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rec.running FAQ, part 1 of 8

( Part1 - Part2 - Part3 - Part4 - Part5 - Part6 - Part7 - Part8 )
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Archive-name: running-faq/part1
Last-modified: 15 June 2007
Posting-Frequency: 14 days

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
Answers to REC.RUNNING FAQ and Interesting Information

This posting contains answers to frequently asked questions posted to
rec.running plus interesting & useful information for runners. If known,
author's name/email address are given. Send me Ozzie Gontang
<> any corrections,updates, suggestions, or proper
info of sources or holder's of copyright. The rec.running FAQ will 
have the latest updates on Mindful Running:

Part 1 of 8
         What to do before posting to rec.running or any news group
          Runner or Jogger
          Avoiding Dogs
         Books and Magazines
         Winter Running Gear
         Clothes (Winter/Summer)
         Rules For Winter Running
         Clothing Layers
         Dressing for Winter
         Clothing Materials
                 60/40 Cloth
         Breathability of Materials
                 Breathable options
         General Information
         Running Mailing Lists
         Terminology ( overpronation, oversupination)
         Calorie/energy count
         Calories burned by running
         Muscle fuels used during exercise
Part 2 of 8
         Fat burning primer
         Conversion chart
         Fluid replacement
         Noakes's Ten Laws of Running Injuries
         Second Wind
         Soda Pop
         Computer software
         Interval training
         Sore Knees
         Leg Massage
Part 3 of 8
         Mail Order Addresses
         Increasing your mileage
         Major Marathons (e.g. Boston, LA, New York)
Part 4 of 8
         Miscellaneous Medical /Injuries
         Achilles tendinitis (incomplete)
         Shin splints
         Side stitches
         Lactic Acid
         Loose bowels
         Diabetes & running
         Nutrition and Food
Part 5 of 8
         Nutrition primer
         Powerbar Recipe
         Predicting times
         Running Clubs & Organizations
Part 6 of 8
         Tredmill Running
         Weather (cold, hot, wind, rain, altitude)
Part 7 of 8
         Pregnancy & Running
         Mindful Way of Dealing with Out of Control People
         Hints for the Successful Four Hour Marathoner (Super-Fours)
Part 8 of 8
         Running Related Internet Sites


What to do before posting to rec.running or any news group

Read news.announce.newusers and news.answers for a few weeks. Always make
sure to read a newsgroup for some time before you post to it. You'll be
amazed how often the same question can be asked in the same newsgroup.
After a month you'll have a much better sense of what the readers want to

The difference  between jogging and running is in the eye of the beholder.
Partial list compiled by Phil Margolies <>

Jogging is spelled with a j, an o, and two g's, running is spelled with
an r, a u, and two n's. Otherwise there is no important difference that
I am aware of ;-)
There is no real distinction between the two.  Traditionally joggers are
considered to be more casual and slower than someone who refers to
themselves as a runner.  But use which ever term you prefer.
A jogger is person who worries about the difference.
A runner just goes out and runs.
This issue has been beaten to death more than once, but ......

My gut feeling is:
    if your goal/focus is to get there in minimum time; you are racing (or
race training)
    if your goal/focus is on what your are doing; you are running
    if your focus is to lose weight or gain fitness or whatever else
(possibly indicated by wearing headphones?);  you are jogging.

Speed doesn't matter; some people race at 4:00/mile, some at 12:00/mile.
No one of these three activities is any better or nobler than any other.
When I'm tired I jog, when I'm not I run.  After all, it's all  relative.
Speed IMHO has nothing to do with it.
Joggers are interested in the fitness benifits of the activity.
Runners are interested in the sport of racing.
The best quote I ever read on this was: The difference between a jogger and
a runner is a bib number.
A Jogger is everyone that I can pass.
A Runner is everone who passes me.
There are many differences between a jogger & a runner, although both are
very positive activities & neither should be knocked.  Here's a couple of
differences I notice:

Jogging is a hobby.  Running is a way of life.
Joggers get out on a nice day.  Runners get out everyday.

Avoiding Dogs (Arnie Berger arnie@hp-lsd.COL.HP.COM)

There are varying degrees of defense against dogs.

1- Shout "NO!" as loud and authoritatively as you can. That works more than
half the time against most dogs that consider chasing you just good sport.

2- Get away from their territory as fast as you can.

3- A water bottle squirt sometimes startles them.

If they're waiting for you in the road and all you can see are teeth then
you in a heap o' trouble. In those situations, I've turned around, slowly,
not staring at the dog, and rode away.

"Halt" works pretty well, and I've used it at times. It's range is about 8

I bought a "DAZER", from Heathkit. Its a small ultrasonic sound generator
that you point at the dog. My wife and I were tandeming on a back road and
used it on a mildly aggressive German Shephard. It seemed to cause the dog
to back off.

By far, without a doubt, hands down winner, is a squirt bottle full of
reagent grade ammonia, fresh out of the jug. The kind that fumes when you
remove the cap. When I lived in Illinois I had a big, mean dog that put its
cross-hairs on my leg whenever I went by. After talking to the owner
(redneck), I bought a handlebar mount for a water bottle and loaded it with
a lab squirt bottle of the above mentioned fluid. Just as the dog came
alongside, I squirted him on his nose, eyes and mouth. The dog stopped dead
in his tracks and started to roll around in the street. Although I
continued to see that dog on my way to and from work, he never bothered me

Finally, you can usually intimidate the most aggressive dog if there are
more than one of you. Stopping, *and moving towards it will often cause it
to back off*. ( But not always ). My bottom line is to always *run* routes
that I'm not familiar with, with someone else.

E-Book   John Lupton  <>

Gordon Pirie's book "Running Fast and Injury Free" which can be found via . Pirie is a proponent of fore-foot striking.
All I can say is Pirie works for me. As a novice, having a pretty
straightforward book on technique to read, one that is uncomplicated by
jargon, is very useful. For me, even before a novice puts on his/her
running shoes for the first time, it is worth reading this book (its *very*
short). Not all of it is relevant to the recreational runner, but the bits
that are are very obvious and accessible.

Books and Magazines (Phil Cannon pcannon@spotlight.Corp.Sun.COM)


1) The Lore of Running - Tim Noakes
2) The Complete Book of Running - Fixx
3) The Runner's Handbook - Bloom
4) Long Distance Runner's Guide to Training and Racing - Sperks/Bjorklund
5) The Runner's Handbook - Glover & Shepard
6) Galloway's Book on Running - Galloway
7) Jog, Run, Race - Henderson
8) The New Aerobics - Cooper
9) Training Distance Runners- Martin and Coe
10) Any book by Dr. George Sheehan
11) The Essential Runner (John Hanc)
12) The Runner's World Complete Book of Running (Amby Burfoot)

check for books available at:The Athlete's Bookstore

RUNNING DIALOGUE David Holt RN, Santa Barbara and 31:16 10 K.

Includes winter running advice; extensive interval (three chapters) and
diet advice; marathon chapter; three chapters on injury prevention and
predicting times; plus table for paces to train for 2 mile pace for VO2
max, and 15K pace for anaerobic threshold.

Table of contents/list of contributors
or send a blank E-mail to


Track and Field News (12/96-monthly $34.95 US per year) 2370 El Camino
Real, Ste 606 Mountain View CA 94040
415-948-8188    Fax: 1-415-948-9445     1-800-GET-TRAK (1-800-438-8725)

Self-proclaimed "Bible of the Sport", T&FN is the source for major meet
results in T&F, road racing, cross-country, and race walking from the high
school to int'l levels. Emphasis on U.S. athletes. though significant int'l
coverage provided. Compiles annual post-season rankings of the top 10
performers in world and U.S. in every major event, men and women. Publishes
list of top 50 performances in each event for the year. Also sponsors
TAFNUT tours for major championships and the Euro Circuit/GP meets. Lots of
stats, good interviews.

Track Technique (quarterly; $15 in US, $16 outside) same contact info as
Track & Field News.

The official USATF(formerly TAC) quarterly, each issue has important
articles on technique, training, and other practical information on all
events, at all levels. Intended for coaches.

California Track News ($18/yr)
4957 East Heaton
Fresno, CA 93727

Calif.'s only all track & X-county publication. Lots of attention to prep

Running Journal, P.O. Box 157, Greeneville, TN 37744.  Covers southeastern
United States monthly. Founded 1984.  Covers road races in 13 states, plus
ultras, multi-sports, racewalking. Annual subscription is $22.95.

Running Research News
P.O. Box 27041
Lansing, MI 48909
Credit card orders:  1-517-371-4897  MC/Visa accepted. e-mail:

12/96 $35/year  $65/2 years  (10 issues per year, 12-14 pages per issue.)
76 back issues, $265 (postage US 10 outside US $30)

(Add $10 for overseas airmail, except Mexico and Canada)  ALL non-US
customers please provide a credit card number or money order in U.S. funds,
or a check drawn on a U.S. bank (with American-bank computer numbers).

Running Times (monthly $24.95 US per year) P.O. Box 511
Mount Morris, IL 61054-7691

Runner's World (monthly $24 US per year) P.O. Box 7574 Red Oak, IA 51591-2574

Masters Track & Field News (5 issues/yr; $10.50) P.O. Box 16597
North Hollywood, CA 91615

Results, rankings, age-records, schedules, stories of age 40+ athletes
worldwide. "Satisfaction guaranteed"

"The Schedule" - A monthly magazine in California that has an extensive
lists of races and other info. Northern CA: 80 Mitchell Blvd, San Rafael CA
94903-2038 (415) 472-7223; 472-7233 FAX Southern CA: 549 Highland Dr, San
Luis Obispo, CA 93405-1116 (805) 541-2833

Winter Running Gear  Curt Peterson <>

13 Nov 1996 Just wear the same things for running as for cross country skiing.

Wind briefs -available in both womens and mens.
Underlayer turtleneck.
Underlayer long underwear
Tights ( thin or thicker cross country ski tights which are thicker wt.)
Wicking socks
vest or sweatshirt, but if long long run I use a Thermax sweatshirt
Shell for wind
hat and neck gator if really cold.
You can run in virtually all weather.
Our run group in Michigan runs every Monday night all year no matter
what the conditions are.  I think -4 F is our record.

Clothes (Winter/Summer) (Mike Gilson GILSON@ALF.CS.HH.AB.COM)

Disclaimer      What I have to say here is *my* opinion only.
Preference on amount of clothing required for winter running varies widely
among runners. A couple of runners that I see wear shorts, long sleeved T's
and gloves at 30F! Experiment with how much clothing at various temp's.

Rules for Winter Running

Rule 1: Dress in layers. Outer layers can be added/shed easily.
Rule 2: Stay dry. When clothes get wet,they don't performance - & you get cold.
Rule 3: Hydrate. You may not sweat as much, but fluid replacement still needed.

Clothing Layers
Inner layer. The layer closest to the skin should be a tight, lightweight
fabric that wicks water away from the skin. Shirts should be long-sleeved,
skin-tight (without chafing), and may be turtle-necked (my preference).
There are a variety of fabrics that are effective in wicking water; I have
had a lot of success with polypro, but it is not machine washable. These
are readily available at running specialty shops and mail order. For pants,
lycra running tights work very well.
  Outer layer. The next layer should be a looser, mediumweight fabric that
wicks water. A zipper at the neck is convenient for temperature control. I
prefer a shirt that is slightly longer than waist-length so that I have the
option of tucking it into the pants. I've had more success in finding these
in cycling stores than anywhere else. Two layers of lycra tights if very

Shell. A water-proof or water resistant shell that is breathable is useful
in the coldest conditions. These are usually sold as suits, but tops are
available separately at a higher cost. Gore-tex is considered the best
fabric, but there are cheaper alternatives. You can get these suits made to
your measurements or buy them off the rack. I have a Burley jacket, which I
purchased at a cycling shop. It's chief advantage over the running suits is
the venting and extra zippers for temperature control. There are zippers
under each arm, starting at mid chest going up to the armpit and travelling
down the arm to about mid forearm.

Tights. Tights have been mentioned above as inner/outer layers. Many people
run in sweats, but sweats have two disadvantages: they're heavy and they
get heavier when wet. Lycra is lightweight and warm, but costs more and
shows off body (im)perfections more than sweats.

Gloves. Any cotton glove works.  Polyproplyene or other microbfiber materials.

Hat. A lot of heat is lost through the scalp, so a hat is a must for most
people. Cotton hats get too heavy with sweat. Balaclavas are more versatile
than hats, and allow you to cover you neck/face if requires. Both hats and
balaclavas are available in wicking fabrics.

Socks. A wicking sock will seem less heavy and your feet will be drier than
a conventional sock. Coolmax socks are my preference, worn in a single
layer. You can also find other fabrics, such as capilene or polypro socks,
which are considerably more expensive.

Running shoes. Runner's World (anyone know which issue?) had some tips from
Alaskan runners on how to put (short) screws into the sole of the shoe for
better traction on the ice. I haven't tried it, but you obviously have to
be careful not to puncture the midsole, air/gel chambers, etc.

Dressing for Winter Running

Temp range      Number of layers
(degrees F)   Inner  Outer    Shell   Tights   Gloves   Hat    Socks
50-55           1       0       0       1       1       0       0
40-45           1       1       0       1       1       0       1
30-35           1       1       0       1-2     1       1       1
20-25           1       1       1       2       1       1       1
0-15            1       1       1/pants 1               1       1

Clothing Materials
compiled by Ozzie Gontang <>

          Man-made: available in acrylic, nylon, polyester and rayon.

          * Washable, dry cleanable      Shrink-resistant
          * High strength (except Rayon) Insulates well against wind, rain, cold
          Major End Uses:  sportswear, activewear,swimwear, outerwear, rainwear.

  Micro-fibers is not a fiber unto itself. It is a technology developed to
produce an ultra-fine fiber, and then weave it or knit it into a very high
quality fabric constructions. DuPont introduced the first microfiber in
1989, a  polyester microfiber. Today in addition to polyester microfibers,
there are also nylon microfibers that have become important in the
pantyhose market, rayon microfibers, and acrylic microfibers.

An important characteristic of microfiber fabrics: they can be woven so
tightly so the fabric can't be penetrated by wind, rain, or cold. For this
reason, raincoat manufacturers have become big users of polyester
microfibers. Microfibers also have a wicking ability, which allows
perspiration to pass through. So they're comfortable to wear.

Nov. '96 RW (pp.48-52) evaluted 12 underlayer shirts for keeping you
comfortable   wicking away sweat to the exterior surface of the fabric.
Polyester has been treated (hydrophillic chemical) and altered
(electrostatic evaporation process, differing inner/outer surfaces) to
enhance its wicking ability.

Some names: Capilene, BiPolar 100 polyester, BiPolar 200 polyester, Dri-F.I.T.
Dacron is the trademark name for Dupont polyester. Woven fabric made from
dacron is similar to nylon ripstop or taffeta, but not as stretchy. Many of
the better clothing insulations are made from dacron. They are usually
referred to by more specific trademark names, like quallofil, hollofil,
polarguard, and dacron-88.


          * Lightweight, lightest fiber, it floats
          * Strong
          * Abrasion resistant, resilient
          * Stain-, static-, sunlight-, and odor-resistant
          * High insulation characteristics
          * Resists deterioration from chemicals, mildew, sweat, rot and weather
          * Fast drying
          * High wickability
          * Static and pilling can be a problem
          * Ironing, washing/drying need to be done at low temperature
          * Non-allergenic
          Major End Uses:   Apparel - activewear, sportswear, jeans, socks,
            underwear, lining fabrics.

  Of all fibers, this is probably least familiarto you. Developed in 1961,
polyolefin has been used exclusively in the home furnishings and high
performance activewear market: backpacking, canoeing, mountain climbing
apparel. In 1996 producers of olefin began to make in-roads into the
mainstream apparel market. It is being blended with cotton in the denim
market. It's being tested in the swimwear market. Asics Japan has developed
a swimsuit made of polyolefin and Lycra for the Japanese Olympic Swim Team.
Polyolefin is the least absorbent of all the man-made fibers, and the only
fiber that floats. (Swimmers will do anything to cut a milli-second off
their times!)


          * Lightweight           * Exceptional strength
          * Good drapeability     * Abrasion resistant
          * Easy to wash          * Resists shrinkage and wrinkling
          * Fast drying, low moisture absorbency
          * Resistant to damage from oil and many chemicals
          * Static and pilling can be a problem
          * Poor resistance to continuous sunlight
          Major End Uses:
          * Apparel - swimwear, activewear, foundation garments, hosiery,
            blouses, dresses, sportswear, raincoats, ski and snow apparel,
            windbreakers, childrenswear.
          * Other-Luggage/back packets/life vests/umbrellas/sleeping bags,tents.

  Nylon is one of the strongest of all fibers, and for this reason it's used
in garments that take a great deal of hard wear, like panty hose, swimwear,

Although nylon is a very strong fiber, one of it's unfavorable
characteristics is that it has poor resistance to prolonged exposure to the
sun. In addition, the Lycra (or spandex) breaks down from exposure to
chlorine in pool water. Lycra is used for its stretch.

Supplex has a feel of cotton,comfortable, breathable and water repellent/
NOT water proof). Absorbs a small amount of water if it is getting drenched.

WOOL      Natural, Animal fiber

          * Comfortable          * Luxurious, soft hand
          * Versatile            * Lightweight
          * Good insulator       * Washable
          * Wrinkle-resistant    * Absorbent
          Major End Uses:
          * Apparel - sweaters, dresses, coats, suits, jackets, pants, skirts,
            childrenswear, loungewear, blouses, shirts, hosiery, scarves.

A teflon based membrane with microscopic holes. Gortex's claim to fame is
that it will let water vapor (from perspiration) through, but not liquid
water (rain). It blocks wind fairly well too. The membrane is delicate, so
it always comes laminated between 2 layers of other material. It does not
breathe enough. There are less expensive alternatives.

Does not wick very well. Can be uncomfortable. Troublesome to care for
(e.g. can pill badly) Will keep you fairly warm if soaked. Not very wind
resistant. Shrinks under heat from dryers.  Thermax is an improvement on
Polypropylene. The big advantage is that Thermax isheat resistance so you
can put it in the dryer. Balance that against the extra cost.

60/40 CLOTH
This is a cloth with nylon threads running one direction, cotton in the
other. It was the standard wind parka material before Goretex came along,
and is considerably less expensive. Good wind resistance, fairly
breathable. Somewhat water resistant, especially if you spray it with
Scotchguard, but won't hold up to a heavy rain.

Breathability of Materials
summarized from Clive Tully UK Outdoor/Travel Writer

Breathability in waterproof clothing is one of the most misunderstood and
misrepresented technical aspects of outdoors clothing and equipment. It's
all very well listing the technical merits of a particular fabric, coating
or membrane. Too often, the design of the finished garment either makes or
breaks the fabric manufacturer's claim. E.g., a walking jacket with a
permanently vented shoulder flap might as well be made of non-breathable
PU. It can't maintain the partial pressure which makes the fabric work. The
exception is Gore-Tex fabric. Garment manufacturers using their fabrics
have to submit sample products for Gore to check they meet their laid down
standards of manufacture. Not many fabric manufacturers do that, but then,
not many  have such a tight grip on their markets.

The Breathable options

Breathable waterproof fabrics operate by one of two ways.They're
microporous, with microscopic pores which permit the passage of water
vapour but not water liquid, or they're hydrophilic, a solid barrier but
capable of absorbing moisture vapour and passing it through its structure.
Either may come as coatings applied directly to a fabric, or membranes
which are glued to the fabric which carries it. Then there are microfibre
fabrics and cotton fabrics.

The top end of the market is dominated by Gore-Tex, and like some of the
other laminates on offer, it comes in a variety of forms. The original, and
still the best for durability, is 3-layer, where the breathable waterproof
membrane is sandwiched between a facing and lining fabric. Garments made of
this tend to be good value, too, because the manufacturing processes aren't
so complex. 2-layer is softer, with the membrane glued to the underside of
the facing fabric, and a loose lining. Not so durable, but usually more
breathable, and more expensive. Other varieties, laminate the membrane to a
lining fabric with loose outer - nice for fashion garments, and sometimes
the waterproof lining has loose outer and lining on either side - again,
more complex constructions generally adding up to more expensive garments.
And the outside pockets will let in water...

A coating is a coating, or is it? Breathable PU nylon doesn't really mean
an awful lot. Individual coatings can have their chemistry tinkered with to
make them more breathable or more waterproof. Cheaper coatings may be
applied in one pass over the fabric, more expensive performance coatings
may be made up of several thinner applications.

You'd expect breathable waterproof fabric to work reasonably well in dry
conditions, provided you're not working so hard as to overload its
capability to transport moisture. The real crunch is when it's raining. How
much does it breathe after 5 hours in pouring rain? Tests showed that all
fabrics lose an element of breathability in wet conditions. The various
configurations of Gore-Tex lost between 34 and 43% of their breathability,
Sympatex 31% on a Z-liner construction, 70% in a double layer. Helly-Tech's
decline was just short of 75%, but perhaps the biggest surprise was Lowe
Alpine's Triple Point Ceramic 1200, losing just 15%.

Whatever the coating or laminate, the facing fabric and its water-repellent
surface treatment is absolutely critical. It's fair to say that the coarse
texturised facing fabrics will fare less well than smooth ones because of a
larger surface area to grab water when the water repellent treatment wears


It is a misconception that a lining is an aid to breathability. It isn't.
It won't make any improvement. As an extra layer of insulation, it will
make condensation inside the jacket MORE likely. What it does is improve
the comfort factor by putting a layer between you and any condensation
which may form on the shiny underside of your coating or membrane. 2-layer
Gore-Tex would be just too fragile without a loose lining to protect it. In
other instances, it's used to mask what's going on (or rather, not) at the
point of greatest resistance!

A mesh lining can achieve the same effect with less resistance to the
passage of water vapour - looks nice too, even if it is a bit of a pain
with Velcro - but the best functional designs will still employ a smooth
lining fabric down the arms to avoid drag over your fleece. But if the mesh
is to do the same job for a poor breathable coating or membrane as a close
weave lining fabric, it has to be made from an absorbent or wicking fibre,
otherwise, there's not much point in having the lining at all.

  Whether you have an expensive membrane or an inexpensive coating lurking
behind the face fabric of your jacket, the moment the fabric "wets out",
you're in danger of anything from drastically reducing performance to
turning your jacket into something with the breathability of a bin liner.
It's easy to see when this happens. The water no longer beads up and rolls
off the surface of the fabric, and you'll see it soaking into the material
in patches. The fabric is still waterproof (apart from pressure points -
see above), but its breathability will be greatly impaired. The answer is
to keep your jacket clean, following any washing instructions to the
letter, and maintain the water repellent finish on the outside.

General Information

Running Mailing Lists

T & F Mailing List
For details send email to: (Derrick Peterman)

The Track and Field Mailing List is a world wide network of athletes,
coaches, sports scientists, officials, and track and field enthusiasts.
Many national class athletes from several nations subscribe. The list
provides rapid dissemination of results, discussion of track and field
topics, and a source for inquiry about track and field events.

Terminology:   Pronation/Supination (Tom Page

"Over" pronation describes a minor misalignment of the leg's forward swing
that causes the footstrike to be skewed to the inside of the heel.

"Over" supination is the reverse - impact is shifted toward the outside of
the heel. (Jim Horalek)

Pronation and supination describe natural and normal motions of the foot
during the walking or running stride. In a normal stride, the outside
portion of the heal strikes the ground first. The foot pronates to absorbe
shock. That is, it rolls inward. At the end of the stride, the foot
re-supinates -- rolls outward-- on push-off.

What the previous writer (Jim Horalek is defining is
`over pronation', and `over supination'. These are excesses of the normal
motions. Note that over pronation is fairly common and many shoes are
designed to counteract this. Over supination is very rare. Most people who
think they over supinate probably just under pronate. Some people who think
they over pronate may in fact pronate a normal amount, but fail to
re-supinate sufficiently at the end of the stride.

Calorie/Energy Count
(Kenrick J. Mock

Here is a little table adapted from "Beyond Diet...Exercise Your Way to
Fitness and Heart Health" by Lenore R. Zohman, M.D.

Energy Range = Approx. Calories Per Hour

Energy Range Activity Conditioning Benefits

72-84 Sitting, Conversing     None

120-150  Strolling, 1 mph       Not strenuous enough to produce endurance
         Walking,   2 mph        your exercise capacity is very low

150-240  Golf, power cart.      Not sufficiently taxing or continuous to
                                 promote endurance.

240-300  Cleaning windows       Adequate for conditioning if carried out
         Mopping floor           continuously for vacuuming   20-30 minutes
         Bowling                 Too intermittent for endurance
         Walking, 3mph           Adequate dynamic exercise if
         Cycling, 6mph           your capacity is low
         Golf, pulling cart      Useful if you walk briskly,if cart is heavy
                                 isometrics may be involved.

300-360  Scrubbing floors        Adequate if done in at least 2 minute stints
         Walking, 3.5 mph         Usually good dynamic aerobic exercise
         Cycling, 8 mph
         Ping Pong                Vigorous continuous play can
         Badminton                have endurance benefits. May aid skill.
         Tennis, doubles         Not beneficial unless there is continuous play
                                 for at least 2 minutes at a time. Aids skill.

360-420 Walking, 4mph           Dynamic, aerobic, beneficial.
         Cycling, 10mph
         Skating                 Should be continuous

420-480 Walking, 5mph           Dynamic, aerobic, beneficial.
         Cycling, 11mph
         Tennis, singles         Benefit if played 30 minutes or more with an
                                 attempt to keep moving
         Water Skiing            Total isometrics

480-600 Jogging, 5 mph          Dynamic, aerobic, endurance
         Cycling, 12mph          building exercise.
         Downhill skiing         Usually too short to help endurance
         Paddleball              Not sufficiently continuous for aerobic

600-660 Running, 5.5 mph        Excellent conditioner.
         Cycling, 13 mph

Over 660 Running, 6+ mph        Excellent conditioner
         Handball, Squash        Conditioning benefit if played 30 min  or more.
         Swimming                 (wide Good conditioning exercise caloric
Calories burned by running
(Rob Lingelbach

Here is a table I clipped from Runner's World; the source listed
is "Exercise & Physiology" (Lea & Febiger, 1986). At 70% of max.

Pace (minutes per mile)
         12:00   10:43   9:41    8:46    8:02    7:26    6:54    6:26    6:02
Wt(lbs)                 Calories burned per hour running
100     400     450     500     550     600     650     700     750     800
119     432     486     540     594     648     702     756     810     864
128     464     522     580     638     696     754     812     870     928
137     496     558     620     682     744     806     868     930     992
146     528     594     660     726     792     858     924     990    1056
154     560     630     700     770     840     910     980    1050    1120
163     592     666     740     814     888     962    1036    1110    1184
172     624     702     780     858     936    1014    1092    1170    1248
181     656     738     820     902     984    1066    1148    1230    1312
190     688     774     860     946    1032    1118    1204    1290    1376
199     720     810     900     990    1080    1170    1260    1350    1440
207     752     846     940    1034    1128    1222    1316    1410    1504
216     784     882     980    1078    1176    1274    1372    1470    1568
225     816     918    1020    1122    1224    1326    1428    1530    1632
234     848     954    1060    1166    1272    1378    1484    1590    1696
Muscle Fuels Used During Exercise
Stuart Phillips(

There are 3 main fuels used during exercise by the contracting muscle: 1)
Protein; 2) Carbohydrate; 3) Fat.

         PROTEIN: A majority of text books written will not acknowledge
protein as a  major fuel, and it likely is not. It  should be pointed out
that protein requirements of  someone who is running/exercising on a
regular basis are GREATER than those of a sedentary population. Is this
something to worry about? Most "North American" diets contain more protein
than is  needed. So the bottom
line is you get more than you need so  don't worry. Vegetarians? Again the
answer is likely yes, they also get  enough protein. Even when consuming a
pure protein diet there is enough  protein to more than cover the needs of
a  person who regularly  runs/exercises. Moreover, most vegetarians are
aware of what they  eat and plan their diets very well.

         FUELS: Fats and carbohydrates (CHOs are then the major fuel sources
for the exercising person. The balance of the use of these  fuels is
dependant upon exercise intensity and duration (the two are  inversly
related). The general rule is that the lower the intensity the  greater the
energy cost of exercise can be covered by fat. Hence, the  greater the
exercise duration the more fat will be burned, usually  because the
intensity of one's workout will decrease - FATIGUE! The  flip side then, is
that during higher intensity exercise (>70% of max),  one relies heavily on

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