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RFC 5636 - Traceable Anonymous Certificate


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Network Working Group                                            S. Park
Request for Comments: 5636                                       H. Park
Category: Experimental                                            Y. Won
                                                                  J. Lee
                                                                    KISA
                                                                 S. Kent
                                                        BBN Technologies
                                                             August 2009

                    Traceable Anonymous Certificate

Abstract

   This document defines a practical architecture and protocols for
   offering privacy for a user who requests and uses an X.509
   certificate containing a pseudonym, while still retaining the ability
   to map such a certificate to the real user who requested it.  The
   architecture is compatible with IETF certificate request formats such
   as PKCS10 (RFC 2986) and CMC (RFC 5272).  The architecture separates
   the authorities involved in issuing a certificate: one for verifying
   ownership of a private key (Blind Issuer) and the other for
   validating the contents of a certificate (Anonymity Issuer).  The end
   entity (EE) certificates issued under this model are called Traceable
   Anonymous Certificates (TACs).

Status of This Memo

   This memo defines an Experimental Protocol for the Internet
   community.  It does not specify an Internet standard of any kind.
   Discussion and suggestions for improvement are requested.
   Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as the
   document authors.  All rights reserved.

   This document is subject to BCP 78 and the IETF Trust's Legal
   Provisions Relating to IETF Documents in effect on the date of
   publication of this document (http://trustee.ietf.org/license-info).
   Please review these documents carefully, as they describe your rights
   and restrictions with respect to this document.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................2
      1.1. Conventions Used in This Document ..........................4
   2. General Overview ................................................4
   3. Requirements ....................................................5
   4. Traceable Anonymous Certificate Model ...........................6
   5. Issuing a TAC ...................................................7
      5.1. Steps in Issuing a TAC .....................................8
      5.2. Mapping a TAC to a User's Real Identity ...................15
      5.3. TAC Request Message Format Profile ........................17
           5.3.1. PKCS10 Profile .....................................17
           5.3.2. CMC Profile ........................................18
   6. Security Considerations ........................................19
   7. Acknowledgments ................................................21
   8. References .....................................................21
      8.1. Normative References ......................................21
      8.2. Informative References ....................................22
   Appendix A. Traceable Anonymous Certificate ASN.1 Modules .........24
   Appendix B. TAC Message Exchanges over Transport Layer Security ...26
      B.1. Message Exchanges between a User and the BI or the AI .....26
      B.2. Message Exchanges between the BI and the AI ...............27
      B.3. Message Exchanges between the Aggrieved Party and the AI
           or the BI .................................................27
   Appendix C. Cryptographic Message Syntax Profile for TAC Token ....28
      C.1. Signed-Data Content Type ..................................28
           C.1.1. encapContentInfo ...................................29
           C.1.2. signerInfos ........................................29

1.  Introduction

   Public Key Infrastructure (PKI) provides a powerful means of
   authenticating individuals, organizations, and computers (e.g., web
   servers).  However, when individuals use certificates to access
   resources on the public Internet, there are legitimate concerns about
   personal privacy, and thus there are increasing demands for privacy-
   enhancing techniques on the Internet.

   In a PKI, an authorized entity such as a Certification Authority (CA)
   or a Registration Authority (RA) may be perceived, from a privacy
   perspective, as a "big brother", even when a CA issues a certificate
   containing a Subject name that is a pseudonym.  This is because such
   entities can always map a pseudonym in a certificate they issued to
   the name of the real user to whom it was issued.  This document
   defines a practical architecture and protocols for offering privacy
   for a user who requests and uses an X.509 certificate containing a
   pseudonym, while still retaining the ability to map such a
   certificate to the real user who requested it.

   A PKI typically serves to identify the holder of a private key (to
   the corresponding public key in a certificate), in a standard
   fashion.  The public key, identity, and related information are
   signed by an entity acting as a CA as specified in X.509 [11] and as
   profiled for use in the Internet [2].  During the past decade, PKIs
   have been widely deployed to support various types of communications
   and transactions over the Internet.

   However, with regard to privacy on the Internet, a PKI is generally
   not supportive of privacy, at least in part because of the following
   issues:

   -  A certificate typically contains in the Subject field the true
      identity of the user to whom it was issued.  This identity is
      disclosed to a relying party (e.g., a web site or the recipient of
      an S/MIME message [18]) whenever the certificate holder presents
      it in a security protocol that requires a user to present a
      certificate.  In some protocols, e.g., TLS, a user's certificate
      is sent via an unencrypted channel prior to establishing a secure
      communication capability.

   -  A certificate often is published by the CA, for example, in a
      directory system that may be widely accessible.

   -  An anonymous (end entity) certificate [9] is one that indicates
      that the holder's true identity is not represented in the subject
      field.  (Such a certificate might more accurately be called
      "pseudonymous" since an X.509 certificate must contain an
      identifier to comply with PKI format standards, and a CA must not
      issue multiple certificates with the same Subject name to
      different entities.  However, we use the more common term
      "anonymous" throughout this document to refer to such
      certificates.)  Issuance of anonymous certificates could enhance
      user privacy.

   There is however, a need to balance privacy and accountability when
   issuing anonymous certificates.  If a CA/RA is unable to map an
   anonymous certificate to the real user to whom it was issued, the
   user might abuse the anonymity afforded by the certificate because
   there would be no recourse for relying parties.

   A CA or RA generally would be able to map an anonymous certificate to
   the user to whom it was issued, to avoid such problems.  To do so,
   the CA/RA would initially identify the user and maintain a database
   that relates the user's true identity to the pseudonym carried in the
   certificate's Subject field.

   In a traditional PKI, there is a nominal separation of functions
   between a RA and a CA, but in practice these roles are often closely
   coordinated.  Thus, either the RA or CA could, in principle,
   unilaterally map an autonomous certificate to the real user identity.

   The architecture, syntax, and protocol conventions described in this
   document allow anonymous certificates to be issued and used in
   existing PKIs in a way that provides a balance between privacy and a
   conditional ability to map an anonymous certificate to the individual
   to whom it was issued.

   An anonymous certificate (Traceable Anonymous Certificate) in this
   document is issued by a pair of entities that operate in a split
   responsibility mode: a Blind Issuer (BI) and an Anonymity Issuer
   (AI).  The conditional traceability offered by this model assumes
   strong separation between the RA and CA roles, and employs technical
   means (threshold cryptography and "blinded" signatures), to
   facilitate that separation.  (A blinded signature is one in which the
   value being signed is not made visible to the signer, via
   cryptographic means.  Additional details are provided later.)

   The AI has knowledge of the certificate issued to the user, but no
   knowledge of the user's real identity.  The BI knows the user's real
   identity, but has no knowledge of the certificate issued to that
   user.  Only if the AI and BI collaborate can they map the TAC issued
   to a user to the real identity of that user.

1.1.  Conventions Used in This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [1].

2.  General Overview

   This section defines the notion of a Traceable Anonymous Certificate
   (referred to as TAC or anonymous certificate in this document).  It
   is distinguished from a conventional pseudonymous certificate [8, 9]
   in that a TAC containing a pseudonym in the Subject field will be
   conditionally traceable (as defined that it is not trivial to design
   a system that issues anonymous certificates, consistent with Internet
   PKI standards, when additional constraints are imposed, as
   illustrated by the following scenarios.

   -  If a CA issues an anonymous certificate without verifying a true
      identity, it is untraceable, which provides inadequate recourse if
      the user to whom the certificate was issued abuses the anonymity
      it provides.  (Even without the ability to trace an anonymous

      certificate to the corresponding user, the certificate can always
      be revoked, but this may not be a sufficient response to abuse.)

   -  If a CA issues an anonymous certificate but verifies the real
      identity and maintains a record of that identity, the CA can link
      the pseudonym in the Subject field to the real identity, hence a
      potential "big brother" problem [12].

   -  If the CA issues a certificate with a certificate containing a
      user-selected Subject name, and does not verify the user's
      identity, the certificate is effectively untraceable.

   -  If the CA issues an anonymous certificate using a blind signature
      (see below), the CA cannot verify the contents of the certificate,
      making the certificate untraceable and essentially forgeable.  (If
      a CA signs a certificate without examining its content, even after
      verifying a user's identity, certificates issued by the CA are
      essentially forgeable.)

   To address the issues described above, we extend the simple
   separation-of-authority concept already defined in the RA/CA PKI
   model.  First we restate the requirements in a more precise and
   concise fashion, and introduce a basic model for achieving the goals
   from a more general perspective [16].

3.  Requirements

   This document describes a new separation-of-authority model and
   protocols for certificate issuance in a way that enables issuing
   Traceable Anonymous Certificates, while maintaining compatibility
   with the standards used in existing PKIs.  To do this, the following
   requirements must be satisfied.

   -  The Traceable Anonymous Certificate MUST be a syntactically valid
      X.509 certificate in which the Subject field contains a pseudonym.

   -  There must be technical means to counter a claim by a malicious
      user who later denies having participated in the activities that
      resulted in issuing a TAC.  Specifically, when a user is
      identified and requests issuance of a TAC, the mechanisms employed
      MUST ensure that the user to whom the TAC is issued is the one who
      requested the TAC (unless that user transfers the private key to
      another party, unknown to the RA/CA).

   -  The traceability and revocation functions MUST support the linkage
      between a user's true identity and the pseudonym in a certificate
      issued to the user.  Thus, the solution MUST enable determining a
      true identity from the anonymous certificate, upon agreement among
      the authorities who collaborated to issue the certificate.

4.  Traceable Anonymous Certificate Model

   A TAC is an end entity (EE) certificate issued by a pair of entities
   that operate in a split responsibility mode: a Blind Issuer (BI) and
   an Anonymity Issuer (AI).  The pair appear as a single CA to the
   outside world, e.g., they are represented by a single CA certificate.
   The public key in the CA certificate is used to verify certificates
   issued by this CA in the normal fashion, i.e., a relying party
   processes a TAC just like any other EE certificates.

   In this model, the BI acts as a RA.  It interacts with a user to
   verify the user's "real" identity, just like a normal RA.  The BI
   maintains a database that can be used to map a TAC to the user to
   whom it was issued, but only with the cooperation of the AI.

   This mapping will be initiated only if there is evidence that the
   user to whom the TAC was issued has abused the anonymity provided by
   the TAC.

   The AI acts as a CA.  It validates a certificate request submitted by
   the user, using a standard certificate request format such as PKCS10.
   The AI performs the functions common to a CA, including a private-key
   proof-of-possession (PoP) check, a name uniqueness check among all
   certificates issued by it, assignment of a serial number, etc.  To
   effect issuance of the TAC, the AI interacts with the BI, over a
   secure channel, to jointly create the signature on the TAC, and sends
   the signed TAC to the user.

   The AI does this without learning the user's real identity (either
   from the user or from the BI).

   The result of this split functionality between the BI and the AI is
   that neither can unilaterally act to reveal the real user identity.
   The AI has knowledge of the certificate issued to the user, but no
   knowledge of the user's real identity.  The BI knows the user's real
   identity, but has no knowledge of the certificate issued to that
   user.  Only if the AI and BI collaborate can they map the TAC issued
   to a user to the real identity of that user.

   This system is not perfect.  For example, it assumes that the AI and
   BI collaborate to reveal a user's real identity only under
   appropriate circumstances.  The details of the procedural security

   means by which this assurance is achieved are outside the scope of
   this document.  Nonetheless, there are security benefits to adopting
   this model described in this document, based on the technical
   approach used to enable separation of the BI and AI functions.

   For example, the BI and AI can be operated by different organizations
   in geographically separate facilities, and managed by different
   staff.  As a result, one can have higher confidence in the anonymity
   offered to a user by the system, as opposed to a monolithic CA
   operating model that relies only on procedural security controls to
   ensure anonymity.

5.  Issuing a TAC

   The follow subsections describe the procedures and the protocols
   employed to issue a TAC.  To begin, BI and AI collaborate to generate
   a public key pair (that represents the CA as seen by relying parties)
   using a threshold signature scheme.  Such schemes have been defined
   for RSA.  The details of how this is accomplished depend on the
   algorithm in question, and thus are not described here.  The reader
   is referred to [15] where procedures for implementing RSA threshold
   signatures are described.  A DSA-based threshold signature scheme
   will be incorporated into a future version of TAC [14].

   Note that this split signing model for certificate issuance is an
   especially simple case of a threshold signature; the private key used
   to sign a TAC is divided into exactly two shares, one held by the BI
   and one held by the AI.  Both shares must be used, serially, to
   create a signature on a TAC.  After the key pair for the (nominal) CA
   has been generated and the private key split between the BI and the
   AI, the public key is published, e.g., in a self-signed certificate
   that represents the TAC CA.

   Another public-key cryptographic function that is an essential part
   of this system is called "blind signing".  To create a blind
   signature, one party encrypts a value to be signed, e.g., a hash
   value of a certificate, and passes it to the signer.  The signer
   digitally signs the encrypted value, and returns it to the first
   party.  The first party inverts the encryption it applied with the
   random value in the first place, to yield a signature on the
   underlying data, e.g., a hash value.

   This technique enables the signer to digitally sign a message,
   without seeing the content of the message.  This is the simplest
   approach to blind signing; it requires that the public key needed to
   invert the encryption not be available to the blind signer.  Other
   blind signing techniques avoid the need for this restriction, but are
   more complex.

   The tricky part of a cryptographic blinding function is that is must
   be associative and commutative, with regard to a public-key signature
   function.  Let B be a blinding function, B-INV is its inverse, and S
   is a public-key signature.  The following relationship must hold:
   B-INV( S (B (X) ) ) = B-INV( B( S (X) ) ) = S (X).  RSA can be used
   to blind a value with random value and to sign a blinded value
   because the modular exponentiation operation used by RSA for both
   signature and for encryption is associative and commutative.

   The TAC issuance process described below requires an ability for the
   BI, the AI, and the user to employ secure communication channels
   between one another.

   Use of TLS [17] is one suitable means to establish such channels,
   although other options also are acceptable.  To this end, this
   document assumes TLS as the default secure communication channel, and
   thus requires that the BI and the AI have X.509 certificates that
   represent them.

   These certificates are independent of the certificate that represents
   the CA (formed by the BI and the AI) and may be either self-signed or
   issued by other CA(s).

   Appendix B provides a top-level description of the application of TLS
   to these message exchanges.

5.1.  Steps in Issuing a TAC

   Figure 1 depicts the procedures for issuing a TAC.  The lines
   represent steps in the issuance process, and the numbers refer to
   these steps.

                                     1     +---------------+
                                +<-------->|    Blind      |
                                |    2     |    Issuer (BI)|
                                |          +---------------+
         +-------+              |                   ^
         | user  |<------------>|                 4 | 5
         +-------+              |                   v
                                |    3     +----------------+
                                +--------->|                |
                                |          |    Anonymity   |
                                |          |   Issuer (AI)  |
                                +<-------- |                |
                                     6     +----------------+

                    Figure 1.  TAC Issuance Procedures

   Step 1:

      A user authenticates himself to the BI.  This may be effected via
      an in-person meeting or electronically.  The same sorts of
      procedures that RAs use for normal certificate issuance are used
      here.  Such procedures are not standardized, and thus they are not
      described here in detail.  For purposes of the TAC architecture,
      we require the BI to establish a record in a database for the user
      and to generate a (locally) unique identifier, called the UserKey,
      that will serve as a (database) key for the record.  The UserKey
      value MUST NOT be generated in a fashion that permits any external
      entity (including the AI) to infer a user's real identity from its
      value.  (For example, if the user's name is used as an input to a
      one-way hash algorithm to generate the UserKey value, then
      additional random data must be used as an input to prevent simple
      guessing attacks.) Associated with the UserKey in this database is
      an expiration time.  The expiration time is used by the BI and AI
      to reject session-level replay attacks in some exchanges, and to
      enable the BI and AI to garbage-collect database records if a user
      initiates but does not complete the certificate request process.

      It is RECOMMENDED that the UserKey be a random or pseudo-random
      value.  Whenever the BI passes a UserKey to an external party, or
      accepts the UserKey from an external party (e.g., the AI), the
      value is embedded in a digitally signed CMS object called a Token,
      accompanied by the timestamp noted above.  The signature on a
      Token is generated by the BI.  (Note that the certificate used is
      just a certificate suitable for use with CMS, and is NOT the
      split-key certificate used to verify TAC.)

      The following ASN.1 syntax represents the UserKey and an
      expiration time:

         UserKey ::= OCTET STRING
         Timeout ::= GeneralizedTime

      In the context of this specification, the GeneralizedTime value
      MUST be expressed in Greenwich Mean Time (Zulu) and MUST include
      seconds (YYYYMMDDHHMMSSZ).

   Step 2:

      BI presents to the user a data structure called a Token.  The
      Token must be conveyed to the user via a secure channel, e.g., in
      person or via a secure communication channel.  The secure channel
      is required here to prevent a wiretapper from being able to

      acquire the Token.  For example, if the user establishes a one-way
      authenticated TLS session to the BI in Step 1, this session could
      be used to pass the Token back to the user.

      The Token serves two purposes.  During TAC issuance, the Token is
      used to verify that a request to the AI has been submitted by a
      user who is registered with the BI (and thus there is a record in
      the BI's database with the real identity of the user).  This is
      necessary to ensure that the TAC can later be traced to the user.
      If there is a request to reveal the real identity of a user, the
      AI will release the Token to the entity requesting that a TAC be
      traced, and that entity will pass the Token to the BI, to enable
      tracing the TAC.  If the BI does not perform its part of the
      certificate issuance procedure (in Step 6) before the Token
      expires, the BI can delete the Token from the database as a means
      of garbage collection.  The timeout value in a Token is selected
      by the BI.

      The Token is a ContentInfo with a contentType of id-kisa-tac-token
      and a content that holds a SignedData of CMS SignedData object
      [6], signed by the BI, where the eContent
      (EncapsulatedContentInfo) is a SEQUENCE consisting of the UserKey
      and Timeout, and eContentType MUST be id-data.

      EncapsulatedContentInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
         eContentType ContentType, -- OBJECT IDENTIFIER : id-data
         eContent [0] EXPLICIT OCTET STRING OPTIONAL }
      -- DER encoded with the input of 'SEQUENCE of the UserKey and
      -- Timeout'

      id-data OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840)
      rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs7(7) 1 }

      The signature (SignatureValue of SignerInfo) is generated using
      the BI's private signature key, corresponding to the public key
      present in the BI's certificate.  (Note that this certificate is
      just a certificate suitable for use with TLS, and is NOT the
      split-key certificate used to verify a TAC.)  The certificate (or
      certificates) MUST be present.  Appendix A provides the ASN.1
      syntax for the Token, as a profiled CMS ContentInfo object.
      Appendix C provides the CMS SignedData object profile for wrapping
      the Token.

         Token ::= ContentInfo

      Upon receipt of the Token, the user SHOULD verify the signature
      using the BI public key and note the Timeout value to ensure that
      the certificate request process is completed prior to that time.

   Step 3:

      The user prepares a certificate request in a standard format,
      e.g., PKCS10 [3] or CMC [4].  The Subject field of the certificate
      contains a pseudonym generated by the user.  It is anticipated
      that the CA (BI + AI) may provide software for users to employ in
      constructing certificate requests.

      If so, then this software can generate a candidate Subject name to
      minimize the likelihood of a collision.  If the user selects a
      candidate pseudonym without such support, the likelihood of a
      subject name collision probably will be greater, increasing the
      likelihood that the certificate request will be rejected or that
      the AI will have to generate a pseudonym for the user.

      After constructing the certificate request, the user sends it,
      along with the Token from Step 2, to the AI, via a secure channel.
      This channel MUST be encrypted and one-way authenticated, i.e.,
      the user MUST be able to verify that it is communicating with the
      AI, but the AI MUST NOT be able to verify the real identity of the
      user.  Typical use of TLS for secure web site access satisfies
      this requirement.  The certificate request of PKCS10 [3] or CMC
      [4] carries the Token from Step 2.

      The Token is carried as an attribute in a certificate request
      (CertificationRequestInfo.attributes) where the attrType MUST be
      id-kisa-tac below in PKCS10 format.  The Token is set to
      attrValues (Certificate Request Controls) where the attrType MUST
      be id-kisa-tac in CMC [4] format.  The TAC request message profile
      is described in the section 5.3.

   Step 4:

      The AI, upon receipt of the certificate request containing a
      Token, verifies that the request is consistent with the processing
      defined for the request format (PKCS10).  If a Subject name is
      present, it verifies that the proposed pseudonym is unique.  The
      AI also verifies the signature on the Token and, if it is valid,
      checks the Timeout value to reject a replay attack based on a
      "timed-out" Token.

      A Token with an old Timeout value is rejected out-of-hand by the
      AI.  (After a Token's Timeout time is reached, the AI deletes the
      Token from its cache.) Next, the AI compares the received Token
      against a cache of recent (i.e., not "timed out"), validated
      Tokens.  The AI matches the resubmitted request to the original
      request, and responds accordingly.  For example, if a duplicate is
      detected, the certificate request can be rejected as a replay.

      If the Subject field contains a Subject name already issued by the
      AI, the AI MUST either reject the certificate request, or
      substitute a pseudonym it generates, depending on the policy of
      the TAC CA.  If the certificate request is acceptable, the AI
      assigns a serial number and constructs a tbsCertificate (i.e., the
      final form of the certificate payload, ready to be signed).

      The AI then computes a hash over this data structure and blinds
      the hash value.  (The AI blinds the hash value using a key from a
      public-key encryption pair where neither key is ever made public.
      The other key from this pair is used by the AI in Step 6 to "un-
      blind" the signed hash value.)

      The AI sends the CMS ContentInfo object of TokenandBlindHash to
      the BI, via a two-way authenticated and encrypted channel.  The
      two-way authentication and encryption is required to ensure that
      the AI is sending these values to the BI, to allow the BI to
      verify that the values were transmitted by the AI, and to prevent
      a wiretapper from acquiring the Token.  A TLS session in which
      both parties employ certificates to authenticate one another is
      the RECOMMENDED way to achieve this communication.

      The TokenandBlindHash is a CMS ContentInfo with a contentType of
      id-kisa-tac-tokenandblindhash and a content that holds a
      SignedData of CMS SignedData object [6], signed by the AI, where
      the eContent (EncapsulatedContentInfo) is a SEQUENCE consisting of
      the Token and BlindedCertificateHash, and eContentType MUST be
      id-data.

      EncapsulatedContentInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
         eContentType ContentType, -- OBJECT IDENTIFIER : id-data
         eContent [0] EXPLICIT OCTET STRING OPTIONAL }
      -- DER encoded with the input of 'SEQUENCE of the Token and
      -- BlindedCertificateHash'

      The signature (SignatureValue of SignerInfo) is generated using
      the AI's private signature key, corresponding to the public key
      present in the AI's certificate.  (Note that this certificate is
      just a certificate suitable for use with TLS, and is NOT the
      split-key certificate used to issue a TAC.)  The certificate (or
      certificates) MUST be present.

      The following ASN.1 syntax represents the Token and
      BlindedCertificateHash:

         Token ::= ContentInfo
         BlinedCertificateHash ::= OCTET STRING

      Token is the value of ContentInfo in the certificate request
      message (CertificationRequestInfo.attributes) from Step 3.

      BlindedCertificateHash is the blinded hash value for the
      tbsCertificate.

      Appendix A provides the ASN.1 syntax for the Token, as a profiled
      CMS ContentInfo object.  Appendix C provides the CMS SignedData
      object profile for wrapping the Token.

         TokenandBlindHash ::= ContentInfo

   Step 5:

      The BI receives the Token and blinded certificate hash via the
      secure channel described above.  First the BI verifies the
      signature on the TokenandBlindHash generated by AI and then
      verifies the signature on the Token to ensure that it is a
      legitimate Token generated by the BI.  Next, the BI checks its
      database to ensure that the UserKey value from the Token is
      present and that the Token has not been used to authorize issuance
      of a certificate previously.

      This check is performed to ensure that the BI has authenticated
      the user and entered the user's real identity into the BI's
      database.  Each Token authorizes issuance of only one certificate,
      so the check also ensures that the same Token has not been used to
      authorize issuance of more than one certificate.  These checks
      ensure that the certificate issued by the AI to this user will be
      traceable, if needed.

      The BI uses its share of the threshold private signature key to
      sign the blinded certificate hash and returns the CMS SignedData
      back to the AI.  The eContent of the SignedData is a SEQUENCE
      consisting of the Token and PartiallySignedCertificateHash.

      The following ASN.1 syntax represents the Token and
      PartiallySignedCertificateHash:

         Token ::= ContentInfo
         PartiallySignedCertificateHash ::= OCTET STRING

      Token is the token value of the TokenandBlindHash (where the
      eContent is a SEQUENCE consisting of the Token and
      PartiallySignedCertificateHash) from Step 4.

      PartiallySignedCertificateHash is the signature value generated by
      BI's share of the threshold private signature key on
      BlindedCertificateHash from Step 4.

      The TokenandPartiallySignedCertificateHash is a CMS ContentInfo
      with a contentType of id-kisa-tac-tokenandpartially and a content
      that holds a SignedData of CMS SignedData object [6], signed by
      the BI, where the eContent (EncapsulatedContentInfo) is a SEQUENCE
      consisting of the Token and PartiallySignedCertificateHash, and
      eContentType MUST be id-data.

      EncapsulatedContentInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
         eContentType ContentType, -- OBJECT IDENTIFIER : id-data
         eContent [0] EXPLICIT OCTET STRING OPTIONAL }
      -- DER encoded with the input of 'SEQUENCE of the Token and
      -- PartiallySignedCertificateHash'

      The signature (SignatureValue of SignerInfo) is generated using
      the BI's private signature key, corresponding to the public key
      present in the BI's certificate.  (Note that this certificate is
      just a certificate suitable for use with TLS, and is NOT the
      split-key certificate used to issue a TAC.) The certificate (or
      certificates) MUST be present.  Appendix A provides the ASN.1
      syntax for the Token, as a profiled CMS SignedData object.
      Appendix C provides the CMS SignedData object profile for wrapping
      the Token.

         TokenandPartiallySignedCertificateHash ::= ContentInfo

   Step 6:

      Upon receipt of the TokenandPartiallySignedCertificateHash, the AI
      verifies the signature on the PartiallySignedCertificateHash,
      generated by BI and then matches the Token against its list of
      outstanding requests to the BI.  The AI then "un-blinds" the
      blindHashValue, using the other key from the key pair employed in
      Step 4.  This reveals the partially signed certificate hash.  The
      AI then applies its part of the split private key to complete the
      signature of the certificate for the user.

      It records the certificate and the Token value in its database, to
      enable later tracing of the certificate to the real user identity,
      if needed.  The AI transmits the completed certificate to the
      user, via the response message from the request protocol employed
      by the user in Step 3, PKCS10.

      The user may now employ the certificate with any PKI-enabled
      application or protocol that makes use of X.509 certificates
      (consistent with the key usage, and Extended Key Usage (EKU)
      values in the certificate).  Note that the user should be prepared
      to accommodate delays in the certificate issuance process.  For
      example, a connection between the user and the AI might fail
      sometime after the user submits a certificate request at the end
      of Step 3 and before the AI returns the certificate at the end of
      Step 6.  If this happens, the user should resubmit the request.
      The AI and BI retain sufficient state to be able to match the
      resubmitted request to the original request, and respond
      accordingly.  If the process failed in steps 5 or 6, the AI
      returns an error indication to the user.

5.2.  Mapping a TAC to a User's Real Identity

   If a user to whom a TAC has been issued abuses the anonymity provided
   by the TAC, the TAC can be traced to the identity of that user.
   Mapping a TAC to a user's real identity is a four-step process,
   described below and illustrated in Figure 2.

                                     C    +---------------+
                               +<-------->|    Blind      |
                               |     D    |    Issuer (BI)|
                               |          +---------------+
        +---------+            |
        | Relying |<---------->|
        | Party   |            |
        +---------+            |
                               |    A     +----------------+
                               +<-------->|    Anonymity   |
                                    B     |   Issuer (AI)  |
                                          +----------------+

              Figure 2.  Revealing a TAC User's Real Identity

   Step A:

      The AI verifies the assertion by an aggrieved party that a TAC
      user has abused the anonymity provided by his TAC.  The procedures
      used by AI to verify that such abuse has occurred are outside the
      scope of this document.  No protocol is defined here for the
      interaction between the aggrieved party and AI.  The only
      technical requirement is that the TAC of the offending user be
      provided to the AI.  If the AI determines that there is sufficient
      evidence of abuse to trace the TAC to the user, the AI revokes the
      TAC, by listing its serial number on the next Certificate
      Revocation List (CRL) issued by the AI.

      An AI unilaterally manages the CRL for a TAC.  Because RFC 5280
      implementations are not required to process indirect CRLs, we
      create a second certificate for the CA, under the TAC CA.  Revoked
      EE certificates issued by the TAC CA are recorded on this CRL and
      validated using this second CA certificate.

      This CA certificate will have the cRLSign bit set in the KeyUsage
      extension, but not the keyCertSign bit.  The private key for this
      certificate will be held by the AI, so that it can issue CRLs
      unilaterally.

      The Subject DN (Distinguished Name) will be the same in both CA
      certificates, which reinforces the notion that the CRL issuer is
      the same entity as the TAC issuer, and that this CRL is not an
      indirect CRL.  Because the CRL issuer does not issue any
      certificates itself, there is no possible serial number conflict.
      This will be the only CA certificate issued under the TAC CA
      certificate (and thus it will be signed jointly by the BI and AI).
      We recommend that the CRL for this CA certificate be similarly
      long-lived, as it too needs to be signed by the BI and AI.  Each
      EE TAC certificate MUST contain a CRL Distribution Point that
      points to the CRL issued by this CA, to ensure that relying
      parties know to check this CRL vs. the CRL that covers only the
      CRL CA.  (If the AI uses the Online Certificate Status Protocol
      (OCSP) [13] to convey the revocation status of TACs, an equivalent
      procedure is employed.) If it is later determined that the
      revocation was not warranted, a new TAC can be issued, to preserve
      the anonymity of the user in future transactions.

   Step B:

      The AI searches its database, e.g., based on the serial number in
      the TAC, to locate the Token that was passed between the AI and BI
      during the issuance process (Steps 5 and 6 above).  The AI passes
      this Token to the aggrieved party via an encrypted and two-way
      authenticated channel.  Encryption is required to prevent
      disclosure of the Token, and two-way authentication is required to
      ensure that the aggrieved party and the AI know that they are
      communicating with each other.  Two-way authenticated TLS is the
      RECOMMENDED means of implementing this channel, though other
      approaches are allowed.

   Steps C and D:

      The aggrieved party transits the Token to the BI, via an encrypted
      and two-way authenticated channel.  The channel MUST be encrypted
      to prevent disclosure of the Token, and two-way authentication is
      required to ensure that the aggrieved party and the BI know that

      they are communicating with each other.  If specified by the
      Certificate Policy (CP) for the TAC CA, the BI will independently
      determine that there is sufficient evidence of abuse to trace the
      TAC to the user, before proceeding.  The BI verifies its signature
      on the Token, to verify that this is a Token generated by it and
      presumably released to the aggrieved party by the AI.  Next, the
      BI searches its database using the UserKey value extracted from
      the Token.  The BI retrieves the user's real identity and provides
      it to the aggrieved party.  (By requiring the aggrieved party to
      interact with both the AI and the BI, the BI can verify that it is
      dealing with an aggrieved party, not with the AI acting
      unilaterally.)

5.3.  TAC Request Message Format Profile

   TAC request MAY use either PKCS10 or CMC.  An AI MUST support PKCS10
   and MAY support CMC.

5.3.1.  PKCS10 Profile

   This profile refines the specification in PKCS10 [3], as it relates
   to TAC.  A Certificate Request Message object, formatted according to
   PKCS10, is passed to the AI.

   This profile applies the following additional constraints to fields
   that may appear in a CertificationRequestInfo:

      Version
         This field is mandatory and MUST have the value 0.

      Subject
         This field MUST be present.  If the value of this field is
         empty, the AI will generate a subject name that is unique in
         the context of certificates issued by this issuer.  If the
         Subject field contains a Subject name already issued by the AI,
         the AI MUST either reject the certificate request, or
         substitute a pseudonym it generates, depending on the policy of
         the TAC CA.

      SubjectPublicKeyInfo
         This field specifies the subject's public key and the algorithm
         with which the key is used.

      Attributes
         PKCS10 [3] defines the attributes field as key-value pairs
         where the key is an OID and the value's structure depends on
         the key.  The attribute field MUST include the id-kisa-tac
         attribute, which holds the Token and is defined below.  The

         Attributes field MAY also contain X509v3 Certificate Extensions
         and any PKCS9 [7] extensionRequest attributes that the
         subscriber would like to have included in the certificate.  The
         profile for extensions in certificate requests is specified in
         RFC 5280 [2].

5.3.2.  CMC Profile

   This profile refines the Certificate Request messages in Certificate
   Management over CMS in CMC [4], as they relate to TACs.

   A Certificate Request message, formatted according to CMC [4], is
   passed to the AI.

   With the exception of the public-key-related fields, the CA is
   permitted to alter any requested field when issuing a corresponding
   certificate.

   This profile recommends the full PKI Request of the two types of PKI
   requests (Simple or Full PKI Request), and the PKI Request SHOULD be
   encapsulated in SignedData with an eContentType of id-cct-PKIData.

   This profile applies the following additional constraints to fields
   that may appear in a Certificate Request Template of Certificate
   Request Message Format (CRMF) [5]:

      Version
         This field MAY be absent, or MAY specify the request of a
         Version 3 Certificate.  It SHOULD be omitted.

      SerialNumber
         As per CRMF [5], this field is assigned by the CA and MUST be
         omitted in this profile.

      SigningAlgorithm
         As per CRMF [5], this field is assigned by the CA and MUST be
         omitted in this profile.

      Issuer
         This field is assigned by the CA and MUST be omitted in this
         profile.

      Validity
         This field MAY be omitted.  If omitted, the AI will issue a
         Certificate with Validity dates as determined by the TAC CA
         policy.  If specified, then the CA MAY override the requested
         values with dates as determined by the TAC CA policy.

      Subject
         This field MUST be present.  If the value of this field is
         empty, the AI MUST generate a subject name that is unique in
         the context of certificates issued by this issuer.  If the
         Subject field contains a Subject name already issued by the AI,
         the AI MUST either reject the certificate request, or
         substitute a pseudonym it generates, depending on the policy of
         the TAC CA.

      PublicKey
         This field MUST be present.

   This profile also refines constraints that may appear in a
   Certificate Request controls: The Token is set to attrValues (in
   CertRequest.controls) where the attrType MUST be id-kisa-tac.

   See Section 5.3.1, "PKCS10 Profile", for the certification request
   formats based on PKCS10.

6.  Security Considerations

   The anonymity provided by the architecture and protocols defined in
   this document is conditional.  Moreover, if the user employs the same
   TAC for multiple transactions (with the same or different parties),
   the transactions can be linked through the use of the same TAC.
   Thus, the anonymity guarantee is "weak" even though the user's real
   identity is still hidden.

   To achieve stronger anonymity, a user may acquire multiple TACs,
   through distinct iterations of the protocol.  Since each TAC is
   generated independently, it should not be possible for a relying
   party to discover a link between pseudonyms unless the tracing
   feature of this scheme is invoked.  If the TAC has a long validity
   interval, this increases the probability that the identity of a TAC
   user will be discovered, e.g., as a result of linking user
   transactions across multiple servers.  Thus, we recommend that each
   TAC CA consider carefully how long the validity for a TAC certificate
   should be.  In the course of issuing a TAC, the AI and the user
   interact directly.  Thus, the AI may have access to lower-layer
   information (e.g., an IP address) that might reveal the user's
   identity.  A user concerned about this sort of possible identity
   compromise should use appropriate measures to conceal such
   information, e.g., a network anonymity service such as Tor [10].

   This document makes no provisions for certificate renewal or rekey;
   we recommend TAC users acquire new TACs periodically, to further
   reduce the likelihood of linkage.  It also may be possible to
   determine the identity of a user via information carried by lower-

   level protocols, or by other, application-specific means.  For
   example, the IP address of the user might be used to identify him.
   For this reason, we recommend that a TAC be used primarily to access
   web services with anonymity.  Note that the TAC architecture
   described in this document is not capable of using certificates for
   use with S/MIME, because there is no provision to issue two
   certificates (one for encryption and one for signatures) that contain
   the same (anonymous) Subject name.  An analogous problem might arise
   if a user visits a site (and does not conceal his identity), the site
   deposits a "cookie" into the user's browser cache, and the user later
   visits a site and employs a TAC with the presumption of anonymity.

   The use of a TAC is a tool to help a user preserve anonymity, but it
   is not, per se, a guarantee of anonymity.  We recommend that each TAC
   CA issue certificates with only one lifetime, in order to avoid the
   complexity that might arise otherwise.  If a TAC CA offered
   certificates with different lifetimes, then it would need to
   communicate this information from the BI to AI in a way that does not
   unduly compromise the anonymity of the user.

   This architecture uses the UserKey to link a TAC to the corresponding
   real user identity.  The UserKey is generated in a fashion to ensure
   that it cannot be examined to determine a user's real identity.
   UserKey values are maintained in two distinct databases: the BI
   database maps a UserKey to a real user identity, and the AI database
   maps a TAC to a UserKey.  The UserKey is always carried in a signed
   data object, a Token.  The Token is signed to allow the BI to verify
   its authenticity, to prevent attacks based on guessing UserKey
   values.  The Token also carries a Timeout value to allow the AI and
   BI to reject session-level replay attacks, and to facilitate garbage
   collection of AI and BI databases.

   Threshold cryptography is employed to enable strong separation of the
   BI and AI functions, and to ensure that both must cooperate to issue
   certificates under the aegis of a TAC CA.  (The AI and BI must ensure
   that the threshold cryptographic scheme they employ does not provide
   an advantage to either party based on the way the key-splitting is
   effected.) Blind signatures are used with threshold cryptography to
   preserve the separation of functions, i.e., to prevent the BI from
   learning the hash value of the TAC issued by the AI.

   Message exchanges between a user and the BI or the AI, between the AI
   and BI, and between an aggrieved party and the AI and BI all make use
   of secure channels.  These channels are encrypted to prevent
   disclosure of the Token value and of the pseudonym in the TAC request
   and response and in a tracing request.  The channels are two-way
   authenticated to allow the AI and BI to verify their respective
   identities when communication with one another, and one-way

   authenticated to allow the user to verify their identities when he
   communicates with them.  Two-way authentication is employed for
   communication between an aggrieved party and the AI and BI, to allow
   all parties to verify the identity of one another.

   There is an opportunity for the AI to return the wrong UserKey to
   an aggrieved party, which will result in tracing a certificate to
    the wrong real user identity.  This appears to be unavoidable in
   any scheme of this sort, since the database maintained by the BI
   is intentionally ignorant of any info relating a UserKey to a TAC.

   A TAC CA MUST describe in its CP how long it will retain the data
   about certificates it issued, beyond the lifetime of these
   certificates.  This will help a prospective TAC subject gauge the
   likelihood of unauthorized use of his identity as a result of a
   compromise of this retained data.  It also alerts relying parties of
   the timeframe (after expiration of a certificate) in which an alleged
   abuse must be brought to the attention of the AI and BI, before the
   data linking a certificate to the real user identity is destroyed.

7.  Acknowledgments

   Tim Polk (NIST), Stefan Santesson (ACC-sec.com), Jim Schaad (Soaring
   Hawk), David A.  Cooper (NIST), SeokLae Lee, JongHyun Baek, SoonTae
   Park (KISA), Taekyoung Kwon (Sejong University), JungHee Cheon (Seoul
   National University), and YongDae Kim (Minnesota University) have
   significantly contributed to work on the concept of TAC and have
   identified security issues.  Their comments enhanced the maturity of
   the document.

8.  References

8.1.  Normative References

   [1]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [2]  Cooper, D., Santesson, S., Farrell, S., Boeyen, S., Housley, R.,
        and W. Polk, "Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure
        Certificate and Certificate Revocation List (CRL) Profile", RFC
        5280, May 2008.

   [3]  Nystrom, M. and B. Kaliski, "PKCS #10: Certification Request
        Syntax Specification Version 1.7", RFC 2986, November 2000.

   [4]  Schaad, J. and M. Myers, "Certificate Management over CMS
        (CMC)", RFC 5272, June 2008.

   [5]  Schaad, J., "Internet X.509 Public Key Infrastructure
        Certificate Request Message Format (CRMF)", RFC 4211, September
        2005.

   [6]  Housley, R., "Cryptographic Message Syntax (CMS)", RFC 3852,
        July 2004.

   [7]  Nystrom, M. and B. Kaliski, "PKCS #9: Selected Object Classes
        and Attribute Types Version 2.0", RFC 2985, November 2000.

8.2.  Informative References

   [8]  S. Brands, "Rethinking public key infrastructures and digital
        certificates - Building in Privacy", PhD thesis, Eindhoven
        Institute of Technology, Eindhoven, The Netherlands, 1999.

   [9]  D. Chaum, "Blind signature system", CRYPTO '83, Plenum Press,
        page 153, 1984.

   [10] "Tor: anonymity online", http://www.torproject.org.

   [11] X.509, "Information technology - Open Systems Interconnection -
        The Directory: Public-key and attribute certificate frameworks",
        ITU-T Recommendation X.509, March 2000.  Also available as
        ISO/IEC 9594-8, 2001.

   [12] S. Rafaeli, M. Rennhard, L. Mathy, B. Plattner, and D.
        Hutchison, "An Architecture for Pseudonymous e-Commerce",
        AISB'01 Symposium on Information Agents for Electronic Commerce,
        pp. 33-41, 2001.

   [13] Myers, M., Ankney, R., Malpani, A., Galperin, S., and C. Adams,
        "X.509 Internet Public Key Infrastructure Online Certificate
        Status Protocol - OCSP", RFC 2560, June 1999.

   [14] Philip MacKenzie and Michael K. Reiter, "Two-Party Generation of
        DSA Signature", Crypto 2001.

   [15] Shaohua Tang, "Simple Threshold RSA Signature Scheme Based on
        Simple Secret Sharing", in "Computational Intelligence and
        Security", CIS 2005, Part II, Springer, pp. 186-191, 2005.

   [16] Taekyoung Kwon, Jung Hee Cheon, Yongdae Kim, Jae-Il Lee,
        "Privacy Protection in PKIs: A Separation-of-Authority
        Approach", in "Information Security Applications", WISA 2006,
        Springer, pp. 297-311, 2007.

   [17] Dierks, T. and E. Rescorla, "The Transport Layer Security (TLS)
        Protocol Version 1.2", RFC 5246, August 2008.

   [18] Ramsdell, B., Ed., "Secure/Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions
        (S/MIME) Version 3.1 Certificate Handling", RFC 3850, July 2004.

Appendix A.  Traceable Anonymous Certificate ASN.1 Modules

DEFINITIONS IMPLICIT TAGS ::=

--
--   Copyright (c) 2009 IETF Trust and the persons identified as
--   authors of the code.  All rights reserved.
--
--   Redistribution and use in source and binary forms, with or
--   without modification, are permitted provided that the following
--   conditions are met:
--
--   - Redistributions of source code must retain the above
--     copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
--     disclaimer.
--
--   - Redistributions in binary form must reproduce the above
--     copyright notice, this list of conditions and the following
--     disclaimer in the documentation and/or other materials provided
--     with the distribution.
--
--   - Neither the name of Internet Society, IETF or IETF Trust, nor
--     the names of specific contributors, may be used to endorse or
--     promote products derived from this software without specific
--     prior written permission.
--
--
--
--   THIS SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED BY THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND
--   CONTRIBUTORS 'AS IS' AND ANY EXPRESS OR IMPLIED WARRANTIES,
--   INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
--   MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE ARE
--   DISCLAIMED.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE COPYRIGHT OWNER OR CONTRIBUTORS
--   BE LIABLE FOR ANY DIRECT, INDIRECT, INCIDENTAL, SPECIAL,
--   EXEMPLARY, OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES (INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED
--   TO, PROCUREMENT OF SUBSTITUTE GOODS OR SERVICES; LOSS OF USE,
--   DATA, OR PROFITS; OR BUSINESS INTERRUPTION) HOWEVER CAUSED AND ON
--   ANY THEORY OF LIABILITY, WHETHER IN CONTRACT, STRICT LIABILITY,
--   OR TORT (INCLUDING NEGLIGENCE OR OTHERWISE) ARISING IN ANY WAY
--   OUT OF THE USE OF THIS SOFTWARE, EVEN IF ADVISED OF THE
--   POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGE.
--
--   This version of the ASN.1 module is part of RFC 5636;
--   see the RFC itself for full legal notices.
--

BEGIN

   -- EXPORTS All
   -- The types and values defined in this module are exported for
   -- use in the other ASN.1 modules.  Other applications may use
   -- them for their own purposes.

   IMPORTS

   -- Imports from RFC 3280 [PROFILE], Appendix A.1
              AlgorithmIdentifier, Certificate, CertificateList,
              CertificateSerialNumber, Name FROM PKIX1Explicit88
                   { iso(1) identified-organization(3) dod(6)
                     internet(1) security(5) mechanisms(5) pkix(7)
                      mod(0) pkix1-explicit(18) }

   -- Imports from CMS
            ContentInfo, SignedData FROM
            CryptographicMessageSyntax2004{ iso(1)
            member-body(2) us(840) rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs-9(9)
            smime(16) modules(0) cms-2004(24)}

UserKey ::= OCTET STRING

Timeout ::= GeneralizedTime

BlinedCertificateHash ::= OCTET STRING

PartiallySignedCertificateHash ::= OCTET STRING

EncapsulatedContentInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
       eContentType ContentType, -- OBJECT IDENTIFIER : id-data
       eContent [0] EXPLICIT OCTET STRING OPTIONAL }

id-data OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { iso(1) member-body(2) us(840)
rsadsi(113549) pkcs(1) pkcs7(7) 1 }

Token ::= ContentInfo

TokenandBlindHash ::= ContentInfo

TokenandPartiallySignedCertificateHash ::= ContentInfo

id-KISA OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {iso(1) member-body(2) korea(410)
kisa(200004)}

id-npki OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {id-KISA 10}

id-attribute OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {id-npki 1}

id-kisa-tac OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= {id-attribute 1}

id-kisa-tac-token OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { id-kisa-tac 1}

id-kisa-tac-tokenandblindbash OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { id-kisa-tac 2}

id-kisa-tac-tokenandpartially OBJECT IDENTIFIER ::= { id-kisa-tac 3}

END

Appendix B.  TAC Message Exchanges over Transport Layer Security

   TAC message exchanges between a user and the BI or the AI, between
   the AI and BI, and between an aggrieved party and the AI and BI all
   make use of secure channels to prevent disclosure of the Token value
   and of the pseudonym in the TAC request and response and in a tracing
   request.  The Transport Layer Security Protocol v1.2 (TLS) [17] is a
   suitable security protocol to protect these message exchanges, and
   this document recommends use of TLS to protect these exchanges.  The
   following text describes how the handshake part of TLS should be
   employed to protect each type of exchange.  Note that no specific
   cipher suites are specified for use here; the choice of suites is up
   to the client and servers, as is commonly the case.

B.1.  Message Exchanges between a User and the BI or the AI

   The channels between a User and the BI or the AI are one-way
   authenticated to allow the user to verify their identities when he
   communicates with them.

               User                        BI or AI

            ClientHello     -------->

                                           ServerHello
                                           Certificate
                            <--------      ServerHelloDone
      ClientKeyExchange
      [ChangeCipherSpec]
                Finished    -------->
                                           [ChangeCipherSpec]
                            <---------        Finished
             TAC Message    <--------->     TAC Message

   Figure 3.  TAC Message exchanges between a User and the BI or the AI

B.2.  Message Exchanges between the BI and the AI

   The channels between the BI and the AI are two-way authenticated to
   allow the AI and BI to verify their respective identities when
   communication with one another.

                BI                            AI

            ClientHello     -------->
                                           ServerHello
             Certificate
      CertificateRequest
                            <--------      ServerHelloDone
      Certificate
      ClientKeyExchange
      CertificateVerify
      [ChangeCipherSpec]
                Finished        -------->
                                             [ChangeCipherSpec]
                               <---------        Finished
             TAC Message       <--------->     TAC Message

            Figure 4.  TAC Message exchanges between BI and AI

B.3.  Message Exchanges between the Aggrieved Party and the AI or the BI

   The channels between a User and the BI or the AI are two-way
   authenticated, to allow both parties to verify the identity of one
   another.

           User                        BI or AI

         ClientHello     -------->
                                        ServerHello
          Certificate
   CertificateRequest
                         <--------      ServerHelloDone
   Certificate
   ClientKeyExchange
   CertificateVerify
   [ChangeCipherSpec]
             Finished        -------->
                                          [ChangeCipherSpec]
                            <---------        Finished
          TAC Message       <--------->     TAC Message

     Figure 5.  TAC Message Exchanges between an Aggrieved Party and
                             the BI or the AI

Appendix C.  Cryptographic Message Syntax Profile for TAC Token

   Using the Cryptographic Message Syntax(CMS)[6], TAC Token is a type
   of signed-data object.  The general format of a CMS object is:

   ContentInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
              contentType ContentType,
              content [0] EXPLICIT ANY DEFINED BY contentType }

            ContentType ::= OBJECT IDENTIFIER

   As a TAC is a signed-data object, it uses the corresponding OID,
   1.2.840.113549.1.1.2.

C.1.  Signed-Data Content Type

   According to the CMS specification, the signed-data content type
   shall have ASN.1 type SignedData:

      SignedData ::= SEQUENCE {
              version CMSVersion,
              digestAlgorithms DigestAlgorithmIdentifiers,
              encapContentInfo EncapsulatedContentInfo,
              certificates [0] IMPLICIT CertificateSet OPTIONAL,
              crls [1] IMPLICIT RevocationInfoChoices OPTIONAL,
              signerInfos SignerInfos }

      DigestAlgorithmIdentifiers ::= SET OF DigestAlgorithmIdentifier

      SignerInfos ::= SET OF SignerInfo

   The elements of the signed-data content type are as follows:

      Version
         The version is the syntax version number.  It MUST be 3,
         corresponding to the signerInfo structure having version number
         3.

      digestAlgorithms
         This field specifies digest Algorithms.

      encapContentInfo
         This element is defined in Appendix C.1.1.

      certificates
         The certificates element MUST be included and MUST contain only
         the single PKI EE certificate needed to validate this CMS
         Object.  The CertificateSet type is defined in section 10 of
         RFC3852 [6].

      crls
         The crls element MUST be omitted.

      signerInfos
         This element is defined in Appendix C.1.2.

C.1.1.  encapContentInfo

   encapContentInfo is the signed content, consisting of a content type
   identifier and the content itself.

         EncapsulatedContentInfo ::= SEQUENCE{
             eContentType ContentType,
              eContent [0] EXPLICIT OCTET STRING OPTIONAL }

         ContentType ::= OBJECT IDENTIFIER

   The elements of this signed content type are as follows:

      eContentType
         The ContentType for an TAC Token is id-data and has the
         numerical value of 1.2.840.113549.1.7.1.

      eContent
         The content of a TAC Token is the DER-encoded SEQUENCE of
         UserKey and Timeout.

C.1.2.  signerInfos

   SignerInfo is defined under CMS as:

      SignerInfo ::= SEQUENCE {
           version CMSVersion,
           sid SignerIdentifier,
           digestAlgorithm DigestAlgorithmIdentifier,
           signedAttrs [0] IMPLICIT SignedAttributes OPTIONAL,
           signatureAlgorithm SignatureAlgorithmIdentifier,
           signature SignatureValue,
           unsignedAttrs [1] IMPLICIT UnsignedAttributes OPTIONAL }

   The contents of the SignerInfo element are as follows:

      Version
         The version number MUST be 3, corresponding with the choice of
         SubjectKeyIdentifier for the sid.

      sid
         The sid is defined as:

            SignerIdentifier ::= CHOICE {
            issuerAndSerialNumber IssuerAndSerialNumber,
            subjectKeyIdentifier [0] SubjectKeyIdentifier }

         For a TAC Token, the sid MUST be a SubjectKeyIdentifier.

      digestAlgorithm
         This field specifies digest Algorithms.

      signedAttrs
         The signedAttr element MUST be omitted.

      SignatureAlgorithm
         This field specifies the signature Algorithm.

      Signature
         The signature value is defined as:

            SignatureValue ::= OCTET STRING

         The signature characteristics are defined by the digest and
         signature algorithms.

      UnsignedAttrs
         unsignedAttrs MUST be omitted.

Authors' Addresses

   SangHwan Park
   Korea Internet & Security Agency
   78, Garak-Dong, Songpa-Gu, Seoul, Korea
   EMail: shpark@kisa.or.kr

   Haeryong Park
   Korea Internet & Security Agency
   78, Garak-Dong, Songpa-Gu, Seoul, Korea
   EMail: hrpark@kisa.or.kr

   YooJae Won
   Korea Internet & Security Agency
   78, Garak-Dong, Songpa-Gu, Seoul, Korea
   EMail: yjwon@kisa.or.kr

   JaeIl Lee
   Korea Internet & Security Agency
   78, Garak-Dong, Songpa-Gu, Seoul, Korea
   EMail: jilee@kisa.or.kr

   Stephen Kent
   BBN Technologies
   10 Moulton Street Cambridge, MA 02138
   EMail: kent@bbn.com

 

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