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rec.running FAQ, part 2 of 8

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Archive-name: running-faq/part2
Last-modified: 13 Dec 2003
Posting-Frequency: 14 days

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
         SOURCES: Fats are stored as adipose, body fat, and muscle fat
(triglycerides). CHOs are stored as muscle and liver glycogen (long  chains
of glucose) and blood glucose.
         During a workout the early phases are characterized by a  reliance
on CHOs, both muscle glycogen and blood glucose. The blood  glucose comes
from the breakdown of liver glycogen. Again this is  dependent upon
intensity (see above). However, the muscle can also use  fat as a fuel, The
sources of this are from the inside of the muscle or  from the outside -
i.e. from adipose tissue. The problem is that levels  of fats from adipose
take a while to reach high enough levels for their  use to become
significant. Their concentration in the blood only reaches  very high
levels when the intensity of the exercise is low (i.e. 50% of  max or less)
and if the duration is sufficient (1 hour or more).  However, when the
concentration of fats from outside of the muscle is  high enough the muscle
can use these instead of glycogen and delay the  use of glycogen, this is
critical at times since muscle glycogen is a  "rate-limiting" fuel for
muscle. That is when muscle glycogen runs out,  or gets very low, then you
feel terrible - you've BONKED or HIT THE WALL  (see below).

         BONKING/HITTING THE WALL: Lots of people talk about the  phenomenon
of bonking. It hits some people harder than others, I don't  know why and
have never seen any good information why? However, bonking  is a
combination of two processes. The first is a lack of muscle  glycogen (see
above). The second is low blood glucose. When muscle  glycogen is low the
muscle runs into a fuel crisis. It cannot burn fats  at a rate high enough
to sustain the muscle's maximal output. The  consequence is that your
muscle switches to burning more fats and so you  have to slow down. The
crappy feeling that you experience at the same  time, often characterized
by nausea and disorientation, is likely a  consequence of low blood
sugar/glucose (hypoglycemia).

The trick then is  to alleviate/delay the onset of these symptoms by
consuming sugar  solutions, or simply by becoming so well trained that you
don't have to  worry (see TRAINING below). Why is low blood sugar bad?
Because your  brain, eye tissue, and others are able to burn only glucose.
That is  when the levels of glucose are low your brain runs out of fuel, so
you  feel awful. Your vision might become impaired also.

          FATS vs. CHOs: However, as I've said above your muscle can burn
fats  and if given the chance your muscle will burn whatever fuel it has in
the greatest abundance, even lactate! So, if supplied with enough fat
muscle can burn fat and hence, "spare" muscle glycogen. This is the idea
behind many runners drinking caffeine/coffee before a race. The caffeine
has effects that cause release of fats from adipose tissue and the level
of fats in the blood increases. The end result is that for the early
phases of the race the runner's muscle's can use fat and delay the use  of
muscle glycogen, hence, sparing that glycogen for later use.

One  should be cautioned, however, that this mechanism for increasing fat
usage has only been shown with some very high doses of caffeine that are
not achievable without taking caffeine pills. It also critically  dependent
upon the person's habitual caffeine intake ("big" coffee  drinker appear
not to derive as great of a benefit as non-habitual  users). There are
other ways to maximize the use of muscle glycogen,  however.

         CHO LOADING: CHO loading is a practice that many athletes use
before a longer duration event to "supercompensate" their muscles with
glycogen, delay it's running out (see above). The practice is of little
use when the duration of the event is less than 60 minutes, since muscle
glycogen will usually be able to meet the demands of such a duration.
However, it should be noted that repeated bouts of high intensity  exercise
will also deplete one's muscles of glycogen (for example  wrestling 3-4
bouts in one day).

There are two basic protocols for CHO  loading, one is just as good as the
other. However, they involve an  initial bout of exercise to deplete the
muscle's glycogen (under normal  dietary conditions), followed by a period
of high CHO diet (i.e. 70% or  more of one's total calories from CHO). This
period should be the 4-5  days prior to the event and should be a time when
the athlete tapers  their training, so as not to deplete muscle glycogen
too much. The  result is an overload of glycogen in one's muscles.

Two notes:  1) This procedure will result, if done correctly, in most
people gaining 2-5  pounds. Why? Because muscle and liver glycogen is
stored with water and  increasing glycogen will increase water content -
i.e. increased weight  is water.  2) Preliminary evidence indicates that
this procedure is less  effective in women. That is to say that if a female
runner were to  increase her CHOs to 70% (or >) of her caloric intake she
may not have  an increase in muscle glycogen. Why? It may relate to a
gender  difference in the ability to store muscle glycogen or in the amount
of  CHOs that 70% of the female athlete's diet represents (i.e. 70% of a
2000 calorie diet would be 1400 Cal from CHO, eating this may not be
enough to increase muscle glycogen content). Stay tuned for more info here!

         TRAINING: When one trains or conditions by completing endurance
exercise changes occur at many levels, including the muscle. The changes
that occur at the level of the muscle include an increased ability to
utilize fats. Not surprisingly then one's endurance is increased. How?  An
increased utilization of fats means less reliance on glycogen, less
reliance on glycogen means you don't run out of the fuel that allows you
to maintain a high rate of muscle contraction, and hence a high rate of
running/exercising. Another adaptation that occurs is that your muscle
uses less glucose, this is important for tissues such as brain (see
above).


---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Conversion chart (Jack Berkery BERKERY@CRDGW2.crd.ge.com)

1 yard =        .9144 meter
100 yards = 91.4400 meters
220 yards = 201.1680 meters
440 yards = 402.3360 meters
880 yards = 804.6720 meters

1 meter = 1.094 yards
100 meters = 109.400 yards
200 meters = 218.800 yards
400 meters = 437.600 yards
800 meters = 875.200 yards

1 mile = 1.609 Kilometers
1 mile = 1760 yards = 5280 feet
1 Kilometer = .6214 miles = 1094 yards = 3281 feet

Kilmoeters to miles     Miles to Kilometers
------------------------------------------------------ 1 km = .6214 miles
1 mile = 1.609 km
2 km = 1.2418 miles     2 miles = 3.218 km
3 km = 1.8642 miles     3 miles = 4.827 km
4 km = 2.4856 miles     4 miles = 6.436 km
5 km = 3.1070 miles     5 miles = 8.045 km
6 km = 3.7284 miles     6 miles = 9.654 km
7 km = 4.3498 miles     7 miles = 11.263 km
8 km = 4.9712 miles     8 miles = 12.872 km
9 km = 5.5926 miles     9 miles = 14.481 km
10 km = 6.2140 miles 10 miles = 16.090 km 11 km = 6.8354 miles 11 miles =
17.699 km 12 km = 7.4568 miles 12 miles = 19.308 km 13 km = 8.0782 miles 13
miles = 20.917 km 14 km = 8.6996 miles 14 miles = 22.526 km 15 km = 9.3210
miles 15 miles = 24.135 km 20 km = 12.4280 miles 20 miles = 32.180 km 25 km
= 15.5350 miles 25 miles = 40.225 km 30 km = 18.6420 miles

1 marathon = 26 miles + 385 yards = 42.186 km

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Fluid replacement (2 personal methods)

As an ultramarathoner, trail runner fluid replenishment etc. is quite
important. My findings, based on personal experience, is that in 90+ degree
weather I use a liter per hour on a one hour run - and that is carrying the
water with me. If you are not running enough distance, dont be concerned
about energy type drinks, and you probably don't lose enough salts to need
electrolytes. But your system will absorb more fluid faster is it is
hypotonic and cool. If you guys are always running for 45 minutes or an
hour in HOT weather - I would really suggest carrying water. When you
realize your dehydrated its TOO late - and it takes longer to replenish
fluids than it does to lose them. (Milt Schol milts@mse.cse.ogi.edu)

I prepare for a run with about 24-30 ounces of lukewarm water within 3
hours of the run. As for after the run, if it was particularly strenuous
(and in the 85+ and humid Pittsburgh weather of late, the runs have been
strenuous for me), within 10-15 minutes following the run, I take ~10-15
ounces of room-temperature, diluted Exceed (about 2 parts Exceed to 3 parts
water). I follow that with about 24-30 ounces of room-temperature water
over the next hour or two. (Barbara Zayas bjz@sei.cmu.edu)

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Noakes's Ten Laws of Running Injuries (John Schwebel
jcs@cbnewsh.cb.att.com)

Ten Laws of Running Injuries stated therein:

The 1ST LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES:
Running Injuries Are Not an Act of God

The 2ND LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES:
Each Running Injury Progresses
Through Four Grades

The 3RD LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES:
Each Running Injury Indicates That the
Athlete Has Reached the Breakdown Point

The 4TH LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES:
Virtually All Running Injuries Are Curable

The 5TH LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES:
X-Rays and Other Sophisticated Investigations Are Seldom Necessary to
Diagnose Running Injuries

The 6TH LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES:
Treat the Cause, Not the Effect

The 7TH LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES:
Rest is Seldom the Most Appropriate Treatment

The 8TH LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES:
Never Accept as a Final Opinion
the Advice of a Nonrunner

The 9TH LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES:
Avoid the Knife

The 10TH LAW OF RUNNING INJURIES:
There Is No Definitive Scientific Evidence That Running Causes
Osteoarthritis in Runners Whose Knwees Were Normal When They Started
Running

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Second Wind (Newsweek July 27, '92)

If an Olympian experiences a second wind, it's probably a sign that he
isn't in a great shape. Scientists are divided over whether a second wind
is purely psychological - the athlete "willing" himself forward. But if it
has a physical basis too, the sudden feeling of "I can do it!" right after
"I want to die" probably reflects a change in metabolism. The body gets
energy by breaking down glucose, which is stored in muscles. This reaction
releases lactic acid, which the body must burn in order to prevent a
lactic-acid buildup that causes cramps. Burning lactic acid requires
oxygen. If the body does not breathe in enough oxygen; the runner
experiences oxygen debt: the heart beats more quickly; the lungs gasp; the
legs slow. The second wind, says physicist Peter Brancazio of Brooklyn
College, may come when the body finally balances the amount of oxygen
coming in with that needed to burn the lactic acid. (When burned, lactic
acid is transformed into sweat and carbon dioxide.) Why doesn't everybody
get a second wind? Couch potatoes don't push themselves past oxygen debt;
true Olympians have enough lung capacity and cardiovascular fitness to
avoid oxygen debt in the first place.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Soda Pop (Paulette Leeper pleeper@wtcp.DaytonOH.NCR.COM)

Q: Does anyone have any opinions on Soda pop as a drink in General.

I find the CAFFEINE in soda to be irritating and DEHYDRATING, so, IMHO,
drinking soda with caffeine (regardless of whether or not it contains sugar
or aspartame) defeats the purpose of quenching thirst. It's much like
drinking beer to quench thirst... it FEELS good, and TASTES good, but as a
mechanism for hydration, it does the exact opposite.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------
Computer Software (Jack Berkery berkery@emmax5crd.ge.com) (Paul Gronke,
Gronke@acpub.duke.edu)

There is a Shareware program in the WUSTL archives available through
anonymous ftp. (also on other archive sites) Look into
../msdos/database/joggr105.zip I didn't exactly like it but it may suit
your style. It works with CGA/EGA/VGA graphics. Don't know how it functions
under windows.

ntu.ac.sg [155.69.1.5]

AEROBIX.ZIP B 81246 910420 Fitness Log: Record aerobic exercise/progres
JOGGR105.ZIP B 59053 920312 Runner's log and analysis database, v1.05
PT100.ARC B 175592 890914 Physical Training test scorekeeper database
RUNLOG.ZIP B 71801 900308 Runner's/bicycler's workout log

---------------------
All programs are available in the DATABASE directory on Simtel, via
anonymous FTP. There are a number of Simtel mirrors, including
WUARCHIVE.WUSTL.EDU (dir = mirrors/msdos/database), OAK.OAKLAND.EDU (dir =
pub/msdos/database), and a lot of non US sites.

RUNCOACH.ZIP
RunCoach
RunCoach helps coach people who are running, jogging or racing.  It is
based on Artificial Intelligence techniques and can produce an optimum
training program tailored to the individual.  If you are just starting to
run, want to enter a fun run or are an expert runner and want to improve
your time then RunCoach can help.  First you enter some data about
yourself,  then set a goal race (or ask RunCoach to suggest one), tell
RunCoach when you can train and RunCoach will quickly generate a
personalised training schedule.  It will also estimate how likely you are
to succeed at your goal. Ver 0.90 was the first public release and can be
found as RUNCOACH.ZIP.  Ver 0.94 (RUNCO94B.ZIP) is the latest (july 95)
release.  It works in both miles or kms, has a better understanding of the
taper, has a built in series of running guides and has a built in sports
psych, so you can discuss any problems.  It is available from a number of
FTP sites but as an example try Simtel: oak.oakland.edu
/SimTel/msdos/database/runco94b.zip

Its running knowledge is extensive and includes the following:-
    - internally classifies runners into five major groups
    - takes into account age, experience, PB's, sex, training program etc
    - able to select days of the week you can run, and your long run day
    - provides feedback on whether you are capable of meeting your goal time
    - can suggest goal's based on your individual ability
    - provides a schedule even if Run Coach is sceptical you can reach your goal
    - knows about VO2 max, anaerobic threshold, efficiency, long runs etc
    - has many rules for minimising injury
    - has a variety of individualised speedwork schedules built in
    - understands periodisation & complex schedules & selects between them
    - can predict race results for distances not previously run
    - can produce a schedule for the complete beginner through to the elite

RUNLOG.ZIP - I found this to be a barely usable program. It was not at all
clear what I needed to enter at any of the prompts. There was no help key.
There was no information telling me what format any times, distances, etc.
need to be entered as. This does have a time prediction module. The
interface is kind of nice. There are graphical displays of improvement,
heart rate, etc. With a better manual expaining what you need to enter, I
would rate is usable. At present, I found the other programs nicer. If you
figure out what need to be entered where, you can use this program.

JOGGR105.ZIP - This is a program of British origin. The interface is kind
of interesting. It has most of the data entry options that you would want.
It will graphically display your improvement. You can control the menu of
courses so that you don't have to reenter distance and course info each
time. Most annoying problem: everythin is in British units, so that you
have to convert 100 meter dash, 5K, 10K, etc. into milage. This might not
be a drawback for some; it is a major drawback for me. The data entry,
printing is all nice. It escapes from errors well (unlike Runlog, which
tends to bomb). This is definitely usable.

RUNSTA11.ZIP - I really like this program and will continue to use it. It
is by far the largest of the programs (300K zipped, 3 times the size of the
others), so you might go for another if disk space is a problem. However,
you get a full featured training / racing log for the space. What I like
about it: 1) you can make it as complex or simple as possible. Via config
options, you can enter for each race/training: shoes, weather, heart rate,
health, hilliness, race surface, temp, calories...or none of these,
depending on your preference. 2) You can easily set up a menu of courses to
choose from in the race *and* training run entry 3) Race and Training are
kept separate, a very nice feature if you want to track training runs and
racing in the same database. 4) Multiple database files easily used,
special configs are unique to each database file (meaning that you can
monitor bicycle, running in the same program) 5) Can display data entries
(runs) in a "calendar" format, then select the ones you wish to examine
with a keystroke 6) Nice graphical displays

Drawbacks: requires more memory than the other programs. Might not run on
pre-286 machines, but I don't know. More disk space required. Not sure if
it does time forecasting, I need to check.

RUNSTAT3  Ver.3.0,  Jan. 1995  by Scott Diamond <scott.k.diamond@tek.com>

RunStat3 is a   Windows program useful  to runners  The program's main
window is a pace calculator.  You enter distance and time for your run
and RunStat3 calculates your pace for your run and finishing times for
a large set  of  distances and times. E.g.,   if  you ran a  10k  run,
RunStat3 would list finishing times for 1 mile, 5k, 10k, 1/2 marathon,
marathon, etc (you can add your own  custom entries).  Two listing for
finishing  times are presented, one based  on running at constant pace
and a  'realistic' estimate which accounts for  slowing your  pace the
longer you run.

RunStat3  also supports  an ascii logbook  in  which users can keep  a
record of all their runs.  RunStat3 includes a searching, plotting and
statistics calculator  so that you can  search your log book  and plot
all your times for a given course, or total your mileage for each pair
of shoes or make other plots.  There is almost  no limit to the number
of entries you can place in your log file for  tracking your runs (e.g
temp., wt, avg.  heart rate, course, shoes, etc.)

The program is freeware. For more information, set your web-browser to:
        <http://www.scottdiamond.com/Running/runstat/runstat.html>


===========================================================================

Hashing

From: Dweezil the Butt Beaker <daveo@theopolis.orl.mmc.COM> Subject: Rules
of Hashing (one version, re: Rule Six) Organization: Orlando Hash House
Harriers

X-Hhh: A Drinking Club With A Running Problem. X-Hhh-Motto: If you have
half a mind to hash, that's all you need. X-Hhh-Philosophy: Carpe
Cerevisiam X-Oh3-Motto: We get drunk, we get naked, we give hashing a bad
name. X-O2H3-Motto: We have beer, we have cookies, we give hashing a nice
name. X-Dbh3-Motto: Daytona Beach Hash House Harriers never run out of
beer. X-Dbh3-Motto: We have beer before, during, and after the hash.

The Hash House Harriers is a running/drinking/social club which was started
by bored expatriates in Kuala Lumpuer, Malaysia in 1938. ("Hash House" is
the nickname of the restaurant/bar to which they retired for food and beer
after a run.) Hashing is based on the English schoolboy game of "Hare and
Hounds"; a Hash is a non-competitive cross-country run set by one or more
runners called hares. The hares run out in advance of the other runners
(the pack of hounds), and set a course marked by white flour, toilet paper,
and/or chalk marks.

Hash Rules
----------

1. A HASHMARK is a splash of flour used to mark the trail. The pack should
call out "On-On" when they see a hashmark. Blasts on horns, whistles, and
other noise makers are encouraged. Hounds asking "RU?" (are you on trail?)
of the FRB's (Front-Running Bastards) should be answered "On-On", which
means they are on trail, or "Looking", which means they`ve lost the trail.

2. ARROWs, or several closely spaced hashmarks, are used to indicate change
of trail direction. Hound should use arrows different from those used by
the hares as necessary to assist hounds further back in the pack.

3. A CHECKMARK is a large circled X, or a circle with a dot at its center
(fondly known as a "Titty Check"). Checkmarks indicate that the trail goes
"SFP"; that is, the pack must search for true trail. Hounds should call out
"Checking" when they see a checkmark. (Checking IS NOT Looking!)

4. A Backtrack is three lines chalked or drawn in flour across the trail,
indicating a false trail. The pack, upon encountering a backtrack, calls
out "On-Back" or "Backtrack", and goes back to the last checkmark to find
true trail. Sometimes a hound will draw an arrow with a backtrack sign at
the checkmark to identify the false trail for the rest of the pack.

A CHECKBACK is a devious variation of the checkmark/backtrack. A checkback
is a CB followed by a number. For example, a "CB 5" means to backtrack five
hashmarks, then look for true trail as one would at a check. Also known as
a COUNTBACK.

A WHICHWAY is two arrows, only one of which points toward true trail; no
hashmarks will be found in the other direction.

5. Tradition requires a DOWN-DOWN (chug-a-lug) of a beer after a hasher's
virgin hash, naming hash, and other significant occasions, e.g., 25th hash,
50th hash, etc. A Down-Down is also in order for hares, visitors, and for
any other reason that can be thought up. While frowned upon as "alcohol
abuse", it is permissible for non- drinkers to pour the beer over their
head; a soda Down-Down may also be elected. The primary consideration of
the Down-Down is that once the mug leaves the drinker's lips, it is turned
upside-down over the head.

6. THERE ARE NO RULES.

===========================================================================
Interval training (micbrian@ubvmsb.cc.buffalo.edu)

First off, keep in mind that the interval part of the run is the rest part.
This is where your body recovers and strengthens itself.

Secondly, say your goal is to run an 8 minute/mile 10k. Start your
intervals by doing 5X400m at a little under 2 minutes per rep. You'll see
that an 8min mile is a 2min 400, so to better that, you run a little
faster, as I said. Walk or jog between the rep (this is the interval).
Remember to keep with what you started at. If you jogged to rest, don't
walk during the next interval.

Intervals should be challenging, but not defeating. If you are having
problems maintaining your form during the course of the whole run, you are
doing too much. You should feel good at the end of your run, not ready to
drop dead.

Remember to warmup and cool down sufficiently before and after intervals.
10 minutes of jogging is suggested.

Other things to remember: you can customize intervals to achieve different
things. For example, to increase endurance, you can decrease your interval
while running the same rep. Or you can increase the rep and still do the
same interval. You can work on speed by running faster reps. There are
other variations as well, but I don't remember all of them.

Lastly, make sure you have a good aerobic base when you start, and don't do
too much too fast. You can tire your muscles out, and it will take a while
to recover.

Your goal is to exercise your fast twitch muscles, those used for speed.
I've been doing intervals for about 2 months now, and it has made a
difference. The first race I ran after starting intervals, my time dropped
by about 15 seconds. I have a race tomorrow, and am hoping to improve on
that. I also notice I have more pep in my regular workouts. I get out
there, and once I'm warmed up, my body wants to run fast.

===========================================================================

Legs

Sore knees ( Elizabeth Doucette <ead@nbnet.nb.ca>)

When running (also walking, and cycling), the inner most quad. muscle
(inner part of thigh) does not get exercised as much as the other three
quad. muscles of the thigh. If this inner muscle isn't strengthened by
specific exercises, an imbalance of the muscles may occur. This can cause
irritation of the underside of the kneecap (chondromalacia patellae)
because the imbalance of the muscles can pull the kneecap towards the
outside of the leg.

The kneecap (which has two convex faces on the back) rides in a broad
indentation on the femur. Weak inner quadriceps (M. Vastus medialis) can
pull the kneecap slightly out of its "track"; and it is theorized that this
is what causes chondromalacia (which I believe is called patellofemoral
pain syndrome these days).  [edited for correctness 2/19/95 by
lmm5@postoffice. mail.cornell.edu (Lucie Melahn)]

I had chondromalacia patellae for a long time (and many of my running
friends did too) but I haven't had problems since I've been doing specific
exercises for my inner quad. muscle. It is tedious and boring but it works.
I haven't had knee problems for about 3 years now :-). I should do this
every day, whether I work out or not, but I don't always. If I feel any
discomfort at all in my knees, I make sure I'm more diligent with this
exercise and the discomfort always disappears. I'm always able to prevent a
problem now.

The exercise is just a leg raise with the foot flexed and pointing away
from the body. With this exercise make sure that your back is supported. As
your quad. muscles fatigue, there is a tendency to help out with your back
muscles. You may not realize that you're doing this until you notice later
that your back is a little sore.

Sitting on the floor, bend one leg (like you're going to do a sit-up),
bringing the knee towards the chest. The other leg is straight. Place your
hands behind you on the floor to support your back. You can vary this by
leaning against a wall and hugging your knee to your chest with both arms.
YOUR CANNOT BE TOO CAREFUL WITH YOUR BACK.

For ease of explanation, start with your right leg being straight and flex
your foot (bring your toes towards your head, as opposed to pointing them
away from you). Turn your leg to the right, so that your toes and knee are
pointing to the right as far as possible. The position of the foot is
important because it helps to isolate the inner quad. muscle. Now, do leg
raises. When I started I could only do 10 or 20 before I needed to rest.
Don't do the leg raises too quickly because technique is more important
than speed. I now do three sets, each leg of 60 repetitions (alternating
legs after each set) for a total of 180 per leg. It takes me about 10
minutes.

You can tell if your muscle is getting fatigued because it will start to
quiver. Don't push it, change legs. Keep note of how many repetitions you
do before you get fatigued and try to increase the repetitions next time.
Compare you to you, not to others.

Leg presses used to bother my knees. Now that I'm doing leg raises, the leg
press doesn't bother me any more. Technique is important when doing leg
presses. (Technique is probably more important than the fact that I'm doing
leg raises). Make sure that the seat is forward far enough, so that when
you press you cannot lock your knee. This makes the initial position feel
too cramped. My knees feel too close to my chest. But it works for me and
for others (both men and women) that I work out with. Nautilus equipment
uses a cam system, such that there is less resistance on your knees in the
initial, starting position, so there is less chance of injury.

---------------------------------------------------------------------------

Leg Massage (John Boone boone@IDA.ORG)

(From Bicycling magazine, pp.76-77, July 1992, Reproduced without permission)

MASSAGE TECHNIQUES

1. Full Muscle Flush

This surface stroke prepares the muscles for deeper work. It loosens the
fibers and increases the blood flow to wash out lactic acid and other
toxins. Begin with the calves. Place the palms flat against the bottom of
the muscle and stroke toward the heart in a continuous movement. Always
stroke toward the heart so the blood containing the toxins isn't traveling
back into the muscles. After a few of these, knead the muscle during the
stroke by working the bottom of the palms in and out. End with the original
flat stroke.

2. Broad Cross-Fiber Stroke

After each muscle group has been flushed, use the same palm position at the
center of the muscles, but work sideways. Press harder than the flush. The
hands are moving acros the muscle fibers, separating them and making them
pliable so the massage can go deeper with the next type of stroke. This is
a great supplement to stretching. It makes muscle fibers less likely to
tear. End with more flushing.

3. Deep Muscle Spress

"Spress" is a Swedish term. This technique is also known as muscle
stripping. Use fingers, knuckles, or even elbows to penetrate the muscle.
[Press deep into the leg where previously rubbing the surface.] Apply
pressure until the comfort limit is passed. If there's pain, work slower,
or do a few palm strokes before spressing again. Knuckles and thumbs work
best. Concentrate on specific areas, instead of stroking the whole muscle.
But remember to work toward the heart.

SELF-MASSAGE

Initial Strokes

Self-massage uses the same sequence of strokes as assisted massage, and the
same order of muscles -- calf, quads, hamstrings, glutes. But it's usually
less effective because self-massagers get tired or bored quicker. The most
common mistake is skipping the full-muscle flush or cross-fiber stroke to
concentrate on the spress in the sorest areas. If you don't prepare the
muscles, you won't be able to penetrate deep enough. [...] Be sure you're
applying pressure with both hands. Sometimes one side of the leg gets
shortchanged.

Going Deeper

The advantage of self-massage is that you know exactly where it hurts and
can key on these areas. You also know when your muscles are loose enough
for deeper penetration. [...] Amateurs usually don't go [deep enough] in
assisted massage, or do so too quickly and it hurts. You can find that
perfect balance. [...] It's best to use both [hands], but fatigue is a
problem in self-massage.








       

-- 
Austin "Ozzie" Gontang, Ph.D.
TEC International
2903 29th St
San Diego, CA 92104-4912

hm/off.  619-281-7447
fax           619-281-9468
email	<gontang@electriciti.com>

Chief Executives Working Together
http://www.teconline.com

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Last Update March 27 2014 @ 02:12 PM