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The complete lists of subparts of all questions is in part 0 of this FAQ list. Here is the list of subparts for this question (in no particular order): (a) Swedish (b) Shiatsu (c) Reflexology (d) Aromatherapy (e) On-site (f) Erotic (g) Trigger point (g) Myotherapy (h) Polarity (i) Myofascial release (j) Craniosacral (k) Reiki (l) Trager (m) Hakomi (n) Jim Shin Do (o) Neuromuscular therapy (p) Pfrimmer deep muscle therapy (q) Rolfing (r) Alexander (s) Feldenkreis (t) Hellerwork (u) others a) Swedish massage (which is a proper name, not a reference to Sweden) refers to a collection of techniques designed primarily to relax muscles by applying pressure to them against deeper muscles and bones, and rubbing in the same direction as the flow of blood returning to the heart. The lymph system and veins (which carry blood back to the heart) both rely on muscle action, rather than heart pump pressure, to operate. Many believe it is safe to apply light pressure in the opposite direction. Friction is reduced by oil, or lacking that baby powder. Some practitioners claim benefits from vegetable rather than mineral oil while others disagree. (See question 3.4 about oil and the `oil.vs.powder' file in the archive; the archive is the subject of question 5.1.2.) Swedish massage can relax muscles, increase circulation, remove metabolic waste products, help the recipient obtain a feeling of connectedness, a better awareness of their body and the way they use and position it. The strokes and manipulations of Swedish Massage are each conceived as having a specific therapeutic benefit. One of the primary goals of Swedish Massage is to speed venous return from the extremities. Swedish Massage shortens recovery time from muscular strain by flushing the tissue of lactic acid, uric acid and other metabolic wastes. It improves circulation without increasing heart load. It stretches the ligaments and tendons, keeping them supple. Swedish Massage also stimulates the skin and nervous system while at the same time relaxing the nerves themselves. As it can help reduce emotional and physical stress it is often recommended as part of a regular programme for stress management. It also has specific clinical uses in a medical or remedial therapy. ------------------------------ b) Shiatsu, on the other hand, is a system based on the body's energy meridians. Shiatsu massages are normally done fully clothed and involve pressing points on the body and stretching and opening of the energy meridians. Shiatsu is somewhat related to acupuncture, which is a form of anaesthesia and therapy used in Chinese hospitals for surgery. Its proponents view it as a form of treatment alternative to medicine or surgery. (Toru Namikoshi's Complete Book of Shiatsu Therapy -- published by Japan Pubns., Inc. with ISBN 0-87040-461-x in 1981 -- claims to be the definitive work; Zen Shiatsu by Shizuto Masunaga & Wataru Ohashi, also published by Japan Publications Inc, ISBN 0-87040-394-x is also recommended in the archive.) Question 5.2.3 has references to WWW resources dealing with Shiatsu. ------------------------------ c) [This subsection, about Reflexology, is largely based on notes provided by Reflexology expert and author Kevin Kunz. He notes that there are significant differences between foot massage and Reflexology. Any errors are the fault of the FAQL maintainer and no one else.] Reflexology is based on the belief that there are places on the feet (and hands) that correspond to parts of the body, e.g. internal organs and joints. Manipulating those parts of the feet (or hands) can have direct effects on corresponding parts of the body. Some proponents claim the ability to diagnose and treat illnesses of these organs by appropriate reflexological treatment. I haven't seen a convincing explanation of why this is supposed to work but many people cite Reflexology as an excellent technique for holistic assessment and adjunct to other therapies. Although Reflexology is often discussed as part of Zone Therapy this isn't completely accurate. The archive contains some discussion and references to books about Reflexology. According to Reflexology teacher Terry Norman <email@example.com>: a currently accepted theory in the West is that Reflexology works by way of the neuro-reflex points found in the feet & hands. When organs don't function normally the neural signals along the network change patterns. Such changes can be detected and monitored through the reflex points. Chemistry at these points sometimes changes as well -- hard painful spots (said to be uric acid crystals) may form at points that relate to the organ, or area of the body, to which the reflex point corresponds. Occasionally, when rubbing or pressing firmly on these spots you can feel them "pop" or burst apart -- they feel grainy or gritty like sand or sugar. After the spots disappear, the area begins to become less tender and the organ to which the reflex point relates also functions better. In traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) the points on the hands & feet correspond to the channels & collaterals. TCM has charts dating back thousands of years illustrating the same points on these areas as modern day Foot & Hand Reflexology charts. I believe that the "true" system is some convergence of both systems. Although, I think that what has been called "Reflexology", or "Zone Therapy" is nothing more than a re-discovering of the wheel you might say. The Home of Reflexology provides details of Reflexology Organisations together with information on reflexology and other reflexology related links. WWW: <URL:http://www.reflexology.org/> ------------------------------ d) By mixing scents with oil, various pleasing moods can be created. Aromatherapy is the use of fragrant substances for health and beauty treatment. It is often combined with massage since oils can be used to carry fragrances while also allowing more pressure to be applied to muscles. Its proponents claim that health benefits are associated with specific choices of scent. For example, clary sage can be used to combat depression. (See questions 5.2.4 and 5.1.2 for other sources of information about Aromatherapy.) ------------------------------ e) `On-site massage' is one name for a short (15-20 minute) massage of a client sitting in a special, portable massage chair. The client remains fully clothed and no oils are used while their shoulders, neck, upper back, head and arms are massaged. On-Site is popular at some offices as an employee benefit and for some conferences, workshops and certain social events. ------------------------------ f) Erotic massage is really a sexual foreplay technique, rather than a form of massage. Massage focuses on muscles, whereas erotic massage focuses primarily on skin. It's been said that 95% of erotic (or sensual) massage is the same as other massage. This is not an accepted form of bodywork and therefore not something that you should expect from a Registered MT. There is nonetheless some information specifically about erotic massage in the archive. See also question 2.4, entitled `Is massage a sexual technique?' for further clarification. ------------------------------ g) Trigger point and Myotherapy are pain-relief techniques to alleviate muscle spasms and cramping. The therapist locates and deactivates `trigger points', which are often tender areas where muscles have been damaged or acquired a re-occuring spasm or `kink' that worsens painfully when aggravated. The major goals are to reduce spasm inducing new blood flow into the affected area. The spasms are partly maintained by nervous system feedback (pain-spasm-pain) cycle. Spasms also physically reduce blood flow to the trigger point area (ischemia), reducing oxygen supplied to the tissues and increasing the spasm. Pressure is applied to trigger points, for a short time (between about 7 to 10 seconds per point), which can be momentarily painful but is greatly relieving. It is common to hit the same trigger points several times during a session, but you won't be leaning into a sore spot for several minutes. Often ice or another cooling agent is used to reduce nervous system response, making the area easier and more comfortable to work. Then the muscles are gently stretched to complete the relaxation process, hence the name `spray and stretch'. Myotherapy aims to erase pain and soothe tightened muscles. People with acute or chronic muscle tension and the associated pain are likely to benefit greatly from this type of treatment. ------------------------------ h) Polarity therapy is a holistic approach to natural health care. It asserts that energy fields exist everywhere in nature, and that the flow and balance of this energy in the human body is the underlying foundation of health. Stress, tension, pain, inflexible thinking, and environmental stimuli are among many factors that can contribute to the restriction of this energy flow in the human body. According to Polarity therapists, such energy blocks can be released by the use of four therapeutic methods: bodywork, diet, exercise and self-awareness. The founder of Polarity Therapy, Dr. Randolph Stone DO, DC, ND, emphasized the interdependence of body, emotions, mind and spirit. Polarity therapy includes gentle body manipulation and holding pressure points (poles) as well as counselling on developing positive thoughts and attitudes, understanding the principles of food combining and easy exercises to increase energy flow. Polarity is often used by care givers in conjunction with many other therapies. ------------------------------ i) Myofascial release is used to evaluate and treat restrictions in the body's contractile connective tissues (muscles) and non-contractile supportive connective tissues (fascia) by the application of gentle traction, pressures and positioning. Fascia is a complex supportive web throughout the body affecting all components of the musculoskeletal, nervous and visceral (organ) systems. It surrounds groups of muscle fibres, and entire muscle groups and organs. While it is not contractile, it can be passively elastically deformed. That is how it retains tensions from physical and emotional traumas. It is also involved when a person suffers chronic pain or physical dysfunction. Chronically tense muscles restrict blood flow and fatigue the body. Both fascia and muscle tissues can become shortened if they are improperly used. As well, layers of fascia can stick together. Myofascial release techniques are used to coax muscles in spasm to relax, and break adhesions in the fascia. Bodies respond to these therapies by releasing tension that has been stored in the fascia, thus allowing more functional flexibility and mobility of the muscles, fascia and associated structures. Another definition of fascia appears in question 2.6 (about technical terms). ------------------------------ j) Craniosacral therapy can be considered to be a type of myofascial release that is especially suited to addressing tensions in the Craniosacral system: the membranes that contain the cerebrospinal fluid within the head and spinal column, as well as the cranial (head and face) bones to which these membranes are attached. Release of restrictions in these membranes and at the sutures between the cranial lobes is deeply relaxing and may relieve certain types of headache, spinal nerve problems, temporomandibular joint dysfunction (TMJ), and stress in the nervous system. Other body functions can also benefit and emotional tension may be discharged through the process of Somato-Emotional Release. ------------------------------ k) Reiki is a gentle hands-on healing technique to reduce stress, relieve pain, and facilitate healing. Practitioners hold that the vital energy of the universe is channelled through the practitioner to energize the various body systems on levels that promote healing and wholeness. The hands (and intuition) are used to scan a client's body, and to perceive and treat areas of reduced vitality. The following subsection, about Reiki, is based on a text provided by Usui Shiki Ryoho Reiki Master Brian M. Carter. In English, the Japanese word `Reiki' refers to the teachings of Usui Shiki Ryoho, translated as the `Usui Method of Natural (or Drugless) Healing'. The Method has been known in Japan since the late 1860s. It was brought to U.S.A. in the 1930s and, although it has no Christian roots, it is certainly not a so-called New Age concoction. It is based on the same energetic principles as acupuncture, t'ai chi chuan and chi kung. But Reiki is neither invasive, as is acupuncture, nor does it require physical agility and effort to gain benefits, as do t'ai chi and chi kung. According to Usui Shiki Ryoho Reiki Master Brian M. Carter: `this adjunct to competent medical care is definitely based on a traditional Oriental model of bodily healing, because it assumes the presence of an imbalance of an energetic nature that is manifesting in the physical body as stress, or, in more serious cases, as a life-threatening disease one may be facing. As Reiki practitioners, we have learned that, in many cases, we can help persons with such illnesses to remove these unseen causes and replace them with robust energy that will have a definite, noticeable, beneficial physical effect.' There are two principal aspects of Reiki practice. As one successfully builds a strong practice of Reiki, one also learns how to convey this ki energy to others who need it. One aspect is called practice `for oneself', which is emphasized in First Degree Reiki practice. The other is called practice `for others' and is emphasized in Second Degree and Master level practices. For most daily stress, tension, minor illness, trauma, etc., First Degree Reiki practice is very effective. For life-threatening illness -- in which severe physical manifestations have already materialized (e.g. cancer and AIDS) and congenital diseases (e.g. cystic fibrosis and muscular dystrophy) it is often very difficult for a person to effectively practice `for oneself' therefore help from a more advanced Reiki practitioner is often required for the best results. Second Degree and Reiki Master level practitioners have acquired considerable ability in directing and focusing ki energy through practice and study with persons with severe illness. Such practitioners will have specific, advanced techniques with which to help the ill person. Much more information about Reiki is available in the archive's `reiki' file. Information about the archive is available in question 5.1.2. There are also some WWW resources about Reiki -- see question 5.2.3 for details. The alt.healing.reiki newsgroup seems to be an excellent place for serious discussion of Reiki (July 1996). ------------------------------ l) Trager Psychophysical Integration (usually just called Trager) uses light, gentle, non-intrusive movements to facilitate the release of deep-seated physical and mental patterns. Each part of the client's body is moved rhythmically so that the recipient experiences the possibility of moving lightly, effortlessly, and freely on their own. A Trager session should help reduce stress from chronic tension, teach more effective ways to recover from stressful situations, enhance conscious awareness and flexibility, improve self-image, expand energy, restore free flowing movement and full self-expression by reducing constriction and rigidity. A Trager session can bring about the experience of peace and serenity -- a high-energy state of well-being beyond relaxation. ------------------------------ m) The Hakomi method is a body-based psychotherapy using special states of consciousness to help clients probe non-verbal levels where core beliefs direct and influence their experiences. Body-mind awareness and touch are used to explore the body as a deep source of information, empowering the client to change their attitudes. ------------------------------ n) Jin Shin Do (transl. the way of the compassionate spirit) is derived from acupressure. The technique involves applying gentle fingertip pressure to thirty specific points along the body to release, smooth and balance vital `chi' energy. Practitioners meditate and try to transfer chi to clients by using knowledge of where energy flows and patterns meet. According to its practitioners, Jin Shin Do pervades all aspects of our being by affecting general muscle tension, improving circulation, balancing emotions and raising the spiritual state of being. ------------------------------ o) Neuromuscular therapy uses advanced concepts in pressure therapy to break the stress-tension-pain cycle. It aims to relax muscle so that circulation can increase and the body will return to normal neuromuscular integrity and balance. The St. John Method is a type of NMT. ------------------------------ p) Pfrimmer deep muscle therapy was developed by Therese Pfrimmer. Once partially paralysed, she overcame her disability through deep muscle manipulation and spent the next 30 years developing this technique. Pfrimmer Deep Muscle Therapy works across the muscles manipulating deep tissues, stimulating circulation and regenerating lymphatic flow, thus promoting detoxification and oxygenation of stagnant tissues. ------------------------------ q) Rolfing will be described here someday. Professionals at The Rolf Institute of Structural Integration are working on a short descripion of Rolfing. That's a big project that may take some time to complete. Until it is I'm referring all interested readers to the WWW documents of the Rolf Institute and the Guild for Structural Integration (respectively): WWW: <URL:http://www.rolf.org/>, WWW: <URL:http://www.rolfguild.org/>. [Added 6 Sept. 1995; Rolf Institute URL added 30 May 1996; Guild for Structural Integration URL added 1 March 1998] ------------------------------ r) This subsection, about the Alexander Technique, has been adapted from a description of the Technique that was sent to me by the North American Society of Teachers of the Alexander Technique (NASTAT). Brian McCullough of NASTAT approved the adaptation. People often develop habitual reactions, beliefs and movement patterns that cause physical and mental strain. These patterns are typically expressed by tight neck and back muscles, collapsed posture or lack of mobility. Many of us don't realize how much cumulative damage, pain or even injury these movement patterns can cause. F. M. Alexander's method `The Alexander Technique' is used to teach people to observe and correct their own habits of misuse. With a subtle touch and verbal instructions, an Alexander teacher analyzes a client's imbalances and reinforces their innate postural reflexes. Anyone -- whether sitting at a computer, playing a sport or an instrument or simply walking -- can use this method to awaken untapped energy and power. Ultimately, clients learn to harness their innate `kinesthetic intelligence', become less stressed. Many people who suffer from back and neck problems, chronic pain, repetitive strain injury and breathing difficulties have found the Alexander Technique a useful tool for solving a wide variety of problems. Anyone -- including those with structural conditions such as scoliosis or arthritis -- can utilize this approach to maximize their movement potential. The Alexander Technique has taken its place in the curriculum of music conservatories, theater schools and universities throughout the world, as a foundation for creative exploration, improved health and an expanded understanding of human potential. For more information about the Alexander Technique contact the North American Society of Teachers of the Alexander Technique: <firstname.lastname@example.org> North American Society of Teachers of the Alexander Technique (NASTAT) 3010 Hennepin Ave. South, Suite 10 Minneapolis, MN 55408, USA tel: +1 (800) 473-0620 fax: +1 (612) 822-7224 WWW: <URL:http://www.life.uiuc.edu/jeff/nastat.html> See also Robert Rickover's The Complete Guide To The Alexander Technique website at the address below. [`See also' included 1 Oct 1998] WWW: <URL:http://alexandertechnique.com/> ------------------------------ s) This subsection, about The Feldenkrais Method, is adapted from a a text provided by Feldenkrais practitioner Jerry Larson. The Feldenkrais Method is named after its originator, Moshe Feldenkrais. It can be used to improve grace, ease and range of motion, to relieve pain and limitation resulting from accident or illness, to improve the performance of athletes, artists, actors, etc., and for self-discovery and personal growth. Feldenkrais work is based on learning. Humans learn posture and movement, and then, in effect forget them. We can improve the ways that we move and organize our bodies by paying conscious attention to our posture. Feldenkrais practitioners hold that there is no single ideal posture -- the ideal way of organizing your body is something for you to discover, and can change over time. There are two ways of doing Feldenkrais work: Functional Integration lessons and Awareness Through Movement. Functional Integration lessons resemble some forms of massage in that the Feldenkrais practitioner gently moves the client, who usually lies on a table similar to a massage table. Clients are fully clothed. No lubricants are used. The practitioner moves the client's bones and joints, in natural, functional ways, i.e., no high-speed or forceful manipulations. These techniques are collectively known as `a skeletal contact'. There is no stroking or manipulating of the body's soft tissues. In Awareness Through Movement, the client actively explores movement by following verbal instructions. This format resembles an exercise or Yoga class, but there is no strenuous effort, and smaller movements, or even imagined ones, can be more effective than large ones. A lasting change can occur in one session, because the changes brought about in this work are changes in one's self image, which determines the body's movements and posture. `Feldenkrais Method', `Awareness Through Movement', and `Functional Integration' are registered service marks of the FELDENKRAIS GUILD. More information is available from `The Feldenkrais Method Home Page' which the Guild maintains at the address below. WWW: <URL:http://www.usc.edu/hsc/neuroprotection/feldenkrais/> ------------------------------ t) [The following description of Hellerwork has been adapted from a text provided by Jacqueline Freeman of Hellerwork International, LLC. The adapted text has been approved by Jacqueline Freeman.] Hellerwork's system of deep-tissue bodywork and movement education is designed to realign and recondition the body while releasing chronic tension and stress. Verbal dialogue also helps clients become aware of emotional stress that may be related to physical tension. Hellerwork helps people move from their current `average' state to the optimal state of health and wellbeing which is the body's `normal' and natural condition. Hellerwork practitioners offer a series of integrated one-hour sessions of deep tissue bodywork, movement education, and verbal dialogue. The number of sessions can vary from person to person due to the varying needs of individuals. The series is organized along eleven sections and each section can take one or more sessions to accomplish the desired result. Although Hellerwork may be effective for temporary pain or tension relief, Hellerwork recognizes that pain and tension are usually the result of an overall pattern of imbalance occurring in the body. Rather than treating the pain or tension `symptom' of this imbalance, Hellerwork focuses on rebalancing the entire body, returning it to a more aligned, relaxed and youthful state. The verbal dialogue component of Hellerwork focuses on allowing you to become aware of the relationship between your emotions and attitudes and your body. As you become aware of these relationships, you are able to become responsible for your attitudes so that they are less likely to limit your body and your self expression. All Hellerwork Practitioners are certified by Hellerwork International, which is responsible for the continuing education required of all Practitioners, and for the maintenance of professional standards. More information about Hellerwork is available in the archive's `hellerwork' file, from the Hellerwork web page (see below) and from Hellerwork International, LLC at: 406 Berry Street Mount Shasta, CA 96067, USA +1 (916) 926-2500 / +1 (800) 392-3900 +1 (916) 926-6839 (fax) WWW: <URL:http://www.hellerwork.com/~hwork/> ------------------------------ u) There are many more types of massage and bodywork than those dealt with here. If you are interested in learning about a specific type that is not mentioned here, look for a file about it in the archive or read one of the books recommended in this FAQL (see question 2.3) or in the book file in the archive (see question 5.1.2).
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