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Answers to REC.RUNNING FAQ and Interesting Information This posting contains answers to frequently asked questions posted to rec.running plus interesting & useful information for runners. If known, author's name/email address are given. Send me Ozzie Gontang <email@example.com> any corrections,updates, suggestions, or proper info of sources or holder's of copyright. The rec.running FAQ will have the latest updates on Mindful Running: http://mindfulness.com/mindful_Running.com ================================================================== Part 1 of 8 What to do before posting to rec.running or any news group Runner or Jogger Avoiding Dogs Books and Magazines Winter Running Gear Clothes (Winter/Summer) Rules For Winter Running Clothing Layers Dressing for Winter Clothing Materials Microfibers Polyolefin Nylon Wool Gortex Polypropylene/Thermax 60/40 Cloth Breathability of Materials Breathable options Linings Maintenance General Information Running Mailing Lists Terminology ( overpronation, oversupination) Calorie/energy count Calories burned by running Muscle fuels used during exercise Part 2 of 8 Fat burning primer Conversion chart Fluid replacement Noakes's Ten Laws of Running Injuries Second Wind Soda Pop Computer software Hashing Interval training Legs Sore Knees Leg Massage Part 3 of 8 Mail Order Addresses Marathon Increasing your mileage Major Marathons (e.g. Boston, LA, New York) Part 4 of 8 Miscellaneous Medical /Injuries Achilles tendinitis (incomplete) Shin splints Side stitches Lactic Acid Loose bowels Diabetes & running Nutrition and Food Part 5 of 8 Nutrition primer Powerbar Recipe Orienteering Predicting times Running Clubs & Organizations Part 6 of 8 Shoes Stretching Sweat Tredmill Running Weather (cold, hot, wind, rain, altitude) Part 7 of 8 Pregnancy & Running Mindful Way of Dealing with Out of Control People Hints for the Successful Four Hour Marathoner (Super-Fours) Part 8 of 8 Running Related Internet Sites ================================================================= What to do before posting to rec.running or any news group Read news.announce.newusers and news.answers for a few weeks. Always make sure to read a newsgroup for some time before you post to it. You'll be amazed how often the same question can be asked in the same newsgroup. After a month you'll have a much better sense of what the readers want to see. The difference between jogging and running is in the eye of the beholder. Partial list compiled by Phil Margolies <firstname.lastname@example.org> Jogging is spelled with a j, an o, and two g's, running is spelled with an r, a u, and two n's. Otherwise there is no important difference that I am aware of ;-) ******************** There is no real distinction between the two. Traditionally joggers are considered to be more casual and slower than someone who refers to themselves as a runner. But use which ever term you prefer. ******************** A jogger is person who worries about the difference. A runner just goes out and runs. ******************** This issue has been beaten to death more than once, but ...... My gut feeling is: if your goal/focus is to get there in minimum time; you are racing (or race training) if your goal/focus is on what your are doing; you are running if your focus is to lose weight or gain fitness or whatever else (possibly indicated by wearing headphones?); you are jogging. Speed doesn't matter; some people race at 4:00/mile, some at 12:00/mile. No one of these three activities is any better or nobler than any other. ******************** When I'm tired I jog, when I'm not I run. After all, it's all relative. ******************** Speed IMHO has nothing to do with it. Joggers are interested in the fitness benifits of the activity. Runners are interested in the sport of racing. ******************** The best quote I ever read on this was: The difference between a jogger and a runner is a bib number. ******************** A Jogger is everyone that I can pass. A Runner is everone who passes me. ******************** There are many differences between a jogger & a runner, although both are very positive activities & neither should be knocked. Here's a couple of differences I notice: Jogging is a hobby. Running is a way of life. Joggers get out on a nice day. Runners get out everyday. Avoiding Dogs (Arnie Berger arnie@hp-lsd.COL.HP.COM) There are varying degrees of defense against dogs. 1- Shout "NO!" as loud and authoritatively as you can. That works more than half the time against most dogs that consider chasing you just good sport. 2- Get away from their territory as fast as you can. 3- A water bottle squirt sometimes startles them. If they're waiting for you in the road and all you can see are teeth then you in a heap o' trouble. In those situations, I've turned around, slowly, not staring at the dog, and rode away. "Halt" works pretty well, and I've used it at times. It's range is about 8 feet. I bought a "DAZER", from Heathkit. Its a small ultrasonic sound generator that you point at the dog. My wife and I were tandeming on a back road and used it on a mildly aggressive German Shephard. It seemed to cause the dog to back off. By far, without a doubt, hands down winner, is a squirt bottle full of reagent grade ammonia, fresh out of the jug. The kind that fumes when you remove the cap. When I lived in Illinois I had a big, mean dog that put its cross-hairs on my leg whenever I went by. After talking to the owner (redneck), I bought a handlebar mount for a water bottle and loaded it with a lab squirt bottle of the above mentioned fluid. Just as the dog came alongside, I squirted him on his nose, eyes and mouth. The dog stopped dead in his tracks and started to roll around in the street. Although I continued to see that dog on my way to and from work, he never bothered me again. Finally, you can usually intimidate the most aggressive dog if there are more than one of you. Stopping, *and moving towards it will often cause it to back off*. ( But not always ). My bottom line is to always *run* routes that I'm not familiar with, with someone else. E-Book John Lupton <email@example.com> Gordon Pirie's book "Running Fast and Injury Free" which can be found via http://www.gordonpirie.com . Pirie is a proponent of fore-foot striking. All I can say is Pirie works for me. As a novice, having a pretty straightforward book on technique to read, one that is uncomplicated by jargon, is very useful. For me, even before a novice puts on his/her running shoes for the first time, it is worth reading this book (its *very* short). Not all of it is relevant to the recreational runner, but the bits that are are very obvious and accessible. Books and Magazines (Phil Cannon pcannon@spotlight.Corp.Sun.COM) Books ===== 1) The Lore of Running - Tim Noakes 2) The Complete Book of Running - Fixx 3) The Runner's Handbook - Bloom 4) Long Distance Runner's Guide to Training and Racing - Sperks/Bjorklund 5) The Runner's Handbook - Glover & Shepard 6) Galloway's Book on Running - Galloway 7) Jog, Run, Race - Henderson 8) The New Aerobics - Cooper 9) Training Distance Runners- Martin and Coe 10) Any book by Dr. George Sheehan 11) The Essential Runner (John Hanc) 12) The Runner's World Complete Book of Running (Amby Burfoot) check for books available at:The Athlete's Bookstore firstname.lastname@example.org RUNNING DIALOGUE David Holt RN, Santa Barbara and 31:16 10 K. Includes winter running advice; extensive interval (three chapters) and diet advice; marathon chapter; three chapters on injury prevention and treatment; predicting times; plus table for paces to train for 2 mile pace for VO2 max, and 15K pace for anaerobic threshold. Table of contents/list of contributors -http://home.sprynet.com/sprynet/holtrun/ or send a blank E-mail to email@example.com Magazines ========= Track and Field News (12/96-monthly $34.95 US per year) 2370 El Camino Real, Ste 606 Mountain View CA 94040 415-948-8188 Fax: 1-415-948-9445 1-800-GET-TRAK (1-800-438-8725) Self-proclaimed "Bible of the Sport", T&FN is the source for major meet results in T&F, road racing, cross-country, and race walking from the high school to int'l levels. Emphasis on U.S. athletes. though significant int'l coverage provided. Compiles annual post-season rankings of the top 10 performers in world and U.S. in every major event, men and women. Publishes list of top 50 performances in each event for the year. Also sponsors TAFNUT tours for major championships and the Euro Circuit/GP meets. Lots of stats, good interviews. Track Technique (quarterly; $15 in US, $16 outside) same contact info as Track & Field News. The official USATF(formerly TAC) quarterly, each issue has important articles on technique, training, and other practical information on all events, at all levels. Intended for coaches. California Track News ($18/yr) 4957 East Heaton Fresno, CA 93727 Calif.'s only all track & X-county publication. Lots of attention to prep action. Running Journal, P.O. Box 157, Greeneville, TN 37744. Covers southeastern United States monthly. Founded 1984. Covers road races in 13 states, plus ultras, multi-sports, racewalking. Annual subscription is $22.95. Running Research News P.O. Box 27041 Lansing, MI 48909 Credit card orders: 1-517-371-4897 MC/Visa accepted. e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org 12/96 $35/year $65/2 years (10 issues per year, 12-14 pages per issue.) 76 back issues, $265 (postage US 10 outside US $30) (Add $10 for overseas airmail, except Mexico and Canada) ALL non-US customers please provide a credit card number or money order in U.S. funds, or a check drawn on a U.S. bank (with American-bank computer numbers). Running Times (monthly $24.95 US per year) P.O. Box 511 Mount Morris, IL 61054-7691 1-800-877-5402 Runner's World (monthly $24 US per year) P.O. Box 7574 Red Oak, IA 51591-2574 1-800-666-2828 Masters Track & Field News (5 issues/yr; $10.50) P.O. Box 16597 North Hollywood, CA 91615 Results, rankings, age-records, schedules, stories of age 40+ athletes worldwide. "Satisfaction guaranteed" "The Schedule" - A monthly magazine in California that has an extensive lists of races and other info. Northern CA: 80 Mitchell Blvd, San Rafael CA 94903-2038 (415) 472-7223; 472-7233 FAX Southern CA: 549 Highland Dr, San Luis Obispo, CA 93405-1116 (805) 541-2833 Winter Running Gear Curt Peterson <email@example.com> 13 Nov 1996 Just wear the same things for running as for cross country skiing. Suggestions- Wind briefs -available in both womens and mens. Underlayer turtleneck. Underlayer long underwear Tights ( thin or thicker cross country ski tights which are thicker wt.) Wicking socks vest or sweatshirt, but if long long run I use a Thermax sweatshirt Shell for wind hat and neck gator if really cold. You can run in virtually all weather. Our run group in Michigan runs every Monday night all year no matter what the conditions are. I think -4 F is our record. ================================================================== Clothes (Winter/Summer) (Mike Gilson GILSON@ALF.CS.HH.AB.COM) Disclaimer What I have to say here is *my* opinion only. ---------- Preference on amount of clothing required for winter running varies widely among runners. A couple of runners that I see wear shorts, long sleeved T's and gloves at 30F! Experiment with how much clothing at various temp's. Rules for Winter Running Rule 1: Dress in layers. Outer layers can be added/shed easily. Rule 2: Stay dry. When clothes get wet,they don't performance - & you get cold. Rule 3: Hydrate. You may not sweat as much, but fluid replacement still needed. Clothing Layers Inner layer. The layer closest to the skin should be a tight, lightweight fabric that wicks water away from the skin. Shirts should be long-sleeved, skin-tight (without chafing), and may be turtle-necked (my preference). There are a variety of fabrics that are effective in wicking water; I have had a lot of success with polypro, but it is not machine washable. These are readily available at running specialty shops and mail order. For pants, lycra running tights work very well. Outer layer. The next layer should be a looser, mediumweight fabric that wicks water. A zipper at the neck is convenient for temperature control. I prefer a shirt that is slightly longer than waist-length so that I have the option of tucking it into the pants. I've had more success in finding these in cycling stores than anywhere else. Two layers of lycra tights if very cold. Shell. A water-proof or water resistant shell that is breathable is useful in the coldest conditions. These are usually sold as suits, but tops are available separately at a higher cost. Gore-tex is considered the best fabric, but there are cheaper alternatives. You can get these suits made to your measurements or buy them off the rack. I have a Burley jacket, which I purchased at a cycling shop. It's chief advantage over the running suits is the venting and extra zippers for temperature control. There are zippers under each arm, starting at mid chest going up to the armpit and travelling down the arm to about mid forearm. Tights. Tights have been mentioned above as inner/outer layers. Many people run in sweats, but sweats have two disadvantages: they're heavy and they get heavier when wet. Lycra is lightweight and warm, but costs more and shows off body (im)perfections more than sweats. Gloves. Any cotton glove works. Polyproplyene or other microbfiber materials. Hat. A lot of heat is lost through the scalp, so a hat is a must for most people. Cotton hats get too heavy with sweat. Balaclavas are more versatile than hats, and allow you to cover you neck/face if requires. Both hats and balaclavas are available in wicking fabrics. Socks. A wicking sock will seem less heavy and your feet will be drier than a conventional sock. Coolmax socks are my preference, worn in a single layer. You can also find other fabrics, such as capilene or polypro socks, which are considerably more expensive. Running shoes. Runner's World (anyone know which issue?) had some tips from Alaskan runners on how to put (short) screws into the sole of the shoe for better traction on the ice. I haven't tried it, but you obviously have to be careful not to puncture the midsole, air/gel chambers, etc. Dressing for Winter Running Temp range Number of layers (degrees F) Inner Outer Shell Tights Gloves Hat Socks ------------------------------------------------------------------------- 50-55 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 40-45 1 1 0 1 1 0 1 30-35 1 1 0 1-2 1 1 1 20-25 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 0-15 1 1 1/pants 1 1 1 Clothing Materials compiled by Ozzie Gontang <firstname.lastname@example.org> (see www.FabricLink.com/characteristics.html) MICROFIBERS Man-made: available in acrylic, nylon, polyester and rayon. Characteristics: * Washable, dry cleanable Shrink-resistant * High strength (except Rayon) Insulates well against wind, rain, cold Major End Uses: sportswear, activewear,swimwear, outerwear, rainwear. Micro-fibers is not a fiber unto itself. It is a technology developed to produce an ultra-fine fiber, and then weave it or knit it into a very high quality fabric constructions. DuPont introduced the first microfiber in 1989, a polyester microfiber. Today in addition to polyester microfibers, there are also nylon microfibers that have become important in the pantyhose market, rayon microfibers, and acrylic microfibers. An important characteristic of microfiber fabrics: they can be woven so tightly so the fabric can't be penetrated by wind, rain, or cold. For this reason, raincoat manufacturers have become big users of polyester microfibers. Microfibers also have a wicking ability, which allows perspiration to pass through. So they're comfortable to wear. Nov. '96 RW (pp.48-52) evaluted 12 underlayer shirts for keeping you comfortable wicking away sweat to the exterior surface of the fabric. Polyester has been treated (hydrophillic chemical) and altered (electrostatic evaporation process, differing inner/outer surfaces) to enhance its wicking ability. Some names: Capilene, BiPolar 100 polyester, BiPolar 200 polyester, Dri-F.I.T. Dacron is the trademark name for Dupont polyester. Woven fabric made from dacron is similar to nylon ripstop or taffeta, but not as stretchy. Many of the better clothing insulations are made from dacron. They are usually referred to by more specific trademark names, like quallofil, hollofil, polarguard, and dacron-88. POLYOLEFIN (OLEFIN) Characteristics: * Lightweight, lightest fiber, it floats * Strong * Abrasion resistant, resilient * Stain-, static-, sunlight-, and odor-resistant * High insulation characteristics * Resists deterioration from chemicals, mildew, sweat, rot and weather * Fast drying * High wickability * Static and pilling can be a problem * Ironing, washing/drying need to be done at low temperature * Non-allergenic Major End Uses: Apparel - activewear, sportswear, jeans, socks, underwear, lining fabrics. Of all fibers, this is probably least familiarto you. Developed in 1961, polyolefin has been used exclusively in the home furnishings and high performance activewear market: backpacking, canoeing, mountain climbing apparel. In 1996 producers of olefin began to make in-roads into the mainstream apparel market. It is being blended with cotton in the denim market. It's being tested in the swimwear market. Asics Japan has developed a swimsuit made of polyolefin and Lycra for the Japanese Olympic Swim Team. Polyolefin is the least absorbent of all the man-made fibers, and the only fiber that floats. (Swimmers will do anything to cut a milli-second off their times!) NYLON Characteristics: * Lightweight * Exceptional strength * Good drapeability * Abrasion resistant * Easy to wash * Resists shrinkage and wrinkling * Fast drying, low moisture absorbency * Resistant to damage from oil and many chemicals * Static and pilling can be a problem * Poor resistance to continuous sunlight Major End Uses: * Apparel - swimwear, activewear, foundation garments, hosiery, blouses, dresses, sportswear, raincoats, ski and snow apparel, windbreakers, childrenswear. * Other-Luggage/back packets/life vests/umbrellas/sleeping bags,tents. Nylon is one of the strongest of all fibers, and for this reason it's used in garments that take a great deal of hard wear, like panty hose, swimwear, tents. Although nylon is a very strong fiber, one of it's unfavorable characteristics is that it has poor resistance to prolonged exposure to the sun. In addition, the Lycra (or spandex) breaks down from exposure to chlorine in pool water. Lycra is used for its stretch. Supplex has a feel of cotton,comfortable, breathable and water repellent/ NOT water proof). Absorbs a small amount of water if it is getting drenched. WOOL Natural, Animal fiber Characteristics: * Comfortable * Luxurious, soft hand * Versatile * Lightweight * Good insulator * Washable * Wrinkle-resistant * Absorbent Major End Uses: * Apparel - sweaters, dresses, coats, suits, jackets, pants, skirts, childrenswear, loungewear, blouses, shirts, hosiery, scarves. GORETEX A teflon based membrane with microscopic holes. Gortex's claim to fame is that it will let water vapor (from perspiration) through, but not liquid water (rain). It blocks wind fairly well too. The membrane is delicate, so it always comes laminated between 2 layers of other material. It does not breathe enough. There are less expensive alternatives. POLYPROPYLENE/THERMAX Does not wick very well. Can be uncomfortable. Troublesome to care for (e.g. can pill badly) Will keep you fairly warm if soaked. Not very wind resistant. Shrinks under heat from dryers. Thermax is an improvement on Polypropylene. The big advantage is that Thermax isheat resistance so you can put it in the dryer. Balance that against the extra cost. 60/40 CLOTH This is a cloth with nylon threads running one direction, cotton in the other. It was the standard wind parka material before Goretex came along, and is considerably less expensive. Good wind resistance, fairly breathable. Somewhat water resistant, especially if you spray it with Scotchguard, but won't hold up to a heavy rain. Breathability of Materials summarized from Clive Tully UK Outdoor/Travel Writer email@example.com Breathability in waterproof clothing is one of the most misunderstood and misrepresented technical aspects of outdoors clothing and equipment. It's all very well listing the technical merits of a particular fabric, coating or membrane. Too often, the design of the finished garment either makes or breaks the fabric manufacturer's claim. E.g., a walking jacket with a permanently vented shoulder flap might as well be made of non-breathable PU. It can't maintain the partial pressure which makes the fabric work. The exception is Gore-Tex fabric. Garment manufacturers using their fabrics have to submit sample products for Gore to check they meet their laid down standards of manufacture. Not many fabric manufacturers do that, but then, not many have such a tight grip on their markets. The Breathable options Breathable waterproof fabrics operate by one of two ways.They're microporous, with microscopic pores which permit the passage of water vapour but not water liquid, or they're hydrophilic, a solid barrier but capable of absorbing moisture vapour and passing it through its structure. Either may come as coatings applied directly to a fabric, or membranes which are glued to the fabric which carries it. Then there are microfibre fabrics and cotton fabrics. The top end of the market is dominated by Gore-Tex, and like some of the other laminates on offer, it comes in a variety of forms. The original, and still the best for durability, is 3-layer, where the breathable waterproof membrane is sandwiched between a facing and lining fabric. Garments made of this tend to be good value, too, because the manufacturing processes aren't so complex. 2-layer is softer, with the membrane glued to the underside of the facing fabric, and a loose lining. Not so durable, but usually more breathable, and more expensive. Other varieties, laminate the membrane to a lining fabric with loose outer - nice for fashion garments, and sometimes the waterproof lining has loose outer and lining on either side - again, more complex constructions generally adding up to more expensive garments. And the outside pockets will let in water... A coating is a coating, or is it? Breathable PU nylon doesn't really mean an awful lot. Individual coatings can have their chemistry tinkered with to make them more breathable or more waterproof. Cheaper coatings may be applied in one pass over the fabric, more expensive performance coatings may be made up of several thinner applications. You'd expect breathable waterproof fabric to work reasonably well in dry conditions, provided you're not working so hard as to overload its capability to transport moisture. The real crunch is when it's raining. How much does it breathe after 5 hours in pouring rain? Tests showed that all fabrics lose an element of breathability in wet conditions. The various configurations of Gore-Tex lost between 34 and 43% of their breathability, Sympatex 31% on a Z-liner construction, 70% in a double layer. Helly-Tech's decline was just short of 75%, but perhaps the biggest surprise was Lowe Alpine's Triple Point Ceramic 1200, losing just 15%. Whatever the coating or laminate, the facing fabric and its water-repellent surface treatment is absolutely critical. It's fair to say that the coarse texturised facing fabrics will fare less well than smooth ones because of a larger surface area to grab water when the water repellent treatment wears off. Linings It is a misconception that a lining is an aid to breathability. It isn't. It won't make any improvement. As an extra layer of insulation, it will make condensation inside the jacket MORE likely. What it does is improve the comfort factor by putting a layer between you and any condensation which may form on the shiny underside of your coating or membrane. 2-layer Gore-Tex would be just too fragile without a loose lining to protect it. In other instances, it's used to mask what's going on (or rather, not) at the point of greatest resistance! A mesh lining can achieve the same effect with less resistance to the passage of water vapour - looks nice too, even if it is a bit of a pain with Velcro - but the best functional designs will still employ a smooth lining fabric down the arms to avoid drag over your fleece. But if the mesh is to do the same job for a poor breathable coating or membrane as a close weave lining fabric, it has to be made from an absorbent or wicking fibre, otherwise, there's not much point in having the lining at all. Maintenance Whether you have an expensive membrane or an inexpensive coating lurking behind the face fabric of your jacket, the moment the fabric "wets out", you're in danger of anything from drastically reducing performance to turning your jacket into something with the breathability of a bin liner. It's easy to see when this happens. The water no longer beads up and rolls off the surface of the fabric, and you'll see it soaking into the material in patches. The fabric is still waterproof (apart from pressure points - see above), but its breathability will be greatly impaired. The answer is to keep your jacket clean, following any washing instructions to the letter, and maintain the water repellent finish on the outside. General Information Running Mailing Lists T & F Mailing List For details send email to: (Derrick Peterman)firstname.lastname@example.org The Track and Field Mailing List is a world wide network of athletes, coaches, sports scientists, officials, and track and field enthusiasts. Many national class athletes from several nations subscribe. The list provides rapid dissemination of results, discussion of track and field topics, and a source for inquiry about track and field events. Terminology: Pronation/Supination (Tom Page email@example.com) "Over" pronation describes a minor misalignment of the leg's forward swing that causes the footstrike to be skewed to the inside of the heel. (J.Horalek) "Over" supination is the reverse - impact is shifted toward the outside of the heel. (Jim Horalek) Pronation and supination describe natural and normal motions of the foot during the walking or running stride. In a normal stride, the outside portion of the heal strikes the ground first. The foot pronates to absorbe shock. That is, it rolls inward. At the end of the stride, the foot re-supinates -- rolls outward-- on push-off. What the previous writer (Jim Horalek firstname.lastname@example.org) is defining is `over pronation', and `over supination'. These are excesses of the normal motions. Note that over pronation is fairly common and many shoes are designed to counteract this. Over supination is very rare. Most people who think they over supinate probably just under pronate. Some people who think they over pronate may in fact pronate a normal amount, but fail to re-supinate sufficiently at the end of the stride. Calorie/Energy Count (Kenrick J. Mock email@example.com) Here is a little table adapted from "Beyond Diet...Exercise Your Way to Fitness and Heart Health" by Lenore R. Zohman, M.D. Energy Range = Approx. Calories Per Hour Energy Range Activity Conditioning Benefits 72-84 Sitting, Conversing None 120-150 Strolling, 1 mph Not strenuous enough to produce endurance unless Walking, 2 mph your exercise capacity is very low 150-240 Golf, power cart. Not sufficiently taxing or continuous to promote endurance. 240-300 Cleaning windows Adequate for conditioning if carried out Mopping floor continuously for vacuuming 20-30 minutes Bowling Too intermittent for endurance Walking, 3mph Adequate dynamic exercise if Cycling, 6mph your capacity is low Golf, pulling cart Useful if you walk briskly,if cart is heavy isometrics may be involved. 300-360 Scrubbing floors Adequate if done in at least 2 minute stints Walking, 3.5 mph Usually good dynamic aerobic exercise Cycling, 8 mph Ping Pong Vigorous continuous play can Badminton have endurance benefits. May aid skill. Volleyball Tennis, doubles Not beneficial unless there is continuous play for at least 2 minutes at a time. Aids skill. 360-420 Walking, 4mph Dynamic, aerobic, beneficial. Cycling, 10mph Skating Should be continuous 420-480 Walking, 5mph Dynamic, aerobic, beneficial. Cycling, 11mph Tennis, singles Benefit if played 30 minutes or more with an attempt to keep moving Water Skiing Total isometrics 480-600 Jogging, 5 mph Dynamic, aerobic, endurance Cycling, 12mph building exercise. Downhill skiing Usually too short to help endurance significantly. Paddleball Not sufficiently continuous for aerobic benefits. 600-660 Running, 5.5 mph Excellent conditioner. Cycling, 13 mph Over 660 Running, 6+ mph Excellent conditioner Handball, Squash Conditioning benefit if played 30 min or more. Swimming (wide Good conditioning exercise caloric range) --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Calories burned by running (Rob Lingelbach firstname.lastname@example.org) Here is a table I clipped from Runner's World; the source listed is "Exercise & Physiology" (Lea & Febiger, 1986). At 70% of max. Pace (minutes per mile) 12:00 10:43 9:41 8:46 8:02 7:26 6:54 6:26 6:02 Wt(lbs) Calories burned per hour running 100 400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800 119 432 486 540 594 648 702 756 810 864 128 464 522 580 638 696 754 812 870 928 137 496 558 620 682 744 806 868 930 992 146 528 594 660 726 792 858 924 990 1056 154 560 630 700 770 840 910 980 1050 1120 163 592 666 740 814 888 962 1036 1110 1184 172 624 702 780 858 936 1014 1092 1170 1248 181 656 738 820 902 984 1066 1148 1230 1312 190 688 774 860 946 1032 1118 1204 1290 1376 199 720 810 900 990 1080 1170 1260 1350 1440 207 752 846 940 1034 1128 1222 1316 1410 1504 216 784 882 980 1078 1176 1274 1372 1470 1568 225 816 918 1020 1122 1224 1326 1428 1530 1632 234 848 954 1060 1166 1272 1378 1484 1590 1696 --------------------------------------------------------------------------- Muscle Fuels Used During Exercise Stuart Phillips(email@example.com) There are 3 main fuels used during exercise by the contracting muscle: 1) Protein; 2) Carbohydrate; 3) Fat. PROTEIN: A majority of text books written will not acknowledge protein as a major fuel, and it likely is not. It should be pointed out that protein requirements of someone who is running/exercising on a regular basis are GREATER than those of a sedentary population. Is this something to worry about? Most "North American" diets contain more protein than is needed. So the bottom line is you get more than you need so don't worry. Vegetarians? Again the answer is likely yes, they also get enough protein. Even when consuming a pure protein diet there is enough protein to more than cover the needs of a person who regularly runs/exercises. Moreover, most vegetarians are aware of what they eat and plan their diets very well. FUELS: Fats and carbohydrates (CHOs are then the major fuel sources for the exercising person. The balance of the use of these fuels is dependant upon exercise intensity and duration (the two are inversly related). The general rule is that the lower the intensity the greater the energy cost of exercise can be covered by fat. Hence, the greater the exercise duration the more fat will be burned, usually because the intensity of one's workout will decrease - FATIGUE! The flip side then, is that during higher intensity exercise (>70% of max), one relies heavily on CHOs.