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soc.culture.german FAQ (posted monthly) part 2/6

( Part1 - Part2 - Part3 - Part4 - Part5 - Part6 )
[ Usenet FAQs | Web FAQs | Documents | RFC Index | Neighborhoods ]
Archive-name: german-faq/part2
Last modified: 2001-09-02
Posting-Frequency: monthly
URL: http://www.watzmann.net/scg/
Version: 2001-09

See reader questions & answers on this topic! - Help others by sharing your knowledge
     This is part 2 of the ASCII version of the FAQ list for
     soc.culture.german. Find the WWW version at
     <http://www.watzmann.net/scg/index.html>. The FAQ is posted on
     the first of every month.




                     Table of Contents for Part  2
                     =============================

  5. The Internet

     5.1 Side Remarks on the Structure
     5.2 Finding Germany-Related Information on the Net
        5.2.1 Search Engines
           5.2.1.1 Germany-Specific
           5.2.1.2 Libraries
           5.2.1.3 Generic WWW Searchers
        5.2.2 Country Codes etc.
        5.2.3 Cities
        5.2.4 Companies
        5.2.5 Miscellaneous Collections of Data on/from Germany
     5.3 List of Anonymous ftp Servers in Germany
     5.4 Dedicated People's Pages
     5.5 Email in Germany
        5.5.1 Finding Email Addresses
           5.5.1.1 College Students' Addresses
     5.6 Getting Internet Access
        5.6.1 Universities
        5.6.2 Internet Provider Lists and Searchers
        5.6.3 Private Networks
        5.6.4 T-online
        5.6.5 Public Unix Systems
        5.6.6 Your Local BBS
     5.7 de.* Newsgroups
        5.7.1 Page comments

  6. Geography

     6.1  Statistics
        6.1.1 The 16 Federal States
        6.1.2 Cities with >100,000 Citizens
     6.2 Daylight Savings Time
     6.3 No AM/PM -- 24 hr!
     6.4 Maps online and on paper
        6.4.1 Online maps
        6.4.2 Maps on paper
     6.5 World Wide Weather
     6.6 Astronomy, As Observed in Germany
        6.6.1 Page comments

  7. Language

     7.1 Internet resources for learning German
     7.2 Learning German as an Adult
     7.3 What does the Adjective
     7.4 German is so Strange...or is it?
     7.5 Duden Editorial Board
     7.6 German Words in English
     7.7 Tongue Twisters
     7.8 Platt
        7.8.1 FOLKHART
        7.8.2       Listserver LOWLANDS-L for Friesisch and Niederdeutsch
        7.8.3 Page comments




  5.  The Internet

  A great source of information on the Internet in general and the
  Usenet in particular are the FAQs posted to the newsgroups
  news.answers and alt.internet.services.

  Obtain basic information
  <ftp://ftp.sura.net/pub/nic/network.service.guides/how.to.email.guide/>
  on email on the internet.

  5.1.  Side Remarks on the Structure


  o  WiN <http://www.dfn.de/> is the Wissenschafts-Netz, connecting
     universities, Max Planck institutes and other science-related
     institutions.  Run by Deutsche Telekom for the DFN-Verein
     <http://www.dfn.de/dfn/home.html>, it currently
     <http://www.dfn.de/pictures/dfn-pictures/win-status.gif>  has
     backbones with bandwidths of 1.92 MBit/sec; some are already, many
     lines are going to be expanded in 1996/97 to 34 MBit/sec. 1996-07
     Connections from WiN to US-based networks usually are 1 to 6
     Mbit/sec fast.

  o  DE-NIC <http://www.nic.de/> the network information center for the
     *.DE domain. Their main task is the coordinated distribution of
     internet numbers and services. They also prepare statistics about
     the hardware constituting the net. In Nov/95, for instance, there
     where some 400,000 machines with internet access in Germany, 2
     million in Europe; growth is exponential with a doubling period of
     little more than a year.  1995-12

  5.2.  Finding Germany-Related Information on the Net

  5.2.1.  Search Engines

  5.2.1.1.  Germany-Specific


  o  web.de -- Deutschland        im Internet; <http://Web.de> points to
     German language information pages. 1996-04

  o  DINO page <http://www.dino-online.de/>

  o  BundesDatenAutobahn <http://www.bda.de/>

  o  Quantum      Server <http://www.quantum.de/zahlen/>




  5.2.1.2.  Libraries


  o  U Karlsruhe; The WWW Virtual Library: German Subject Catalogue
     <http://www.rz.uni-
     karlsruhe.de/Outerspace/VirtualLibrary/index.en.html> 1996-02

  o  U Duesseldorf; Virtual Library <http://www.rz.uni-
     duesseldorf.de/WWW/ulb/virtbibl.html>  1996-02

  o  TU Darmstadt; Libraries in Hessen <http://www.tu-
     darmstadt.de/ze/lbs.html> 1996-05

  o  U Cologne; university libraries <http://www.rrz.uni-
     koeln.de/bibliotheken/index.html> 1996-05


  5.2.1.3.  Generic WWW Searchers

  Since there are so many of these robots,
  <http://info.webcrawler.com/mak/projects/robots/faq.html> I will only
  give Meta searchers -- pointers to pointers...

  o  German metasearch <http://www.metager.de/>

  o   Metasearch <http://metasearch.com/>

  o   CUSI <http://pubweb.nexor.co.uk/public/cusi/cusi.html>

  o   Ralf's collection of spiders, robots, crawlers,        etc.
     <http://www.physics.purdue.edu/~vogelges/searcher.html>


  5.2.2.  Country Codes etc.


  o   phone country codes; from Germany
     <http://www.quantum.de/zahlen/vorwahl-de-int.html>

  o   phone country codes; to Germany
     <http://www.quantum.de/zahlen/vorwahl-int-de.html>

  o   country codes <http://www.quantum.de/zahlen/country.html>

  o   ISO 4217      currency codes <http://www.xe.net/gen/iso4217.htm>

  5.2.3.  Cities


  o  Arthur Teschler (email Arthur.Teschler@uni-giessen.de) provides a
     neat mailserver which allows for substring as well as soundex
     searches in a database of than 50,000 entries of municipality data.
     Results provide: Gemeindekennziffer, county, region and state, zip
     code, population, geographical location, topographical maps. For
     more information send email:

       To: Arthur.Teschler@uni-giessen.de Subject: _GEO_ 1st line:
       INFO

  1996-02 ok

  o   postal      zipcodes <http://www.quantum.de/cgi-bin/plz>

  o  international airports <http://www.quantum.de/zahlen/airport-
     int.html>

  o  phone area codes <http://www.quantum.de/zahlen/vorwahl-de.html>

  o  geographic coordinates <http://www.quantum.de/zahlen/koord-
     int.html>

  o  license plate numbers <http://www.quantum.de/zahlen/kfz-de.html>

  5.2.4.  Companies


  o   a nice collection
     <http://www.corporateinformation.com/decorp.html> of web-pages to
     search for and research German companies. 1998-04

  o   email-addresses of companies <http://www.quantum.de/zahlen/firmen-
     email.html>

  o   zipcodes of companies <http://www.quantum.de/zahlen/plz-
     gross.html>

  o   European Banks <http://www.wiso.gwdg.de/ifbg/bank_eur.html>
     1996-04

  o   German Banks <http://www.dino-online.de/seiten/go13cb.htm>

  o   bank routes (<EM>Bankleitzahlen</EM>) using postal      codes
     <http://www.quantum.de/zahlen/blz-plz.html>

  o   Bankleitzahlen pur <http://www.quantum.de/zahlen/blz-noplz.html>

  5.2.5.  Miscellaneous Collections of Data on/from Germany

  Before I re-invent everything <http://userpage.chemie.fu-
  berlin.de/adressen/brd.html> ...I'll much rather tell you where to
  find original sources ;-)

  The CIA world factbook has a section on Germany,
  <http://www.odci.gov/cia/publications/factbook/gm.html> too.

  Dino online <http://www.dino-online.de/> is also a real saurus...

  The      Kassandra Project  has a number of nice links
  <http://www.reed.edu/~ccampbel/tkp/links.html> for various topics.
  1996-03

  5.3.  List of Anonymous ftp Servers in Germany

  Christian Hettler ( hettler@ask.uni-karlsruhe.de) maintains a list
  which you can get via ftp <ftp://ftp.ask.uni-
  karlsruhe.de/pub/info/ftp-list-de>  from U Karlsruhe or at its WWW
  version <http://www.ask.uni-karlsruhe.de/ftp/ftp-list-de.html> or
  through an email server: send an email (leave subject blank)

       To: mail-server@ask.uni-karlsruhe.de begin send
       /pub/info/ftp-list-de end


  5.4.  Dedicated People's Pages

  Here are quite a few people who collect their own URL's on German
  resources. Chances are, you'll find a lot that is not included in this
  FAQ ;-)..


  o  Katharina Davitt's    Deutsches Eck <http://www.german-usa.com>
     1996-10
  o  Stephan Gloge's    Homepage <http://www.cris.com/~mrglueck/>
     1996-02

  o  Gary Kemper's German Resources
     <http://www.deltanet.com/users/gkemper/ger.html> 1996-02

  o  Carl      Butler's collection of German newspapers, magazines, etc.
     <http://www.duke.edu/~cgv/library/> 1996-04

  o  Axel Boldt's thoughts on cultural differences between the USA and
     Germany <http://math-www.uni-paderborn.de/~axel/us-d.html>

  o  Nikolaus Duttler's Munich complete guide
     <http://homepages.munich.netsurf.de/Nikolaus.Duttler/munich.htm>,
     with valuable information on Munich, Bavaria and the Oktoberfest.

  5.5.


  Email in Germany

  The pointers and tools described here are mostly of general interest
  in the sense that their scope is not restricted to Germany.

  5.5.1.  Finding Email Addresses

  If the resources listed below don't help, you should, no have to, read
  the excellent How to find people's email addresses
  <http://www.qucis.queensu.ca/FAQs/email/finding.html> FAQ maintained
  by David Alex Lamb. You should probably read that FAQ in any event.
  It's good.

  Another very complete answer is the FAQ: How to find people's E-mail
  addresses, frequently posted in the newsgroup news.answers and also
  available by sending email to mail-server@rtfm.mit.edu with the line
  send usenet/news.answers/finding-addresses in the body.

  As a last resort, you can post an I'm looking for a friend - note in
  an appropriate newsgroup. Don't tell them I said that ...


     Email search engines on the web

     o  The most convenient search engine is the Meta          Email
        Search Agent <http://mesa.rrzn.uni-hannover.de/> at the
        Universitaet Hannover. The  agent queries several email search
        sites at the same time --- you only need to fill out one search
        form ! 1999-08

     o  The Germany-specific search engines suchen.de
        <http://www.suchen.de/> and the          email directory
        <http://www.email-verzeichnis.de/> of Deutsche Telekom.

     o  US-based services such as Yahoo people          search
        <http://people.yahoo.com/>, switchboard.com
        <http://www.switchboard.com/bin/cgiemail.dll?LNK=3:17&MEM=1> and
        Lycos'       WhoWhere <http://www.whowhere.lycos.com/> 1999-08

     General search engines
        Of course, you might be lucky and your long-lost friend has a
        web-page, and it belongs to the 30% of the web that search
        engines index. In that case, using the usual search engines like
        AltaVista <http://www.altavista.com/> or Google
        <http://www.google.com> might get you somewhere.


     Usenet
        If you have a hunch that the person you're looking for is
        posting on Usenet, try to locate them through DejaNews
        <http://www.deja.com/usenet>.

     WHOIS queries
        If the person you are looking for has their own domain
        (something like dein-freund.de or your-friend.com) you might be
        able to locate them through WHOIS. Depending on the domain name,
        you have to look at different WHOIS servers. Use Network
        Solutions' web search <http://www.networksolutions.com/cgi-
        bin/whois/whois/> for .com,.net or .org domains. For European
        domains such as .de,.at or .ch use Ripe's WHOIS   servers
        <http://www.ripe.net/db/whois.html>.

  The more information you know about your associate (name, place of
  business or school, and so on) the better your chances are!

  5.5.1.1.  College Students' Addresses

  Try a second source <http://www.qucis.queensu.ca/FAQs/college-
  email/college.html> to find the email address of a certain college or
  university. It contains only a few German addresses as of now
  <http://www.cs.queensu.ca/FAQs/college-email/country/Germany-C.html>.
  If your university is not listed, send a detailed description of how
  to find email addresses at that place to
  dalamb@qucis.queensu.ca. If you have a person's name and their
  academic location in Germany, you may try a netfind for the domain
  name

  o  uni-stadt.de   for Universitaeten

  o  fh-stadt.de    for Fachhochschulen

  o  tu-stadt.de    for Technische Universitaeten

  o  th-stadt.de    for Technische Hochschulen

  where stadt is to be replaced by the name of the town where the person
  lives. For example, the domain of the Universitaet Karlsruhe is uni-
  karlsruhe.de with the main web-site at http://www.uni-karlsruhe.de
  1999-08

  5.6.


  Getting Internet Access

  The indispensable Heise Verlag <http://www.heise.de/> maintains a
  newsticker and a comprehensive list of ISPs in Germany and their rates
  on this page <http://www.heise.de/itarif/>.

  A lot of the bigger cities have Internet cafes that let you surf the
  web and write email, for a fee, of course.

  One particularly nifty outcome of the deregulation of the German phone
  market is that some phone companies provide very useful services:
  Arcor <http://www.arcor.de> provides PPP service without any signup.
  To use it, configure your PC's PPP software to dial the number 01070
  0192070, username arcor, password internet, DNS server 145.253.2.11.
  The cost of 6 to 10 Pfennige will appear on your next phone bill. This
  will most probably not work in hotels as it selects Arcor as the phone
  company with the 01070 prefix, which hotels often disable. But asking
  can't hurt, either.


  5.6.1.  Universities

  Statistics about University-Originated access to the Net

  Ralf Taprogge is conducting a survey about internet accessibility at
  German universities. He posts his results <http://www.uni-
  muenster.de/Publizistik/MAG3/ifp/taprogg/> on the WWW. As of early
  December 1995, the following data had emerged:

  For those 47 Universities that had answered...

  o  Some 800,000 students were enrolled total.

  o  About 120,000 students had email accounts.

  o  More than 85% of the universities offer SLIP/PPP for modem access.

  o  More than 50% offer students to create WWW-pages.  1996-1 If the
     university offers Internet access, you can be sure that the
     services are not very much like what American students are used to.
     For example ftp might be very(!) restricted.

  Usually you'll have to be a student, postdoc, etc. to be entitled for
  email access at your university. Ask for email at your local
  Rechenzentrum.  1994-3

  5.6.2.  Internet Provider Lists and Searchers

  Unfortunately, flat rate internet access in Germany is still not
  available, or if you find it, you pay a king's ransom (something like
  100 DM/month) for it. Not only do you pay the phone company per minute
  while you are online, you have to pay your internet service provider
  per minute, too. A typical offering is the one by T-Online
  <http://www.t-online.de>, which charges you 8 DM/month and then 0.03
  DM/min while you are t-online.



  Fokus <http://www.fokus.gmd.de/linux/linux-net.html> has a good list
  of ISP search engines. That page lists ISP search engines for Germany,
  Europe, the USA and the whole wide world. 1999-08

  Among them are the ISP search page <http://www.heise.de/ct/provider/>
  for German Internet providers by the computer magazine c't. A similar
  page <http://www-cache.rrzn.uni-hannover.de/such-prov.html> exists at
  the Universitaet Hannover.1999-08

  The pages of 56k.com <http://www.56k.com/> contain very comprehensive
  lists of US Internet service providers. Network USA's overview over
  internet-providers         around the world
  <http://www.netusa.net/ISP/> contains also pointers to German
  providers. <http://www.netusa.net/ISP/49.index.html>

  Wolfgang Sander-Beuermann used to maintain an FAQ on Internet access
  in Germany <http://pcdis.rrzn.uni-hannover.de/inet-zu-de.html>. He
  stopped maintaining it in November 1998, though it's still available.
  1999-08

  Read de.etc.lists (see `The Internet' on how)  Look for Jan
  Richert's list publicuucp.

  And finally look for Benoit Carl Lips' list of dial-in connections in
  Europe. Obtain the latest version from the USENET groups
  alt.internet.access.wanted and alt.internet.services.  1995-4


  5.6.3.  Private Networks

  There are a number of ways besides university connections to stay on-
  line. Truly commercial providers (like UUnet, etc.) may be a little
  too complete in service and price for one's personal email and news
  service needs.  Private BBS-based networks like FIDO, MAUS, Z-Netz,
  Comlink... offer cheap connections to Internet and USENET. Their news
  and mail service should be satisfactory; IRC, WWW, ftp, and such
  services are usually not provided. Be aware; the telephone bills from
  the German Telekom could prove to be nasty. :-(


      MAUS.NET, SUBNET, INDIVIDUAL.NET
        To get access to a NON COMMERCIAL BBS (like MAUS-NET). You can
        only read or write messages or use email. Most of these feed
        into  SUB.NET or INDIVIDUAL.NET (IN) ... which is why you might
        want to  consider getting their services directly; their
        internet connection is also faster and more complete.

      Sub.Net
        SubNet e.V., Geschaeftsstelle c/o Heiko Rupp, Gerwigstr. 5,
        76131 Karlsruhe, fax +49 721 661937, email
        info@subnet.sub.net 1994-10

      Individual Network
        About 40 DM/month for IP, possibly less for news and mail only.
        Regional differences apply in price and service. 1996-07

        Email in-info@individual.net or write: Individual Network e.V.,
        Geschaeftsstelle, Scheideweg 65, D-26121 Oldenburg, Germany, tel
        +49(441)9808556, fax +49(441)9808557 1994-6

      Maus.Net
        Their official homepage <http://www.maus.de> is now available.
        1997-10 If  you happen to know the license plate id
        <http://www.physics.purdue.edu/~vogelges/kfz.html> (Search for
        KFZ-Kennzeichen <http://www.quantum.de/zahlen/kfz-de.html> at
        the quantum server.) for the area of your interest try the
        following (note that this method is not guaranteed to work!)

        SYSOP@license plate id.MAUS.DE example: SYSOP@K.MAUS.DE for
        service in the Cologne area.

        In the body of the message ask for the telephone number of your
        local BBS box. 1994-2

  5.6.4.  T-online

  All over Germany you can take "Deutsche Telekom" directly with its t-
  online service.

  The price for T-Online access is DM 8,-/Month access fee (including
  two free hours) and DM 0,03/min usage fee (including phone costs!).

  5.6.5.  Public Unix Systems

  The following represents a condensed version of the dial-in access
  possibilities in Germany as cited in Benoit Carl Lips' list (see
  `Lists of Public Unix Systems')

      APC/Comlink e.V.
        Emil-Meyer-Str. 20, D-30165 Hannover email
        support@oln.comlink.apc.org

      CUBENet GmbH
        Ohlauer Str. 74, D-80997 Muenchen email          info@cube.net
      DFN-Verein e. V.
        Pariser Strasse 44, D - 1000 Berlin 15 email dfn-
        verein@dfn.dbp.de

      UUnet Germany (UUnet Deutschland GmbH)
        Emil-Figge-Strasse 80, D-44227 Dortmund email info@de.uu.net
        homepage <http://www.de.uu.net/> 1998-03

      GeoNetn (GeoNet Mailbox Systems)
        email GmbH@geod.geonet.de <mailto:GmbH@geod.geonet.de>

      Individual Network (IN)
        Scheideweg 65, D-26121 Oldenburg email IN-Info@Individual.NET

        access: Aachen, Augsburg, Berlin, Bielefeld, Boeblingen, Bonn,
        Braunschweig, Bremen, Chemnitz, Darmstadt, Dortmund, Dresden,
        Duesseldorf, Duisburg, Erfurt, Erlangen, Flensburg,
        Frankfurt/Main, Friedberg, Giessen, Goettingen, Halle, Hamburg,
        Hannover, Heilbronn, Jena, Kaiserslautern, Kassel, Kiel, Koeln,
        Konstanz, Leipzig, Ludwigshafen, Luebeck, Lueneburger Heide ,
        Magdeburg, Mannheim, Muenchen, Muenster, Nuernberg, Oldenburg,
        Osnabrueck, Paderborn, Passau, Pforzheim, Pirmasens, Regensburg,
        Rendsburg, Rostock, Ruhrgebiet, Saarbruecken, Schauenburg,
        Sauerland, Schleswig, Schwerin, Stuttgart, Tuebingen, Ulm,
        Velbert, Weser-Ems, Wetzlar, Wolfsburg, Wuerzburg, Wuppertal

      Interactive Network Information Systems GmbH i.Gr.
        Spohrstrasse 24, D-60318 Frankfurt am Main email
        info@nacamar.de, WWW, <http://www.nacamar.de/> fax 06103-966127

        Chemnitz, Berlin, Bremen, Hamburg, Bielefeld, Hannover, Kassel,
        Duesseldorf, Aachen, Bonn, Gau-Algesheim, Koeln, Mainz,
        Frankfurt/Main, Mannheim, Ludwigshafen, Wiesbaden, Heidelberg,
        Dreieich, Kaiserslautern, Saarbruecken, Darmstadt, Nidderau,
        Aalen, Stuttgart, Heilbronn, Augsburg, Muenchen, Nuernberg,
        Weiden, Wuerzburg

     Interactive Networx GmbH (unlisys InterNET Services)
        Hardenbergplatz 2, D-10623 Berlin email
        info@unlisys.net

     INS
        Ruhr-Area, Germany email info@ins.net

      CompuServe Germany
        tel +49(130)864643 (toll free),
        +49(89)66550-111

        access: Berlin, Hamburg, Hannover, Duesseldorf, Koeln,
        Frankfurt/Main Karlsruhe, Muenchen, Nuernberg

      Lemke & Fuerst GbR
        Kleinknechtstrasse 35, 70567 Stuttgart email info@lf.net

      NACAMAR Deutschland
        Kirchweg 22, D-63033 Dreieich (near Frankfurt) email
        landi@nacamar.de

      NCS GmbH
        Amalienstr. 17-21, 26135 Oldenburg email info@nordwest.de

      NET GmbH
        Figarostr. 3, 70597 Stuttgart email info@n-e-t.de

        Netzwerk und telematic GmbH, Geschaeftsbereich Xlink" Vincenz-
        Priessnitz-Strasse 3, 76131 Karlsruhe email info@xlink.net, or
        no sales@xlink.net their web site <http://www.xlink.net> tel
        +49(721)96520 fax +49(721)9652210

  1995-4

  For my taste a truly exquisite WWW-server finder is
  http://www.entry.de/ <http://www.entry.de/> 1997-05

  5.6.6.  Your Local BBS

  If you don't have email access, you might want to pick up the latest
  issue of C'T computer magazine <http://www.heise.de/ct/> to look up
  the  list of phone numbers of all network systems. Then dial into the
  appropriate BBS and ask the local sysop about fees for connection.

  Cost?

  A typical user, reading news from de.* and sci.* might want to expect
  about 10DM connection fee and 15DM in telephone charges (using an off-
  line  reader!)

  5.7.  de.* Newsgroups

  The de.* newsgroups are a good idea if you would like to know more
  about Germany and you are able to read and write German try the
  newsgroups in the de.*  hierarchy. Those newsgroups are mostly
  available in Germany and at some sites in the US. Specifically parts
  of the hierarchies maus.*, fido.* and cl.* are fed into international
  news channels. (Note that these groups usually converse in German-only
  mode...) 1994-11



     NNTP
        You can try and nag your sysadmin or Internet Service Provider
        into carrying the newsgroups you are interested in.  This will
        be the easiest way for you to gain access to the de.* hierarchy.

        Failing  that, there are some providers that let you use their
        news servers. One of them can be found at
        http://news.cis.dfn.de/.  This web page contains instructions on
        how to get access to the news server.  The service is free, but
        requires registration by email.  1999-04

     HTTP
        DejaNews <http://www.deja.com/usenet/> archives pretty much all
        the newsgroups known to mankind. You can search and browse their
        archives to your hearts content, or simply read one of the de.*
        groups with your web browser. 1999-04


  5.7.1.  Page comments


  View/add comments
  <http://www.watzmann.net/comments/list.php?page_id=9>

  6.  Geography

  6.1.  Statistics

  6.1.1.  The 16 Federal States


  As of July 1999, the parliament resides in Berlin, but some government
  agencies still remain in the old capital Bonn.

  State                      Area km^2      Population     Capital          ISO 3166 abbrev.
  Baden-Wuerttemberg         35 751.85      10 426 040     Stuttgart        BW
  Bayern                     70 548.00      12 086 548     Muenchen         BY
  Berlin                     890.77         3 398 822      Berlin           BE
  Brandenburg                29 475.84      2 590 375      Potsdam          BB
  Bremen                     404.23         667 965        Bremen           HB
  Hamburg                    755.20         1 700 089      Hamburg          HH
  Hessen                     21 114.82      6 035 137      Wiesbaden        HE
  Mecklenburg-Vorpommern     23 170.31      1 798 689      Schwerin         MV
  Niedersachsen              47 613.35      7 865 840      Hannover         NI
  Nordrhein-Westfalen        34 078.68      17 975 516     Duesseldorf      NW
  Rheinland-Pfalz            19 846.86      4 024 969      Mainz            RP
  Saarland                   2 570.10       1 074 223      Saarbruecken     SL
  Sachsen                    18 412.16      4 489 415      Dresden          SN
  Sachsen-Anhalt             20 446.56      2 674 490      Magdeburg        ST
  Schleswig-Holstein         15 770.49      2 766 057      Kiel             SH
  Thueringen                 16 171.57      2 462 836      Erfurt           TH
  total                      357 020.79     82 037 011     Berlin           DE


          The 16 federal states in overview (population figures
  for 1998). Source:              Global population project
  <http://www.koeln.netsurf.de/~stefan.helders/r/r_de.htm>

  6.1.2.  Cities with >100,000 Citizens


  6.2.  Daylight Savings Time

  From 1996 on, daylight savings time will start on the European
  continent on the last Sunday of March 1:00 UTC (2:00 MEZ) and end on
  the fourth Sunday in October 1:00 UTC (3:00 MESZ). At these times all
  clocks are to be set one hour spring-ahead or fall-back.

  6.3.  No AM/PM -- 24 hr!

  Although most everybody in Germany will comprehend (esp. when printed)
  the AM/PM scheme for the time of the day, the 24hr notation is much(!)
  preferred. (And no, 19:30 is not pronounced neunzehn hundert dreissig
  Stunden; it is neuzehn Uhr dreissig.) 1997-01

  6.4.  Maps online and on paper

  6.4.1.  Online maps

  Goodness, yes, there are maps... tons probably... like this zoomable
  world-overview map
  <http://mapweb.parc.xerox.com/map/ht=90.00/lat=52.50/lon=10.16/wd=180.00?280,106>
  or this monster of political map (257kB)
  <http://www.lib.utexas.edu/Libs/PCL/Map_collection/europe/Germany.jpg>
  A very nice overview of all German states <http://userpage.chemie.fu-
  berlin.de/adressen/bl/bundeslaender.html> also gives you a lot of WWW
  pointers to more information by-state! Check it out!  1995-5 And this
  map  of German WWW servers <http://www.entry.de/> lets you click for
  information on individual cities.  1999-04

  The best source for city maps (Stadtplaene) is Falk Online
  <http://www.falk-online.de/>. They publish maps of all major German,
  Swiss and Austrian cities.  For looking up a specific address, you can
  try your luck with MapQuest <http://www.mapquest.com>; their
  collection of Germany maps isn't half bad. 1999-04

  Quite a number of historical maps, which might also be useful in
  genealogical research, can be found at the FEEFHS web site.
  <http://feefhs.org> 1999-04


                Rank     Name                  Population
                33       Aachen                246671
                29       Augsburg              264764
                81       Bergisch Gladbach     104991
                1        Berlin                3475392
                18       Bielefeld             324674
                16       Bochum                401058
                20       Bonn                  296859
                67       Bottrop               119676
                30       Braunschweig          256267
                10       Bremen                551604
                55       Bremerhaven           131492
                23       Chemnitz              279520
                59       Cottbus               128121
                9        Duesseldorf           574936
                52       Darmstadt             139754
                7        Dortmund              601966
                15       Dresden               479273
                11       Duisburg              536797
                39       Erfurt                200799
                82       Erlangen              102383
                6        Essen                 622380
                75       Fuerth                108097
                5        Frankfurt/M.          659803
                40       Freiburg/Breisgau     197384
                58       Goettingen            128419
                22       Gelsenkirchen         295037
                64       Gera                  122974
                37       Hagen                 214877
                21       Halle/Saale           295372
                2        Hamburg               1702887
                43       Hamm                  182390
                12       Hannover              524823
                53       Heidelberg            139429
                65       Heilbronn/N.          122396
                44       Herne                 180539
                79       Hildesheim            106303
                74       Ingolstadt            109666
                84       Jena                  100093
                4        Koeln                 962517
                83       Kaiserslautern        102370
                24       Karlsruhe             277998
                38       Kassel                202158
                32       Kiel                  248931
                73       Koblenz               109807
                31       Krefeld               249565
                36       Luebeck               217269
                14       Leipzig               490851
                49       Leverkusen            161761
                46       Ludwigshafen          168130
                28       Moenchengladbach      265312
                45       Muelheim/Ruhr         177175
                3        Muenchen              1255623
                27       Muenster              267367
                26       Magdeburg             270546
                42       Mainz                 185487
                19       Mannheim              318025
                78       Moers                 106631
                13       Nuernberg             498945
                50       Neuss                 148560
                35       Oberhausen            226254
                70       Offenbach/Main        116870
                51       Oldenburg             147701
                47       Osnabrueck            168078
                56       Paderborn             130130
                69       Pforzheim             117450
                54       Potsdam               139262
                61       Recklinghausen        127150
                62       Regensburg            125337
                63       Remscheid             123610
                77       Reutlingen            107607
                34       Rostock               237307
                41       Saarbruecken          190902
                68       Salzgitter            117684
                66       Schwerin              122189
                72       Siegen                111845
                48       Solingen              166064
                8        Stuttgart             594406
                71       Ulm                   114839
                57       Wuerzburg             128875
                25       Wiesbaden             270873
                80       Witten                105807
                60       Wolfsburg             128032
                17       Wuppertal             386625
                76       Zwickau               107988
                         total                 26027788


                   Source: Fischer-Weltalmanach 1993-12
  6.4.2.  Maps on paper

  The Mercedes Benz among German city maps are made by Falk Verlag
  <http://www.falk-online.de/>. Their "patent folded" maps are available
  in almost all airports, train stations etc. and make finding your way
  around a city a pleasure. 1999-04

  For driving around the country, several oil companies publish their
  own collection of maps, leading to such luminaries of German
  vacationing as the Shell-Atlas or the Aral-Atlas.

  All of Germany is available on topographic maps of 1:25,000 scale, and
  a large part of it even on 1:5000 scale. Find the right map for you by
  using `Arthur        Teschler's' email-server, (see Internet/Search
  Engines) then contact the corresponding Landesvermessungsamt; they are
  in the state capitals.  1996-02

  Another option is to contact an international map shop, like

       RV Geocenter Munich, tel +49(89)431890


  1995-3

  6.5.  World Wide Weather

  German weather forecasts are provided by donnerwetter.de
  <http://www.donnerwetter.de/> and wetter.de <http://www.wetter.de>.
  The Metereological       Institute <http://www.met.fu-berlin.de/> of
  the Free University in Berlin provides a page with additional links
  <http://www.met.fu-berlin.de/english/Wetter/index.html>.

  For a spiffy satellite image of all of Europe check out the MeteoSat 5
  images <http://www.meteo.fr/temps/europe/modele/sous_panneaux.html> of
  Meteo-France. 1999-08

  6.6.  Astronomy, As Observed in Germany

  Astronomical events, <http://members.tripod.com/~apd2/apd.htm>
  visibility and positions of heavenly bodies,  calculated for your
  location in Germany, international holidays and anniversaries, local
  festivals, birthdays of famous Germans, religious holidays and feasts
  ... all in a handy pocket diary. For a German/English version email
  norb@kcbbs.gen.nz 1999-01

  6.6.1.  Page comments


  View/add comments
  <http://www.watzmann.net/comments/list.php?page_id=10>

  7.  Language

  7.1.  Internet resources for learning German

  University of Victoria's German for       Beginners
  <http://castle.uvic.ca/german/149/> is one of the first online-
  courses.  1996-10

  The Internet Handbook of Grammar
  <http://www.travlang.com/languages/german/ihgg/index.html> provides an
  introduction to the fundamentals of German grammar (intended for
  beginning students)...

  ...so does the German  Grammar
  <http://www.wm.edu/CAS/modlang/grammnu.html> site 1996-10

  The newsletter Der Weg and its associated website
  <http://www.derweg.org/> are a great resource for anybody who wants to
  learn German {[dash  ]} if you already know some German since it is
  entirely in German. It also has a very strong Christian slant.

  7.2.  Learning German as an Adult

  Summary of experiences as reported by various readers of s.c.g (winter
  95)

  Courses and tapes recommended

  o  Berlitz Think and Talk German

  o  InLingua

  o  The taped exercises with the Deutsch 2000 course; available at
     better stores in the US

  o  The Goethe     Institutes <http://www.goethe.de/> (find their
     addresses in `the section on Goethe    Institutes')

  o  Mind Extension University (cable TV) has about 1.5 hours of German
     language a day, and sometimes even have German classes; get info at
     +1(800)777-MIND

  o  Concordia language camps in Minnesota. Excellent immersion
     camps.1995-10

  o  The National Registration Center for Study Abroad evaluates and
     coordinates immersive study programs at a variety of language
     schools around the world, including Germany. You can get more
     information from their web    page
     <http://www.execpc.com:80/~nrcsa/> 1995-10

  o  The Volkshochschulen <http://www.vhs.de/> offer courses for
     foreigners. 1995-11

  Reading

  Reading German as a means to learning spoken German was high on
  everyone's list. The following were recommended:

  o  children's books

  o  comic books

  o  trash novels

  o  Schau Ins Land - a monthly small magazine and cassette out of
     Nashville is good for building vocabulary once you are at an
     intermediate stage.

  o  the German edition of Mad Magazine.

  o  annotated anthologies Factors to success

  o  be motivated

  o  set goals

  o  some period of total immersion in the spoken language

  o  visit Germany

  o  unlike English, German is pronounced as written; learn the
     pronunciation of letters and diphthongs

  o  work through and learn German grammar; there is no way to escape
     this

  o  do a daily word list

  o  work in a language course trip to Germany

  o  let your ear govern whether or not your mouth is doing the right
     thing

  o  remember the article for every noun!  Miscellaneous experiences:


       I am learning German in the US, and though I have the bene-
       fit of a German wife, she speaks such good English, that we
       never talk in German. I get children's books from the
       library (including picture dictionaries!), and I try to
       watch as much German TV as we get on cable: (Mind Extension
       University.) We also get the international channel, which
       has other German shows. Also, get a short wave radio and
       tune into Deutsche  Welle, which broadcasts worldwide. I
       decided that it's like learning a language as a kid. Kids
       hear the language constantly, and absorb it all like
       sponges; kids don't even speak until they've been hearing a
       language for 12 to 24 months, so i figured I'd do the same,
       and did a lot of listening, so it would seep into my soul,
       and now, about a year later, I'm starting, with croaking
       voice, to speak, and it's fun.



       I learned German as an adult through a language 'school'
       called Inlingua (they're like Berlitz). They offer instruc-
       tion by native speaking teachers and it is taught by the
       best method to learn although it can be expensive (my com-
       pany picked up the tab). If taking a formal class such as I
       did is not an option, I strongly suggest that while you are
       learning German through tapes, community college courses,
  etc., take every opportunity you can to speak German. In the
  car, to spouse/kids/partner/ roommate, family, or even to
  yourself. I would come home from class and tell my wife, in
  German, what I learned in class or did at work that day. I
  got some strange looks, but it really helped me to start
  thinking in German. When you start dreaming in German,
  you'll know you making good progress.



       I have had German exchange students, and have had great
       experiences with them. I would not recommend them as a way
       to learn German, however, as they are interested only in
       speaking English.



       I learned to speak German in a small village outside a city
       that had itself a rather boese dialect. I learned the local
       platt,  and found that I got on better with that than I did
       with my attempts at high German. When speaking dialect I was
       always mistaken for someone from a farm town over the next
       hill, however on the rare occasions when I tried to speak
       High German, I was spotted immediately as an Ami.



       I've had good experiences renting from the German Language
       Video Center (see `Audio / Video      Tapes'.)  They also
       sell documentaries from Deutsche Welle TV for US$16.95,
       which I think is the same price Deutsche Welle sells them
       for. You can also get the documentaries on some PBS (Public
       Broadcasting System) stations - in the San Francisco area,
       channel 60 broadcast two episodes of Schauplatz Deutschland
       starting last night at 11 p.m. It's in German with English
       subtitles.

  1995-3





       After I had gotten somewhat into the basics of the language,
       I started to read books that I had already read in
       Norwegian. This enabled me to keep most of my mind on the
       language, since I already knew what the story was.

       In addition to this, it would come in handy if you can
       listen to German on the radio, and after some time, and
       practice, you should of course go to Germany for a month or
       three.

       NB: When going to Germany, go alone!  I was in Germany once,
       travelling with a group of other Norwegians, and whenever we
       were two or more Norwegians in one spot, we would speak
       Norwegian. I therefore made it a rule for myself to keep
       away from my fellow travellers as much as possible.
       Otherwise I would not have gotten full benefit of my stay.


  1996-07




  7.3.  What does the Adjective German  Mean?

  The origins of the German language are quite manifold as various
  peoples have influenced it throughout history. Conversely, there is an
  impressive variety of expressions for the meaning of the adjective
  German in those languages.

  1. The German deutsch or (ancient) teutsch, has developed through
     history in several stages, referring first to the language, then to
     the people and finally to the territory. It stems from the old
     German word thiutisk or theudisk, which the West Franks used since
     the 9th Century to refer to their language, the common language, as
     opposed to the educated language Latin. Karolus Magnus (Karl der
     Grosse, Charlemagne, Charles the Great, 742-814 AD) took it to name
     his multilingual and multicultural empire as deutsch because this
     did mean just the people and had no specific reference to any
     particular nation living in his empire. Other derivations from
     theudisk found their way into a number of other languages, as well:

  o  Scandinavian: Tysk

  o  Italian: Tedeschi

  o  Dutch: Duits

  2. Tribe names; many European peoples adopted the names of Germanic
     tribes living close to their own territory:

  o  Latin; germanus in Latin meant the tribes settling in central
     Europe. Probably originally adopted from the Germanic expression
     spear-bearer (ger-man.)

  o  The English word Dutch is related to deutsch and originally meant
     German.  Since Holland became an independent country in the 17th
     century, it was used for that former part of the German empire
     only. The new word for Germany in English was adopted from Latin.

  o  French, Spanish and Portuguese: Alemans was the name for the
     southwestern German tribe, next door neighbour to the French.

  o  The Baltic peoples picked a different German tribe as  a word for
     all of Germany: Saksalaiset.  (Hence the Saxons as in Anglo-
     Saxons...)

  3. In Slavic dialects, the root *nEm- generally means "mute" (unable
     to speak), dialectal data and the Church Slavic literature strongly
     suggest that this root also means incomprehensible for the
     listener, and, by extension, speaking a foreign language.

  o  Russian: Njemzij

  o  Polish: Niemzij

  o  Tchechian: Nemci

  o  Slovak: Nemec

  o  Croatian: Nijemac

  o  Serbian: Nemac 1996-06

  o  the Magyars took this term and called them Nimetek
     1996-1



  7.4.  German is so Strange...or is it?

  Long Words!,

  The notorious Donaudampfschiffahrtsgesellschaftskapitaensmuetze in all
  its possible extensions is often cited as evidence how the German
  language uniquely burdens all non-native speakers with what seems to
  be nothing but curious absurdities.

  What do you know? English, does not, either, regard this type of word
  as excessively sesquipedalian...Richard Lederer (in Crazy English)
  tells us that even antidisestablishmentarianism is not very
  hippopotomonstrosesquipedalian. -- Hmm? Oh, German words are simply
  concatenated? Well, that, as well, is not that unique. Ponder, for
  instance, pneumonoultramicroscopicsilicovolcanoconiosis ... it is not
  to be floccinaucinihilipilificated!

  Really, very very very (...you get the picture) long words are not
  used in German, despite their possibility -- anything comprised of
  more than two parts (like Gedanken-anstoss) is rare. 1996-07

  7.5.  Duden Editorial Board

  The most widely accepted authoritative answers to questions about the
  German language are provided by the

       Sprachberatungsstelle der Dudenredaktion, Postfach 100311,
       68003 Mannheim, Germany, tel +49(0621)3901426

  1996-03

  7.6.  German Words in English

  Oh my -- there are so many...and yet, there are so few, compared to
  the  rest of all the English language. English has been influenced by
  so(!)  many languages, that each makes but a more or less insignifcant
  portion of  the whole. (Hope I don't insult any Latin speakers;-)

  As languages do so often (except for esperanto, I am told;-) I shall
  define a few arbitrary categories under which to collect some of those
  words. (Apply the usual "include, but are not limited to"...)

  Also, it should be noted that many of these words are of Yiddish
  origin -- according to Webster's dictionary, which I shall take as the
  definitive reference.  Yiddish and German have had a somewhat
  symbiotic relationship over the centuries, with German words making it
  into Yiddish (e.g., Scheitel, Geld) and Yiddish words of differing
  origins being added to German ; in both cases, Yiddish is the link
  between quite a few German and English words.


     Commonly known words
        angst, blitz, bratwurst, geld, gestalt, gesundheit, hinterland,
        kaffeeklatsch, kindergarten, rucksack, sauerkraut,
        schadenfreude, umlaut, wanderlust, weltanschauung, weltschmerz

     Words of scientific origin
        ansatz, bremsstrahlung, eigen- (value, vector), entgegen and
        zusammen, leitmotiv, reststrahlen, umklapp process, zwitterion

        affenpinscher, deutsche mark, doberman pinscher, festschrift,
        gegenschein, groschen, kaffeeklatsch, kirsch, kitsch,
        meerschaum, putsch, putschist, schilling, schlemiel,
        schlep(pen), schlieren, schmaltz, schnaps, schnauzer, schnitzel,
        schnorkel, schnorrer, schnozzle, schorl, schottische, schuss
        (Skiabfahrt), schwarmerei, tusche, wiener schnitzel,
         blitzkrieg, ersatz, katzenjammer, kibbutz, kibitz, kibitzer,
        pretzel seltzer, sitz bath, sitzkrieg, sitzmark, spitz, switzer,
        waltz

     my personal favorite
        Gemuetlichkeit, zwieback

  1999-04

  7.7.


  Tongue Twisters

  Challenge your German pronunciation skills with these...

  o  Fischers Fritze fischt frische Fische.

  o  In Ulm, um Ulm und um Ulm herum.

  o  Der Cottbusser Postkutscher putzt den Cottbusser Postkutschkasten
     mit Cottbusser Postkutschkastenpaste.

  o  Der uralte Riese Ruebezahl zaehlte rote Rueben im  Riesengebirge.

  o  Zwischen zwei Zwetschgenzweigen zwitscherten zwei Schwalben.

  o  Blaukraut bleibt Blaukraut und Brautkleid bleibt Brautkleid.

  o  Hob's B'steck z'spot b'stoet. (Ich habe das Besteck zu spaet
     bestellt.)

  o  Ob er aber ueber Oberammergau oder aber ueber Unterammergau kommt,
     wuesste er noch nicht.

  o  Wir Wiener Weiber wuerden weisse Waesche waschen, wenn wir
     wuessten, wo warmes Wasser waere.

  o  Es klapperten die Klapperschlangen bis die Klappern schlapper
     klangen.

  o  In Mischa's Schischuh schwimmt ein Misch-Masch aus Sushi-Sossen.

  o  lilafarbenes wollenes Flanellaeppchen

  Not strictly tongue twisters, more brain benders:

  o  Wenn hinter Fliegen Fliegen fliegen, fliegen Fliegen Fliegen nach.

  o  Wenn hinter Robben Robben robben, robben Robben Robben nach.

  o  Wenn hinter Griechen Griechen kriechen, kriechen Griechen Griechen
     nach.  (This one is particularly funny in Saxonian dialect)

  7.8.  Platt

  Platt is the kind of German spoken mainly in northwestern Germany. It
  is almost ununderstandable to people who only speak "high" German,
  since it is very similar to Dutch and English; indeed, the transitions
  between many Germanic languages are rather fluid and Platt is part of
  the fluid link between Dutch and German.

  7.8.1.  FOLKHART

  FOLKHART <http://members.aol.com/folkhart/index.html> is an ongoing
  project of a  group of American (mostly Midwestern) descendants of
  Northwest German immigrants whose ancestral language is/was Low German
  (Plattdeutsch); it was founded to provide an online vehicle to help to
  learn/preserve/share/promote Platt (Low German).  Sacred Seasons and
  other classical texts present introductory Plattdeutsch language as
  well as North German culture.

  There is  also an adjunct project called WIND-MILL
  <http://members.aol.com/gowindmill/index.html>  online. 1998-02

  7.8.2.

  Listserver LOWLANDS-L for Friesisch and Niederdeutsch

  This email forum discusses those germanic languages and cultures that
  originated from costal areas around the North Sea and the Baltic Sea,
  including Frisian, Dutch, Lower Saxon, Afrikaans, and more.

  To subscribe to the listserver...

       send email    To: listproc@lists.u.washington.edu with body
       subscribe lowlands-l


  For more information email H.A.Y. Wolf
  <mailto:H.A.Y.Wolf@stud.let.ruu.nl> 1996-1

  7.8.3.  Page comments


  View/add comments
  <http://www.watzmann.net/comments/list.php?page_id=11>




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