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RFC 1105 - Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)


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Network Working Group                                        K. Lougheed
Request for Comments:  1105                                cisco Systems
                                                              Y. Rekhter
                                  T.J. Watson Research Center, IBM Corp.
                                                               June 1989

                    A Border Gateway Protocol (BGP)

Status of this Memo

   This RFC outlines a specific approach for the exchange of network
   reachability information between Autonomous Systems.

   At the time of this writing, the Border Gateway Protocol
   implementations exist for cisco routers as well as for the NSFNET
   Nodal Switching Systems.  A public domain version for "gated" is
   currently being implemented.

   Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

1. Introduction

   The Border Gateway Protocol (BGP) is an inter-autonomous system
   routing protocol.  It is built on experience gained with EGP as
   defined in RFC 904 [1] and EGP usage in the NSFNET Backbone as
   described in RFC 1092 [2] and RFC 1093 [3].

   The primary function of a BGP speaking system is to exchange network
   reachability information with other BGP systems.  This network
   reachability information includes information on the autonomous
   systems (AS's) that traffic must transit to reach these networks.
   This information is sufficient to construct a graph of AS
   connectivity from which routing loops may be pruned and policy
   decisions at an AS level may be enforced.

   BGP runs over a reliable transport level protocol.  This eliminates
   the need to implement explicit update fragmentation, retransmission,
   acknowledgement, and sequencing.  Any authentication scheme used by
   the transport protocol may be used in addition to BGP's own
   authentication mechanisms.

   The initial BGP implementation is based on TCP [4], however any
   reliable transport may be used.  A message passing protocol such as
   VMTP [5] might be more natural for BGP.  TCP will be used, however,
   since it is present in virtually all commercial routers and hosts.
   In the following descriptions the phrase "transport protocol
   connection" can be understood to refer to a TCP connection.  BGP uses
   TCP port 179 for establishing its connections.

2. Summary of Operation

   Two hosts form a transport protocol connection between one another.
   They exchange messages to open and confirm the connection parameters.
   The initial data flow is the entire BGP routing table.  Incremental
   updates are sent as the routing tables change.  Keepalive messages
   are sent periodically to ensure the liveness of the connection.
   Notification messages are sent in response to errors or special
   conditions.  If a connection encounters an error condition, a
   notification message is sent and the connection is optionally closed.

   The hosts executing the Border Gateway Protocol need not be routers.
   A non-routing host could exchange routing information with routers
   via EGP or even an interior routing protocol.  That non-routing host
   could then use BGP to exchange routing information with a border
   gateway in another autonomous system.  The implications and
   applications of this architecture are for further study.

   If a particular AS has more than one BGP gateway, then all these
   gateways should have a consistent view of routing.  A consistent view
   of the interior routes of the autonomous system is provided by the
   intra-AS routing protocol.  A consistent view of the routes exterior
   to the AS may be provided in a variety of ways.  One way is to use
   the BGP protocol to exchange routing information between the BGP
   gateways within a single AS.  In this case, in order to maintain
   consist routing information, these gateways MUST have direct BGP
   sessions with each other (the BGP sessions should form a complete
   graph).  Note that this requirement does not imply that all BGP
   gateways within a single AS must have direct links to each other;
   other methods may be used to ensure consistent routing information.

3. Message Formats

   This section describes message formats and actions to be taken when
   errors are detected while processing these messages.

   Messages are sent over a reliable transport protocol connection.  A
   message is processed after it is entirely received.  The maximum
   message size is 1024 bytes.  All implementations are required to
   support this maximum message size.  The smallest message that may be
   sent consists of a BGP header without a data portion, or 8 bytes.

   The phrase "the BGP connection is closed" means that the transport
   protocol connection has been closed and that all resources for that
   BGP connection have been deallocated.  Routing table entries
   associated with the remote peer are marked as invalid.  This
   information is passed to other BGP peers before being deleted from
   the system.

3.1 Message Header Format

   Each message has a fixed size header.  There may or may not be a data
   portion following the header, depending on the message type.  The
   layout of these fields is shown below.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        Marker                |          Length                |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    Version   |     Type      |        Hold Time               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Marker: 16 bits

      The Marker field is 16 bits of all ones.  This field is used to
      mark the start of a message.  If the first two bytes of a message
      are not all ones then we have a synchronization error and the BGP
      connection should be closed after sending a notification message
      with opcode 5 (connection not synchronized).  No notification data
      is sent.

   Length: 16 bits

      The Length field is 16 bits.  It is the total length of the
      message, incluluding header, in bytes.  If an illegal length is
      encountered (more than 1024 bytes or less than 8 bytes), a
      notification message with opcode 6 (bad message length) and two
      data bytes of the bad length should be sent and the BGP connection
      closed.

   Version: 8 bits

      The Version field is 8 bits of protocol version number.  The
      current BGP version number is 1.  If a bad version number is
      found, a notification message with opcode 8 (bad version number)
      should be sent and the BGP connection closed.  The bad version
      number should be included in one byte of notification data.

   Type: 8 bits

      The Type field is 8 bits of message type code.  The following type
      codes are defined:

                    1 - OPEN
                    2 - UPDATE
                    3 - NOTIFICATION
                    4 - KEEPALIVE
                    5 - OPEN CONFIRM

      If an unrecognized type value is found, a notification message
      with opcode 7 (bad type code) and data consisting of the byte of
      type field in question should be sent and the BGP connection
      closed.

   Hold Timer: 16 bits.

      This field contains the number of seconds that may elapse since
      receiving a BGP KEEPALIVE or BGP UPDATE message from our BGP peer
      before we declare an error and close the BGP connection.

3.2  OPEN Message Format

   After a transport protocol connection is established, the first
   message sent by either side is an OPEN message.  If the OPEN message
   is acceptable, an OPEN CONFIRM message confirming the OPEN is sent
   back.  Once the OPEN is confirmed, UPDATE, KEEPALIVE, and
   NOTIFICATION messages may be exchanged.

   In addition to the fixed size BGP header, the OPEN message contains
   the following fields.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |    My Autonomous System      |   Link Type   |  Auth. Code    |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   |                 Authentication Data                           |
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   My Autonomous System: 16 bits

      This field is our 16 bit autonomous system number.  If there is a
      problem with this field, a notification message with opcode 9
      (invalid AS field) should be sent and the BGP connection closed.
      No notification data is sent.

   Link Type: 8 bits

      The Link Type field is a single octet containing one of the

      following codes defining our position in the AS graph relative to
      our peer.

                       0  - INTERNAL
                       1  - UP
                       2  - DOWN
                       3  - H-LINK

      UP indicates the peer is higher in the AS hierarchy, DOWN
      indicates lower, and H-LINK indicates at the same level.  INTERNAL
      indicates that the peer is another BGP speaking host in our
      autonomous system.  INTERNAL links are used to keep AS routing
      information consistent with an AS with multiple border gateways.
      If the Link Type field is unacceptable, a notification message
      with opcode 1 (link type error in open) and data consisting of the
      expected link type should be sent and the BGP connection closed.
      The acceptable values for the Link Type fields of two BGP peers
      are discussed below.

   Authentication Code: 8 bits

      The Authentication Code field is an octet whose value describes
      the authentication mechanism being used.  A value of zero
      indicates no BGP authentication.  Note that a separate
      authentication mechanism may be used in establishing the transport
      level connection.  If the authentication code is not recognized, a
      notification message with opcode 2 (unknown authentication code)
      and no data is sent and the BGP connection is closed.

   Authentication Data: variable length

      The Authentication Data field is a variable length field
      containing authentication data.  If the value of Authentication
      Code field is zero, the Authentication Data field has zero length.
      If authentication fails, a notification message with opcode 3
      (authentication failure) and no data is sent and the BGP
      connection is closed.

3.3 OPEN CONFIRM Message Format

   An OPEN CONFIRM message is sent after receiving an OPEN message.
   This completes the BGP connection setup.  UPDATE, NOTIFICATION, and
   KEEPALIVE messages may now be exchanged.

   An OPEN CONFIRM message consists of a BGP header with an OPEN CONFIRM
   type code.  There is no data in an OPEN CONFIRM message.

3.4 UPDATE Message Format

   UPDATE messages are used to transfer routing information between BGP
   peers.  The information in the UPDATE packet can be used to construct
   a graph describing the relationships of the various autonomous
   systems.  By applying rules to be discussed, routing information
   loops and some other anomalies may be detected and removed from the
   inter-AS routing.

   Whenever an error in a UPDATE message is detected, a notification
   message is sent with opcode 4 (bad update), a two byte subcode
   describing the nature of the problem, and a data field consisting of
   as much of the UPDATE message data portion as possible.  UPDATE
   messages have the following format:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         Gateway                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   AS count    | Direction     |         AS Number             |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     repeat (Direction, AS Number) pairs AS count times        |
   /                                                               /
   /                                                               /
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      Net Count                |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                        Network                                |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |      Metric                   |                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |       repeat (Network, Metric) pairs Net Count times          |
   /                                                               /
   /                                                               /
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Gateway: 32 bits.

      The Gateway field is the address of a gateway that has routes to
      the Internet networks listed in the rest of the UPDATE message.
      This gateway MUST belong to the same AS as the BGP peer who
      advertises it.  If there is a problem with the gateway field, a
      notification message with subcode 6 (invalid gateway field) is
      sent.

   AS count: 8 bits.

      This field is the count of Direction and AS Number pairs in this
      UPDATE message.  If an incorrect AS count field is detected,
      subcode 1 (invalid AS count) is specified in the notification
      message.

   Direction: 8 bits

      The Direction field is an octet containing the direction taken by
      the routing information when exiting the AS defined by the
      succeeding AS Number field.  The following values are defined.

            1  - UP            (went up a link in the graph)
            2  - DOWN          (went down a link in the graph)
            3  - H_LINK        (horizontal link in the graph)
            4  - EGP_LINK      (EGP derived information)
            5  - INCOMPLETE    (incomplete information)

      There is a special provision to pass exterior learned (non-BGP)
      routes over BGP.  If an EGP learned route is passed over BGP, then
      the Direction field is set to EGP-LINK and the AS Number field is
      set to the AS number of the EGP peer that advertised this route.
      All other exterior-learned routes (non-BGP and non-EGP) may be
      passed by setting AS Number field to zero and Direction field to
      INCOMPLETE.  If the direction code is not recognized, a
      notification message with subcode 2 (invalid direction code) is
      sent.

   AS Number: 16 bits

      This field is the AS number that transmitted the routing
      information.  If there is a problem with this AS number, a
      notification message with subcode 3 (invalid autonomous system) is
      sent.

   Net Count: 16 bits.

      The Net Count field is the number of Metric and Network field
      pairs which follow this field.  If there is a problem with this
      field, a notification with subcode 7 (invalid net count field) is
      sent.

   Network: 32 bits

      The Network field is four bytes of Internet network number.  If
      there is a problem with the network field, a notification message
      with subcode 8 (invalid network field) is sent.

   Metric: 16 bits

      The Metric field is 16 bits of an unspecified metric.  BGP metrics
      are comparable ONLY if routes have exactly the same AS path.  A
      metric of all ones indicates the network is unreachable.  In all
      other cases the metric field is MEANINGLESS and MUST BE IGNORED.
      There are no illegal metric values.

3.5  NOTIFICATION Message Format

   NOTIFICATION messages are sent when an error condition is detected.
   The BGP connection is closed shortly after sending the notification
   message.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |          Opcode               |           Data                |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+                               +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   Opcode: 16 bits

      The Opcode field describes the type of NOTIFICATION.  The
      following opcodes have been defined.

            1 (*) - link type error in open.  Data is one byte of proper
                    link type.
            2 (*) - unknown authentication code.  No data.
            3 (*) - authentication failure.  No data.
            4     - update error.  See below for data description.
            5 (*) - connection out of sync.  No data.
            6 (*) - invalid message length.  Data is two bytes of
                    bad length.
            7 (*) - invalid message type.  Data is one byte of bad
                    message type.
            8 (*) - invalid version number.  Data is one byte of
                    bad version.
            9 (*) - invalid AS field in OPEN.  No data.
           10 (*) - BGP Cease.  No data.

      The starred opcodes in the list above are considered fatal errors
      and cause transport connection termination.

      The update error (opcode 4) has as data 16 bits of subcode
      followed by the last UPDATE message in question.  After the
      subcode comes as much of the data portion of the UPDATE in

      question as possible.  The following subcodes are defined:

               1 - invalid AS count
               2 - invalid direction code
               3 - invalid autonomous system
               4 - EGP_LINK or INCOMPLETE_LINK link type at other than
                   the end of the AS path list
               5 - routing loop
               6 - invalid gateway field
               7 - invalid Net Count field
               8 - invalid network field

   Data: variable

      The Data field contains zero or more bytes of data to be used in
      diagnosing the reason for the NOTIFICATION.  The contents of the
      Data field depend upon the opcode.  See the opcode descriptions
      above for more details.

3.6 KEEPALIVE Message Format

   BGP does not use any transport protocol based keepalive mechanism to
   determine if peers are reachable.  Instead KEEPALIVE messages are
   exchanged between peers often enough as not to cause the hold time
   (as advertised in the BGP header) to expire.  A reasonable minimum
   frequency of KEEPALIVE exchange would be one third of the Hold Time
   interval.

   As soon as the Hold Time associated with BGP peer has expired, the
   BGP connection is closed and BGP deallocates all resources associated
   with this peer.

   The KEEPALIVE message is a BGP header without any data.

4. BGP Finite State machine.

   This section specifies BGP operation in terms of a Finite State
   Machine (FSM).  Following is a brief summary and overview of BGP
   operations by state as determined by this FSM.  A condensed version
   of the BGP FSM is found in Appendix 1.

   Initially BGP is in the BGP_Idle state.

   BGP_Idle state:

      In this state BGP refuses all incoming BGP connections.  No
      resources are allocated to the BGP neighbor.  In response to the
      Start event (initiated by either system or operator) the local

      system initializes all BGP resources and changes its state to
      BGP_Active.

   BGP_Active state:

      In this state BGP is trying to acquire a BGP neighbor by opening a
      transport protocol connection.  If the transport protocol open
      fails (for example, retransmission timeout),  BGP stays in the
      BGP_Active state.

      Otherwise,  the local system sends an OPEN message to its peer,
      and changes its state to BGP_OpenSent.  Since the hold time of the
      peer is still undetermined, the hold time is initialized to some
      large value.

      In response to the Stop event (initiated by either system or
      operator) the local system releases all BGP resources and changes
      its state to BGP_Idle.

   BGP_OpenSent state:

      In this state BGP waits for an OPEN message from its peer.  When
      an OPEN message is received, all fields are checked for
      correctness.  If the initial BGP header checking detects an error,
      BGP deallocates all resources associated with this peer and
      returns to the BGP_Active state.  Otherwise, the Link Type,
      Authentication Code, and Authentication Data fields are checked
      for correctness.

      If the link type is incorrect, a NOTIFICATION message with opcode
      1 (link type error in open) is sent.  The following combination of
      link type fields are correct; all other combinations are invalid.

                      Our view         Peer view
                      UP                DOWN
                      DOWN              UP
                      INTERNAL          INTERNAL
                      H-LINK            H-LINK

      If the link between two peers is INTERNAL, then AS number of both
      peers must be the same.  Otherwise, a NOTIFICATION message with
      opcode 1 (link type error in open) is sent.

      If both peers have the same AS number and the link type between
      these peers is not INTERNAL, then a NOTIFICATION message with
      opcode 1 (link type error in open) is sent.

      If the value of the Authentication Code field is zero, any

      information in the Authentication Data field (if present) is
      ignored.  If the Authentication Code field is non-zero it is
      checked for known authentication codes.  If authentication code is
      unknown, then the BGP NOTIFICATION message with opcode 2 (unknown
      authentication code) is sent.

      If the Authentication Code value is non-zero, then the
      corresponding authentication procedure is invoked.  The default
      values are a zero Authentication Code and no Authentication Data.

      If any of the above tests detect an error, the local system closes
      the BGP connection and changes its state to BGP_Idle.

      If there are no errors in the BGP OPEN message, BGP sends an OPEN
      CONFIRM message and goes into the BGP_OpenConfirm state.  At this
      point the hold timer which was originally set to some arbitrary
      large value (see above) is replaced with the value indicated in
      the OPEN message.

      If disconnect notification is received from the underlying
      transport protocol or if the hold time expires, the local system
      closes the BGP connection and changes its state to BGP_Idle.

   BGP_OpenConfirm state:

      In this state BGP waits for an OPEN CONFIRM message.  As soon as
      this message is received, BGP changes its state to
      BGP_Established.  If the hold timer expires before an OPEN CONFIRM
      message is received, the local system closes the BGP connection
      and changes its state to BGP_Idle.

   BGP_Established state:

      In the BGP_Established state BGP can exchange UPDATE,
      NOTIFICATION, and KEEPALIVE messages with its peer.

      If disconnect notification is received from the underlying
      transport protocol or if the hold time expires, the local system
      closes the BGP connection and changes its state to BGP_Idle.

      In response to the Stop event initiated by either the system or
      operator, the local system sends a NOTIFICATION message with
      opcode 10 (BGP Cease), closes the BGP connection, and changes its
      state to BGP_Idle.

5. UPDATE Message Handling

   A BGP UPDATE message may be received only in the BGP_Established
   state.  When a BGP UPDATE message is received, each field is checked
   for validity.  When a NOTIFICATION message is sent regarding an
   UPDATE, the opcode is always 4 (update error), the subcode depends on
   the type of error, and the rest of the data field is as much as
   possible of the data portion of the UPDATE that caused the error.

   If the Gateway field is incorrect, a BGP NOTIFICATION message is sent
   with subcode 6 (invalid gateway field).  All information in this
   UPDATE message is discarded.

   If the AS Count field is less than or equal to zero, a BGP
   NOTIFICATION is sent with subcode 1 (invalid AS count).  Otherwise,
   the complete AS path is extracted and checked as described below.

   If one of the Direction fields in the AS route list is not defined, a
   BGP NOTIFICATION message is with subcode 2 (invalid direction code).

   If one of the AS Number fields in the AS route list is incorrect, a
   BGP NOTIFICATION message is sent with subcode 3 (invalid autonomous
   system).

   If either a EGP_LINK or a INCOMPLETE_LINK link type occurs at other
   than the end of the AS path, a BGP NOTIFICATION message is sent with
   subcode 4 (EGP_LINK or INCOMPLETE_LINK link type at other than the
   end of the AS path list).

   If none of the above tests failed, the full AS route is checked for
   AS loops.

   AS loop detection is done by scanning the full AS route and checking
   that each AS in this route occurs only once.  If an AS loop is
   detected, a BGP NOTIFICATION message is sent with subcode 5 (routing
   loop).

   If any of the above errors are detected, no further processing is
   done.  Otherwise, the complete AS path is correct and the rest of the
   UPDATE message is processed.

   If the Net Count field is incorrect, a BGP NOTIFICATION message is
   sent with subcode 7 (invalid Net Count field).

   Each network and metric pair listed in the BGP UPDATE message is
   checked for a valid network number.  If the Network field is
   incorrect, a BGP Notification message is sent with subcode 8 (invalid
   network field).  No checking is done on the metric field.  It is up

   to a particular implementation to decide whether to continue
   processing or terminate it upon the first incorrect network.

   If the network, its complete AS path, and the gateway are correct,
   then the route is compared with other routes to the same network.  If
   the new route is better than the current one, then it is flooded to
   other BGP peers as follows:

    - If the BGP UPDATE was received over the INTERNAL link, it is not
      propagated over any other INTERNAL link.  This restriction is
      due to the fact that all BGP gateways within a single AS
      form a completely connected graph (see above).

    - Before sending a BGP UPDATE message over the non-INTERNAL links,
      check the AS path to insure that doing so would not cause a
      routing loop.  The BGP UPDATE message is then propagated (subject
      to the local policy restrictions) over any of the non-INTERNAL
      link of a routing loop would not result.

    - If the BGP UPDATE message is propagated over a non-INTERNAL link,
      then the current AS number and link type of the link over which
      it is going to be propagated is prepended to the full AS path
      and the AS count field is incremented by 1.  If the BGP UPDATE
      message is propagated over an INTERNAL link, then the full AS
      path passed unmodified and the AS count stays the same.  The
      Gateway field is replaced with the sender's own address.

6. Acknowledgements

   We would like to express our thanks to Len Bosack (cisco Systems),
   Jeff Honig (Cornell University) and all members of the IWG task force
   for their contributions to this document.

                                Appendix 1

BGP FSM State Transitions and Actions.

   This Appendix discusses the transitions between states in the BGP FSM
   in response to BGP events.  The following is the list of these states
   and events.

       BGP States:

            1 - BGP_Idle
            2 - BGP_Active
            3 - BGP_OpenSent
            4 - BGP_OpenConfirm
            5 - BGP_Established

       BGP Events:

            1 - BGP Start
            2 - BGP Transport connection open
            3 - BGP Transport connection closed
            4 - BGP Transport connection open failed
            5 - Receive OPEN message
            6 - Receive OPEN CONFIRM message
            7 - Receive KEEPALIVE message
            8 - Receive UPDATE messages
            9 - Receive NOTIFICATION message
           10 - Holdtime timer expired
           11 - KeepAlive timer expired
           12 - Receive CEASE message
           13 - BGP Stop

   The following table describes the state transitions of the BGP FSM
   and the actions triggered by these transitions.

   Event                Actions               Message Sent   Next State
   --------------------------------------------------------------------
   BGP_Idle (1)
     1            Initialize resources           none             2
   BGP_Active (2)
     2           Initialize resources            OPEN             3
     4                   none                    none             2
    13           Release resources               none             1

   BGP_OpenSent(3)
    3                    none                    none             1
    5            Process OPEN is OK            OPEN CONFIRM       4
                 Process OPEN Message failed   NOTIFICATION       1
   11            Restart KeepAlive timer       KEEPALIVE          3
   13            Release resources               none             1

   BGP_OpenConfirm (4)
    6            Complete initialization         none             5
    3                   none                     none             1
   10            Close transport connection      none             1
   11            Restart KeepAlive timer       KEEPALIVE          4
   13            Release resources               none             1

   BGP_Established (5)
    7            Process KEEPALIVE               none             5
    8            Process UPDATE is OK          UPDATE             5
                 Process UPDATE failed         NOTIFICATION       5
    9            Process NOTIFICATION            none             5
   10            Close transport connection      none             1
   11            Restart KeepAlive timer       KEEPALIVE          5
   12            Close transport connection    NOTIFICATION       1
   13            Release resources               none             1
   --------------------------------------------------------------------

   All other state-event combinations are considered fatal errors and
   cause the termination of the BGP transport connection (if necessary)
   and a transition to the BGP_Idle state.

   The following is a condensed version of the above state transition
   table.

   Events|BGP_Idle BGP_Active BGP_OpenSent BGP_OpenConfirm BGP_Estab
         |  (1)   |    (2)   |     (3)    |      (4)      |      (5)
         |-------------------------------------------------------------
    1    |   2    |          |            |               |
         |        |          |            |               |
    2    |        |     3    |            |               |
         |        |          |            |               |
    3    |        |          |      1     |       1       |
         |        |          |            |               |
    4    |        |     2    |            |               |
         |        |          |            |               |
    5    |        |          |    4 or 1  |               |
         |        |          |            |               |
    6    |        |          |            |       5       |
         |        |          |            |               |
    7    |        |          |            |               |       5
         |        |          |            |               |
    8    |        |          |            |               |       5
         |        |          |            |               |
    9    |        |          |            |               |       5
         |        |          |            |               |
   10    |        |          |            |       1       |       1
         |        |          |            |               |
   11    |        |          |      3     |       4       |       5
         |        |          |            |               |
   12    |        |          |            |               |       1
         |        |          |            |               |
   13    |        |     1    |      1     |       1       |       1
         |        |          |            |               |
         --------------------------------------------------------------

References

  [1]  Mills, D., "Exterior Gateway Protocol Formal Specification", RFC
       904, BBN, April 1984.

  [2]  Rekhter, Y., "EGP and Policy Based Routing in the New NSFNET
       Backbone", RFC 1092, T. J. Watson Research Center, February 1989.

  [3]  Braun, H-W., "The NSFNET Routing Architecture", RFC 1093,
       MERIT/NSFNET Project, February 1989.

  [4]  Postel, J., "Transmission Control Protocol - DARPA Internet
       Program Protocol Specification", RFC 793, DARPA, September 1981.

  [5]  Cheriton, D., "VMTP: Versatile Message Transaction Protocol", RFC
       1045, Stanford University, February 1988.

Authors' Addresses

   Kirk Lougheed
   cisco Systems, Inc.
   1360 Willow Road, Suite 201
   Menlo Park, CA 94025

   Phone: (415) 326-1941

   Email: LOUGHEED@MATHOM.CISCO.COM

   Jacob Rekhter
   T.J. Watson Research Center
   IBM Corporation
   P.O. Box 218
   Yorktown Heights, NY 10598

   Phone: (914) 945-3896

   Email: YAKOV@IBM.COM

 

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