faqs.org - Internet FAQ Archives

RFC 6098 - Generic Notification Message for Mobile IPv4


Or Display the document by number




Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                           H. Deng
Request for Comments: 6098                                  China Mobile
Category: Standards Track                                   H. Levkowetz
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                   Netnod
                                                          V. Devarapalli
                                                         Vasona Networks
                                                           S. Gundavelli
                                                                   Cisco
                                                                B. Haley
                                                 Hewlett-Packard Company
                                                              April 2012

              Generic Notification Message for Mobile IPv4

Abstract

   This document specifies protocol enhancements that allow Mobile IPv4
   entities to send and receive explicit notification messages using a
   Mobile IPv4 message type designed for this purpose.

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc6098.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2012 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents
   (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info) in effect on the date of
   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
   carefully, as they describe your rights and restrictions with respect
   to this document.  Code Components extracted from this document must

   include Simplified BSD License text as described in Section 4.e of
   the Trust Legal Provisions and are provided without warranty as
   described in the Simplified BSD License.

   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
   Contributions published or made publicly available before November
   10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
   material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
   modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process.
   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
   the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
   outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
   not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................3
   2. Terminology .....................................................4
   3. Notification Message - Usage Scenarios ..........................4
      3.1. Notification Message - Examples ............................4
      3.2. Notification Message - Topology ............................5
           3.2.1. Notification Message between a Home Agent
                  and a Mobile Node ...................................6
           3.2.2. Notification Message between a Foreign Agent
                  and a Mobile Node ...................................6
           3.2.3. Notification Message between a Home Agent
                  and a Foreign Agent .................................7
   4. Generic Notification Message and Considerations .................7
      4.1. Generic Notification Message ...............................7
      4.2. Generic Notification Acknowledgement Message ..............11
      4.3. Notification Retransmission ...............................14
      4.4. General Implementation Considerations .....................15
      4.5. Mobile Node Considerations ................................15
           4.5.1. Receiving Generic Notification Messages ............15
           4.5.2. Sending Generic Notification
                  Acknowledgement Messages ...........................16
           4.5.3. Sending Generic Notification Messages ..............17
           4.5.4. Receiving Generic Notification
                  Acknowledgement Messages ...........................18
      4.6. Foreign Agent Consideration ...............................18
           4.6.1. Receiving Generic Notification Messages ............19
           4.6.2. Sending Generic Notification
                  Acknowledgement Messages ...........................21
           4.6.3. Sending Generic Notification Messages ..............21
           4.6.4. Receiving Generic Notification
                  Acknowledgement Messages ...........................22

      4.7. Home Agent Consideration ..................................23
           4.7.1. Sending Generic Notification Messages ..............23
           4.7.2. Receiving Generic Notification
                  Acknowledgement Messages ...........................24
           4.7.3. Receiving Generic Notification Messages ............24
           4.7.4. Sending Generic Notification
                  Acknowledgement Messages ...........................26
   5. Future Extensibility ...........................................26
      5.1. Examples of Possible Extensions ...........................26
      5.2. Extension Specification ...................................27
   6. IANA Considerations ............................................28
   7. Security Considerations ........................................28
      7.1. Replay Protection for GNMs and GNAMs ......................29
           7.1.1. Replay Protection Using Timestamps .................29
           7.1.2. Replay Protection Using Nonces .....................30
      7.2. Non-Authentication Extensions Handling in the
           Foreign Agent .............................................31
   8. Acknowledgements ...............................................31
   9. References .....................................................32
      9.1. Normative References ......................................32
      9.2. Informative References ....................................32

1.  Introduction

   In some situations, there is a need for Mobile IPv4 entities, such as
   the home agent (HA), foreign agent (FA) and mobile node (MN) to send
   and receive asynchronous notification messages during a mobility
   session.  In this context, 'Asynchronous messages' is used to mean
   messages that are not synchronous with the Registration Request and
   Registration Reply messages of the base Mobile IP (MIP) specification
   [RFC5944].  The base Mobile IP specification does not have a
   provision for this.

   In order to rectify that, this document defines a generic
   notification message and a notification model that can be used by
   Mobile IPv4 entities to send various notifications.  It also defines
   a corresponding acknowledgement message to make it possible to ensure
   reliable delivery of notifications.  Only the following extensions
   may be present in these new messages, as defined by this document:

      - MN-HA Authentication Extension

      - MN-FA Authentication Extension

      - FA-HA Authentication Extension

      - Message String Extension

   The semantics of receiving a generic notification message with a
   Message String Extension are null; i.e., it has no effect on the
   state of a mobile node's existing registration.  See Section 3.1 for
   some application examples that motivate the new messages defined in
   this document.

2.  Terminology

   It is assumed that the reader is familiar with the terminology used
   in [RFC4917] and [RFC5944].  In addition, this document frequently
   uses the following terms:

   Notification Message

      A message from a mobility agent to a an MN or other mobility
      agent, or from an MN to a mobility agent, to asynchronously notify
      it about an event that is relevant to the mobility service it is
      currently providing.

   Generic Notification Message

      A Notification Message in the context of Mobile IPv4 with a
      well-defined envelope format and extensibility, and with certain
      limitations on how extensions may be defined and used, but
      otherwise generally available for notification purposes within the
      Mobile IPv4 protocol.  Abbreviated 'GNM' in this document.

   Generic Notification Acknowledgement Message

      An acknowledgement of a received Generic Notification Message.
      Abbreviated 'GNAM' in this document.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [RFC2119].

3.  Notification Message - Usage Scenarios

3.1.  Notification Message - Examples

   The simplest usage scenario for a notification message is one where
   the notification has no semantic meaning within the protocol; it is
   only carrying a message that can be displayed to a user or an
   operator (depending on which is the receiving entity -- see more on
   this below, in Section 3.2).  Examples of such usage are messages
   from operator to user about billing- or service-related events ("You
   have used nearly all of your prepaid quota; there are only XX MB left
   -- please purchase further service if you are going to need it."; or

   "You have now used data transfer services for the amount of $XXX
   since your last bill; this is above the notification threshold for
   your account.") or messages about service interruptions, and more.
   These examples are all supported by the use of the Mobile IPv4
   Generic Notification Message together with the Message String
   Extension, as defined in this document.

   There are also other examples, which cannot be implemented solely
   using the messages and extensions defined in this document.  Some of
   these are described briefly below, and covered slightly more
   extensively in Section 5.

   One example of an application of an extended Generic Notification
   Message is that during handover between CDMA 2000 1x EV-DO and
   Wireless LAN, the PPP resource on the CDMA side has to be removed on
   the FA (Packet Data Serving Node) to avoid over-charging subscribers.
   To address this, the Registration Revocation Message was defined in
   [RFC3543], but it would have been preferable to have had it defined
   as a separate message (i.e., the Generic Notification Message) with a
   Registration Revocation extension.

   Other applications are:

   o  HA switch-over (before the HA decides to go off-line, it would
      like to notify the MNs to register with another candidate HA),

   o  Network Mobility (NEMO) prefix changes (an MN is notified by the
      HA about NEMO prefix changes and service- or billing-related
      events; this is an operational requirement),

   o  load balancing (the HA wants to move some of the registered MNs to
      other HAs),

   o  service termination (due to end of prepaid time), and

   o  service interruption (due to system maintenance).

3.2.  Notification Message - Topology

   There are several scenarios where a mobility agent could initiate
   notification events.  Some of these are described in the following
   sections.

3.2.1.  Notification Message between a Home Agent and a Mobile Node

3.2.1.1.  Mobile Registered Using a Foreign Agent Care-of Address

   In this case, the HA cannot directly notify the MN, but must send the
   notification via the FA, and vice versa.

           +----+    notification  +----+ notification  +----+
           | MN |<================>| FA |<=============>| HA |
           +----+                  +----+               +----+

           Figure 1: HA notifies MN or MN notifies HA through FA

3.2.1.2.  Mobile Registered Using a Co-Located Care-of Address

   In this case, the MN has registered with the home agent directly, so
   the notification message can go directly to the MN.

   The notification mechanism as specified here does not support the
   case of co-located Care-of Address (CoA) mode with registration
   through an FA (due to the 'R' bit being set in the FA's advertisement
   messages).

           +----+             notification            +----+
           | MN |<===================================>| HA |
           +----+                                     +----+
       Figure 2: HA directly notifies MN or MN directly notifies HA

3.2.2.  Notification Message between a Foreign Agent and a Mobile Node

   There are two cases where an FA may send notification messages to an
   MN -- one where it is relaying a message, the other where the
   notification is triggered by a message from another network entity,
   for example, an Authentication, Authorization, and Accounting (AAA)
   node.  (Notification messages between a AAA entity and the FA could
   be based on RADIUS or Diameter, but this is out of scope for this
   document.)  If the notification is initiated by an FA, the FA may
   also need to notify the HA about the event.

   +----+    notification  +----+    trigger   +--------+
   | MN |<================>| FA |<=============|   AAA  |
   +----+                  +----+              +--------+
                             ||   notification +----+
                              ================>| HA |
                                               +----+

                         Figure 3: FA notifies MN

3.2.3.  Notification Message between a Home Agent and a Foreign Agent

   The HA may also need to send a notification to the FA, but not to the
   MN.  The FA may also need to send a notification to the HA, as
   illustrated below:

                       +----+ notification  +----+
                       | FA |<=============>| HA |
                       +----+               +----+

                Figure 4: HA notifies FA or FA notifies HA

4.  Generic Notification Message and Considerations

   This section describes in detail the Generic Notification Message
   (GNM), Generic Notification Acknowledgement Message (GNAM), and some
   considerations related to the handling of these messages in the MN,
   FA, and HA.

   The MN and HA MUST maintain the following information:

      - the IP source address of the Registration Request/Reply

      - the IP destination address of the Registration Request/Reply

      - the UDP source port of the Registration Request/Reply

      - the UDP destination port of the Registration Request/Reply

   The sending node always sends the GNM following the same procedure
   for sending a Registration Request as in Section 3.3 of [RFC5944],
   and the receiving node follows the same procedure for Registration
   Reply as in Section 3.4 of [RFC5944] when sending GNAM.

4.1.  Generic Notification Message

   A GNM is sent by a mobility agent to inform another mobility agent,
   or an MN, of MIP-related information in the form of a Message String
   Extension [RFC4917].  These messages MUST use the same IP and UDP

   headers as any previous Registration Request (RRQ) or Reply (RRP)
   message to the same entity.  This would support NAT traversal and
   ensure the same security association used for GNM/GNAM and RRQ/RRP.
   The GNM is defined as follows:

   IP Fields:

   Source Address

      Typically, copied from the destination address of the last
      Registration Reply/ Request message that the agent received from
      the agent to which it is sending the GNM.

   Destination Address

      Copied from the source address of the last Registration
      Reply/Request message that the agent received from the agent to
      which it is sending the GNM.

   UDP Fields:

   Source Port

      Typically, copied from the destination port of the last
      Registration Reply/Request message that the agent received from
      the agent to which it is sending the GNM.

   Destination Port

      Copied from the source port of the last Registration Reply/Request
      message that the agent received from the agent to which it is
      sending the GNM.

   The UDP header is followed by the Mobile IP fields shown below:

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |     Type      |      MD       |A|  Reserved                   |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                         Home Address                          |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                      Home Agent Address                       |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                        Care-of Address                        |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                                                               |
      +                       Identification                          +
      |                                                               |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |   Extensions...
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

   Type 22

   MD: Message Direction

      This memo defines the semantics of the following MD field value:

      0 -- Message sent by the HA to the MN

      1 -- Message sent by the HA to the FA

      2 -- Message sent by the MN to the HA

      3 -- Message sent by the MN to the FA

      4 -- Message sent by the FA to the MN

      5 -- Message sent by the FA to the HA

   A

      This bit indicates whether the notification message MUST be
      acknowledged by the recipient.  If the "A" bit has been set during
      the message, but the sender doesn't receive any acknowledgement
      message, then the sender will have to re-send the notification
      message again.

      Set to "1" to indicate that acknowledgement is REQUIRED.

      Set to "0" to indicate that acknowledgement is OPTIONAL.

   Reserved

      MUST be sent as 0, and ignored when received.

   Home Address

      The home address of the mobile node.

   Home Agent Address

      The IP address of the mobile node's HA.

   Care-of Address

      The mobile node's care-of address, either the co-located care-of
      address or the foreign agent care-of address.

   Identification

      A 64-bit number, constructed by the sender, used for matching GNM
      with GNAM and for protecting against replay attacks of
      notification messages.  See Sections 7.1.1 and 7.1.2 for more on
      the use of timestamps and nonces in this field.  Support for the
      use of timestamps is REQUIRED, and support for nonces is OPTIONAL.

   Extensions

      The fixed portion of the GNM is followed by one or more extensions
      that may be used with this message, and by one or more
      authentication extensions as defined in Section 3.5 of [RFC5944].

      Apart from the Authentication Extensions mentioned below, only one
      extension is defined in this document as permitted for use with
      the GNM: the Message String Extension defined in [RFC4917].

      This document requires the MN-HA Authentication Extension (AE) to
      be used when this message is sent between the MN and the HA; MN-FA
      AE and FA-HA AE are OPTIONAL.  This document also requires the use
      of the MN-FA AE when this message is sent between the MN and the
      FA, where the MN-HA AE and FA-HA AE are not needed.  This document
      finally requires the use of the FA-HA AE when this message is sent
      between the FA and the HA, and the MN-HA AE and MN-FA AE are not
      needed.  This could be determined based on the "MD" value.
      See Sections 3.6.1.3 and 3.8.3.3 of [RFC5944] for the rules on the
      order of these extensions as they appear in Mobile IPv4 RRQ and
      RRP messages.  The same rules are applicable to GNM and GNAM.

4.2.  Generic Notification Acknowledgement Message

   A GNAM is sent by mobility agents or MNs to indicate the successful
   receipt of a GNM.

   IP Fields:

   Source Address

      Typically, copied from the destination address of the GNM to which
      the agent is replying.

   Destination Address

      Copied from the source address of the GNM to which the agent is
      replying.

   UDP Fields:

   Source Port

      Copied from the destination port of the corresponding GNM.

   Destination Port

      Copied from the source port of the corresponding GNM.

   The UDP header is followed by the Mobile IP fields shown below:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |     Type      |      MD       |     Code      | Reserved      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         Home Address                          |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                       Home Agent Address                      |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                         Care-of Address                       |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                                               |
   +                       Identification                          +
   |                                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |   Extensions...
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-

   Type 23

   MD: Message Direction

      This memo defines the semantics of the following MD field value:

      0 -- Message sent by the HA to the MN

      1 -- Message sent by the HA to the FA

      2 -- Message sent by the MN to the HA

      3 -- Message sent by the MN to the FA

      4 -- Message sent by the FA to the MN

      5 -- Message sent by the FA to the HA

   Code

      A value indicating the result of the GNM.  See below for a list of
      currently defined Code values.

   Notification successful

      0 -- notification accepted

   Notification denied by the HA

      128 -- reason unspecified

      129 -- administratively prohibited

      130 -- insufficient resources

      131 -- mobile node failed authentication

      132 -- foreign agent failed authentication

      133 -- notification Identification mismatch

   Notification denied by the FA

      64 -- reason unspecified

      65 -- administratively prohibited

      66 -- insufficient resources

      67 -- mobile node failed authentication

      68 -- home agent failed authentication

      69 -- notification Identification mismatch

   Notification denied by the mobile node

      192 -- reason unspecified

      193 -- administratively prohibited

      194 -- insufficient resources

      195 -- foreign agent failed authentication

      196 -- home agent failed authentication

      197 -- notification Identification mismatch

   Home Address

      The home address of the mobile node.

   Home Agent Address

      The IP address of the sender's home agent.

   Care-of Address

      The mobile node's care-of address, either the co-located care-of
      address or the foreign agent care-of address.

   Identification

      A 64-bit number used for matching the GNM with the GNAM and for
      protecting against replay attacks of notification messages.  See
      Sections 7.1.1 and 7.1.2 for more on the use of timestamps and
      nonces in this field.  Support for the use of timestamps is
      REQUIRED, and support for nonces is OPTIONAL.  The value is based
      on the Identification field from the GNM from the sender, and on
      the style of replay protection used in the security context
      between the sender and its receiver (defined by the mobility
      security association between them, and the Security Parameter
      Index (SPI) value in the authorization-enabling extension).

   Extensions

      The fixed portion of the GNAM is followed by one or more
      extensions that may be used with this message, and by one or more
      authentication extensions as defined in Section 3.5 of [RFC5944].

      This document REQUIRES the MN-HA Authentication Extension (AE) to
      be used when this message is sent between the MN and the HA; MN-FA
      AE and FA-HA AE are OPTIONAL.  This document also requires the use
      of the MN-FA AE when this message is sent between the MN and the
      FA, where the MN-HA AE and FA-HA AE are not needed.  This document
      finally requires the use of the FA-HA AE when this message is sent
      between the FA and the HA, and the MN-HA AE and MN-FA AE are not
      needed.  This could be determined based on the "MD" value.
      See Sections 3.6.1.3 and 3.8.3.3 of [RFC5944] for the rules on the
      order of these extensions as they appear in Mobile IPv4 RRQ and
      RRP messages.  The same rules are applicable to GNM and GNAM.

4.3.  Notification Retransmission

   If the "A" flag has been set during the GNM, but the sender doesn't
   receive any GNAM within a reasonable time, then the GNM SHOULD be
   retransmitted.  When timestamps are used, a new notification
   Identification is chosen for each retransmission; thus, it counts as
   a new GNM.  When nonces are used, the unanswered GNM is retransmitted
   unchanged; thus, the retransmission does not count as a new GNM
   (Section 7.1).  In this way, a retransmission will not require the
   receiver to re-synchronize with the sender by issuing another nonce
   in the case in which the original GNM (rather than its GNAM) was lost
   by the network.

   The maximum time until a new GNM is sent SHOULD be no greater than
   the requested Lifetime of the last GNM.  The minimum value SHOULD be
   large enough to account for the size of the messages, twice the
   round-trip time for transmission to the receiver, and at least an
   additional 100 milliseconds to allow for processing the messages
   before responding.  The round-trip time for transmission to the
   receiver will be at least as large as the time REQUIRED to transmit
   the messages at the link speed of the sender's current point of
   attachment.  Some circuits add another 200 milliseconds of satellite
   delay in the total round-trip time to the receiver.  The minimum time
   between GNMs MUST NOT be less than 1 second.  Each successive
   retransmission timeout period SHOULD be at least twice the previous
   period, as long as that is less than the maximum as specified above.

4.4.  General Implementation Considerations

   Implementations of this specifications should provide support for
   management of the various settings related to the notification
   messages.  In particular, it should be possible to do the following:

   o  List the notification messages supported.

   o  Show enabled/disabled status for notification message support,
      overall and in detail.

   o  Show the value of the maximum and minimum retransmission times.

   o  Enable and disable notification support entirely.

   o  Enable and disable the individual notification messages supported.

   o  Set the values of the maximum and minimum retransmission times
      described in Section 4.3.

4.5.  Mobile Node Considerations

   It is possible that the MN MAY receive a GNM from an FA or HA.  Both
   in the case of FA-CoA and co-located CoA, the MN MAY reply with a
   GNAM based on the "A" flag in the GNM.

4.5.1.  Receiving Generic Notification Messages

   When the MN is using an FA-CoA and receives a notification message,
   if the "MD" value is 0, it means that the notification message came
   from the HA.  If the "MD" value is 4, the notification came from the
   FA.  If the MN is using a co-located CoA and receives a notification
   message, the "MD" value will be 0, indicating that the notification
   message came from the HA.

   The MN MUST check for the presence of an authorization-enabling
   extension and perform the indicated authentication.  Exactly one
   authorization-enabling extension MUST be present in the GNM.

   If this message came from an FA, then an MN-FA AE MUST be present.
   If no MN-FA AE is found, or if more than one MN-FA AE is found, or if
   the Authenticator is invalid, then the MN MUST reject the GNM and MAY
   send a GNAM to the FA with Code 195, including an Identification
   field computed in accordance with the rules specified in Section 7.1.
   The MN MUST do no further processing with such a notification, though
   it SHOULD log the error as a security exception.

   If this notification message came from the HA, relayed by the FA, or
   if the MN is using a co-located CoA, then the MN-HA AE MUST be
   checked and the MN MUST check the Authenticator value in the
   Extension.  If no MN-HA AE is found, or if more than one MN-HA AE is
   found, or if the Authenticator is invalid, then the MN MUST reject
   the GNM and MAY send a GNAM to the initiator with Code 196, including
   an Identification field computed in accordance with the rules
   specified in Section 7.1.  The MN MUST do no further processing with
   such a notification, though it SHOULD log the error as a security
   exception.

   The MN MUST check that the Identification field is correct using the
   context selected by the SPI within a mandatory authentication
   extension like the MN-FA AE or MN-HA AE.  See Section 7.1 for a
   description of how this is performed.  If incorrect, the MN MUST
   reject the GNM and MAY send a GNAM to the initiator with Code 197,
   including an Identification field computed in accordance with the
   rules specified in Section 7.1.  The MN MUST do no further processing
   with such a notification, though it SHOULD log the error as a
   security exception.

   The MN MUST also check that the extensions present in the Generic
   Notification Message are permitted for use with the GNM.  If not, the
   MN MUST silently discard the message.  It MUST NOT do any further
   processing with such a notification, though it SHOULD log the error.

   If the MN accepts a GNM, then it will process it according to the
   specific rules for the extensions.  After that, the MN MAY reply to
   the originator with a GNAM with Code 0 based on the "A" flag in the
   GNM.

4.5.2.  Sending Generic Notification Acknowledgement Messages

   Both in the case of a co-located CoA and FA-CoA, the MN MAY reply
   with a GNAM based on the "A" flag in the GNM as follows:

   If the GNM was initiated from the FA to the MN ("MD" value is set to
   4), then the MN-FA AE MUST be the last extension in order to protect
   all other non-authentication extensions as defined in Section 3.5.3
   of [RFC5944].

   In the case of an FA-CoA, the source address is the MN's address, the
   destination address is the FA's address.

   The Code field of the GNAM is chosen in accordance with the rules
   specified in Section 4.2.  When replying to an accepted notification,
   an MN SHOULD respond with Code 0.

   There are a number of reasons why the MN might reject a notification,
   such as for example not being permitted to receive notifications,
   which could be for a number of reasons, causing the return of a GNAM
   with Code value 193 (administratively prohibited); or being unable to
   act on or display the notification, or otherwise being resource
   constrained, causing the use of Code value 194 (insufficient
   resources); or other reasons for which no other specific Code value
   is available, which would cause the use of Code value 192 (reason
   unspecified).

   If the GNM was initiated from the HA to the MN ("MD" value is set to
   0) and in the case of a co-located CoA, then the MN-HA AE MUST be the
   last extension in order to protect all other non-authentication
   extensions as defined in Section 3.5.2 of [RFC5944].

   When replying to a GNM from an HA to an MN with an FA-CoA, the source
   address is the MN's home address and the destination address is the
   FA's address ("MD" value is set to 2).  The ordering of the extension
   is: any non-authentication Extensions intended for the HA, followed
   by the MN-HA AE defined in Section 3.5.2 of [RFC5944], followed by
   any non-authentication Extensions intended for the FA, followed by
   the MN-FA AE defined in Section 3.5.3 of [RFC5944].

4.5.3.  Sending Generic Notification Messages

   The MN may send a GNM to notify either the FA or HA.

   If the message is sent to the FA, then the source address is the MN's
   address, and the destination address is the FA's address

   If the FA is the target of this notification message, then the "MD"
   value is set to 3, and the MN-FA AE MUST be the last extension in
   order to protect all other non-authentication extensions.  Computing
   the Authentication Extension Values is done in the same manner as in
   Section 3.5.1 of [RFC5944].

   If the FA is working only as a relay agent, then the "MD" value is
   set to 2, and the ordering of the extension is: the notification
   extension, followed by any non-authentication extension expected to
   be used by HA, followed by the MN-HA AE defined in Section 3.5.2 of
   [RFC5944], followed by any non-authentication Extensions intended for
   the FA, followed by the MN-FA AE defined in Section 3.5.3 of
   [RFC5944].  Computing the Authentication Extension Values is done in
   the same manner as in Section 3.5.1 of [RFC5944].

   In the case of a co-located CoA, the MN MAY send a notification
   message directly to the HA if it needs to be notified.  The "MD"
   value is set to 2, and the ordering of the extension is: the

   notification extension, followed by any non-authentication extension
   expected to be used by HA, followed by the MN-HA AE defined in
   Section 3.5.2 of [RFC5944].

   The MN chooses the Identification field in accordance with the style
   of replay protection it uses with its HA.  This is part of the
   mobility security association the MN shares with its HA.  See
   Section 7.1 for the method by which the MN computes the
   Identification field.

4.5.4.  Receiving Generic Notification Acknowledgement Messages

   In the case of an FA-CoA, if the MN receives this message, and the
   "MD" value is set to 0, it means that the GNAM came from the HA.

   If the "MD" value is set to 4, then the MN-FA AE MUST be checked, and
   the MN MUST check the Authenticator value in the Extension.  If no
   MN-FA AE is found, or if more than one MN-FA AE is found, or if the
   Authenticator is invalid, then the MN MUST silently discard the GNAM.

   In addition, the low-order 32 bits of the Identification field in the
   GNAM MUST be compared to the low-order 32 bits of the Identification
   field in the most recent GNM sent to the replying agent.  If they do
   not match, then the GNAM MUST be silently discarded.

   If the "MD" value is set to 0, then the MN-HA AE MUST be checked, and
   the MN MUST check the Authenticator value in the Extension.  If no
   MN-HA AE is found, or if more than one MN-HA AE is found, or if the
   Authenticator is invalid, then the MN MUST silently discard the GNAM.
   If the MN accepted this message, then the MN MAY also process it
   based on the notification event.

   In the case of a co-located CoA, if the MN received this message,
   then the MN-HA AE MUST be checked, and the MN MUST check the
   Authenticator value in the Extension.  If no MN-HA AE is found, or if
   more than one MN-HA AE is found, or if the Authenticator is invalid,
   then the MN MUST silently discard the Notification Acknowledgement
   message.

4.6.  Foreign Agent Consideration

   The FA may initiate a GNM to the MN or the HA.  Additionally, the FA
   also relays GNMs and GNAMs between the MN and its HA as long as there
   is an active binding for the MN at the FA.

4.6.1.  Receiving Generic Notification Messages

   If the FA receives a GNM, and the "MD" value is set to 0, then it
   means that the HA is asking the FA to relay the message to the MN.
   If the "MD" value is set to 1, then it means that the target of the
   notification is the FA.  If the "MD" value is set to 2, then it means
   that the MN is asking the FA to relay the message to the HA.  If the
   "MD" value is set to 3, then it means that the notification came from
   the MN to the FA.

   If the "MD" value is set to 0, then the FA MAY validate the FA-HA AE
   if present.  If the FA-HA AE is invalid, then all extensions between
   the HA-MN AE and the HA-FA AE MUST be removed, the FA SHOULD relay
   the GNM to the MN's home address as specified in the Home Address
   field of the GNM, and the MN will eventually validate the MN-HA AE to
   ensure that all information sent to the MN is integrity protected.
   If the FA-HA AE is valid, the FA MUST relay the GNM to the MN's home
   address as specified in the Home Address field of the GNM.  The FA
   MUST NOT modify any of the fields beginning with the fixed portion of
   the GNM through the MN-HA AE or other authentication extension
   supplied by the HA as an authorization-enabling extension for the MN.

   Furthermore, the FA MUST process and remove any extensions following
   the MN-HA AE.  If the FA shares a mobility security association with
   the MN, the FA MAY append any of its own non-authentication
   extensions that are relevant to the MN.  In this case, the FA MUST
   append the MN-FA AE after these non-authentication extensions.

   If the "MD" value is set to 1, the FA-HA AE MUST be checked, and the
   FA MUST check the Authenticator value in the Extension.  If no FA-HA
   AE is found, or if more than one FA-HA AE is found, or if the
   Authenticator is invalid, the FA MUST reject the GNM and MAY send a
   GNAM to the HA with Code 68, including an Identification field
   computed in accordance with the rules specified in Section 7.1.  The
   FA MUST do no further processing with such a notification, though it
   SHOULD log the error as a security exception.

   The FA MUST check that the Identification field is correct using the
   context selected by the SPI within the mandatory FA-HA AE.  See
   Section 7.1 for a description of how this is performed.  If
   incorrect, the FA MUST reject the GNM and MAY send a GNAM to the
   initiator with Code 69, including an Identification field computed in
   accordance with the rules specified in Section 7.1.  The FA MUST do
   no further processing with such a notification, though it SHOULD log
   the error as a security exception.

   The FA MUST also check that the extensions present in the Generic
   Notification Message are permitted for use with the GNM.  If not, the
   FA MUST silently discard the message.  It MUST NOT do any further
   processing with such a notification, though it SHOULD log the error.

   If the FA accepts the HA's GNM, it will process it based on the
   specific rules for the extensions it contains.  The FA MAY then reply
   to the HA with a GNAM with Code 0 based on the "A" flag in the GNM.

   In the case of an FA-CoA and if the "MD" value is set to 2, if the FA
   received this message, and if the MN-FA AE is present, the MN-FA AE
   MUST be checked, and the FA MUST check the Authenticator value in the
   Extension.  If no MN-FA AE is found, or if more than one MN-FA AE is
   found, or if the Authenticator is invalid, the FA MUST silently
   discard the GNM.  If the MN-FA is valid, the FA MUST relay the GNM to
   the HA's address as specified in the Home Agent Address field of the
   GNM.  The HA will eventually validate the MN-HA AE to ensure that all
   information sent to the HA is integrity protected.  The FA MUST NOT
   modify any of the fields beginning with the fixed portion of the GNM
   through the MN-HA AE or other authentication extension supplied by
   the MN as an authorization-enabling extension for the HA.

   Furthermore, the FA MUST process and remove any extensions following
   the MN-HA AE, and MAY append any of its own non-authentication
   extensions of relevance to the HA, if applicable.  Also, it MUST
   append the FA-HA AE if the FA shares a mobility security association
   with the HA.

   If the "MD" value is set to 3, the MN-FA AE MUST be checked, and the
   FA MUST check the Authenticator value in the Extension, as described
   in Section 3.7.2.1 of [RFC5944].  If no MN-FA AE is found, or if more
   than one MN-FA AE is found, or if the Authenticator is invalid, the
   FA MUST reject the GNM and MAY send a GNAM to the MN with Code 67,
   including an Identification field computed in accordance with the
   rules specified in Section 7.1.  The FA MUST do no further processing
   with such a notification, though it SHOULD log the error as a
   security exception.

   The FA MUST check that the Identification field is correct using the
   context selected by the SPI within mandatory MN-FA AE.  See
   Section 7.1 for a description of how this is performed.  If
   incorrect, the FA MUST reject the GNM and MAY send a GNAM to the
   initiator with Code 69, including an Identification field computed in
   accordance with the rules specified in Section 7.1.  The FA MUST do
   no further processing with such a notification, though it SHOULD log
   the error as a security exception.

   If the FA accepts the MN's GNM, it will process it based on the
   specific rules for the extensions it contains.  The FA MAY then reply
   to the MN with a GNAM with Code 0 based on the "A" flag in the GNM.

4.6.2.  Sending Generic Notification Acknowledgement Messages

   The FA may need either to relay a GNAM between the MN and the HA or
   to send one as a response to a GNM that was sent to it.  In both
   cases, the GNAM is defined as follows.

   The source address is the FA address, and the destination address is
   the HA's or MN's home address.

   The Code field of the GNAM is chosen in accordance with the rules
   specified in Section 4.2.  When replying to an accepted notification,
   an FA SHOULD respond with Code 0.

   The FA might reject a notification by returning a GNAM with the Code
   value 65 (administratively prohibited), which could be for a number
   of reasons; 64 (reason unspecified); or 66 (insufficient resources).

   If the FA is relaying this message to only the HA, the FA MUST NOT
   modify any of the fields beginning with the fixed portion of the GNAM
   up through and including the MN-HA AE or other authentication
   extension supplied by the MN as an authorization-enabling extension
   for the MN.  Furthermore, the foreign agent MUST process and remove
   any extensions following the MN-HA AE.  If the FA shares a mobility
   security association with the HA, the FA MAY append any of its own
   non-authentication extensions that are relevant to the HA.  In this
   case, the FA MUST append the FA-HA AE after these non-authentication
   extensions.

   If the notification message is from the HA to the FA, then the "MD"
   value is set to 5 and the ordering of the extension is: any non-
   authentication Extensions intended for the FA, followed by the FA-HA
   AE defined in Section 3.5.4 of [RFC5944].

   If the notification message is from the MN to the FA, then the "MD"
   value is set to 4 and the ordering of the extension is: any non-
   authentication Extensions intended for the FA, followed by the MN-FA
   AE defined in Section 3.5.3 of [RFC5944].

4.6.3.  Sending Generic Notification Messages

   If the FA is initiating a notification to the MN using the GNM, it
   MAY also notify the HA.

   In the message to the MN, the source address is the FA address, the
   destination address is the MN's address, the "MD" value is set to 4,
   and the ordering of the extension is: the notification extension,
   followed by any non-authentication extensions intended for the MN,
   followed by the MN-FA AE defined in Section 3.5.3 of [RFC5944].
   Computing the Authentication Extension Values is done in the same
   manner as in Section 3.5.1 of [RFC5944] except the payload is the
   notification rather than the registration.

   In the message to the HA, the source address is the FA's address, the
   destination address is the HA's address (the "MD" value is set to 5),
   and the ordering of the extension is: notification extension,
   followed by any non-authentication Extensions intended for the HA,
   followed by the FA-HA AE defined in Section 3.5.4 of [RFC5944].
   Computing the Authentication Extension Value is done in the same
   manner as described in Section 3.5.1 of [RFC5944], except that the
   payload is the notification instead of the registration.

4.6.4.  Receiving Generic Notification Acknowledgement Messages

   In the case of an FA-CoA, if the FA receives this message, and the
   "MD" value is set to 2, it means that the notification
   acknowledgement message is from the MN to the HA; if the "MD" value
   is set to 3, the message is from the MN to the FA; otherwise, it came
   from the HA.

   If the "MD" value is set to 1, the FA-HA AE MUST be checked, and the
   FA MUST check the Authenticator value in the Extension.  If no FA-HA
   AE is found, or if more than one FA-HA AE is found, or if the
   Authenticator is invalid, the FA MUST silently discard the
   Notification Acknowledgement message.  If the FA accepted this
   message, the FA MAY also process it based on the notification event.

   If the "MD" value is set to 3, and if the MN-FA AE is present, the AE
   MUST be checked, and the FA MUST check the Authenticator value in the
   extension.  If no MN-FA AE is found, or if more than one MN-FA AE is
   found, or if the Authenticator is invalid, the FA MUST silently
   discard the GNAM.  If the FA accepted this message, the FA MAY also
   process it based on the notification event.

   In the case of an FA-CoA and if the "MD" value is set to 2, if the FA
   received this message, and if the MN-FA AE is present, the MN-FA AE
   MUST be checked, and the FA MUST check the Authenticator value in the
   Extension.  If no MN-FA AE is found, or if more than one MN-FA AE is
   found, or if the Authenticator is invalid, the FA MUST silently
   discard the GNAM.  If the FA accepted the MN's GNAM, it MUST relay
   this message to the HA.  The FA MUST NOT modify any of the fields
   beginning with the fixed portion of the GNAM up through and including

   the MN-HA AE or other authentication extension supplied by the HA as
   an authorization-enabling extension for the MN.  Furthermore, the FA
   MUST process and remove any extensions following the MN-HA AE and MAY
   append any of its own non-authentication extensions of relevance to
   the HA, if applicable.  Also, it MUST append the FA-HA AE, if the FA
   shares a mobility security association with the HA.

4.7.  Home Agent Consideration

   The HA MAY initiate a GNM to both the mobile node and FA, and it also
   MAY receive a GNAM from both the FA and MN.  The HA also MAY receive
   a GNM from the FA, but only when there is a binding for an MN.  If
   the HA receives a GNM from an FA and there is no corresponding MN
   registration, the HA SHOULD drop the GNM.

4.7.1.  Sending Generic Notification Messages

   In the case of an FA-CoA, the HA may either send a GNM to notify the
   FA, or have the FA relay the GNM to the MN if the MN needs to be
   notified.

   If the message is from the HA to the FA, the source address is the
   HA's address, and the destination address is the FA's address

   If the FA is working only as a relay agent, the "MD" value is set to
   0, and the ordering of the extension is: the notification extension,
   followed by any non-authentication extension expected to be used by
   MN, followed by the MN-HA AE defined in Section 3.5.2 of [RFC5944],
   followed by any non-authentication extensions intended for the FA,
   followed by the FA-HA AE defined in Section 3.5.4 of [RFC5944].
   Computing the Authentication Extension Value is done in the same
   manner as in Section 3.5.1 of [RFC5944].

   If the FA is the target of this notification message, then the "MD"
   value is set to 1, and the ordering of the extension is: the
   notification extension, followed by any non-authentication Extensions
   intended for the FA, followed by the FA-HA AE defined in Section
   3.5.4 of [RFC5944].  Computing the Authentication Extension Values is
   done in the same manner as in Section 3.5.1 of [RFC5944].

   In the case of a co-located CoA, the HA MAY send a notification
   message directly to the MN if it needs to be notified.  The "MD"
   value is set to 0, and the ordering of the extension is: the
   notification extension, followed by any non-authentication extension
   expected to be used by the MN, followed by the MN-HA AE defined in
   Section 3.5.2 of [RFC5944].

4.7.2.  Receiving Generic Notification Acknowledgement Messages

   In the case of an FA-CoA, if the HA receives this message, and the
   "MD" value is set to 2, it means that the GNAM came from the MN.

   If the "MD" value is set to 5, and the HA accepted this message, the
   HA MAY also process it based on the notification event.  The FA-HA AE
   MUST be checked, and the HA MUST check the Authenticator value in the
   extension.  If no FA-HA AE is found, or if more than one FA-HA AE is
   found, or if the Authenticator is invalid, the HA MUST silently
   discard the GNAM.

   If the "MD" value is set to 2, in the case of an FA-CoA, and if the
   FA-HA AE is present, the FA-HA AE MUST be checked, and the HA MUST
   check the Authenticator value in the Extension.  If more than one
   FA-HA AE is found, or if the Authenticator is invalid, the HA MUST
   silently discard the GNAM.  No matter what, the MN-HA AE MUST be
   checked, and the HA MUST check the Authenticator value in the
   Extension.  If no MN-HA AE is found, or if more than one MN-HA AE is
   found, or if the Authenticator is invalid, the HA MUST silently
   discard the GNAM.  If the HA accepted this message, the HA MAY also
   process it based on the notification event.

   If the "MD" value is set to 2, in the case of a co-located CoA, the
   MN-HA AE MUST be checked, and the HA MUST check the Authenticator
   value in the Extension.  If no MN-HA AE is found, or if more than one
   MN-HA AE is found, or if the Authenticator is invalid, the HA MUST
   silently discard the GNAM.  If the HA accepted this message, the HA
   MAY also process it based on the notification event.

4.7.3.  Receiving Generic Notification Messages

   The HA MAY receive a GNM sent from the FA.  When the HA receives this
   message, if the "MD" value is set to 5, this message came from FA.
   The FA-HA AE MUST be checked, and the HA MUST check the Authenticator
   value in the extension.  If no FA-HA AE is found, or if more than one
   FA-HA AE is found, or if the Authenticator is invalid, the HA MUST
   reject the GNM and MAY send a GNAM to the FA with Code 132, including
   an Identification field computed in accordance with the rules
   specified in Section 7.1.  The HA MUST do no further processing with
   such a notification, though it SHOULD log the error as a security
   exception.

   The HA MUST check that the Identification field is correct using the
   context selected by the SPI within a mandatory authentication
   extension like MN-HA AE or FA-HA AE.  See Section 7.1 for a
   description of how this is performed.  If incorrect, the HA MUST
   reject the GNM and MAY send a GNAM to the initiator with Code 133,

   including an Identification field computed in accordance with the
   rules specified in Section 7.1.  The HA MUST do no further processing
   with such a notification, though it SHOULD log the error as a
   security exception.  If the HA accepts the FA's GNM, it will process
   it based on the notification extension.  Furthermore, the HA MAY
   reply to the FA with a GNAM with Code 0 based on the "A" flag in the
   GNM.

   If the "MD" value is set to 2, this message comes from the MN.  In
   the case of FA-CoA, if FA-HA AE is present, it MUST be checked, and
   the HA MUST check the Authenticator value in the Extension.  If more
   than one FA-HA AE Extension is found, or if the Authenticator is
   invalid, the HA MUST reject the GNM and MAY send a GNAM to the FA
   with Code 132, including an Identification field computed in
   accordance with the rules specified in Section 7.1.  The HA MUST do
   no further processing with such a notification, though it SHOULD log
   the error as a security exception.  Also, the MN-HA AE MUST be
   checked, and the HA MUST check the Authenticator value in the
   Extension.  If no MN-HA AE is found, or if more than one MN-HA AE is
   found, or if the Authenticator is invalid, the HA MUST reject the GNM
   and MAY send a GNAM to the MN with Code 131, including an
   Identification field computed in accordance with the rules specified
   in Section 7.1.  The HA MUST do no further processing with such a
   notification, though it SHOULD log the error as a security exception.
   If the HA accepts the MN's GNM, it will process it based on the
   notification extension.  Furthermore, the HA MAY reply to the MN with
   a GNAM back with Code 0 based on the "A" flag in the GNM.

   If the "MD" value is set to 2, in the case of a co-located CoA, the
   MN-HA AE MUST be checked, and the HA MUST check the Authenticator
   value in the Extension.  If no MN-HA AE is found, or if more than one
   MN-HA AE is found, or if the Authenticator is invalid, the HA MUST
   reject the GNM and MAY send a GNAM to the MN with Code 131, including
   an Identification field computed in accordance with the rules
   specified in Section 7.1.  The HA MUST do no further processing with
   such a notification, though it SHOULD log the error as a security
   exception.  If the HA accepts the MN's GNM, it will process it based
   on the notification extension.  Furthermore, the HA MAY reply to the
   MN with a GNAM with Code 0 based on the "A" flag in the GNM.

   The HA MUST also check that the extensions present in the Generic
   Notification Message are permitted for use with the GNM.  If not, the
   HA MUST silently discard the message.  It MUST NOT do any further
   processing with such a notification, though it SHOULD log the error.

4.7.4.  Sending Generic Notification Acknowledgement Messages

   If the GNM came from the FA only, and if the "A" flag is set in the
   GNM, then the HA MUST send a GNAM.  The message is as follows: The
   source address is the HA's address, the destination address is the
   FA's address, and the "MD" value is set to 1.  The ordering of the
   extension is: any non-authentication Extensions intended for the FA,
   followed by the Foreign-Home Authentication extension defined in
   Section 3.5.4 of [RFC5944].

   The Code field of the GNAM is chosen in accordance with the rules
   specified in Section 4.2.  When replying to an accepted GNM, an MN
   SHOULD respond with Code 0.

   If the GNM came from the MN, and if the "A" flag is set in the GNM,
   then the HA MUST send a GNAM.  The message is as follows: The source
   address is the HA's address, the destination address is the FA's
   address, and the "MD" value is set to 0.  The ordering of the
   extension is: any non-authentication extensions intended for the MN,
   followed by the MN-HA AE defined in Section 3.5.2 of [RFC5944],
   optionally followed by any non-authentication extensions intended for
   the FA, optionally followed by the MN-FA AE defined in Section 3.5.3
   of [RFC5944].

5.  Future Extensibility

   This document defines the Generic Notification Message used with the
   Message String Extension [RFC4917].

   However, it is possible to define new notification-related extensions
   for use with the Generic Notification Message, for cases where the
   notification is intended to have a semantic content and is intended
   for the HA, FA, or MN, rather than for the user.

5.1.  Examples of Possible Extensions

   One example of such usage, which would have been defined in this
   document if it hadn't already been defined as a separate message, is
   the Registration Revocation Message [RFC3543].  This is a message
   sent from the HA to the FA(s) or MN to notify the receiving node that
   a currently active registration is being revoked.  The use case for
   this is clearly laid out in [RFC3543].

   Another example would be managed maintenance switch-over between HA
   instances, where an HA due to go down for maintenance could direct
   the MNs registered with it to re-register with another specified HA.

   Such a message could also be used for managed load balancing.  There
   is currently no support for such forced switch-over in the Mobile
   IPv4 protocol.

   Yet another example is when the prefix set handled by an MIPv4 NEMO
   [RFC5177] HA changes; to ensure proper routing, the mobile router
   needs to be notified about the change so that its internal routing
   rules may be updated.

   One final example is home network changes that require host
   configuration changes, for instance, a change of address for the DNS
   server or another network server.  Again, this is a case where the HA
   would want to notify the MN of the change, so that service
   interruptions can be avoided.

5.2.  Extension Specification

   In order to avoid making the MIPv4 Generic Notification Message a
   generic protocol extension mechanism by which new protocol mechanisms
   could be implemented without appropriate discussion and approval, any
   new extensions that are to be used with the Generic Notification
   Message must be registered with IANA, where registration is limited
   by the 'RFC Required' policy defined in [RFC5226].

   If additional extensions are specified for use with the Generic
   Notification Message, the practice exemplified in [RFC5944] and
   related specifications should be followed.  Generally, it has not
   been necessary so far to provide versioning support within individual
   extensions; in a few cases, it has been necessary to define new
   extensions with new extension numbers where a generalization of a
   pre-existing extension has been needed.  With the current rate of
   extension number consumption, that seems to be an acceptable
   approach.

   If at some point extensions are specified for use with the Generic
   Notification Message that overlap with pre-existing notification
   messages, the authors of the specification should consider providing
   a method to flag which notification messages are supported, and which
   notification message usage is requested, in a manner similar to the
   way tunneling method capabilities and usage requests are flagged in
   the Mobile IPv4 base specification [RFC5944].

   Encoded in the extension number of Mobile IPv4 extensions is the
   notion of 'skippable' and 'not skippable' extensions; see Section 1.8
   of [RFC5944].  This notion is also applicable when extensions are
   used with the Generic Notification Message: It is not required that a
   receiver understand a skippable extension, but a non-skippable
   extension needs to be handled according to Section 1.8 of [RFC5944]

   (i.e., the message must be silently discarded if the extension is not
   recognized).  This document does not specify any change from the
   Mobile IPv4 base specification [RFC5944] in this respect.

6.  IANA Considerations

   This document defines two new messages, the Generic Notification
   Message described in Section 4.1, and the Generic Notification
   Acknowledgement Message described in Section 4.2.  The message
   numbers for these two messages have been allocated from the same
   number space used by the Registration Request and Registration Reply
   messages in [RFC5944].

   The Generic Notification Message may only carry extensions that are
   explicitly permitted for use with this message.  Section 4.1 of this
   document defines 4 extensions that are permitted.  IANA has added a
   column to the registry of Mobile IPv4 extensions, which will indicate
   for each extension if it is permitted for use with the Generic
   Notification Message.  Approval of new extensions that are permitted
   for use with the Generic Notification Message requires that they be
   defined in an RFC according to the 'RFC Required' policy described in
   [RFC5226].

   The Generic Notification Acknowledgement Message, specified in
   Section 4.2, has a Code field.  The number space for the Code field
   values is new and also specified in Section 4.2.  The Code number
   space is structured according to whether the notification was
   successful, the HA denied the notification, the FA denied the
   notification, or the MN denied the notification, as follows:

             0       Success Code
             64-69   Error Codes from the FA
             128-133 Error Codes from the HA
             192-197 Error Codes from the MN

   Approval of new Code values requires expert review.

7.  Security Considerations

   This specification operates with the security constraints and
   requirements of [RFC5944].  This means that when this message is
   transmitted between the MN and the HA, the MN-HA AE is REQUIRED; when
   this message is transmitted between the MN and the FA, the MN-FA AE
   is REQUIRED; when this message is transmitted between the FA and the
   HA, the FA-HA AE is REQUIRED.  It extends the operations of the MN,
   HA, and FA defined in [RFC5944] to notify each other about some
   events.  The GNM defined in this specification could carry

   information that modifies the mobility bindings.  Therefore, the
   message MUST be integrity protected.  Replay protection MUST also be
   guaranteed.

   RFC 5944 provides replay protection only for Registration Requests
   sent by the MN.  There is no mechanism for replay protection for
   messages initiated by an FA or HA.  The 64-bit Identification field
   specified in this document (Sections 4.1 and 4.2) for the GNM is used
   to provide replay protection for the notification messages initiated
   by the FA or HA.

7.1.  Replay Protection for GNMs and GNAMs

   The Identification field is used to let the receiving node verify
   that a GNM has been freshly generated by the sending node, not
   replayed by an attacker from some previous notification.  Two methods
   are described in this section: timestamps (REQUIRED) and "nonces"
   (OPTIONAL).  All senders and receivers MUST implement timestamp-based
   replay protection.  These nodes MAY also implement nonce-based replay
   protection

   The style of replay protection in effect between any two peer nodes
   among the MN, FA, and HA is part of the mobile security association.
   A sending node and its receiving node MUST agree on which method of
   replay protection will be used.  The interpretation of the
   Identification field depends on the method of replay protection as
   described in the subsequent subsections.

   Whatever method is used, the low-order 32 bits of the Identification
   field MUST be copied unchanged from the GNM to the GNAM.  The
   receiver uses those bits (and the sender's source address) to match
   the GNAM with corresponding replies.  The receiver MUST verify that
   the low-order 32 bits of any GNAM Identification field are identical
   to the bits it sent in the GNM.

   The Identification in a new GNM MUST NOT be the same as in an
   immediately preceding GNM, and SHOULD NOT repeat while the same
   security context is being used between the MN and the HA.

7.1.1.  Replay Protection Using Timestamps

   The basic principle of timestamp replay protection is that the node
   generating a message inserts the current time of day, and the node
   receiving the message checks that this timestamp is sufficiently
   close to its own time of day.  Unless specified differently in the
   security association between the nodes, a default value of 7 seconds
   MAY be used to limit the time difference.  This value SHOULD be
   greater than 3 seconds.  Obviously, the two nodes must have

   adequately synchronized time-of-day clocks.  As with any messages,
   time synchronization messages may be protected against tampering by
   an authentication mechanism determined by the security context
   between the two nodes.

   In this document, the timestamps are used, and the sender MUST set
   the Identification field to a 64-bit value formatted as specified by
   the Network Time Protocol (NTP) [RFC5905].  The low-order 32 bits of
   the NTP format represent fractional seconds.  Note, however, that
   when using timestamps, the 64-bit Identification used in a GNM from
   the sender MUST be greater than that used in any previous GNM, as the
   receiver uses this field also as a sequence number.  Without such a
   sequence number, it would be possible for a delayed duplicate of an
   earlier GNM to arrive at the receiver (within the clock
   synchronization required by the receiver), and thus be applied out of
   order, mistakenly altering the sender's current status.

   Upon receipt of a GNM with an authorization-enabling extension, the
   receiver MUST check the Identification field for validity.  In order
   to be valid, the timestamp contained in the Identification field MUST
   be close enough to the receiver's time-of-day clock and the timestamp
   MUST be greater than all previously accepted timestamps for the
   requesting sender.  Time tolerances and re-synchronization details
   are specific to a particular mobility security association.

   If the timestamp is valid, the receiver copies the entire
   Identification field into the GNAM, and it returns the GNAM to the
   sender.  If the timestamp is not valid, the receiver copies only the
   low-order 32 bits into the GNAM, and supplies the high-order 32 bits
   from its own time of day.  In this latter case, the receiver MUST
   reject the notification by returning Code 69, 133, or 197
   (notification Identification mismatch) in the GNAM.

   Furthermore, the receiver MUST verify that the low-order 32 bits of
   the Identification in the GNAM are identical to those in the rejected
   GNM attempt, before using the high-order bits for clock re-
   synchronization.

7.1.2.  Replay Protection Using Nonces

   The basic principle of nonce replay protection is that node A
   includes a new random number in every message to node B, and checks
   that node B returns that same number in its next message to node A.
   Both messages use an authentication code to protect against
   alteration by an attacker.  At the same time, node B can send its own
   nonces in all messages to node A (to be echoed by node A), so that it
   too can verify that it is receiving fresh messages.

   The receiver may be expected to have resources for computing pseudo-
   random numbers useful as nonces, according to [RFC4086].  It inserts
   a new nonce as the high-order 32 bits of the Identification field of
   every GNAM.  The receiver copies the low-order 32 bits of the
   Identification field from the GNM into the low-order 32 bits of the
   Identification field in the GNAM.  When the sender receives an
   authenticated GNAM from the receiver, it saves the high-order 32 bits
   of the Identification field for use as the high-order 32 bits of its
   next GNM.

   The sender is responsible for generating the low-order 32 bits of the
   Identification field in each GNM.  Ideally, it should generate its
   own random nonces.  However, it may use any expedient method,
   including duplication of the random value sent by the receiver.  The
   method chosen is of concern only to the sender because it is the node
   that checks for valid values in the GNAM.  The high-order and low-
   order 32 bits of the Identification chosen SHOULD both differ from
   their previous values.  For each notification message, the receiver
   uses a new high-order value and the sender uses a new low-order
   value.

   If a GNM is rejected because of an invalid nonce, the GNAM always
   provides the sender with a new nonce to be used in the next message.
   Thus, the nonce protocol is self-synchronizing.

7.2.  Non-Authentication Extensions Handling in the Foreign Agent

   When the FA is relaying a GNM between the MN and the HA, and if the
   FA does not share a mobility security association with the MN or HA,
   all non-authentication extensions between the MN and FA, or FA and
   HA, are not protected.  In this case, all non-authentication
   extensions should be silently discarded.

8.  Acknowledgements

   The authors appreciate the efforts of Ahmad Muhanna for his detailed
   review of and his many contributions to the text of this document.
   The author also wants to thank Kent Leung, Peng Yang, Peter McCann,
   et al., for their helping developing this document.  Thanks to Alexey
   Melnikov, Sean Turner, Ralph Droms, Charles E. Perkins, Russ Housley,
   Magnus Westerlund, Lars Eggert, Dan Romascanu, Tim Polk, Amanda
   Baber, Sebastian Thalanany, and Joseph Salowey for their discussion
   and comments.  Thanks to Jari Arkko for help at each step of this
   document's development.

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3543]  Glass, S. and M. Chandra, "Registration Revocation in
              Mobile IPv4", RFC 3543, August 2003.

   [RFC4086]  Eastlake, D., Schiller, J., and S. Crocker, "Randomness
              Requirements for Security", BCP 106, RFC 4086, June 2005.

   [RFC4917]  Sastry, V., Leung, K., and A. Patel, "Mobile IPv4 Message
              String Extension", RFC 4917, June 2007.

   [RFC5905]  Mills, D., Martin, J., Burbank, J., and W. Kasch, "Network
              Time Protocol Version 4: Protocol and Algorithms
              Specification", RFC 5905, June 2010.

   [RFC5944]  Perkins, C., "IP Mobility Support for IPv4, Revised",
              RFC 5944, November 2010.

9.2.  Informative References

   [RFC5177]  Leung, K., Dommety, G., Narayanan, V., and A. Petrescu,
              "Network Mobility (NEMO) Extensions for Mobile IPv4",
              RFC 5177, April 2008.

   [RFC5226]  Narten, T. and H. Alvestrand, "Guidelines for Writing an
              IANA Considerations Section in RFCs", BCP 26, RFC 5226,
              May 2008.

Authors' Addresses

   Hui Deng
   China Mobile
   53A, Xibianmennei Ave.,
   Xuanwu District,
   Beijing  100053
   China

   EMail: denghui02@gmail.com

   Henrik Levkowetz
   Netnod
   Franzengatan 5
   S-104 25, Stockholm
   SWEDEN

   EMail: henrik@levkowetz.com

   Vijay Devarapalli
   Vasona Networks
   2900 Lakeside Drive
   Santa Clara, CA  95054
   USA

   EMail: dvijay@gmail.com

   Sri Gundavelli
   Cisco
   170 W.Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA  95134
   USA

   EMail: sgundave@cisco.com

   Brian Haley
   Hewlett-Packard Company
   165 Dascomb Road
   Andover, MA  01810
   USA

   EMail: brian.haley@hp.com

 

User Contributions:

Comment about this RFC, ask questions, or add new information about this topic:

CAPTCHA