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RFC 3650 - Handle System Overview


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Network Working Group                                             S. Sun
Request for Comments: 3650                                     L. Lannom
Category: Informational                                        B. Boesch
                                                                    CNRI
                                                           November 2003

                        Handle System Overview

Status of this Memo

   This memo provides information for the Internet community.  It does
   not specify an Internet standard of any kind.  Distribution of this
   memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003).  All Rights Reserved.

IESG Note

   Several groups within the IETF and IRTF have discussed the Handle
   System and its relationship to existing systems of identifiers.  The
   IESG wishes to point out that these discussions have not resulted in
   IETF consensus on the described Handle System, nor on how it might
   fit into the IETF architecture for identifiers.  Though there has
   been discussion of handles as a form of URI, specifically as a URN,
   these documents describe an alternate view of how namespaces and
   identifiers might work on the Internet and include characterizations
   of existing systems which may not match the IETF consensus view.

Abstract

   This document provides an overview of the Handle System in terms of
   its namespace and service architecture, as well as its relationship
   to other Internet services such as DNS, LDAP/X.500, and URNs.  The
   Handle System is a general-purpose global name service that allows
   secured name resolution and administration over networks such as the
   Internet.  The Handle System manages handles, which are unique names
   for digital objects and other Internet resources.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  2
   2.  Motivations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.  Handle Namespace . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  7
   4.  Handle System Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  8
   5.  Handle System Security . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
   6.  The Handle System and other Internet Services. . . . . . . . . 12
       6.1.  Domain Name Service (DNS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       6.2.  Directory Services (X.500/LDAP). . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
       6.3.  Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)/Uniform Resource Name
             (URN). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14
   7.  Security Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       7.1.  General Security Practice. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
       7.2.  Privacy Protection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       7.3.  Caching and Proxy Servers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
       7.4.  Mirroring. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
       7.5.  Denial of Service (DoS). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   8.  History of the Handle System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   9.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
   10. References and Bibliography. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   11. Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   12. Full Copyright Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

1.  Introduction

   This document provides an overview of the Handle System, a
   distributed information system designed to provide an efficient,
   extensible, and secured global name service for use on networks such
   as the Internet.  The Handle System includes an open protocol, a
   namespace, and a reference implementation of the protocol.  The
   protocol enables a distributed computer system to store names, or
   handles, of digital resources and resolve those handles into the
   information necessary to locate, access, and otherwise make use of
   the resources.  These associated values can be changed as needed to
   reflect the current state of the identified resource without changing
   the handle.  This allows the name of the item to persist over changes
   of location and other current state information.  Each handle may
   have its own administrator(s) and administration can be done in a
   distributed environment.  The Handle System supports secured handle
   resolution.  Security services such as data confidentiality, data
   integrity, and non-repudiation are provided upon client request.

   The Handle System provides a confederated name service that allows
   any existing local namespace to join the global handle namespace by
   obtaining a unique Handle System naming authority.  Local names and
   their value-binding(s) remains intact after joining the Handle
   System.  Any handle request to the local namespace may be processed

   by a service interface speaking the Handle System protocol.  Combined
   with the unique naming authority, any local name is guaranteed unique
   under the global handle namespace.

   There are several services used today to provide name service for
   Internet resources.  Among these, the Domain Name System (DNS) [2,3]
   is the most widely used.  DNS is designed "to provide a mechanism for
   naming resources in such a way that the names are mappable into IP
   addresses and are usable in different hosts, networks, protocol
   families, internets, and administrative organizations" [3].  The
   growth of the Internet has raised demands for various extensions to
   DNS.  There are also attempts to use DNS as a general-purpose
   resource naming system.  However, the importance of DNS in basic
   network routing has led to great caution in implementing any DNS
   extension or overloading the DNS for general-purpose resource naming.
   An additional factor which argues against using DNS as a general-
   purpose naming service is the DNS administrative model.  DNS names
   are typically managed by the network administrator(s) at the DNS zone
   level.  There is no provision for per-name administrative structure
   and no facilities for anyone other than the network administrator to
   create or manage DNS names.  This is appropriate for domain name
   administration, but less so for general-purpose resource naming.

   The Handle System has been designed from the start to serve as a
   general-purpose naming service.  It is designed to accommodate very
   large numbers of entities and to allow distributed administration
   over the public Internet.  The Handle System data model allows access
   control to be defined at the level of each of the data values
   associated with a given handle.  Each handle can further define its
   own set of administrators that are independent from the network or
   host administrator.

   Traditional URLs (Uniform Resource Locators) [4] allow certain
   Internet resources to be named as a combination of a DNS name and
   local name.  The local name may be a local file path, or a reference
   to some local service (e.g., a cgi-bin script).  This combination of
   a DNS name and a local name provides a flexible administrative model
   for naming and managing individual Internet resources.  However, the
   URL practice also has some key limitations.  Most URL schemes (e.g.,
   http) are defined for resolution only.  Any URL administration has to
   be done either at the local host, or via some other network service
   such as NFS.  Using a URL as a name typically ties the Internet
   resource to its current network location.  For example, a URL will be
   tied to its local file path when the file path is part of the URL.
   When the resource moves from one location to another for whatever
   reason, the URL breaks.  It is especially difficult to work around

   this problem when the reason for the location change is change in
   ownership of an asset, as ownership is generally reflected in the
   domain name.

   The Handle System is designed to overcome these limitations and to
   add significant functionality.  Specifically, the Handle System is
   designed with the following objectives:

      -  Uniqueness: Every handle is globally unique within the Handle
         System.

      -  Persistence: Handles may be used as persistent identifiers for
         Internet resources.  A handle does not have to be derived from
         the entity that it names.  While an existing name, or even a
         mnemonic, may be included in a handle for convenience, the only
         operational connection between a handle and the entity it names
         is maintained within the Handle System.  This of course does
         not guarantee persistence, which is a function of
         administrative care.  But it does allow the same name to
         persist over changes of location, ownership, and other state
         conditions.  For example, when a named resource moves from one
         location to another, the handle may be kept valid by updating
         its value in the Handle System to reflect the new location.

      -  Multiple Instances: A single handle can refer to multiple
         instances of a resource, at different and possibly changing
         locations in a network.  Applications can take advantage of
         this to increase performance and reliability.  For example, a
         network service may define multiple entry points for its
         service with a single handle so as to distribute the service
         load.

      -  Multiple Attributes: A single handle can refer to multiple
         attributes of a resource, including associated services,
         available through any method at different and possibly changing
         network locations.  Handles can thus be used as persistent
         entry points into an evolving world of services associated with
         identified resources.

      -  Extensible Namespace: Existing local namespaces may join the
         handle namespace by acquiring a unique handle naming authority.
         This allows local namespaces to be introduced into a global
         context while avoiding conflict with existing namespaces.  Use
         of naming authorities also allows delegation of service, both
         resolution and administration, to a local handle service.

      -  International Support: The handle namespace is based on Unicode
         3.0 [17], which includes most of the characters currently used
         around the world.  This allows handles to be used in any native
         environment.  The handle protocol mandates UTF-8 [5] as the
         encoding used for handles.

      -  Distributed Service Model: The Handle System defines a
         hierarchical service model such that any local handle namespace
         may be serviced by a corresponding local handle service, by the
         global service, or by both.  The global service, known as the
         Global Handle Registry, can be used to dispatch any handle
         service request to the responsible local handle service.  The
         distributed service model allows replication of any given
         service into multiple service sites, and each service site may
         further distribute its service into a cluster of individual
         servers.  (Note that local here refers only to namespace and
         administrative concerns.  A local handle service could in fact
         have many service sites distributed across the Internet.)

      -  Secured Name Service: The Handle System allows secured name
         resolution and administration over the public Internet.  The
         Handle System protocol defines standard mechanisms for both
         client and server authentication, as well as service
         authorization.  It also provides security options to assure
         data integrity and confidentiality.

      -  Distributed Administration Service: Each handle may define its
         own administrator(s) or administrator group(s).  Ownership of
         each handle is defined in terms of its administrator or
         administrator groups.  This, combined with the Handle System
         authentication protocol, allows any handle to be managed
         securely over the public network by its administrator at any
         network location.

      -  Efficient Resolution Service: The handle protocol is designed
         to allow highly efficient name resolution performance.  To
         avoid resolution being affected by computationally costly
         administration service, separate service interfaces (i.e.,
         server processes and their associated communication ports) for
         handle name resolution and administration may be defined by any
         handle service.

   This document provides an overview of the handle namespace and
   service architecture.  It also compares the Handle System with other
   existing Internet services, protocols, and specifications (e.g., DNS
   [2, 3], URLs [4], X.500/LDAP [6,7,8], and URN [9,10]).  Details of
   the handle system data and service model, as well as its
   communication protocol, are specified in separate documents.  They

   can be found under the Handle System website at
   http://www.handle.net.

2.  Motivations

   Since there are a number of name related projects in the Internet
   community, it is worth defining exactly where we believe the Handle
   System fits.  Unfortunately, that is particularly hard because the
   other primary naming schemes either take an abstract services
   approach (e.g., URI/URN), or an approach to name resolution absent of
   a self-contained framework for reliable yet distributed
   administration of the underlying databases (e.g., DNS).  This makes
   categorizing the Handle System difficult.

   The Handle System crosses boundaries.  Looked at as a name resolution
   system, it might be compared to DNS.  If used to implement a URI/URN
   namespace, it could be used with any URI/URN scheme.  If used for
   distributed information updates and administration, it could be
   considered a simplified-version of a distributed database system.

   It is probably best to view the Handle System as a name-attribute
   binding service with a specific protocol for securely creating,
   updating, maintaining, and accessing a distributed database.  It is
   designed to be an enabling service for secured information and
   resource sharing over networks such as the public Internet.
   Applications of the Handle System could include meta-data services
   for digital publications, identity management services for virtual
   identities, or any other applications that require resolution and/or
   administration of globally unique identifiers.

   In the spirit of exploration, the Handle System has been designed to
   have high performance for name resolution and to push the boundaries
   of distributed access control and administration.  Unlike most
   conventional systems (even distributed systems) that are designed to
   have a relatively small number of broadly empowered administrators,
   the Handle System allows extremely fine granularity of administrative
   control.  It has a unique self-contained administrative framework
   that de-couples the ownership of each handle from the system
   administrators and allows access control to be defined for each
   handle value.

   It should be noted, that as with all real systems, the Handle System
   is a compromise between a number of technical and practical concerns.
   There are also different opinions within the IETF on where the Handle
   System fits in relation to other existing Internet name services.  It
   is with the goal of exposing a broader community to the concepts,
   approach, specific decisions, tradeoffs and results that we are
   writing this RFC.

3.  Handle Namespace

   Every handle consists of two parts: its naming authority, otherwise
   known as its prefix, and a unique local name under the naming
   authority, otherwise known as its suffix:

      <Handle> ::= <Handle Naming Authority> "/" <Handle Local Name>

   The naming authority and local name are separated by the ASCII
   character "/".  The collection of local names under a naming
   authority defines the local handle namespace for that naming
   authority.  Any local name must be unique under its local namespace.
   The uniqueness of a naming authority and a local name under that
   authority ensures that any handle is globally unique within the
   context of the Handle System.

   For example, "10.1045/january99-bearman" is a handle for an article
   published in D-Lib magazine [12].  Its naming authority is "10.1045"
   and its local name is "january99-bearman".  The handle namespace can
   be considered a superset of many local namespaces, with each local
   namespace having a unique naming authority under the Handle System.
   The naming authority identifies the administrative unit of creation,
   although not necessarily continuing administration, of the associated
   handles.  Each naming authority is guaranteed to be globally unique
   within the Handle System.  Any existing local namespace can join the
   global handle namespace by obtaining a unique naming authority so
   that any local name under the namespace can be globally referenced as
   a combination of the naming authority and the local name as shown
   above.

   Naming authorities under the Handle System are defined in a
   hierarchical fashion resembling a tree structure.  Each node and leaf
   of the tree is given a label that corresponds to a naming authority
   segment.  The parent node notifies the parent naming authority of its
   child nodes.  Unlike DNS, handle naming authorities are constructed
   left to right, concatenating the labels from the root of the tree to
   the node that represents the naming authority.  Each label is
   separated by the octet used for ASCII character "." (0x2E).  For
   example, a naming authority for the National Digital Library Program
   ("ndlp") at the Library of Congress ("loc") is defined as "loc.ndlp".

   Each naming authority may have many child naming authorities
   registered underneath.  Any child naming authority can only be
   registered by its parent after its parent naming authority has been
   registered.  However, there is no intrinsic administrative
   relationship between the namespaces represented by the parent and
   child naming authorities.  The parent namespace and its child

   namespaces may be served by different handle services, and they may
   or may not share any administration privileges.

   Handles may consist of any printable characters from the Universal
   Character Set (UCS-2) of ISO/IEC 10646, which is the exact character
   set defined by Unicode v3.0 [17].  The UCS-2 character set
   encompasses most characters used in every major language written
   today.  To allow compatibility with most of the existing systems and
   to prevent ambiguity among different encodings, the Handle System
   protocol mandates UTF-8 to be the only encoding used for handles.
   The UTF-8 encoding preserves any ASCII encoded names so as to allow
   maximum compatibility with existing systems without causing naming
   conflict.  Some encoding issues over the global namespace and the
   choice of UTF-8 encoding are discussed in [13].

   By default, handles are case sensitive.  However, any individual
   handle service may define its namespace such that ASCII characters
   within any handle under that namespace are case insensitive.

4.  Handle System Architecture

   The Handle System defines a hierarchical service model.  The top
   level consists of a single handle service, known as the Global Handle
   Registry (GHR).  The lower level consists of all other handle
   services, generically known as Local Handle Services (LHS).

   The Global Handle Registry can be used to manage any handle
   namespace.  It is unique among handle services only in that it
   provides the service used to manage naming authorities, all of which
   are managed as handles.  The naming authority handle provides
   information that clients can use to access and utilize the local
   handle service for handles under the naming authority.

   Local Handle Services are intended to be hosted by organizations with
   administrative responsibility for handles under certain naming
   authorities.  A Local Handle Service may be responsible for any
   number of local handle namespaces, each identified by a unique naming
   authority.  The Local Handle Service and its responsible set of local
   handle namespaces must be registered with the Global Handle Registry.

   One important aspect of the Handle System is its distributed
   architecture.  The Handle System as a whole consists of a number of
   individual handle services.  Each of these services may consist of
   one or more service sites.  Each service site is a complete
   replication of every other site in the service in terms of handle
   resolution.  Each service site may consist of one or more handle
   servers.  All handles, and hence all handle requests, directed at a
   given service site will be evenly distributed across these handle

   servers.  The Handle System as a whole may consist of any number of
   handle services.  There are no design limits on the number of handle
   services or on the number of sites which make up each service, nor
   are there any limits on the number of servers that make up each site.
   Replication among any service site does not require that each site
   contain the same number of servers.  In other words, while each site
   will have the same replicated set of handles, each site may allocate
   that set of handles across a different number of servers.  This
   distributed approach is intended to aid scalability, accommodate any
   large-scale of operation, and mitigate problems of single point
   failure.

   Figure 3.1 illustrates a potential handle service that consists of
   two service sites: one located on the U.S. east coast and the other
   on the U.S. west coast.  The east coast service site consists of four
   server computers.  The west coast service site, with more powerful
   computers deployed, decides two servers will suffice.  The number of
   service sites for any handle service, as well as the number of
   servers that are used by any service site, may be added or removed
   dynamically depending on the service requirement.

       -------------------------              ------------------
      |  ---------   ---------  |            |  -----    -----  |
      | |         | |         | |            | |  S  |  |  S  | |
      | | server1 | | server2 | |            | |  E  |  |  E  | |
      | |         | |         | |            | |  R  |  |  R  | |
      |  ---------   ---------  |            | |  V  |  |  V  | |
      |  ---------   ---------  |            | |  E  |  |  E  | |
      | |         | |         | |            | |  R  |  |  R  | |
      | | Server3 | | Server4 | |            | |     |  |     | |
      | |         | |         | |            | |  1  |  |  2  | |
      |  ---------   ---------  |            |  -----    -----  |
       -------------------------               ------------------

         Handle Service Site 1                Handle Service Site 2
            (US East Coast)                     (US West Coast)

       Figure 3.1: Handle service configured with two service sites

   Each handle service manages a distinct sub-namespace under the Handle
   System.  Namespaces under different handle services may not overlap.
   The sub-namespace typically consists of handles under a number of
   naming authorities.  The handle service is called the "home" service
   of these naming authorities and is the only one that provides
   resolution and administration service for handles under these naming
   authorities.  Before resolving a handle, a client has to determine
   the "home" service of the handle in question.  The "home" service of
   each handle is the "home" service of its naming authority and is

   registered at the Global Handle Registry.  Clients can find the
   "home" service for each handle by querying the naming authority
   handle at the Global Handle Registry.

   The Global Handle Registry maintains naming authority handles.  Each
   naming authority handle maintains the service information that
   describes the "home" service of the naming authority.  The service
   information lists the service sites of the given handle service, as
   well as the interface to each handle server within each site.  To
   find the "home" service for any handle, a client can query the Global
   Handle Registry for the service information associated with the
   corresponding naming authority handle.  The service information
   provides the necessary information for clients to communicate with
   the "home" service.

   Figure 3.2 shows an example of a typical handle resolution process.
   In this case, the "home" service is a Local Handle Service.  The
   client is trying to resolve the handle "10.1045/july95-arms" and has
   to find its "home" service from the Global Handle Registry.  The
   "home" service can be found by sending a query to the Global Handle
   Registry for the naming authority handle for "10.1045".  The Global
   Handle Registry returns the service information of the Local Handle
   Service that is responsible for handles under the naming authority
   "10.1045".  The service information allows the client to communicate
   with the Local Handle Service to resolve the handle "10.1045/july95-
   arms".

       ------------------------
      |                        |    4. Result of client request
      | Client with global     |  <-------------------------------.
      |  service information   |                                  |
      |                        |  ----------------------------.   |
       ------------------------     3. Request to responsible |   |
                 |   ^                 Local Handle Service   |   |
     1. Client   |   |                                        |   |
     query for   |   |                                        |   |
     naming      |   | 2. Service information                 |   |
     authority   |   |    for "10.1045"                       V   |
     "10.1045"   |   |                          ----------------------
                 |   |                         |                      |
                 V   |                         | Local Handle Service |
            ---------------                    | responsible for the  |
           |               |                   | naming authority     |
           | Global Handle |                   | "10.1045"            |
           |   Registry    |                   |                      |
           |               |                    ----------------------
            ---------------

               Figure 3.2: Handle resolution starting with global

   To improve resolution performance, any client may choose to cache the
   service information returned from the Global Handle Registry and use
   it for subsequent queries.  A separate handle caching server, either
   stand-alone or as a piece of a general caching mechanism, may also be
   used to provide shared caching within a local community.  Given a
   cached resolution result, subsequent queries of the same handle may
   be answered locally without contacting any handle service.  Given
   cached service information, clients can send their requests directly
   to the correct Local Handle Service without contacting the Global
   Handle Registry.

5.  Handle System Security

   The Handle System provides handle resolution and administration
   service over networks such as the public Internet.  Each handle can
   be assigned a set of values.  Clients use the handle resolution
   service to resolve any handle into its set of values.  Each value has
   a data type and a unique value index.  Clients can query for specific
   handle values based on data type or value index.

   The handle administration service answers requests from clients to
   manage handles.  These include adding handles, deleting handles or
   updating their values.  It also manages naming authorities via naming
   authority handles.  Each handle can have its own administrator(s),
   and each administrator can be granted a certain set of permissions.

   The handle system authentication protocol authenticates the handle
   administrator before fulfilling any administrative request.

   The Handle System provides security services such as client and
   server authentication, data confidentiality and integrity, and non-
   repudiation.  By default, handle resolution does not require any
   client authentication.  However, resolution requests for confidential
   data assigned to any handle (by its administrator), as well as any
   administration requests (e.g., adding or deleting handle values)
   require authentication of the client for proper authorization.  The
   server will decide, during the authorization process, whether or not
   the client has permission to access those confidential handle values,
   or has permission to add or update handles and handle values.  When
   authentication is required, the handle server will issue a challenge
   to the requesting client before carrying out the client's request.
   To satisfy the authentication requirement, the client must send back
   the correct response identifying itself as a qualified administrator.
   The handle server will respond to the initial request only after
   successful authentication of the client.  Handle clients may choose
   to use either secret key or public key cryptography for
   authentication.  Handle System authentication can also be carried out
   via third party authentication services.  To ensure data integrity,
   clients may request digitally signed responses from any handle
   server.  They may also set up secured communication sessions with
   handle servers so that any exchanged information can be encrypted
   (for data confidentiality) using a session key.  Handle servers can
   also provide confidentiality by encrypting the handle data before
   sending it to the client.

   The Handle System provides service options for secured information
   exchange between the client and server.  This does not, of course,
   guarantee the truthfulness of handle values.  Incorrect values
   assigned to any handle by its administrator may very well mislead
   clients.  On the other hand, a handle value may contain references to
   other handle values to provide additional credentials.  For example,
   a handle value R (e.g., a claim) may contain a reference to some
   other handle value that contains the digital signature (from a
   creditable source) upon the value R.  Clients who trust the signature
   could then trust the handle value R.

6.  The Handle System and other Internet Services

   There are a number of existing and proposed Internet identifier
   services or specifications that, by design or intent, cover some of
   the functionalities proposed for the Handle System.  This section
   briefly reviews them in relationship to the Handle System.

6.1.  Domain Name Service (DNS)

   The Domain Name Service, or DNS, was originally designed and is
   heavily used for mapping domain names into IP Addresses for network
   routing purposes.  RFC 1034 [2] and RFC 1035 [3] provide detailed
   descriptions of its design and implementation.  The growth of the
   Internet has increased demands for various extensions to DNS, even
   its possible use as a general purpose resource naming system.
   However, any such use has the potential to slow down the network
   address translation and/or affect its effectiveness in network
   routing.  DNS implementations typically do not scale well when a
   large amount of data is associated with any particular DNS name.  It
   is therefore generally considered inappropriate to use DNS as a
   general-purpose naming service.

   An additional factor that argues against using DNS as a general-
   purpose naming service is the DNS administrative model.  DNS names
   are typically managed by the network administrator(s) at the DNS zone
   level.  There is no provision for a per-name administrative
   structure.  No facilities are provided for anyone other than network
   administrators to create or manage DNS names.  This is appropriate
   for domain name administration but less so for general-purpose name
   administration.

   The Handle System differs from DNS in its distributed administration
   and service model, as well as its security features.  The handle
   system protocol includes security options to assure confidentiality
   and integrity during data transmission.  Each handle can have its own
   administrator, independent from the server administrator.  The handle
   system protocol allows any handle administrator to manage his or her
   handles securely over the public network.  Additionally, the Handle
   System service model allows any of its service sites to dynamically
   configure its service distribution among a cluster of servers to
   accommodate increased service requests.  This also allows less
   powerful computers to be used together to support any arbitrarily
   large number of handles.

6.2.  Directory Services (X.500/LDAP)

   X.500 [6] is the OSI Directory Standard defined by the ISO and the
   ITU.  It is designed "to provide a white pages service that would
   return either the telephone numbers or X.400 O/R addresses of
   people", and is "concerned mainly with providing the name server
   service for Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) applications" [7].
   X.500 defines a hierarchical data and information model with a set of
   protocols to allow global name lookup and search.  The protocol,
   however, has proved difficult to implement and there has been
   difficulty in getting "client access integrated into existing

   products" [14].  LDAP (Lightweight Directory Access Protocol) [8] has
   overcome many of these difficulties by making the protocol simpler
   and easier to implement.  Some concern remains, however, that as LDAP
   is emerging from a local directory access protocol (LDAP v2) into a
   distributed service protocol (LDAP v3), it faces many issues not
   addressed in its original design, resulting in new complications.

   The fundamental difference between a name resolution service such as
   the Handle System, and a directory service such as LDAP, is search
   capability.  The added functionality of being able to search a
   directory service necessarily carries with it added complexity, thus
   affects its efficiency.  A pure name service, such as the Handle
   System, can be designed solely around efficient resolution of known
   items without addressing functions and data structures required for
   discovery of unknown items based on incomplete criteria.

   Directory services, such as LDAP or WHOIS++ [15,16], may be used in
   tandem with the Handle System to provide reverse lookup service.
   Existing corporate directory services, for example, could provide
   interfaces to both services.  The Handle System interface would
   provide a highly efficient name resolution service.  The directory
   service interface would provide extended search capability.  Handles
   could also be used in LDAP service referral.  For example, an LDAP
   service may be referenced as a handle.  Doing so will make the
   reference persistent overtime, independent of location change.

6.3.  Uniform Resource Identifier (URI)/Uniform Resource Name(URN)

   Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) [23] defines a uniform, yet
   extensible naming mechanism for identifying Internet resources in web
   applications.  Uniform Resource Name (URN) [11], a subset of URI,
   defines a namespace registration mechanism for persistent namespaces
   under URI.  URI/URN represents most of the Internet name services
   used in web applications.  This section discusses the relationship of
   the Handle System to URI/URN and how applications may utilize the
   Handle System within the URI/URN context.

   The Handle System provides a general-purpose name service for the
   Internet.  Like DNS or X.500 directory service, the Handle System
   defines its namespace outside of any URI/URN namespace.  Handles can
   be transcribed and resolved directly, without any URI/URN scheme as a
   prefix.  For example, a library application may resolve the handle
   "10.1045/july95-arms" directly into its set of handle values.  No
   URI/URN scheme will be needed in this case.

   The Handle System may be used for applications that require a
   persistent name service.  The Handle System provides the necessary
   mechanisms to allow persistent names to be registered as handles.

   Specific naming authorities may be defined to host those handles
   designed to be persistent.  However, the persistence of handles
   depends more on administrative policies than the technology itself.
   Such policies are beyond the Handle System service, as described in
   this set of documents.

   On the other hand, the Handle System can also be used for
   applications where persistent names are not required.  Such handles
   may have a short life-time and they may also be used to identify
   different objects at different times.

   Different web applications may be developed using the Handle System
   as the underlying name service.  Each of these applications may
   define its own URI/URN namespace for its application needs.  For
   example, application FOO may have a URI namespace "foo:" registered
   to identify any FOO services on the web.  In the mean time,
   application BAR may have a URN namespace "URN:BAR" registered to
   identify any BAR object that needs a persistent name.  Both FOO and
   BAR applications may use handles (under their respective naming
   authority) in naming and resolving to services and/or objects.  This
   is similar in DNS, where there are different URI schemes (e.g.,
   "telnet", "ftp", "mailto", etc.) defined for different applications,
   all using the DNS service.

   The IETF and IRTF have discussed the Handle System in the realm of
   URI-related work.  There are different opinions on whether the Handle
   System will fit into a specific URI or URN namespace.  There are also
   concerns on where the Handle System fits in relation to other
   existing name services on the Internet.  Such discussions are out of
   the scope of this document.

7.  Security Considerations

   This section is meant to inform people of security limitations of the
   Handle System, as well as precautions that should be taken by
   application developers, service providers, and Handle System clients.
   Specific security considerations regarding the Handle System protocol
   [21], as well as its data and service model [22], are addressed in
   separate documents.

7.1.  General Security Practice

   The security of the Handle System depends on both client and server
   host security at every step in the transaction.  It assumes the
   client host has not been tampered with and that client software will
   reliably convey the received data to the client.  The client of any
   handle service must also assume that any handle servers involved have
   not been compromised.  To trust the Global Handle Registry is to

   believe that the Global Handle Registry will correctly direct the
   client request to the responsible Local Handle Service.  To trust a
   Local Handle Service is to believe that the Local Handle Service will
   correctly return the data that was assigned to the handle by its
   administrator.  A Local Handle Service typically supports a set of
   naming authorities.  Thus, trusting a Local Handle Service would
   imply trusting those naming authorities.

   The integrity of the Handle System depends heavily on the integrity
   of the global service information.  Invalid global service
   information may mislead clients into inappropriate Local Handle
   Services.  It may also allow attackers to forge server signatures.
   The Global Handle Registry must take extreme caution in protecting
   the global service information and the public key pair used to sign
   the global service information.  Client applications should only
   accept the global service information from the Global Handle
   Registry.  They should check its integrity upon each update.

   For efficiency reasons, handle servers will not generate or return a
   digital signature for every service response, unless specifically
   requested by clients.  To assure data integrity, clients must
   explicitly ask the server to return the digital signature.  To
   protect sensitive data from exposure, clients may establish a
   communication session with the server and ask the server to encrypt
   any data using the session key.

7.2.  Privacy Protection

   By default, most handle data stored in the Handle System is publicly
   accessible, unless otherwise specified by the handle administrator.
   Handle administrators must pay attention when adding handle values
   that contain private information.  They may choose to mark these
   handle values readable only by the handle administrator(s), or to
   store these as encrypted handle values, so that these values can only
   be read within a controlled audience.

   Log files generated by the handle server are another vulnerable point
   where client privacy may be under attack.  Operators of handle
   servers must protect such information carefully.

7.3.  Caching and Proxy Servers

   Besides performance gains and other value-added services, both proxy
   and caching servers present themselves as men-in-the-middle, and as
   such are vulnerable to man-in-the-middle attacks.  It is important to
   know that proxy and caching servers are not part of any handle
   service.  They are clients of the Handle System.  Service responses
   from proxy and caching servers cannot be authenticated via the Handle

   System protocol.  The trust between the client and its immediate
   proxy/caching server has to be setup independently, regardless of the
   number of proxy/caching servers that are in the middle of the
   communication path.

   By using proxy and caching servers, clients assume that the servers
   will submit their requests and relay any responses from the Handle
   System without mishandling any of the contents.  They also assume
   that the servers will protect any sensitive information on their
   behalf.

   Proxy and caching server operators should protect the systems on
   which such servers are running as they would protect any system that
   contains or transports sensitive information.  In particular, log
   information gathered at proxies often contain highly sensitive
   personal information, and/or information about organizations.  Such
   information should be carefully guarded, and appropriate guidelines
   for their use developed and followed.

   Caching servers provide additional potential vulnerabilities because
   the contents of the cache represent an attractive target for
   malicious exploitation.  Potential attacks on the cache can reveal
   private data for a handle user, or information still kept after a
   user believes that they have been removed from the network.
   Therefore, cache contents should be protected as sensitive
   information.

7.4.  Mirroring

   Handle System clients should be aware of possible delays in content
   replication among mirroring sites.  They should consider sending
   their request to the primary service site for any time-sensitive
   data.  Selection of mirroring sites by service administrators must be
   done carefully.  Each mirroring site must follow the same security
   procedures in order to ensure data integrity.  Software tools may be
   applied to ensure data consistency among mirroring sites.

7.5.  Denial of Service (DoS)

   As with any public service, the Handle System is subject to denial of
   service attacks.  No general solutions are available to protect
   against such attacks in today's technology.  Server implementations
   may be developed to be aware of such attacks and notify
   administrators when they happen.  Stateless cookies [19, 20] are one
   means of mitigating some of the effects of DoS attacks on hosts that
   perform authentication, integrity, and encryption services.  Server

   implementations, moreover, need to be upgradeable to take advantage
   of new security technologies, including anti-DoS technologies as
   these become available.

8.  History of the Handle System

   The Handle System was originally conceived and developed at CNRI as
   part of an overall digital object architecture.  The first public
   implementation was created at CNRI in the fall of 1994 in an effort
   led by David Ely.  The overall digital object architecture, including
   the Handle System, was later described in a paper by Robert Kahn and
   Robert Wilensky [1] in 1995.  Development continued at CNRI as part
   of the Computer Science Technical Reports (CSTR) project, funded by
   the Defense Advanced Projects Agency (DARPA) under Grant Number MDA-
   972-92-J-1029 and MDA-972-99-1-0018.  One aspect of this early
   digital library project, which was also a major factor in the
   evolution of the Networked Computer Science Technical Reference
   Library (NCSTRL) [18] and related activities, was to develop a
   framework for the underlying infrastructure of digital libraries.

   Early adopters of the Handle System included the Library of Congress,
   the Defense Technical Information Center (DTIC), and the
   International DOI Foundation (IDF).  Feedback from these
   organizations as well as NCSTRL, other digital library projects, and
   related IETF efforts as mentioned above, have all contributed to the
   evolution of the Handle System.  The current status and available
   software, for both client and server, can be found at
   http://www.handle.net.

9.  Acknowledgements

   This work is derived from the earlier versions of the Handle System
   implementation.  Design ideas are based on those discussed within the
   Handle System development team, including David Ely, Charles Orth,
   Allison Yu, Sean Reilly, Jane Euler, Catherine Rey, Stephanie Nguyen,
   Jason Petrone, and Helen She.  Their contributions to this work are
   gratefully acknowledged.

   The authors also thank Russ Housley (housley@vigilsec.com), Ted
   Hardie (hardie@qualcomm.com), and Mark Baugher (mbaugher@cisco.com)
   for their extensive review and comments, as well as recommendations
   received from other members of the IETF/IRTF community.

10.  References and Bibliography

   [1]  Kahn, R. and R. Wilensky, "A Framework for Distributed Digital
        Object Services", D-Lib Magazine, 1995.

   [2]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain Names - Concepts and  Facilities", STD
        13, RFC 1034, November 1987.

   [3]  Mockapetris, P., "Domain Names - Implementation and
        Specification", STD 13, RFC 1035, November 1987.

   [4]  Berners-Lee, T., Masinter, L. and M. McCahill, "Uniform Resource
        Locators (URL)", RFC 1738, December 1994.

   [5]  Yergeau, F., "UTF-8, a transformation format of Unicode and ISO
        10646", RFC 2044, October 1996.

   [6]  ITU-T Rec. X.500, "The Directory: Overview of Concepts, Models,
        and Services", 1993.

   [7]  D. W. Chadwick, "Understanding X.500 - The Directory", Chapman &
        Hall ISBN: 0-412-43020-7.

   [8]  Wahl, M., Howes, T. and S. Kille, "Lightweight Directory Access
        Protocol (v3)", RFC 2251, December 1997.

   [9]  Sollins, K. and L. Masinter, "Functional Requirements for
        Uniform Resource Names", RFC 1737, December 1994.

   [10] Sollins, K. "Architectural Principles of Uniform Resource Name
        Resolution", RFC 2276, January 1998.

   [11] IETF Uniform Resource Names (URN) Working Group, April 1998.

   [12] D-Lib Magazine, http://www.dlib.org

   [13] Sam X. Sun, "Internationalization of the Handle System - A
        Persistent Global Name Service", Proceeding of 12th
        International Unicode Conference, April 1998.

   [14] D. Goodman, C. Robbins, "Understanding LDAP & X.500", August
        1997.

   [15] Deutsch P., Schoultz R., Faltstrom P. and C. Weider,
        "Architecture of the WHOIS++ service", RFC 1835, August 1995.

   [16] Weider, C., Fullton, J. and S. Spero, "Architecture of the
        Whois++ Index Service", RFC 1913, February 1996.

   [17] The Unicode Consortium, "The Unicode Standard, Version v3.0",
        Addison-Wesley Pub Co; ISBN: 0201616335.

   [18] The Networked Computer Science Technical Reports Library
        (NCSTRL), http://www.ncstrl.org/

   [19] Karn, P. and W. Simpson, "Photuris: Session-Key Management
        Protocol", RFC 2522, March 1999.

   [20] Harkins, D. and D. Carrel, "The Internet Key Exchange (IKE)",
        RFC 2409, November 1998.

   [21] Sun, S., Reilly, S. and L. Lannom, "Handle System Namespace and
        Service Definition", RFC 3651, November 2003.

   [22] Sun, S., Reilly, S., Lannom, L. and J. Petrone, "Handle System
        Protocol (ver 2.1) Specification", RFC 3652, November 2003.

   [23] Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R. and L. Masinter, "Uniform Resource
        Identifiers (URI): Generic Syntax", RFC 2396, August 1998.

11.  Authors' Addresses

   Sam X. Sun
   Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI)
   1895 Preston White Dr., Suite 100
   Reston, VA 20191

   Phone: 703-262-5316
   EMail: ssun@cnri.reston.va.us

   Larry Lannom
   Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI)
   1895 Preston White Dr., Suite 100
   Reston, VA 20191

   Phone: 703-620-8990
   EMail: llannom@cnri.reston.va.us

   Brian Boesch
   Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI)
   1895 Preston White Dr., Suite 100
   Reston, VA 20191

   Phone: 703-262-5316
   EMail: bboesch@cnri.reston.va.us

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   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.

 

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