            <access>
               <encoding>json</encoding>
               <location>https://example.com/streams/NETCONF-JSON\
               </location>
            </access>
         </stream>

         <stream>
            <name>SNMP</name>
            <description>SNMP notifications</description>
            <replay-support>false</replay-support>
            <access>
               <encoding>xml</encoding>
               <location>https://example.com/streams/SNMP</location>
            </access>
         </stream>
         <stream>
            <name>syslog-critical</name>
            <description>Critical and higher severity</description>
            <replay-support>true</replay-support>
            <replay-log-creation-time>
               2007-07-01T00:00:00Z
            </replay-log-creation-time>
            <access>
               <encoding>xml</encoding>
               <location>\
                 https://example.com/streams/syslog-critical\
               </location>
            </access>
         </stream>
      </streams>

6.3.  Subscribing to Receive Notifications

   RESTCONF clients can determine the URL for the subscription resource
   (to receive notifications) by sending an HTTP GET request for the
   "location" leaf with the "stream" list entry.  The value returned by
   the server can be used for the actual notification subscription.

   The client will send an HTTP GET request for the URL returned by the
   server with the "Accept" type "text/event-stream".

   The server will treat the connection as an event stream, using the
   Server-Sent Events [W3C.REC-eventsource-20150203] transport strategy.

   The server MAY support query parameters for a GET method on this
   resource.  These parameters are specific to each event stream.

   For example:

   The client might send the following request:

      GET /restconf/data/ietf-restconf-monitoring:restconf-state/\
          streams/stream=NETCONF/access=xml/location HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+xml

   The server might send the following response:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+xml

      <location
        xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-restconf-monitoring">\
        https://example.com/streams/NETCONF\
      </location>

   The RESTCONF client can then use this URL value to start monitoring
   the event stream:

      GET /streams/NETCONF HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: text/event-stream
      Cache-Control: no-cache
      Connection: keep-alive

   A RESTCONF client MAY request that the server compress the events
   using the HTTP header field "Accept-Encoding".  For instance:

      GET /streams/NETCONF HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: text/event-stream
      Cache-Control: no-cache
      Connection: keep-alive
      Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate

6.3.1.  NETCONF Event Stream

   The server SHOULD support the NETCONF event stream defined in
   Section 3.2.3 of [RFC5277].  The notification messages for this
   stream are encoded in XML.

   The server MAY support additional streams that represent the semantic
   content of the NETCONF event stream, but using a representation with
   a different media type.

   The server MAY support the "start-time", "stop-time", and "filter"
   query parameters, defined in Section 4.8.  Refer to Appendix B.3.6
   for filter parameter examples.

6.4.  Receiving Event Notifications

   RESTCONF notifications are encoded according to the definition of the
   event stream.

   The structure of the event data is based on the <notification>
   element definition in Section 4 of [RFC5277].  It MUST conform to the
   schema for the <notification> element in Section 4 of [RFC5277],
   using the XML namespace as defined in the XSD as follows:

     urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:notification:1.0

   For JSON-encoding purposes, the module name for the "notification"
   element is "ietf-restconf".

   Two child nodes within the "notification" container are expected,
   representing the event time and the event payload.  The "eventTime"
   node is defined within the same XML namespace as the <notification>
   element.  It is defined to be within the "ietf-restconf" module
   namespace for JSON-encoding purposes.

   The name and namespace of the payload element are determined by the
   YANG module containing the notification-stmt representing the
   notification message.

   In the following example, the YANG module "example-mod" is used:

     module example-mod {
       namespace "http://example.com/event/1.0";
       prefix ex;

       organization "Example, Inc.";
       contact "support at example.com";
       description "Example Notification Data Model Module.";
       revision "2016-07-07" {
         description "Initial version.";
         reference "example.com document 2-9976.";
       }

       notification event {
         description "Example notification event.";
         leaf event-class {
           type string;
           description "Event class identifier.";
         }
         container reporting-entity {
           description "Event specific information.";
           leaf card {
             type string;
             description "Line card identifier.";
           }
         }
         leaf severity {
           type string;
           description "Event severity description.";
         }
       }
     }

   An example SSE event notification encoded using XML:

      data: <notification
      data:    xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:notification:1.0">
      data:    <eventTime>2013-12-21T00:01:00Z</eventTime>
      data:    <event xmlns="http://example.com/event/1.0">
      data:       <event-class>fault</event-class>
      data:       <reporting-entity>
      data:           <card>Ethernet0</card>
      data:       </reporting-entity>
      data:       <severity>major</severity>
      data:     </event>
      data: </notification>

   An example SSE event notification encoded using JSON:

      data: {
      data:   "ietf-restconf:notification" : {
      data:     "eventTime" : "2013-12-21T00:01:00Z",
      data:     "example-mod:event" : {
      data:       "event-class" : "fault",
      data:       "reporting-entity" : { "card" : "Ethernet0" },
      data:       "severity" : "major"
      data:     }
      data:   }
      data: }

   Alternatively, since neither XML nor JSON is whitespace sensitive,
   the above messages can be encoded onto a single line.  For example:

      XML:

      data: <notification xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:netconf:notif\
      ication:1.0"><eventTime>2013-12-21T00:01:00Z</eventTime><event \
      xmlns="http://example.com/event/1.0"><event-class>fault</event-\
      class><reportingEntity><card>Ethernet0</card></reporting-entity>\
      <severity>major</severity></event></notification>

      JSON:

      data: {"ietf-restconf:notification":{"eventTime":"2013-12-21\
      T00:01:00Z","example-mod:event":{"event-class": "fault","repor\
      tingEntity":{"card":"Ethernet0"},"severity":"major"}}}

   The SSE specification supports the following additional fields:
   "event", "id", and "retry".  A RESTCONF server MAY send the "retry"
   field, and if it does, RESTCONF clients SHOULD use it.  A RESTCONF
   server SHOULD NOT send the "event" or "id" fields, as there are no
   meaningful values that could be used for them that would not be
   redundant to the contents of the notification itself.  RESTCONF
   servers that do not send the "id" field also do not need to support
   the HTTP header field "Last-Event-ID" [W3C.REC-eventsource-20150203].
   RESTCONF servers that do send the "id" field SHOULD support the
   "start-time" query parameter as the preferred means for a client to
   specify where to restart the event stream.

7.  Error Reporting

   HTTP status codes are used to report success or failure for RESTCONF
   operations.  The error information that NETCONF error responses
   contain in the <rpc-error> element is adapted for use in RESTCONF,
   and <errors> data tree information is returned for the "4xx" and
   "5xx" classes of status codes.

   Since an operation resource is defined with a YANG "rpc" statement
   and an action is defined with a YANG "action" statement, a mapping
   from the NETCONF <error-tag> value to the HTTP status code is needed.
   The specific error-tag and response code to use are specific to the
   data model and might be contained in the YANG "description" statement
   for the "action" or "rpc" statement.

              +-------------------------+------------------+
              | error-tag               | status code      |
              +-------------------------+------------------+
              | in-use                  | 409              |
              |                         |                  |
              | invalid-value           | 400, 404, or 406 |
              |                         |                  |
              | (request) too-big       | 413              |
              |                         |                  |
              | (response) too-big      | 400              |
              |                         |                  |
              | missing-attribute       | 400              |
              |                         |                  |
              | bad-attribute           | 400              |
              |                         |                  |
              | unknown-attribute       | 400              |
              |                         |                  |
              | bad-element             | 400              |
              |                         |                  |
              | unknown-element         | 400              |
              |                         |                  |
              | unknown-namespace       | 400              |
              |                         |                  |
              | access-denied           | 401 or 403       |
              |                         |                  |
              | lock-denied             | 409              |
              |                         |                  |
              | resource-denied         | 409              |
              |                         |                  |
              | rollback-failed         | 500              |
              |                         |                  |
              | data-exists             | 409              |
              |                         |                  |
              | data-missing            | 409              |
              |                         |                  |
              | operation-not-supported | 405 or 501       |
              |                         |                  |
              | operation-failed        | 412 or 500       |
              |                         |                  |
              | partial-operation       | 500              |
              |                         |                  |
              | malformed-message       | 400              |
              +-------------------------+------------------+

                  Mapping from <error-tag> to Status Code

7.1.  Error Response Message

   When an error occurs for a request message on any resource type and
   the status code that will be returned is in the "4xx" range (except
   for status code "403 Forbidden"), the server SHOULD send a response
   message-body containing the information described by the
   "yang-errors" YANG data template within the "ietf-restconf" module
   found in Section 8.  The Content-Type of this response message MUST
   be "application/yang-data", plus, optionally, a structured syntax
   name suffix.

   The client SHOULD specify the desired encoding(s) for response
   messages by specifying the appropriate media type(s) in the
   "Accept" header.  If the client did not specify an "Accept" header,
   then the same structured syntax name suffix used in the request
   message SHOULD be used, or the server MAY choose any supported
   message-encoding format.  If there is no request message, the server
   MUST select "application/yang-data+xml" or
   "application/yang-data+json", depending on server preference.  All of
   the examples in this document, except for the one below, assume that
   XML encoding will be returned if there is an error.

   YANG tree diagram for <errors> data:

     +---- errors
           +---- error*
              +---- error-type       enumeration
              +---- error-tag        string
              +---- error-app-tag?   string
              +---- error-path?      instance-identifier
              +---- error-message?   string
              +---- error-info?

   The semantics and syntax for RESTCONF error messages are defined with
   the "yang-errors" YANG data template extension, found in Section 8.

   Examples:

   The following example shows an error returned for a "lock-denied"
   error that can occur if a NETCONF client has locked a datastore.  The
   RESTCONF client is attempting to delete a data resource.  Note that
   an "Accept" header field is used to specify the desired encoding for
   the error message.  There would be no response message-body content
   if this operation was successful.

      DELETE /restconf/data/example-jukebox:jukebox/\
         library/artist=Foo%20Fighters/album=Wasting%20Light HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+json

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 409 Conflict
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      {
        "ietf-restconf:errors" : {
          "error" : [
            {
              "error-type" : "protocol",
              "error-tag" : "lock-denied",
              "error-message" : "Lock failed; lock already held"
            }
          ]
        }
      }

   The following example shows an error returned for a "data-exists"
   error on a data resource.  The "jukebox" resource already exists, so
   it cannot be created.

   The client might send the following:

      POST /restconf/data/example-jukebox:jukebox HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 409 Conflict
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+xml

      <errors xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-restconf">
        <error>
          <error-type>protocol</error-type>
          <error-tag>data-exists</error-tag>
          <error-path
            xmlns:rc="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-restconf"
            xmlns:jbox="https://example.com/ns/example-jukebox">\
            /rc:restconf/rc:data/jbox:jukebox
          </error-path>
          <error-message>
            Data already exists; cannot create new resource
          </error-message>
        </error>
      </errors>

8.  RESTCONF Module

   The "ietf-restconf" module defines conceptual definitions within an
   extension and two groupings, which are not meant to be implemented as
   datastore contents by a server.  For example, the "restconf"
   container is not intended to be implemented as a top-level data node
   (under the "/restconf/data" URI).

   Note that the "ietf-restconf" module does not have any
   protocol-accessible objects, so no YANG tree diagram is shown.

   <CODE BEGINS>

   file "ietf-restconf@2017-01-26.yang"

   module ietf-restconf {
     yang-version 1.1;
     namespace "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-restconf";
     prefix "rc";

     organization
       "IETF NETCONF (Network Configuration) Working Group";

     contact
       "WG Web:   <https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/netconf/>
        WG List:  <mailto:netconf@ietf.org>

        Author:   Andy Bierman
                  <mailto:andy@yumaworks.com>

        Author:   Martin Bjorklund
                  <mailto:mbj@tail-f.com>

        Author:   Kent Watsen
                  <mailto:kwatsen@juniper.net>";

     description
       "This module contains conceptual YANG specifications
        for basic RESTCONF media type definitions used in
        RESTCONF protocol messages.

        Note that the YANG definitions within this module do not
        represent configuration data of any kind.
        The 'restconf-media-type' YANG extension statement
        provides a normative syntax for XML and JSON
        message-encoding purposes.

        Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
        authors of the code.  All rights reserved.

        Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
        without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject
        to the license terms contained in, the Simplified BSD License
        set forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
        Relating to IETF Documents
        (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

        This version of this YANG module is part of RFC 8040; see
        the RFC itself for full legal notices.";

     revision 2017-01-26 {
       description
         "Initial revision.";
       reference
         "RFC 8040: RESTCONF Protocol.";
     }

     extension yang-data {
       argument name {
         yin-element true;
       }
       description
         "This extension is used to specify a YANG data template that
          represents conceptual data defined in YANG.  It is
          intended to describe hierarchical data independent of
          protocol context or specific message-encoding format.
          Data definition statements within a yang-data extension
          specify the generic syntax for the specific YANG data
          template, whose name is the argument of the 'yang-data'
          extension statement.

          Note that this extension does not define a media type.
          A specification using this extension MUST specify the
          message-encoding rules, including the content media type.

          The mandatory 'name' parameter value identifies the YANG
          data template that is being defined.  It contains the
          template name.

          This extension is ignored unless it appears as a top-level
          statement.  It MUST contain data definition statements
          that result in exactly one container data node definition.
          An instance of a YANG data template can thus be translated
          into an XML instance document, whose top-level element
          corresponds to the top-level container.

          The module name and namespace values for the YANG module using
          the extension statement are assigned to instance document data
          conforming to the data definition statements within
          this extension.

          The substatements of this extension MUST follow the
          'data-def-stmt' rule in the YANG ABNF.

          The XPath document root is the extension statement itself,
          such that the child nodes of the document root are
          represented by the data-def-stmt substatements within
          this extension.  This conceptual document is the context
          for the following YANG statements:

            - must-stmt
            - when-stmt
            - path-stmt
            - min-elements-stmt
            - max-elements-stmt
            - mandatory-stmt
            - unique-stmt
            - ordered-by
            - instance-identifier data type

          The following data-def-stmt substatements are constrained
          when used within a 'yang-data' extension statement.

            - The list-stmt is not required to have a key-stmt defined.
            - The if-feature-stmt is ignored if present.
            - The config-stmt is ignored if present.
            - The available identity values for any 'identityref'
              leaf or leaf-list nodes are limited to the module
              containing this extension statement and the modules
              imported into that module.
         ";
     }

     rc:yang-data yang-errors {
       uses errors;
     }

     rc:yang-data yang-api {
       uses restconf;
     }

     grouping errors {
       description
         "A grouping that contains a YANG container
          representing the syntax and semantics of a
          YANG Patch error report within a response message.";

       container errors {
         description
           "Represents an error report returned by the server if
            a request results in an error.";

         list error {
           description
             "An entry containing information about one
              specific error that occurred while processing
              a RESTCONF request.";
           reference
             "RFC 6241, Section 4.3.";

           leaf error-type {
             type enumeration {
               enum transport {
                 description
                   "The transport layer.";
               }
               enum rpc {
                 description
                   "The rpc or notification layer.";
               }
               enum protocol {
                 description
                   "The protocol operation layer.";
               }
               enum application {
                 description
                   "The server application layer.";
               }
             }
             mandatory true;
             description
               "The protocol layer where the error occurred.";
           }

           leaf error-tag {
             type string;
             mandatory true;
             description
               "The enumerated error-tag.";
           }

           leaf error-app-tag {
             type string;
             description
               "The application-specific error-tag.";
           }

           leaf error-path {
             type instance-identifier;
             description
               "The YANG instance identifier associated
                with the error node.";
           }

           leaf error-message {
             type string;
             description
               "A message describing the error.";
           }

           anydata error-info {
              description
                "This anydata value MUST represent a container with
                 zero or more data nodes representing additional
                 error information.";
           }
         }
       }
     }

     grouping restconf {
       description
         "Conceptual grouping representing the RESTCONF
          root resource.";

       container restconf {
         description
           "Conceptual container representing the RESTCONF
            root resource.";

         container data {
           description
             "Container representing the datastore resource.
              Represents the conceptual root of all state data
              and configuration data supported by the server.
              The child nodes of this container can be any data
              resources that are defined as top-level data nodes
              from the YANG modules advertised by the server in
              the 'ietf-yang-library' module.";
         }

         container operations {
           description
             "Container for all operation resources.

              Each resource is represented as an empty leaf with the
              name of the RPC operation from the YANG 'rpc' statement.

              For example, the 'system-restart' RPC operation defined
              in the 'ietf-system' module would be represented as
              an empty leaf in the 'ietf-system' namespace.  This is
              a conceptual leaf and will not actually be found in
              the module:

                 module ietf-system {
                   leaf system-reset {
                     type empty;
                   }
                 }

              To invoke the 'system-restart' RPC operation:

                 POST /restconf/operations/ietf-system:system-restart

              To discover the RPC operations supported by the server:

                 GET /restconf/operations

              In XML, the YANG module namespace identifies the module:

                <system-restart
                   xmlns='urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-system'/>

              In JSON, the YANG module name identifies the module:

                { 'ietf-system:system-restart' : [null] }
             ";
         }

         leaf yang-library-version {
           type string {
             pattern '\d{4}-\d{2}-\d{2}';
           }
           config false;
           mandatory true;
           description
             "Identifies the revision date of the 'ietf-yang-library'
              module that is implemented by this RESTCONF server.
              Indicates the year, month, and day in YYYY-MM-DD
              numeric format.";
         }
       }
     }

   }

   <CODE ENDS>

9.  RESTCONF Monitoring

   The "ietf-restconf-monitoring" module provides information about the
   RESTCONF protocol capabilities and event streams available from the
   server.  A RESTCONF server MUST implement the
   "ietf-restconf-monitoring" module.

   YANG tree diagram for the "ietf-restconf-monitoring" module:

      +--ro restconf-state
         +--ro capabilities
         |  +--ro capability*   inet:uri
         +--ro streams
            +--ro stream* [name]
               +--ro name                        string
               +--ro description?                string
               +--ro replay-support?             boolean
               +--ro replay-log-creation-time?   yang:date-and-time
               +--ro access* [encoding]
                  +--ro encoding  string
                  +--ro location  inet:uri

9.1.  restconf-state/capabilities

   This mandatory container holds the RESTCONF protocol capability URIs
   supported by the server.

   The server MAY maintain a last-modified timestamp for this container
   and return the "Last-Modified" header field when this data node is
   retrieved with the GET or HEAD methods.  Note that the last-modified
   timestamp for the datastore resource is not affected by changes to
   this subtree.

   The server SHOULD maintain an entity-tag for this container and
   return the "ETag" header field when this data node is retrieved with
   the GET or HEAD methods.  Note that the entity-tag for the datastore
   resource is not affected by changes to this subtree.

   The server MUST include a "capability" URI leaf-list entry for the
   "defaults" mode used by the server, defined in Section 9.1.2.

   The server MUST include a "capability" URI leaf-list entry
   identifying each supported optional protocol feature.  This includes
   optional query parameters and MAY include other capability URIs
   defined outside this document.

9.1.1.  Query Parameter URIs

   A new set of RESTCONF Capability URIs are defined to identify the
   specific query parameters (defined in Section 4.8) supported by the
   server.

   The server MUST include a "capability" leaf-list entry for each
   optional query parameter that it supports.

   +----------------+---------+---------------------------------------+
   | Name           | Section | URI                                   |
   |                |         |                                       |
   +----------------+---------+---------------------------------------+
   | depth          | 4.8.2   | urn:ietf:params:restconf:capability:  |
   |                |         | depth:1.0                             |
   |                |         |                                       |
   | fields         | 4.8.3   | urn:ietf:params:restconf:capability:  |
   |                |         | fields:1.0                            |
   |                |         |                                       |
   | filter         | 4.8.4   | urn:ietf:params:restconf:capability:  |
   |                |         | filter:1.0                            |
   |                |         |                                       |
   | replay         | 4.8.7   | urn:ietf:params:restconf:capability:  |
   |                | 4.8.8   | replay:1.0                            |
   |                |         |                                       |
   | with-defaults  | 4.8.9   | urn:ietf:params:restconf:capability:  |
   |                |         | with-defaults:1.0                     |
   +----------------+---------+---------------------------------------+

                       RESTCONF Query Parameter URIs

9.1.2.  The "defaults" Protocol Capability URI

   This URI identifies the "basic-mode" default-handling mode that is
   used by the server for processing default leafs in requests for data
   resources.  This protocol capability URI MUST be supported by the
   server and MUST be listed in the "capability" leaf-list defined in
   Section 9.3.

      +----------+--------------------------------------------------+
      | Name     | URI                                              |
      +----------+--------------------------------------------------+
      | defaults | urn:ietf:params:restconf:capability:defaults:1.0 |
      +----------+--------------------------------------------------+

                    RESTCONF "defaults" Capability URI

   The URI MUST contain a query parameter named "basic-mode" with one of
   the values listed below:

   +------------+------------------------------------------------------+
   | Value      | Description                                          |
   +------------+------------------------------------------------------+
   | report-all | No data nodes are considered default                 |
   |            |                                                      |
   | trim       | Values set to the YANG default-stmt value are        |
   |            | default                                              |
   |            |                                                      |
   | explicit   | Values set by the client are never considered        |
   |            | default                                              |
   +------------+------------------------------------------------------+

   The "basic-mode" definitions are specified in "With-defaults
   Capability for NETCONF" [RFC6243].

   If the "basic-mode" is set to "report-all", then the server MUST
   adhere to the default-handling behavior defined in Section 2.1 of
   [RFC6243].

   If the "basic-mode" is set to "trim", then the server MUST adhere to
   the default-handling behavior defined in Section 2.2 of [RFC6243].

   If the "basic-mode" is set to "explicit", then the server MUST adhere
   to the default-handling behavior defined in Section 2.3 of [RFC6243].

   Example (split for display purposes only):

      urn:ietf:params:restconf:capability:defaults:1.0?
           basic-mode=explicit

9.2.  restconf-state/streams

   This optional container provides access to the event streams
   supported by the server.  The server MAY omit this container if no
   event streams are supported.

   The server will populate this container with a "stream" list entry
   for each stream type it supports.  Each stream contains a leaf called
   "events", which contains a URI that represents an event stream
   resource.

   Stream resources are defined in Section 3.8.  Notifications are
   defined in Section 6.

9.3.  RESTCONF Monitoring Module

   The "ietf-restconf-monitoring" module defines monitoring information
   for the RESTCONF protocol.

   The "ietf-yang-types" and "ietf-inet-types" modules from [RFC6991]
   are used by this module for some type definitions.

   <CODE BEGINS>

   file "ietf-restconf-monitoring@2017-01-26.yang"

   module ietf-restconf-monitoring {
     namespace "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-restconf-monitoring";
     prefix "rcmon";

     import ietf-yang-types { prefix yang; }
     import ietf-inet-types { prefix inet; }

     organization
       "IETF NETCONF (Network Configuration) Working Group";

     contact
       "WG Web:   <https://datatracker.ietf.org/wg/netconf/>
        WG List:  <mailto:netconf@ietf.org>

        Author:   Andy Bierman
                  <mailto:andy@yumaworks.com>

        Author:   Martin Bjorklund
                  <mailto:mbj@tail-f.com>

        Author:   Kent Watsen
                  <mailto:kwatsen@juniper.net>";

     description
       "This module contains monitoring information for the
        RESTCONF protocol.

        Copyright (c) 2017 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
        authors of the code.  All rights reserved.

        Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
        without modification, is permitted pursuant to, and subject
        to the license terms contained in, the Simplified BSD License
        set forth in Section 4.c of the IETF Trust's Legal Provisions
        Relating to IETF Documents
        (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).

        This version of this YANG module is part of RFC 8040; see
        the RFC itself for full legal notices.";

     revision 2017-01-26 {
       description
         "Initial revision.";
       reference
         "RFC 8040: RESTCONF Protocol.";
     }

     container restconf-state {
       config false;
       description
         "Contains RESTCONF protocol monitoring information.";

       container capabilities {
         description
           "Contains a list of protocol capability URIs.";

         leaf-list capability {
           type inet:uri;
           description
             "A RESTCONF protocol capability URI.";
         }
       }

       container streams {
         description
           "Container representing the notification event streams
            supported by the server.";
          reference
            "RFC 5277, Section 3.4, <streams> element.";

         list stream {
           key name;
           description
             "Each entry describes an event stream supported by
              the server.";

           leaf name {
             type string;
             description
               "The stream name.";
             reference
               "RFC 5277, Section 3.4, <name> element.";
           }

           leaf description {
             type string;
             description
               "Description of stream content.";
             reference
               "RFC 5277, Section 3.4, <description> element.";
           }

           leaf replay-support {
             type boolean;
             default false;
             description
               "Indicates if replay buffer is supported for this stream.
                If 'true', then the server MUST support the 'start-time'
                and 'stop-time' query parameters for this stream.";
             reference
               "RFC 5277, Section 3.4, <replaySupport> element.";
           }

           leaf replay-log-creation-time {
             when "../replay-support" {
               description
                 "Only present if notification replay is supported.";
             }
             type yang:date-and-time;
             description
               "Indicates the time the replay log for this stream
                was created.";
             reference
               "RFC 5277, Section 3.4, <replayLogCreationTime>
                element.";
           }

           list access {
             key encoding;
             min-elements 1;
             description
               "The server will create an entry in this list for each
                encoding format that is supported for this stream.
                The media type 'text/event-stream' is expected
                for all event streams.  This list identifies the
                subtypes supported for this stream.";

             leaf encoding {
               type string;
               description
                 "This is the secondary encoding format within the
                  'text/event-stream' encoding used by all streams.
                  The type 'xml' is supported for XML encoding.
                  The type 'json' is supported for JSON encoding.";
             }

             leaf location {
               type inet:uri;
               mandatory true;
               description
                 "Contains a URL that represents the entry point
                  for establishing notification delivery via
                  server-sent events.";
             }
           }
         }
       }
     }

   }

   <CODE ENDS>

10.  YANG Module Library

   The "ietf-yang-library" module defined in [RFC7895] provides
   information about the YANG modules and submodules used by the
   RESTCONF server.  Implementation is mandatory for RESTCONF servers.
   All YANG modules and submodules used by the server MUST be identified
   in the YANG module library.

10.1.  modules-state/module

   This mandatory list contains one entry for each YANG data model
   module supported by the server.  There MUST be an instance of this
   list for every YANG module that is used by the server.

   The contents of this list are defined in the "module" YANG list
   statement in [RFC7895].

   Note that there are no protocol-accessible objects in the
   "ietf-restconf" module to implement, but it is possible that a server
   will list the "ietf-restconf" module in the YANG library if it is
   imported (directly or indirectly) by an implemented module.

11.  IANA Considerations

11.1.  The "restconf" Relation Type

   This specification registers the "restconf" relation type in the
   "Link Relation Types" registry defined by [RFC5988]:

      Relation Name: restconf

      Description: Identifies the root of the RESTCONF API as configured
                   on this HTTP server.  The "restconf" relation
                   defines the root of the API defined in RFC 8040.
                   Subsequent revisions of RESTCONF will use alternate
                   relation values to support protocol versioning.

      Reference: RFC 8040

11.2.  Registrations for New URIs and YANG Modules

   This document registers two URIs as namespaces in the "IETF XML
   Registry" [RFC3688]:

     URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-restconf
     Registrant Contact: The IESG.
     XML: N/A; the requested URI is an XML namespace.

     URI: urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-restconf-monitoring
     Registrant Contact: The IESG.
     XML: N/A; the requested URI is an XML namespace.

   This document registers two YANG modules in the "YANG Module Names"
   registry [RFC6020]:

     name:         ietf-restconf
     namespace:    urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-restconf
     prefix:       rc
     reference:    RFC 8040

     name:         ietf-restconf-monitoring
     namespace:    urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-restconf-monitoring
     prefix:       rcmon
     reference:    RFC 8040

11.3.  Media Types

11.3.1.  Media Type "application/yang-data+xml"

   Type name: application

   Subtype name: yang-data+xml

   Required parameters: None

   Optional parameters: None

   Encoding considerations: 8-bit
      Each conceptual YANG data node is encoded according to the
      XML Encoding Rules and Canonical Format for the specific
      YANG data node type defined in [RFC7950].

   Security considerations: Security considerations related
      to the generation and consumption of RESTCONF messages
      are discussed in Section 12 of RFC 8040.
      Additional security considerations are specific to the
      semantics of particular YANG data models.  Each YANG module
      is expected to specify security considerations for the
      YANG data defined in that module.

   Interoperability considerations: RFC 8040 specifies the
      format of conforming messages and the interpretation
      thereof.

   Published specification: RFC 8040

   Applications that use this media type: Instance document
      data parsers used within a protocol or automation tool
      that utilize YANG-defined data structures.

   Fragment identifier considerations: Fragment identifiers for
      this type are not defined.  All YANG data nodes are
      accessible as resources using the path in the request URI.

   Additional information:

      Deprecated alias names for this type: N/A
      Magic number(s): N/A
      File extension(s): None
      Macintosh file type code(s): "TEXT"

   Person & email address to contact for further information: See
      the Authors' Addresses section of RFC 8040.

   Intended usage: COMMON

   Restrictions on usage: N/A

   Author: See the Authors' Addresses section of RFC 8040.

   Change controller: Internet Engineering Task Force
      (mailto:iesg@ietf.org).

   Provisional registration? (standards tree only): no

11.3.2.  Media Type "application/yang-data+json"

   Type name: application

   Subtype name: yang-data+json

   Required parameters: None

   Optional parameters: None

   Encoding considerations: 8-bit
      Each conceptual YANG data node is encoded according to
      [RFC7951].  A metadata annotation is encoded according to
      [RFC7952].

   Security considerations: Security considerations related
      to the generation and consumption of RESTCONF messages
      are discussed in Section 12 of RFC 8040.
      Additional security considerations are specific to the
      semantics of particular YANG data models.  Each YANG module
      is expected to specify security considerations for the
      YANG data defined in that module.

   Interoperability considerations: RFC 8040 specifies the format
      of conforming messages and the interpretation thereof.

   Published specification: RFC 8040

   Applications that use this media type: Instance document
      data parsers used within a protocol or automation tool
      that utilize YANG-defined data structures.

   Fragment identifier considerations: The syntax and semantics
      of fragment identifiers are the same as the syntax and semantics
      specified for the "application/json" media type.

   Additional information:

      Deprecated alias names for this type: N/A
      Magic number(s): N/A
      File extension(s): None
      Macintosh file type code(s): "TEXT"

   Person & email address to contact for further information: See
      the Authors' Addresses section of RFC 8040.

   Intended usage: COMMON

   Restrictions on usage: N/A

   Author: See the Authors' Addresses section of RFC 8040.

   Change controller: Internet Engineering Task Force
      (mailto:iesg@ietf.org).

   Provisional registration? (standards tree only): no

11.4.  RESTCONF Capability URNs

   This document defines a registry for RESTCONF capability identifiers.
   The name of the registry is "RESTCONF Capability URNs".  The review
   policy for this registry is "IETF Review" [RFC5226].  The registry
   shall record the following for each entry:

   o  the name of the RESTCONF capability.  By convention, this name
      begins with the colon (":") character.

   o  the URN for the RESTCONF capability.

   o  the reference for the document registering the value.

   This document registers several capability identifiers in the
   "RESTCONF Capability URNs" registry:

   Index           Capability Identifier
   ---------------------------------------------------------------------
   :defaults       urn:ietf:params:restconf:capability:defaults:1.0

   :depth          urn:ietf:params:restconf:capability:depth:1.0

   :fields         urn:ietf:params:restconf:capability:fields:1.0

   :filter         urn:ietf:params:restconf:capability:filter:1.0

   :replay         urn:ietf:params:restconf:capability:replay:1.0

   :with-defaults  urn:ietf:params:restconf:capability:with-defaults:1.0

11.5.  Registration of "restconf" URN Sub-namespace

   IANA has registered a new URN sub-namespace within the "IETF URN
   Sub-namespace for Registered Protocol Parameter Identifiers" registry
   defined in [RFC3553].

      Registry Name: restconf

      Specification: RFC 8040

      Repository: "RESTCONF Capability URNs" registry (Section 11.4)

      Index value:  Sub-parameters MUST be specified in UTF-8, using
         standard URI encoding where necessary.

12.  Security Considerations

   Section 2.1 states that "a RESTCONF server MUST support the TLS
   protocol [RFC5246]."  This language leaves open the possibility that
   a RESTCONF server might also support future versions of the TLS
   protocol.  Of specific concern, TLS 1.3 [TLS1.3] introduces support
   for 0-RTT handshakes that can lead to security issues for RESTCONF
   APIs, as described in Appendix B.1 of the TLS 1.3 document.  It is
   therefore RECOMMENDED that RESTCONF servers do not support 0-RTT at
   all (not even for idempotent requests) until an update to this RFC
   guides otherwise.

   Section 2.5 recommends authentication based on TLS client
   certificates but allows the use of any authentication scheme defined
   in the "Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) Authentication Scheme
   Registry".  Implementations need to be aware that the strengths of
   these methods vary greatly and that some may be considered
   experimental.  Selection of any of these schemes SHOULD be performed
   after reading the Security Considerations section of the RFC
   associated with the scheme's registry entry.

   The "ietf-restconf-monitoring" YANG module defined in this memo is
   designed to be accessed via the NETCONF protocol [RFC6241].  The
   lowest NETCONF layer is the secure transport layer, and the
   mandatory-to-implement secure transport is Secure Shell (SSH)
   [RFC6242].  The NETCONF access control model [RFC6536] provides the
   means to restrict access for particular NETCONF users to a
   preconfigured subset of all available NETCONF protocol operations and
   content.

   The lowest RESTCONF layer is HTTPS, and the mandatory-to-implement
   secure transport is TLS [RFC5246].  The RESTCONF protocol uses the
   NETCONF access control model [RFC6536], which provides the means to
   restrict access for particular RESTCONF users to a preconfigured
   subset of all available RESTCONF protocol operations and content.

   This section provides security considerations for the resources
   defined by the RESTCONF protocol.  Security considerations for HTTPS
   are defined in [RFC7230].  Aside from the "ietf-restconf-monitoring"
   module (Section 9) and the "ietf-yang-library" module (Section 10),
   RESTCONF does not specify which YANG modules a server needs to
   support.  Security considerations for the other modules manipulated
   by RESTCONF can be found in the documents defining those YANG
   modules.

   Configuration information is by its very nature sensitive.  Its
   transmission in the clear and without integrity checking leaves
   devices open to classic eavesdropping and false data injection

   attacks.  Configuration information often contains passwords, user
   names, service descriptions, and topological information, all of
   which are sensitive.  There are many patterns of attack that have
   been observed through operational practice with existing management
   interfaces.  It would be wise for implementers to research them and
   take them into account when implementing this protocol.

   Different environments may well allow different rights prior to, and
   then after, authentication.  When a RESTCONF operation is not
   properly authorized, the RESTCONF server MUST return a "401
   Unauthorized" status-line.  Note that authorization information can
   be exchanged in the form of configuration information, which is all
   the more reason to ensure the security of the connection.  Note that
   it is possible for a client to detect configuration changes in data
   resources it is not authorized to access by monitoring changes in the
   "ETag" and "Last-Modified" header fields returned by the server for
   the datastore resource.

   A RESTCONF server implementation SHOULD attempt to prevent system
   disruption due to excessive resource consumption required to fulfill
   edit requests via the POST, PUT, and PATCH methods.  On such an
   implementation, it may be possible to construct an attack that
   attempts to consume all available memory or other resource types.

13.  References

13.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2046]  Freed, N. and N. Borenstein, "Multipurpose Internet Mail
              Extensions (MIME) Part Two: Media Types", RFC 2046,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2046, November 1996,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2046>.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119>.

   [RFC3553]  Mealling, M., Masinter, L., Hardie, T., and G. Klyne, "An
              IETF URN Sub-namespace for Registered Protocol
              Parameters", BCP 73, RFC 3553, DOI 10.17487/RFC3553,
              June 2003, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3553>.

   [RFC3688]  Mealling, M., "The IETF XML Registry", BCP 81, RFC 3688,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC3688, January 2004,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3688>.

   [RFC3986]  Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform
              Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66,
              RFC 3986, DOI 10.17487/RFC3986, January 2005,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3986>.

   [RFC5234]  Crocker, D., Ed., and P. Overell, "Augmented BNF for
              Syntax Specifications: ABNF", STD 68, RFC 5234,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5234, January 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5234>.

   [RFC5246]  Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security
              (TLS) Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5246, August 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5246>.

   [RFC5277]  Chisholm, S. and H. Trevino, "NETCONF Event
              Notifications", RFC 5277, DOI 10.17487/RFC5277, July 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5277>.

   [RFC5280]  Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S.,
              Housley, R., and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key
              Infrastructure Certificate and Certificate Revocation List
              (CRL) Profile", RFC 5280, DOI 10.17487/RFC5280, May 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5280>.

   [RFC5789]  Dusseault, L. and J. Snell, "PATCH Method for HTTP",
              RFC 5789, DOI 10.17487/RFC5789, March 2010,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5789>.

   [RFC5988]  Nottingham, M., "Web Linking", RFC 5988,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5988, October 2010,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5988>.

   [RFC6020]  Bjorklund, M., Ed., "YANG - A Data Modeling Language for
              the Network Configuration Protocol (NETCONF)", RFC 6020,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6020, October 2010,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6020>.

   [RFC6241]  Enns, R., Ed., Bjorklund, M., Ed., Schoenwaelder, J., Ed.,
              and A. Bierman, Ed., "Network Configuration Protocol
              (NETCONF)", RFC 6241, DOI 10.17487/RFC6241, June 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6241>.

   [RFC6242]  Wasserman, M., "Using the NETCONF Protocol over Secure
              Shell (SSH)", RFC 6242, DOI 10.17487/RFC6242, June 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6242>.

   [RFC6243]  Bierman, A. and B. Lengyel, "With-defaults Capability for
              NETCONF", RFC 6243, DOI 10.17487/RFC6243, June 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6243>.

   [RFC6415]  Hammer-Lahav, E., Ed., and B. Cook, "Web Host Metadata",
              RFC 6415, DOI 10.17487/RFC6415, October 2011,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6415>.

   [RFC6536]  Bierman, A. and M. Bjorklund, "Network Configuration
              Protocol (NETCONF) Access Control Model", RFC 6536,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6536, March 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6536>.

   [RFC6570]  Gregorio, J., Fielding, R., Hadley, M., Nottingham, M.,
              and D. Orchard, "URI Template", RFC 6570,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC6570, March 2012,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6570>.

   [RFC6991]  Schoenwaelder, J., Ed., "Common YANG Data Types",
              RFC 6991, DOI 10.17487/RFC6991, July 2013,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6991>.

   [RFC7159]  Bray, T., Ed., "The JavaScript Object Notation (JSON) Data
              Interchange Format", RFC 7159, DOI 10.17487/RFC7159,
              March 2014, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7159>.

   [RFC7230]  Fielding, R., Ed., and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Message Syntax and Routing",
              RFC 7230, DOI 10.17487/RFC7230, June 2014,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7230>.

   [RFC7231]  Fielding, R., Ed., and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Semantics and Content",
              RFC 7231, DOI 10.17487/RFC7231, June 2014,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7231>.

   [RFC7232]  Fielding, R., Ed., and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Conditional Requests",
              RFC 7232, DOI 10.17487/RFC7232, June 2014,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7232>.

   [RFC7235]  Fielding, R., Ed., and J. Reschke, Ed., "Hypertext
              Transfer Protocol (HTTP/1.1): Authentication", RFC 7235,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7235, June 2014,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7235>.

   [RFC7320]  Nottingham, M., "URI Design and Ownership", BCP 190,
              RFC 7320, DOI 10.17487/RFC7320, July 2014,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7320>.

   [RFC7525]  Sheffer, Y., Holz, R., and P. Saint-Andre,
              "Recommendations for Secure Use of Transport Layer
              Security (TLS) and Datagram Transport Layer Security
              (DTLS)", BCP 195, RFC 7525, DOI 10.17487/RFC7525,
              May 2015, <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7525>.

   [RFC7589]  Badra, M., Luchuk, A., and J. Schoenwaelder, "Using the
              NETCONF Protocol over Transport Layer Security (TLS) with
              Mutual X.509 Authentication", RFC 7589,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC7589, June 2015,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7589>.

   [RFC7895]  Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., and K. Watsen, "YANG Module
              Library", RFC 7895, DOI 10.17487/RFC7895, June 2016,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7895>.

   [RFC7950]  Bjorklund, M., Ed., "The YANG 1.1 Data Modeling Language",
              RFC 7950, DOI 10.17487/RFC7950, August 2016,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7950>.

   [RFC7951]  Lhotka, L., "JSON Encoding of Data Modeled with YANG",
              RFC 7951, DOI 10.17487/RFC7951, August 2016,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7951>.

   [RFC7952]  Lhotka, L., "Defining and Using Metadata with YANG",
              RFC 7952, DOI 10.17487/RFC7952, August 2016,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc7952>.

   [W3C.REC-eventsource-20150203]
              Hickson, I., "Server-Sent Events", World Wide Web
              Consortium Recommendation REC-eventsource-20150203,
              February 2015,
              <http://www.w3.org/TR/2015/REC-eventsource-20150203>.

   [W3C.REC-xml-20081126]
              Bray, T., Paoli, J., Sperberg-McQueen, M., Maler, E.,
              and F. Yergeau, "Extensible Markup Language (XML) 1.0
              (Fifth Edition)", World Wide Web Consortium Recommendation
              REC-xml-20081126, November 2008,
              <http://www.w3.org/TR/2008/REC-xml-20081126>.

   [XPath]    Clark, J. and S. DeRose, "XML Path Language (XPath)
              Version 1.0", World Wide Web Consortium Recommendation
              REC-xpath-19991116, November 1999,
              <http://www.w3.org/TR/1999/REC-xpath-19991116>.

13.2.  Informative References

   [REST-Dissertation]
              Fielding, R., "Architectural Styles and the Design of
              Network-based Software Architectures", 2000.

   [RFC2818]  Rescorla, E., "HTTP Over TLS", RFC 2818,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC2818, May 2000,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2818>.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              DOI 10.17487/RFC5226, May 2008,
              <http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5226>.

   [TLS1.3]   Rescorla, E., "The Transport Layer Security (TLS) Protocol
              Version 1.3", Work in Progress, draft-ietf-tls-tls13-18,
              October 2016.

   [YANG-Patch]
              Bierman, A., Bjorklund, M., and K. Watsen, "YANG Patch
              Media Type", Work in Progress,
              draft-ietf-netconf-yang-patch-14, November 2016.

Appendix A.  Example YANG Module

   The example YANG module used in this document represents a simple
   media jukebox interface.

   YANG tree diagram for the "example-jukebox" module:

      +--rw jukebox!
         +--rw library
         |  +--rw artist* [name]
         |  |  +--rw name     string
         |  |  +--rw album* [name]
         |  |     +--rw name     string
         |  |     +--rw genre?   identityref
         |  |     +--rw year?    uint16
         |  |     +--rw admin
         |  |     |  +--rw label?              string
         |  |     |  +--rw catalogue-number?   string
         |  |     +--rw song* [name]
         |  |        +--rw name        string
         |  |        +--rw location    string
         |  |        +--rw format?     string
         |  |        +--rw length?     uint32
         |  +--ro artist-count?   uint32
         |  +--ro album-count?    uint32
         |  +--ro song-count?     uint32
         +--rw playlist* [name]
         |  +--rw name           string
         |  +--rw description?   string
         |  +--rw song* [index]
         |     +--rw index    uint32
         |     +--rw id       instance-identifier
         +--rw player
            +--rw gap?   decimal64

     rpcs:

     +---x play
         +--ro input
            +--ro playlist       string
            +--ro song-number    uint32

A.1.  "example-jukebox" YANG Module

   module example-jukebox {

      namespace "http://example.com/ns/example-jukebox";
      prefix "jbox";

      organization "Example, Inc.";
      contact "support at example.com";
      description "Example Jukebox Data Model Module.";
      revision "2016-08-15" {
        description "Initial version.";
        reference "example.com document 1-4673.";
      }

      identity genre {
        description
          "Base for all genre types.";
      }

      // abbreviated list of genre classifications
      identity alternative {
        base genre;
        description
          "Alternative music.";
      }
      identity blues {
        base genre;
        description
          "Blues music.";
      }
      identity country {
        base genre;
        description
          "Country music.";
      }
      identity jazz {
        base genre;
        description
          "Jazz music.";
      }
      identity pop {
        base genre;
        description
          "Pop music.";
      }

      identity rock {
        base genre;
        description
          "Rock music.";
      }

      container jukebox {
        presence
          "An empty container indicates that the jukebox
           service is available.";

        description
          "Represents a 'jukebox' resource, with a library, playlists,
           and a 'play' operation.";

        container library {

          description
            "Represents the 'jukebox' library resource.";

          list artist {
            key name;
            description
              "Represents one 'artist' resource within the
               'jukebox' library resource.";

            leaf name {
              type string {
                length "1 .. max";
              }
              description
                "The name of the artist.";
            }

            list album {
              key name;
              description
                "Represents one 'album' resource within one
                 'artist' resource, within the jukebox library.";

              leaf name {
                type string {
                  length "1 .. max";
                }
                description
                  "The name of the album.";
              }

              leaf genre {
                type identityref { base genre; }
                description
                  "The genre identifying the type of music on
                   the album.";
              }

              leaf year {
                type uint16 {
                  range "1900 .. max";
                }
                description
                  "The year the album was released.";
              }

              container admin {
                description
                  "Administrative information for the album.";

                leaf label {
                  type string;
                  description
                    "The label that released the album.";
                }
                leaf catalogue-number {
                  type string;
                  description
                    "The album's catalogue number.";
                }
              }

              list song {
                key name;
                description
                  "Represents one 'song' resource within one
                   'album' resource, within the jukebox library.";

                leaf name {
                  type string {
                     length "1 .. max";
                  }
                  description
                    "The name of the song.";
                }

                leaf location {
                  type string;
                  mandatory true;
                  description
                    "The file location string of the
                     media file for the song.";
                }
                leaf format {
                  type string;
                  description
                    "An identifier string for the media type
                     for the file associated with the
                     'location' leaf for this entry.";
                }
                leaf length {
                  type uint32;
                  units "seconds";
                  description
                    "The duration of this song in seconds.";
                }
              }   // end list 'song'
            }   // end list 'album'
          }  // end list 'artist'

          leaf artist-count {
             type uint32;
             units "artists";
             config false;
             description
               "Number of artists in the library.";
          }
          leaf album-count {
             type uint32;
             units "albums";
             config false;
             description
               "Number of albums in the library.";
          }
          leaf song-count {
             type uint32;
             units "songs";
             config false;
             description
               "Number of songs in the library.";
          }
        }  // end library

        list playlist {
          key name;
          description
            "Example configuration data resource.";

          leaf name {
            type string;
            description
              "The name of the playlist.";
          }
          leaf description {
            type string;
            description
              "A comment describing the playlist.";
          }
          list song {
            key index;
            ordered-by user;

            description
              "Example nested configuration data resource.";

            leaf index {    // not really needed
              type uint32;
              description
                "An arbitrary integer index for this playlist song.";
            }
            leaf id {
              type instance-identifier;
              mandatory true;
              description
                "Song identifier.  Must identify an instance of
                 /jukebox/library/artist/album/song/name.";
            }
          }
        }

        container player {
          description
            "Represents the jukebox player resource.";

          leaf gap {
            type decimal64 {
              fraction-digits 1;
              range "0.0 .. 2.0";
            }
            units "tenths of seconds";
            description
              "Time gap between each song.";
          }
        }
      }

      rpc play {
        description
          "Control function for the jukebox player.";
        input {
          leaf playlist {
            type string;
            mandatory true;
            description
              "The playlist name.";
          }
          leaf song-number {
            type uint32;
            mandatory true;
            description
              "Song number in playlist to play.";
          }
        }
      }
   }

Appendix B.  RESTCONF Message Examples

   The examples within this document use the normative YANG module
   "ietf-restconf" as defined in Section 8 and the non-normative example
   YANG module "example-jukebox" as defined in Appendix A.1.

   This section shows some typical RESTCONF message exchanges.

B.1.  Resource Retrieval Examples

B.1.1.  Retrieve the Top-Level API Resource

   The client starts by retrieving the RESTCONF root resource:

      GET /.well-known/host-meta HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/xrd+xml

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Content-Type: application/xrd+xml
      Content-Length: nnn

      <XRD xmlns='http://docs.oasis-open.org/ns/xri/xrd-1.0'>
          <Link rel='restconf' href='/restconf'/>
      </XRD>

   The client may then retrieve the top-level API resource, using the
   root resource "/restconf".

      GET /restconf HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+json

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      {
        "ietf-restconf:restconf" : {
          "data" : {},
          "operations" : {},
          "yang-library-version" : "2016-06-21"
        }
      }

   To request that the response content be encoded in XML, the "Accept"
   header can be used, as in this example request:

      GET /restconf HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+xml

   The server will return the same conceptual data either way, which
   might be as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Cache-Control: no-cache
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+xml

      <restconf xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-restconf">
        <data/>
        <operations/>
        <yang-library-version>2016-06-21</yang-library-version>
      </restconf>

B.1.2.  Retrieve the Server Module Information

   It is possible that the YANG library module will change over time.
   The client can retrieve the revision date of the "ietf-yang-library"
   module supported by the server from the API resource, as described in
   the previous section.

   In this example, the client is retrieving the module information from
   the server in JSON format:

      GET /restconf/data/ietf-yang-library:modules-state HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+json

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Cache-Control: no-cache
      Last-Modified: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 14:00:14 GMT
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      {
        "ietf-yang-library:modules-state" : {
          "module-set-id" : "5479120c17a619545ea6aff7aa19838b036ebbd7",
          "module" : [
            {
              "name" : "foo",
              "revision" : "2012-01-02",
              "schema" : "https://example.com/modules/foo/2012-01-02",
              "namespace" : "http://example.com/ns/foo",
              "feature" : [ "feature1", "feature2" ],
              "deviation" : [
                {
                  "name" : "foo-dev",
                  "revision" : "2012-02-16"
                }
              ],
              "conformance-type" : "implement"
            },
            {
              "name" : "ietf-yang-library",
              "revision" : "2016-06-21",
              "schema" : "https://example.com/modules/\
                ietf-yang-library/2016-06-21",
              "namespace" :
                "urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-yang-library",
              "conformance-type" : "implement"
            },
            {
              "name" : "foo-types",
              "revision" : "2012-01-05",
              "schema" :
                "https://example.com/modules/foo-types/2012-01-05",
              "namespace" : "http://example.com/ns/foo-types",
              "conformance-type" : "import"
            },

            {
              "name" : "bar",
              "revision" : "2012-11-05",
              "schema" : "https://example.com/modules/bar/2012-11-05",
              "namespace" : "http://example.com/ns/bar",
              "feature" : [ "bar-ext" ],
              "conformance-type" : "implement",
              "submodule" : [
                {
                  "name" : "bar-submod1",
                  "revision" : "2012-11-05",
                  "schema" :
                   "https://example.com/modules/bar-submod1/2012-11-05"
                },
                {
                  "name" : "bar-submod2",
                  "revision" : "2012-11-05",
                  "schema" :
                   "https://example.com/modules/bar-submod2/2012-11-05"
                }
              ]
            }
          ]
        }
      }

B.1.3.  Retrieve the Server Capability Information

   In this example, the client is retrieving the capability information
   from the server in XML format, and the server supports all of the
   RESTCONF query parameters, plus one vendor parameter:

      GET /restconf/data/ietf-restconf-monitoring:restconf-state/\
          capabilities HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+xml

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Cache-Control: no-cache
      Last-Modified: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 16:00:14 GMT
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+xml

      <capabilities
          xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-restconf-monitoring">
       <capability>\
        urn:ietf:params:restconf:capability:defaults:1.0?\
           basic-mode=explicit\
       </capability>
       <capability>\
        urn:ietf:params:restconf:capability:with-defaults:1.0\
       </capability>
       <capability>\
        urn:ietf:params:restconf:capability:depth:1.0\
       </capability>
       <capability>\
        urn:ietf:params:restconf:capability:fields:1.0\
       </capability>
       <capability>\
        urn:ietf:params:restconf:capability:filter:1.0\
       </capability>
       <capability>\
        urn:ietf:params:restconf:capability:start-time:1.0\
       </capability>
       <capability>\
        urn:ietf:params:restconf:capability:stop-time:1.0\
       </capability>
       <capability>\
        http://example.com/capabilities/myparam\
       </capability>
      </capabilities>

B.2.  Data Resource and Datastore Resource Examples

B.2.1.  Create New Data Resources

   To create a new "artist" resource within the "library" resource, the
   client might send the following request:

      POST /restconf/data/example-jukebox:jukebox/library HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      {
        "example-jukebox:artist" : [
          {
            "name" : "Foo Fighters"
          }
        ]
      }

   If the resource is created, the server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 201 Created
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Location: https://example.com/restconf/data/\
          example-jukebox:jukebox/library/artist=Foo%20Fighters
      Last-Modified: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      ETag: "b3830f23a4c"

   To create a new "album" resource for this artist within the "jukebox"
   resource, the client might send the following request:

      POST /restconf/data/example-jukebox:jukebox/\
          library/artist=Foo%20Fighters HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+xml

      <album xmlns="http://example.com/ns/example-jukebox">
        <name>Wasting Light</name>
        <year>2011</year>
      </album>

   If the resource is created, the server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 201 Created
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Location: https://example.com/restconf/data/\
          example-jukebox:jukebox/library/artist=Foo%20Fighters/\
          album=Wasting%20Light
      Last-Modified: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      ETag: "b8389233a4c"

B.2.2.  Detect Datastore Resource Entity-Tag Change

   In this example, the server just supports the datastore last-changed
   timestamp.  Assume that the client has cached the "Last-Modified"
   header from the response to the previous request.  This value is used
   as in the "If-Unmodified-Since" header in the following request to
   patch an "album" list entry with a key value of "Wasting Light".
   Only the "genre" field is being updated.

      PATCH /restconf/data/example-jukebox:jukebox/\
          library/artist=Foo%20Fighters/album=Wasting%20Light/\
          genre HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      If-Unmodified-Since: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      { "example-jukebox:genre" : "example-jukebox:alternative" }

   In this example, the datastore resource has changed since the time
   specified in the "If-Unmodified-Since" header.  The server might
   respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 412 Precondition Failed
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Last-Modified: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 19:41:00 GMT
      ETag: "b34aed893a4c"

B.2.3.  Edit a Datastore Resource

   In this example, assume that there is a top-level data resource named
   "system" from the example-system module, and this container has a
   child leaf called "enable-jukebox-streaming":

      container system {
        leaf enable-jukebox-streaming {
          type boolean;
        }
      }

   In this example, PATCH is used by the client to modify two top-level
   resources at once, in order to enable jukebox streaming and add an
   "album" sub-resource to each of two "artist" resources:

      PATCH /restconf/data HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+xml

      <data xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-restconf">
        <system xmlns="http://example.com/ns/example-system">
          <enable-jukebox-streaming>true</enable-jukebox-streaming>
        </system>
        <jukebox xmlns="http://example.com/ns/example-jukebox">
          <library>
            <artist>
              <name>Foo Fighters</name>
              <album>
                <name>One by One</name>
                <year>2012</year>
              </album>
            </artist>
            <artist>
              <name>Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds</name>
              <album>
                <name>Tender Prey</name>
                <year>1988</year>
              </album>
            </artist>
          </library>
        </jukebox>
      </data>

B.2.4.  Replace a Datastore Resource

   In this example, the entire configuration datastore contents are
   being replaced.  Any child nodes not present in the <data> element
   but present in the server will be deleted.

      PUT /restconf/data HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+xml

      <data xmlns="urn:ietf:params:xml:ns:yang:ietf-restconf">
        <jukebox xmlns="http://example.com/ns/example-jukebox">
          <library>
            <artist>
              <name>Foo Fighters</name>
              <album>
                <name>One by One</name>
                <year>2012</year>
              </album>
            </artist>
            <artist>
              <name>Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds</name>
              <album>
                <name>Tender Prey</name>
                <year>1988</year>
              </album>
            </artist>
          </library>
        </jukebox>
      </data>

B.2.5.  Edit a Data Resource

   In this example, the client modifies one data node by adding an
   "album" sub-resource by sending a PATCH for the data resource:

      PATCH /restconf/data/example-jukebox:jukebox/library/\
         artist=Nick%20Cave%20and%20the%20Bad%20Seeds HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+xml

      <artist xmlns="http://example.com/ns/example-jukebox">
        <name>Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds</name>
        <album>
          <name>The Good Son</name>
          <year>1990</year>
        </album>
      </artist>

B.3.  Query Parameter Examples

B.3.1.  "content" Parameter

   The "content" parameter is used to select the types of data child
   resources (configuration and/or non-configuration) that are returned
   by the server for a GET method request.

   In this example, a simple YANG list is used that has configuration
   and non-configuration child resources.

     container events {
       list event {
         key name;
         leaf name { type string; }
         leaf description { type string; }
         leaf event-count {
           type uint32;
           config false;
         }
       }
     }

   Example 1: content=all

   To retrieve all of the child resources, the "content" parameter is
   set to "all", or omitted, since this is the default value.  The
   client might send the following:

      GET /restconf/data/example-events:events?\
          content=all HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+json

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Cache-Control: no-cache
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      {
        "example-events:events" : {
          "event" : [
            {
              "name" : "interface-up",
              "description" : "Interface up notification count",
              "event-count" : 42
            },
            {
              "name" : "interface-down",
              "description" : "Interface down notification count",
              "event-count" : 4
            }
          ]
        }
      }

   Example 2: content=config

   To retrieve only the configuration child resources, the "content"
   parameter is set to "config".  Note that the "ETag" and
   "Last-Modified" headers are only returned if the "content" parameter
   value is "config".

      GET /restconf/data/example-events:events?\
          content=config HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+json

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Last-Modified: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 16:45:20 GMT
      ETag: "eeeada438af"
      Cache-Control: no-cache
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      {
        "example-events:events" : {
          "event" : [
            {
              "name" : "interface-up",
              "description" : "Interface up notification count"
            },
            {
              "name" : "interface-down",
              "description" : "Interface down notification count"
            }
          ]
        }
      }

   Example 3: content=nonconfig

   To retrieve only the non-configuration child resources, the "content"
   parameter is set to "nonconfig".  Note that configuration ancestors
   (if any) and list key leafs (if any) are also returned.  The client
   might send the following:

      GET /restconf/data/example-events:events?\
         content=nonconfig HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+json

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Cache-Control: no-cache
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      {
        "example-events:events" : {
          "event" : [
            {
              "name" : "interface-up",
              "event-count" : 42
            },
            {
              "name" : "interface-down",
              "event-count" : 4
            }
          ]
        }
      }

B.3.2.  "depth" Parameter

   The "depth" parameter is used to limit the number of levels of child
   resources that are returned by the server for a GET method request.

   The "depth" parameter starts counting levels at the level of the
   target resource that is specified, so that a depth level of "1"
   includes just the target resource level itself.  A depth level of "2"
   includes the target resource level and its child nodes.

   This example shows how different values of the "depth" parameter
   would affect the reply content for the retrieval of the top-level
   "jukebox" data resource.

   Example 1: depth=unbounded

   To retrieve all of the child resources, the "depth" parameter is not
   present or is set to the default value "unbounded".

      GET /restconf/data/example-jukebox:jukebox?\
          depth=unbounded HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+json

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Cache-Control: no-cache
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      {
        "example-jukebox:jukebox" : {
          "library" : {
            "artist" : [
              {
                "name" : "Foo Fighters",
                "album" : [
                  {
                    "name" : "Wasting Light",
                    "genre" : "example-jukebox:alternative",
                    "year" : 2011,
                    "song" : [
                      {
                        "name" : "Wasting Light",
                        "location" :
                          "/media/foo/a7/wasting-light.mp3",
                        "format" : "MP3",
                        "length" : 286
                      },

                      {
                        "name" : "Rope",
                        "location" : "/media/foo/a7/rope.mp3",
                        "format" : "MP3",
                        "length" : 259
                      }
                    ]
                  }
                ]
              }
            ]
          },
          "playlist" : [
            {
              "name" : "Foo-One",
              "description" : "example playlist 1",
              "song" : [
                {
                  "index" : 1,
                  "id" : "/example-jukebox:jukebox/library\
                     /artist[name='Foo Fighters']\
                     /album[name='Wasting Light']\
                     /song[name='Rope']"
                },
                {
                  "index" : 2,
                  "id" : "/example-jukebox:jukebox/library\
                     /artist[name='Foo Fighters']\
                     /album[name='Wasting Light']\
                     /song[name='Bridge Burning']"
                }
              ]
            }
          ],
          "player" : {
            "gap" : 0.5
          }
        }
      }

   Example 2: depth=1

   To determine if one or more resource instances exist for a given
   target resource, the value "1" is used.

      GET /restconf/data/example-jukebox:jukebox?depth=1 HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+json

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Cache-Control: no-cache
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      {
        "example-jukebox:jukebox" : {}
      }

   Example 3: depth=3

   To limit the depth level to the target resource plus two child
   resource layers, the value "3" is used.

      GET /restconf/data/example-jukebox:jukebox?depth=3 HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+json

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Cache-Control: no-cache
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      {
        "example-jukebox:jukebox" : {
          "library" : {
            "artist" : {}
          },
          "playlist" : [
            {
              "name" : "Foo-One",
              "description" : "example playlist 1",
              "song" : {}
            }
          ],
          "player" : {
            "gap" : 0.5
          }
        }
      }

B.3.3.  "fields" Parameter

   In this example, the client is retrieving the datastore resource in
   JSON format, but retrieving only the "modules-state/module" list, and
   only the "name" and "revision" nodes from each list entry.  Note that
   the top node returned by the server matches the target resource node
   (which is "data" in this example).  The "module-set-id" leaf is not
   returned because it is not selected in the fields expression.

      GET /restconf/data?fields=ietf-yang-library:modules-state/\
          module(name;revision) HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+json

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      {
        "ietf-restconf:data" : {
          "ietf-yang-library:modules-state" : {
            "module" : [
              {
                "name" : "example-jukebox",
                "revision" : "2016-08-15"
              },
              {
                "name" : "ietf-inet-types",
                "revision" : "2013-07-15"
              },
              {
                "name" : "ietf-restconf-monitoring",
                "revision" : "2017-01-26"
              },
              {
                "name" : "ietf-yang-library",
                "revision" : "2016-06-21"
              },
              {
                "name" : "ietf-yang-types",
                "revision" : "2013-07-15"
              }
            ]
          }
        }
      }

B.3.4.  "insert" Parameter

   In this example, a new first song entry in the "Foo-One" playlist is
   being created.

   Request from client:

      POST /restconf/data/example-jukebox:jukebox/\
          playlist=Foo-One?insert=first HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      {
        "example-jukebox:song" : [
           {
             "index" : 1,
             "id" : "/example-jukebox:jukebox/library\
                /artist[name='Foo Fighters']\
                /album[name='Wasting Light']\
                /song[name='Rope']"
           }
         ]
      }

   Response from server:

      HTTP/1.1 201 Created
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Last-Modified: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Location: https://example.com/restconf/data/\
          example-jukebox:jukebox/playlist=Foo-One/song=1
      ETag: "eeeada438af"

B.3.5.  "point" Parameter

   In this example, the client is inserting a new song entry in the
   "Foo-One" playlist after the first song.

   Request from client:

      POST /restconf/data/example-jukebox:jukebox/\
          playlist=Foo-One?insert=after&point=\
          %2Fexample-jukebox%3Ajukebox\
          %2Fplaylist%3DFoo-One%2Fsong%3D1 HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      {
        "example-jukebox:song" : [
           {
             "index" : 2,
             "id" : "/example-jukebox:jukebox/library\
                /artist[name='Foo Fighters']\
                /album[name='Wasting Light']\
                /song[name='Bridge Burning']"
           }
         ]
      }

   Response from server:

      HTTP/1.1 201 Created
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Last-Modified: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Location: https://example.com/restconf/data/\
          example-jukebox:jukebox/playlist=Foo-One/song=2
      ETag: "abcada438af"

B.3.6.  "filter" Parameter

   The following URIs show some examples of notification filter
   specifications:

      // filter = /event/event-class='fault'
      GET /streams/NETCONF?filter=%2Fevent%2Fevent-class%3D'fault'

      // filter = /event/severity<=4
      GET /streams/NETCONF?filter=%2Fevent%2Fseverity%3C%3D4

      // filter = /linkUp|/linkDown
      GET /streams/SNMP?filter=%2FlinkUp%7C%2FlinkDown

      // filter = /*/reporting-entity/card!='Ethernet0'
      GET /streams/NETCONF?\
         filter=%2F*%2Freporting-entity%2Fcard%21%3D'Ethernet0'

      // filter = /*/email-addr[contains(.,'company.com')]
      GET /streams/critical-syslog?\
         filter=%2F*%2Femail-addr[contains(.%2C'company.com')]

      // Note: The module name is used as the prefix.
      // filter = (/example-mod:event1/name='joe' and
      //           /example-mod:event1/status='online')
      GET /streams/NETCONF?\
        filter=(%2Fexample-mod%3Aevent1%2Fname%3D'joe'%20and\
                %20%2Fexample-mod%3Aevent1%2Fstatus%3D'online')

      // To get notifications from just two modules (e.g., m1 + m2)
      // filter=(/m1:* or /m2:*)
      GET /streams/NETCONF?filter=(%2Fm1%3A*%20or%20%2Fm2%3A*)

B.3.7.  "start-time" Parameter

   The following URI shows an example of the "start-time" query
   parameter:

      // start-time = 2014-10-25T10:02:00Z
      GET /streams/NETCONF?start-time=2014-10-25T10%3A02%3A00Z

B.3.8.  "stop-time" Parameter

   The following URI shows an example of the "stop-time" query
   parameter:

      // start-time = 2014-10-25T10:02:00Z
      // stop-time = 2014-10-25T12:31:00Z
      GET /mystreams/NETCONF?start-time=2014-10-25T10%3A02%3A00Z\
         &stop-time=2014-10-25T12%3A31%3A00Z

B.3.9.  "with-defaults" Parameter

   Assume that the server implements the module "example" defined in
   Appendix A.1 of [RFC6243], and assume that the server's datastore is
   as defined in Appendix A.2 of [RFC6243].

   If the server's "basic-mode" parameter in the "defaults" protocol
   capability URI (Section 9.1.2) is "trim", the following request for
   interface "eth1" might be as follows:

   Without query parameter:

      GET /restconf/data/example:interfaces/interface=eth1 HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+json

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      {
        "example:interface" : [
          {
            "name" : "eth1",
            "status" : "up"
          }
        ]
      }

   Note that the "mtu" leaf is missing because it is set to the default
   "1500", and the server's default-handling "basic-mode" parameter is
   "trim".

   With query parameter:

      GET /restconf/data/example:interfaces/interface=eth1\
          ?with-defaults=report-all HTTP/1.1
      Host: example.com
      Accept: application/yang-data+json

   The server might respond as follows:

      HTTP/1.1 200 OK
      Date: Thu, 26 Jan 2017 20:56:30 GMT
      Server: example-server
      Content-Type: application/yang-data+json

      {
        "example:interface" : [
          {
            "name" : "eth1",
            "mtu" : 1500,
            "status" : "up"
          }
        ]
      }

   Note that the server returns the "mtu" leaf because the "report-all"
   mode was requested with the "with-defaults" query parameter.

Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank the following people for their
   contributions to this document: Ladislav Lhotka, Juergen
   Schoenwaelder, Rex Fernando, Robert Wilton, and Jonathan Hansford.

   The authors would like to thank the following people for their
   excellent technical reviews of this document: Mehmet Ersue, Mahesh
   Jethanandani, Qin Wu, Joe Clarke, Bert Wijnen, Ladislav Lhotka,
   Rodney Cummings, Frank Xialiang, Tom Petch, Robert Sparks, Balint
   Uveges, Randy Presuhn, Sue Hares, Mark Nottingham, Benoit Claise,
   Dale Worley, and Lionel Morand.

   Contributions to this material by Andy Bierman are based upon work
   supported by the United States Army, Space & Terrestrial
   Communications Directorate (S&TCD) under Contract
   No. W15P7T-13-C-A616.  Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or
   recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s)
   and do not necessarily reflect the views of the S&TCD.

Authors' Addresses

   Andy Bierman
   YumaWorks

   Email: andy@yumaworks.com

   Martin Bjorklund
   Tail-f Systems

   Email: mbj@tail-f.com

   Kent Watsen
   Juniper Networks

   Email: kwatsen@juniper.net

 

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