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RFC 5669 - The SEED Cipher Algorithm and Its Use with the Secure


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Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF)                           S. Yoon
Request for Comments: 5669                                        J. Kim
Category: Standards Track                                        H. Park
ISSN: 2070-1721                                                 H. Jeong
                                                                  Y. Won
                                        Korea Internet & Security Agency
                                                             August 2010

                 The SEED Cipher Algorithm and Its Use
          with the Secure Real-Time Transport Protocol (SRTP)

Abstract

   This document describes the use of the SEED block cipher algorithm in
   the Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP) for providing
   confidentiality for Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) traffic and
   for the control traffic for RTP, the Real-time Transport Control
   Protocol (RTCP).

Status of This Memo

   This is an Internet Standards Track document.

   This document is a product of the Internet Engineering Task Force
   (IETF).  It represents the consensus of the IETF community.  It has
   received public review and has been approved for publication by the
   Internet Engineering Steering Group (IESG).  Further information on
   Internet Standards is available in Section 2 of RFC 5741.

   Information about the current status of this document, any errata,
   and how to provide feedback on it may be obtained at
   http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5669.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2010 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
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   publication of this document.  Please review these documents
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   This document may contain material from IETF Documents or IETF
   Contributions published or made publicly available before November
   10, 2008.  The person(s) controlling the copyright in some of this
   material may not have granted the IETF Trust the right to allow
   modifications of such material outside the IETF Standards Process.
   Without obtaining an adequate license from the person(s) controlling
   the copyright in such materials, this document may not be modified
   outside the IETF Standards Process, and derivative works of it may
   not be created outside the IETF Standards Process, except to format
   it for publication as an RFC or to translate it into languages other
   than English.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................3
      1.1. SEED .......................................................3
      1.2. Terminology ................................................3
      1.3. Definitions ................................................3
   2. Cryptographic Transforms ........................................4
      2.1. Counter ....................................................4
           2.1.1. Message Authentication/Integrity: HMAC-SHA1 .........4
      2.2. Counter with CBC-MAC (CCM) .................................4
      2.3. Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) ..................................6
   3. Nonce Format for CCM and GCM ....................................6
      3.1. Nonce for SRTP .............................................6
      3.2. Nonce for SRTCP ............................................6
   4. Key Derivation: SEED-CTR PRF ....................................7
   5. Mandatory-to-Implement Transforms ...............................7
   6. Security Considerations .........................................7
   7. IANA Considerations .............................................8
   8. Acknowledgements ................................................8
   9. References ......................................................8
      9.1. Normative References .......................................8
      9.2. Informative References .....................................9
   Appendix A. Test Vectors ..........................................10
      A.1. SEED-CTR Test Vectors .....................................10
      A.2. SEED-CCM Test Vectors .....................................11
      A.3. SEED-GCM Test Vectors .....................................12

1.  Introduction

   This document describes the use of the SEED [RFC4269] block cipher
   algorithm in the Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP) [RFC3711]
   for providing confidentiality for Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP)
   [RFC3550] traffic and for the control traffic for RTP, the Real-time
   Transport Control Protocol (RTCP) [RFC3550].

1.1.  SEED

   SEED is a symmetric encryption algorithm that was developed by the
   Korea Information Security Agency (KISA) and a group of experts,
   beginning in 1998.  The input/output block size of SEED is 128-bit
   and the key length is also 128-bit.  SEED has the 16-round Feistel
   structure.  A 128-bit input is divided into two 64-bit blocks and the
   right 64-bit block is an input to the round function with a 64-bit
   subkey generated from the key scheduling.

   SEED is easily implemented in various software and hardware because
   it is designed to increase the efficiency of memory storage and the
   simplicity of generating keys without degrading the security of the
   algorithm.  In particular, it can be effectively adopted in a
   computing environment that has restricted resources such as mobile
   devices, smart cards, and so on.

   SEED is a national industrial association standard [TTASSEED] and is
   widely used in South Korea for electronic commerce and financial
   services operated on wired and wireless PKI.

   The algorithm specification and object identifiers are described in
   [RFC4269].  The SEED homepage, http://seed.kisa.or.kr/eng/main.jsp,
   contains a wealth of information about SEED, including detailed
   specification, evaluation report, test vectors, and so on.

1.2.  Terminology

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

1.3.  Definitions

   ||   concatenation
   XOR  exclusive or

2.  Cryptographic Transforms

   All symmetric block cipher algorithms share common characteristics,
   including mode, key size, weak keys, and block size.  The following
   sections contain descriptions of the relevant characteristics of
   SEED.

   SEED does not have any restrictions for modes of operation that are
   used with this block cipher.  We define three modes of running SEED:
   (1) SEED in counter mode, (2) SEED in counter mode with CBC-MAC
   (CCM), and (3) SEED in Galois/Counter Mode (GCM).

2.1.  Counter

   Section 4.1.1 of [RFC3711] defines AES counter mode encryption, which
   that document refers to as AES-CM.  SEED counter mode is defined in a
   similar manner and is denoted as SEED-CTR.  The plaintext inputs to
   the block cipher are formed as in AES-CM, and the block cipher
   outputs are processed as in AES-CM.  The only difference in the
   processing is that SEED-CTR uses SEED as the underlying encryption
   primitive.  When SEED-CTR is used, it MUST be used only in
   conjunction with an authentication function.

2.1.1.  Message Authentication/Integrity: HMAC-SHA1

   HMAC-SHA1 [RFC2104], as defined in Section 4.2.1 of [RFC3711], SHALL
   be the default message-authentication code to be used with SEED-CTR.
   The default session-authentication key length SHALL be 160 bits, the
   default authentication tag length SHALL be 80 bits, and the
   SRTP_PREFIX_LENGTH SHALL be zero for HMAC-SHA1.  For SRTP, smaller
   values are NOT RECOMMENDED but MAY be used after careful
   consideration of the issues discussed in Sections 7.5 and 9.5 of
   [RFC3711].

2.2.  Counter with CBC-MAC (CCM)

   CCM [RFC3610] is a generic authenticate-and-encrypt block cipher
   mode.  In this specification, CCM used with the SEED block cipher is
   denoted as SEED-CCM.

   Section 3.3 of [RFC3711] defines procedures to construct or to
   authenticate and decrypt SRTP packets.  For SEED-CCM, however, the
   sender performs Step 7 before Step 5 and the receiver performs the
   second half of Step 5 (verification) after Step 6.  This means that
   authentication is performed on the plaintext rather than the
   ciphertext.  This applies equally to SRTCP.

   All SRTP packets MUST be authenticated and encrypted.  Unlike SRTP,
   Secure Real-time Transport Control Protocol (SRTCP) packet encryption
   is optional (but authentication is mandatory).  A sender can select
   which packets to encrypt and indicates this choice with a 1-bit
   encryption flag (located in the leftmost bit of the 32-bit word that
   contains the SRTCP index).

   SEED-CCM has two parameters:

      M   M indicates the size of the authentication tag.  In SRTP, a
          full 80-bit authentication tag SHOULD be used and
          implementation of this specification MUST support M values of
          10 octets.

      L   L indicates the size of the length field in octets.  The
          number of octets in the nonce MUST be 12, i.e., L is 3.

   SEED-CCM has four inputs:

      Key

          A single key is used to calculate the authentication tag
          (using CBC-MAC) and to perform payload encryption using
          counter mode.  SEED only supports a key size of 128 bits.

      Nonce

          The size of the nonce depends on the value selected for the
          parameter L.  It is 15-L octets.  L equals 3, and hence the
          nonce size equals 12 octets.

      Plaintext

          In the case of SRTP, the payload of the RTP packet, the RTP
          padding, and the RTP pad count field (if the latter two fields
          are present) are treated as plaintext.

          In the case of SRTCP, when the encryption flag is set to 1,
          the Encrypted Portion described in Fig.2 of [RFC3711] is
          treated as plaintext.  When the encryption flag is set to 0,
          the plaintext is zero-length.

      Additional Authentication Data (AAD)

          In the case of SRTP, the header of the RTP packet, including
          the contributing source (CSRC) identifier (if present) and the
          RTP header extension (if present), is considered AAD.

          In the case of SRTCP, when the encryption flag is set to 0,
          the Authentication Portion described in Fig.2 of [RFC3711] is
          treated as AAD.  When the encryption flag is set to 1, the
          first 8 octets, the encryption flag, and the SRTCP index are
          treated as AAD.

   SEED-CCM accepts these four inputs and returns a ciphertext field.

2.3.  Galois/Counter Mode (GCM)

   GCM is a block cipher mode of operation providing both
   confidentiality and data origin authentication [GCM].  GCM used with
   the SEED block cipher is denoted as SEED-GCM.

   SEED-GCM has four inputs: a key, a plaintext, a nonce, and the
   additional authenticated data (AAD), all described in Section 2.2.

   The bit length of the tag, denoted t, is 12, and an authentication
   tag with a length of 12 octets (96 bits) is used.

3.  Nonce Format for CCM and GCM

3.1.  Nonce for SRTP

   The nonce for SRTP SHALL be formed in the following way:

      Nonce = (16 bits of zeroes || SSRC || ROC || SEQ) XOR Salt

   The 4-octet SSRC and the 2-octet SEQ SHALL be taken from the RTP
   header.  The 4-octet ROC is from the cryptographic context.  The
   12-octet Salt SHALL be produced by the SRTP key derivation function.

3.2.  Nonce for SRTCP

   The nonce for SRTCP SHALL be formed in the following way:

      Nonce = (16 bits of zeroes || SSRC || 16 bits of zeroes ||
               SRTCP index) XOR Salt

   The 4-octet SSRC SHALL be taken from the RTCP header and the 31-bit
   SRTCP index (packed zero-filled and right-justified into a 4-octet
   field) is from each packet.  The 12-octet Salt SHALL be produced by
   the SRTP key derivation function.

4.  Key Derivation: SEED-CTR PRF

   Section 4.3.3 of [RFC3711] defines the AES-128 counter mode key
   derivation function, which it refers to as "AES-CM PRF".  The SEED-
   CTR PRF is defined in a similar manner, but with each invocation of
   AES replaced with an invocation of SEED.

   The currently defined PRF, keyed by the 128-bit master key, has input
   block size m = 128 and can produce n-bit outputs for n up to 2^23.
   SEED-PRF_n(k_master, x) SHALL be SEED in counter mode, as described
   in Section 2.1; it SHALL be applied to key k_master, have IV equal to
   (x*2^16), and have the output keystream truncated to the first n
   (leftmost) bits.

5.  Mandatory-to-Implement Transforms

   "Mandatory-to-implement" means conformance to this specification, and
   that Table 1 in this document does not supercede a similar table in
   Section 5 of [RFC3711].  An RTP implementation that supports SEED
   MUST implement the modes listed in Table 1 of this document.

                            mandatory-to-implement      optional

   encryption                     SEED-CTR          SEED-CCM,SEED-GCM
   message integrity              HMAC-SHA1         SEED-CCM,SEED-GCM
   key derivation (PRF)           SEED-CTR                  -

   Table 1: Mandatory-to-implement and optional transforms in SRTP and
   SRTCP

6.  Security Considerations

   No security problem has been found on SEED.  SEED is secure against
   all known attacks, including differential cryptanalysis, linear
   cryptanalysis, and related key attacks.  The best known attack is
   only an exhaustive search for the key.  For further security
   considerations, the reader is encouraged to read [SEED-EVAL].

   See [RFC3610] and [GCM] for security considerations regarding the CCM
   and GCM Modes of Operation, respectively.  In the context of SRTP,
   the procedures in [RFC3711] ensure the critical property of non-reuse
   of counter values.

7.  IANA Considerations

   [RFC4568] defines SRTP "crypto suites".  In order to allow the
   Session Description Protocol (SDP) to signal the use of the
   algorithms defined in this document, IANA has registered the
   following crypto suites into the subregistry for SRTP crypto suites
   under the Media Stream Transports of the SDP Security Descriptions:

         SEED_CTR_128_HMAC_SHA1_80
         SEED_128_CCM_80
         SEED_128_GCM_96

8.  Acknowledgements

   The authors would like to thank David McGrew, Eric Rescorla, Alexey
   Melnikov, Alfred Hoenes, Colin Perkins, Young-Chan Shin, the AVT WG
   (in particular, the chairmen Roni Even and Tom Taylor), and the Real-
   time Applications and Infrastructure Area Directors for their reviews
   and support.

9.  References

9.1.  Normative References

   [GCM]       Dworkin, M., "NIST Special Publication 800-38D:
               Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes of Operation:
               Galois/Counter Mode (GCM) and GMAC", U.S. National
               Institute of Standards and Technology,
               http://csrc.nist.gov/publications/nistpubs/800-38D/
               SP-800-38D.pdf

   [RFC2104]   Krawczyk, H., Bellare, M., and R. Canetti, "HMAC: Keyed-
               Hashing for Message Authentication", RFC 2104, February
               1997.

   [RFC2119]   Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
               Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3550]   Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V.
               Jacobson, "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time
               Applications", STD 64, RFC 3550, July 2003.

   [RFC3610]   Whiting, D., Housley, R., and N. Ferguson, "Counter with
               CBC-MAC (CCM)", RFC 3610, September 2003.

   [RFC3711]   Baugher, M., McGrew, D., Naslund, M., Carrara, E., and K.
               Norrman, "The Secure Real-time Transport Protocol
               (SRTP)", RFC 3711, March 2004.

   [RFC4269]   Lee, H., Lee, S., Yoon, J., Cheon, D., and J. Lee, "The
               SEED Encryption Algorithm", RFC 4269, December 2005.

   [RFC4568]   Andreasen, F., Baugher, M., and D. Wing, "Session
               Description Protocol (SDP) Security Descriptions for
               Media Streams", RFC 4568, July 2006.

   [TTASSEED]  Telecommunications Technology Association (TTA), South
               Korea, "128-bit Symmetric Block Cipher (SEED)",
               TTAS.KO-12.0004/R1, December 2005, (In Korean)
               http://www.tta.or.kr/English/index.jsp.

9.2.  Informative References

   [SEED-EVAL] KISA, "Self Evaluation Report",
               http://seed.kisa.or.kr/eng/main.jsp

Appendix A.  Test Vectors

   All values are in hexadecimal.

A.1.  SEED-CTR Test Vectors

   Session Key:               0c5ffd37a11edc42c325287fc0604f2e

   Rollover Counter:          00000000

   Sequence Number:           315e

   SSRC:                      20e8f5eb

   Authentication Key:        f93563311b354748c978913795530631

   Session Salt:              cd3a7c42c671e0067a2a2639b43a

   Initialization Vector:     cd3a7c42e69915ed7a2a263985640000

   RTP Payload:               f57af5fd4ae19562976ec57a5a7ad55a
                              5af5c5e5c5fdf5c55ad57a4a7272d572
                              62e9729566ed66e97ac54a4a5a7ad5e1
                              5ae5fdd5fd5ac5d56ae56ad5c572d54a
                              e54ac55a956afd6aed5a4ac562957a95
                              16991691d572fd14e97ae962ed7a9f4a
                              955af572e162f57a956666e17ae1f54a
                              95f566d54a66e16e4afd6a9f7ae1c5c5
                              5ae5d56afde916c5e94a6ec56695e14a
                              fde1148416e94ad57ac5146ed59d1cc5

   Encrypted RTP Payload:     df5a89291e7e383e9beff765e691a737
                              49c9e33139ad3001cd8da73ad07f69a2
                              805a70358b5c7c8c60ed359f95cf5e08
                              f713c53ff7b808250d79a19ccb8d1073
                              4e3cb72ed1f0a4e85b002b248049ab07
                              63dbe571bec52cf9153fdf2019e421ef
                              779cd6f4bd1c8211da8c272e2fce4393
                              4b9eabb87362510f254149f992599036
                              f5e43102327db1ac5e78adc4f66546ed
                              7abfb5a4db320fb7b9c52a61bc554e44

   Authentication Tag:        a5cdaa4d9edc53763855

A.2.  SEED-CCM Test Vectors

   Key:                       974bee725d44fc3992267b284c3c6750

   Rollover Counter:          00000000

   Sequence Number:           315e

   SSRC:                      20e8f5eb

   Nonce:                     000020e8f5eb00000000315e

   Payload:                   f57af5fd4ae19562976ec57a5a7ad55a
                              5af5c5e5c5fdf5c55ad57a4a7272d572
                              62e9729566ed66e97ac54a4a5a7ad5e1
                              5ae5fdd5fd5ac5d56ae56ad5c572d54a
                              e54ac55a956afd6aed5a4ac562957a95
                              16991691d572fd14e97ae962ed7a9f4a
                              955af572e162f57a956666e17ae1f54a
                              95f566d54a66e16e4afd6a9f7ae1c5c5
                              5ae5d56afde916c5e94a6ec56695e14a
                              fde1148416e94ad57ac5146ed59d1cc5

   AAD:                       8008315ebf2e6fe020e8f5eb

   Encrypted RTP Payload:     486843a881df215a8574650ddabf5dbb
                              2650f06f51252bccaeb4012899d6d71e
                              30c64dad5ead5d8ba65ffe9d79aaf30d
                              c9e6334490c07e7533d704114a9006ec
                              b3b3bff59ecf585485bc0bd286ed434c
                              fd684d19a1ad514ca5f37b71d93288c0
                              7cf4d5e9b83db8becc8c692a7279b6a9
                              ac62ba970fc54f46dcc926d434c0b5ad
                              8678fbf0e7a03037924dae342ef64fa6
                              5b8eaea260fecb477a57e3919c5dab82

   Authentication Tag:        b0a8274cf6a8bb6cc466

A.3.  SEED-GCM Test Vectors

   Key:                       e91e5e75da65554a48181f3846349562

   Rollover Counter:          00000000

   Sequence Number:           315e

   SSRC:                      20e8f5eb

   Nonce:                     000020e8f5eb00000000315e

   Payload:                   f57af5fd4ae19562976ec57a5a7ad55a
                              5af5c5e5c5fdf5c55ad57a4a7272d572
                              62e9729566ed66e97ac54a4a5a7ad5e1
                              5ae5fdd5fd5ac5d56ae56ad5c572d54a
                              e54ac55a956afd6aed5a4ac562957a95
                              16991691d572fd14e97ae962ed7a9f4a
                              955af572e162f57a956666e17ae1f54a
                              95f566d54a66e16e4afd6a9f7ae1c5c5
                              5ae5d56afde916c5e94a6ec56695e14a
                              fde1148416e94ad57ac5146ed59d1cc5

   AAD:                       8008315ebf2e6fe020e8f5eb

   Encrypted RTP Payload:     8a5363682c6b1bbf13c0b09cf747a551
                              2543cb2f129b8bd0e92dfadf735cda8f
                              88c4bbf90288f5e58d20c4f1bb0d5844
                              6ea009103ee57ba99cdeabaaa18d4a9a
                              05ddb46e7e5290a5a2284fe50b1f6fe9
                              ad3f1348c354181e85b24f1a552a1193
                              cf0e13eed5ab95ae854fb4f5b0edb2d3
                              ee5eb238c8f4bfb136b2eb6cd7876042
                              0680ce1879100014f140a15e07e70133
                              ed9cbb6d57b75d574acb0087eefbac99

   Authentication Tag:        36cd9ae602be3ee2cd8d5d9d

Authors' Addresses

   Seokung Yoon
   Korea Internet & Security Agency
   IT Venture Tower, Jungdaero 135
   Songpa-gu, Seoul, Korea 138-950
   EMail: seokung@kisa.or.kr

   Joongman Kim
   Korea Internet & Security Agency
   IT Venture Tower, Jungdaero 135
   Songpa-gu, Seoul, Korea 138-950
   EMail: seopo@kisa.or.kr

   Haeryong Park
   Korea Internet & Security Agency
   IT Venture Tower, Jungdaero 135
   Songpa-gu, Seoul, Korea 138-950
   EMail: hrpark@kisa.or.kr

   Hyuncheol Jeong
   Korea Internet & Security Agency
   IT Venture Tower, Jungdaero 135
   Songpa-gu, Seoul, Korea 138-950
   EMail: hcjung@kisa.or.kr

   Yoojae Won
   Korea Internet & Security Agency
   IT Venture Tower, Jungdaero 135
   Songpa-gu, Seoul, Korea 138-950
   EMail: yjwon@kisa.or.kr

 

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