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RFC 4425 - RTP Payload Format for Video Codec 1 (VC-1)


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Network Working Group                                         A. Klemets
Request for Comments: 4425                                     Microsoft
Category: Standards Track                                  February 2006

              RTP Payload Format for Video Codec 1 (VC-1)

Status of This Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).

Abstract

   This memo specifies an RTP payload format for encapsulating Video
   Codec 1 (VC-1) compressed bit streams, as defined by the Society of
   Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) standard, SMPTE 421M.
   SMPTE is the main standardizing body in the motion imaging industry,
   and the SMPTE 421M standard defines a compressed video bit stream
   format and decoding process for television.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ....................................................2
      1.1. Conventions Used in This Document ..........................3
   2. Definitions and Abbreviations ...................................3
   3. Overview of VC-1 ................................................5
      3.1. VC-1 Bit Stream Layering Model .............................6
      3.2. Bit-stream Data Units in Advanced Profile ..................7
      3.3. Decoder Initialization Parameters ..........................7
      3.4. Ordering of Frames .........................................8
   4. Encapsulation of VC-1 Format Bit Streams in RTP .................9
      4.1. Access Units ...............................................9
      4.2. Fragmentation of VC-1 frames ..............................10
      4.3. Time Stamp Considerations .................................11
      4.4. Random Access Points ......................................13
      4.5. Removal of HRD Parameters .................................14
      4.6. Repeating the Sequence Layer Header .......................14
      4.7. Signaling of Media Type Parameters ........................15
      4.8. The "mode=1" Media Type Parameter .........................16
      4.9. The "mode=3" Media Type Parameter .........................16
   5. RTP Payload Format Syntax ......................................17
      5.1. RTP Header Usage ..........................................17
      5.2. AU Header Syntax ..........................................18
      5.3. AU Control Field Syntax ...................................19
   6. RTP Payload Format Parameters ..................................20
      6.1. Media type Registration ...................................20
      6.2. Mapping of media type parameters to SDP ...................28
      6.3. Usage with the SDP Offer/Answer Model .....................29
      6.4. Usage in Declarative Session Descriptions .................31
   7. Security Considerations ........................................32
   8. Congestion Control .............................................33
   9. IANA Considerations ............................................34
   10. References ....................................................34
      10.1. Normative References .....................................34
      10.2. Informative References ...................................35

1.  Introduction

   This memo specifies an RTP payload format for the video coding
   standard Video Codec 1, also known as VC-1.  The specification for
   the VC-1 bit stream format and decoding process is published by the
   Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers (SMPTE) as SMPTE
   421M [1].

   VC-1 has a broad applicability, as it is suitable for low bit rate
   Internet streaming applications to High Definition Television (HDTV)
   broadcast and Digital Cinema applications with nearly lossless
   coding.  The overall performance of VC-1 is such that bit rate

   savings of more than 50% are reported [9] when compared with MPEG-2.
   See [9] for further details about how VC-1 compares with other
   codecs, such as MPEG-4 and H.264/AVC.  (In [9], VC-1 is referred to
   by its earlier name, VC-9.)

   VC-1 is widely used for downloading and streaming movies on the
   Internet, in the form of Windows Media Video 9 (WMV-9) [9], because
   the WMV-9 codec is compliant with the VC-1 standard.  VC-1 has also
   recently been adopted as a mandatory compression format for the
   high-definition DVD formats HD DVD and Blu-ray.

   SMPTE 421M defines the VC-1 bit stream syntax and specifies
   constraints that must be met by VC-1 conformant bit streams.  SMPTE
   421M also specifies the complete process required to decode the bit
   stream.  However, it does not specify the VC-1 compression algorithm,
   thus allowing for different ways of implementing a VC-1 encoder.

   The VC-1 bit stream syntax has three profiles.  Each profile has
   specific bit stream syntax elements and algorithms associated with
   it.  Depending on the application in which VC-1 is used, some
   profiles may be more suitable than others.  For example, Simple
   profile is designed for low bit rate Internet streaming and for
   playback on devices that can only handle low-complexity decoding.
   Advanced profile is designed for broadcast applications, such as
   digital TV, HD DVD, or HDTV.  Advanced profile is the only VC-1
   profile that supports interlaced video frames and non-square pixels.

   Section 2 defines the abbreviations used in this document.  Section 3
   provides a more detailed overview of VC-1.  Sections 4 and 5 define
   the RTP payload format for VC-1, and section 6 defines the media type
   and SDP parameters for VC-1.  See section 7 for security
   considerations, and section 8 for congestion control requirements.

1.1.  Conventions Used in This Document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14, RFC 2119 [2].

2.  Definitions and Abbreviations

   This document uses the definitions in SMPTE 421M [1].  For
   convenience, the following terms from SMPTE 421M are restated here:

   B-picture:
         A picture that is coded using motion compensated prediction
         from past and/or future reference fields or frames.  A
         B-picture cannot be used for predicting any other picture.

   BI-picture:
         A B-picture that is coded using information only from itself.
         A BI-picture cannot be used for predicting any other picture.

   Bit-stream data unit (BDU):
         A unit of the compressed data which may be parsed (i.e., syntax
         decoded) independently of other information at the same
         hierarchical level.  A BDU can be, for example, a sequence
         layer header, an entry-point header, a frame, or a slice.

   Encapsulated BDU (EBDU):
         A BDU that has been encapsulated using the encapsulation
         mechanism described in Annex E of SMPTE 421M [1], to prevent
         emulation of the start code prefix in the bit stream.

   Entry-point:
         A point in the bit stream that offers random access.

   frame:
         A frame contains lines of spatial information of a video
         signal.  For progressive video, these lines contain samples
         starting from one time instant and continuing through
         successive lines to the bottom of the frame.  For interlaced
         video, a frame consists of two fields, a top field and a bottom
         field.  One of these fields will commence one field period
         later than the other.

   interlace:
         The property of frames where alternating lines of the frame
         represent different instances in time.  In an interlaced frame,
         one of the fields is meant to be displayed first.

   I-picture:
         A picture coded using information only from itself.

   level:
         A defined set of constraints on the values that may be taken by
         the parameters (such as bit rate and buffer size) within a
         particular profile.  A profile may contain one or more levels.

   P-picture:
         A picture that is coded using motion compensated prediction
         from past reference fields or frames.

   picture:
         For progressive video, a picture is identical to a frame, while
         for interlaced video, a picture may refer to a frame, or the
         top field or the bottom field of the frame depending on the
         context.

   profile:
         A defined subset of the syntax of VC-1 with a specific set of
         coding tools, algorithms, and syntax associated with it.  There
         are three VC-1 profiles: Simple, Main, and Advanced.

   progressive:
         The property of frames where all the samples of the frame
         represent the same instance in time.

   random access:
         A random access point in the bit stream is defined by the
         following guarantee: If decoding begins at this point, all
         frames needed for display after this point will have no
         decoding dependency on any data preceding this point, and they
         are also present in the decoding sequence after this point.  A
         random access point is also called an entry-point.

   sequence:
         A coded representation of a series of one or more pictures.  In
         VC-1 Advanced profile, a sequence consists of a series of one
         or more entry-point segments, where each entry-point segment
         consists of a series of one or more pictures, and where the
         first picture in each entry-point segment provides random
         access.  In VC-1 Simple and Main profiles, the first picture in
         each sequence is an I-picture.

   slice:
         A consecutive series of macroblock rows in a picture, which are
         encoded as a single unit.

   start codes (SC):
         Unique 32-bit codes that are embedded in the coded bit stream
         and identify the beginning of a BDU.  Start codes consist of a
         unique three-byte Start Code Prefix (SCP), and a one-byte Start
         Code Suffix (SCS).

3.  Overview of VC-1

   The VC-1 bit stream syntax consists of three profiles: Simple, Main,
   and Advanced.  Simple profile is designed for low bit rates and for
   low complexity applications, such as playback of media on personal
   digital assistants.  The maximum bit rate supported by Simple profile

   is 384 kbps.  Main profile targets high bit rate applications, such
   as streaming and TV over IP.  Main profile supports B-pictures, which
   provide improved compression efficiency at the cost of higher
   complexity.

   Certain features that can be used to achieve high compression
   efficiency, such as non-square pixels and support for interlaced
   pictures, are only included in Advanced profile.  The maximum bit
   rate supported by the Advanced profile is 135 Mbps, making it
   suitable for nearly lossless encoding of HDTV signals.

   Only Advanced profile supports carrying user-data (meta-data) in-band
   with the compressed bit stream.  The user-data can be used for closed
   captioning support, for example.

   Of the three profiles, only Advanced profile allows codec
   configuration parameters, such as the picture aspect ratio, to be
   changed through in-band signaling in the compressed bit stream.

   For each of the profiles, a certain number of "levels" have been
   defined.  Unlike a "profile", which implies a certain set of features
   or syntax elements, a "level" is a set of constraints on the values
   of parameters in a profile, such as the bit rate or buffer size.
   VC-1 Simple profile has two levels, Main profile has three, and
   Advanced profile has five.  See Annex D of SMPTE 421M [1] for a
   detailed list of the profiles and levels.

3.1.  VC-1 Bit Stream Layering Model

   The VC-1 bit stream is defined as a hierarchy of layers.  This is
   conceptually similar to the notion of a protocol stack of networking
   protocols.  The outermost layer is called the sequence layer.  The
   other layers are entry-point, picture, slice, macroblock, and block.

   In Simple and Main profiles, a sequence in the sequence layer
   consists of a series of one or more coded pictures.  In Advanced
   profile, a sequence consists of one or more entry-point segments,
   where each entry-point segment consists of a series of one or more
   pictures, and where the first picture in each entry-point segment
   provides random access.  A picture is decomposed into macroblocks.  A
   slice comprises one or more contiguous rows of macroblocks.

   The entry-point and slice layers are only present in Advanced
   profile.  In Advanced profile, the start of each entry-point layer
   segment indicates a random access point.  In Simple and Main
   profiles, each I-picture is a random access point.

   Each picture can be coded as an I-picture, P-picture, skipped
   picture, BI-picture, or as a B-picture.  These terms are defined in
   section 2 of this document and in section 4.12 of SMPTE 421M [1].

3.2.  Bit-stream Data Units in Advanced Profile

   In Advanced profile, each picture and slice is considered a Bit-
   stream Data Unit (BDU).  A BDU is always byte-aligned and is defined
   as a unit that can be parsed (i.e., syntax decoded) independently of
   other information in the same layer.

   The beginning of a BDU is signaled by an identifier called Start Code
   (SC).  Sequence layer headers and entry-point headers are also BDUs
   and thus can be easily identified by their Start Codes.  See Annex E
   of SMPTE 421M [1] for a complete list of Start Codes.  Blocks and
   macroblocks are not BDUs and thus do not have a Start Code and are
   not necessarily byte-aligned.

   The Start Code consists of four bytes.  The first three bytes are
   0x00, 0x00 and 0x01.  The fourth byte is called the Start Code Suffix
   (SCS) and it is used to indicate the type of BDU that follows the
   Start Code.  For example, the SCS of a sequence layer header (0x0F)
   is different from the SCS of an entry-point header (0x0E).  The Start
   Code is always byte-aligned and is transmitted in network byte order.

   To prevent accidental emulation of the Start Code in the coded bit
   stream, SMPTE 421M defines an encapsulation mechanism that uses byte
   stuffing.  A BDU that has been encapsulated by this mechanism is
   referred to as an Encapsulated BDU, or EBDU.

3.3.  Decoder Initialization Parameters

   In VC-1 Advanced profile, the sequence layer header contains
   parameters that are necessary to initialize the VC-1 decoder.

   The parameters apply to all entry-point segments until the next
   occurrence of a sequence layer header in the coded bit stream.

   The parameters in the sequence layer header include the Advanced
   profile level, the maximum dimensions of the coded frames, the aspect
   ratio, interlace information, the frame rate and up to 31 leaky
   bucket parameter sets for the Hypothetical Reference Decoder (HRD).

   Section 6.1 of SMPTE 421M [1] provides the formal specification of
   the sequence layer header.

   A sequence layer header is not defined for VC-1 Simple and Main
   profiles.  For these profiles, decoder initialization parameters MUST
   be conveyed out-of-band.  The decoder initialization parameters for
   Simple and Main profiles include the maximum dimensions of the coded
   frames and a leaky bucket parameter set for the HRD.  Section 4.7
   specifies how the parameters are conveyed by this RTP payload format.

   Each leaky bucket parameter set for the HRD specifies a peak
   transmission bit rate and a decoder buffer capacity.  The coded bit
   stream is restricted by these parameters.  The HRD model does not
   mandate buffering by the decoder.  Its purpose is to limit the
   encoder's bit rate fluctuations according to a basic buffering model
   so that the resources necessary to decode the bit stream are
   predictable.  The HRD has a constant-delay mode and a variable-delay
   mode.  The constant-delay mode is appropriate for broadcast and
   streaming applications, while the variable-delay mode is designed for
   video-conferencing applications.

   Annex C of SMPTE 421M [1] specifies the usage of the hypothetical
   reference decoder for VC-1 bit streams.  A general description of the
   theory of the HRD can be found in [10].

   For Simple and Main profiles, the current buffer fullness value for
   the HRD leaky bucket is signaled using the BF syntax element in the
   picture header of I-pictures and BI-pictures.

   For Advanced profile, the entry-point header specifies current buffer
   fullness values for the leaky buckets in the HRD.  The entry-point
   header also specifies coding control parameters that are in effect
   until the occurrence of the next entry-point header in the bit
   stream.  The concept of an entry-point layer applies only to VC-1
   Advanced profile.  See Section 6.2 of SMPTE 421M [1] for the formal
   specification of the entry-point header.

3.4.  Ordering of Frames

   Frames are transmitted in the same order in which they are captured,
   except if B-pictures or BI-pictures are present in the coded bit
   stream.  A BI-picture is a special kind of B-picture, and in the
   remainder of this section the terms B-picture and B-frame also apply
   to BI-pictures and BI-frames, respectively.

   When B-pictures are present in the coded bit stream, the frames are
   transmitted such that the frames that the B-pictures depend on are
   transmitted first.  This is referred to as the coded order of the
   frames.

   The rules for how a decoder converts frames from the coded order to
   the display order are stated in section 5.4 of SMPTE 421M [1].  In
   short, if B-pictures may be present in the coded bit stream, a
   hypothetical decoder implementation needs to buffer one additional
   decoded frame.  When an I-frame or a P-frame is received, the frame
   can be decoded immediately but it is not displayed until the next I-
   or P-frame is received.  However, B-frames are displayed immediately.

   Figure 1 illustrates the timing relationship between the capture of
   frames, their coded order, and the display order of the decoded
   frames, when B-pictures are present in the coded bit stream.  The
   figure shows that the display of frame P4 is delayed until frame P7
   is received, while frames B2 and B3 are displayed immediately.

   Capture:        |I0  P1  B2  B3  P4  B5  B6  P7  B8  B9  ...
                   |
   Coded order:    |        I0  P1  P4  B2  B3  P7  B5  B6  ...
                   |
   Display order:  |            I0  P1  B2  B3  P4  B5  B6  ...
                   |
                   |+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+---+--> time
                    0   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9

      Figure 1.  Frame reordering when B-pictures are present

   If B-pictures are not present, the coded order and the display order
   are identical, and frames can then be displayed without the
   additional delay shown in Figure 1.

4.  Encapsulation of VC-1 Format Bit Streams in RTP

4.1.  Access Units

   Each RTP packet contains an integral number of application data units
   (ADUs).  For VC-1 format bit streams, an ADU is equivalent to one
   Access Unit (AU).  An Access Unit is defined as the AU header
   (defined in section 5.2) followed by a variable length payload, with
   the rules and constraints described in sections 4.1 and 4.2.  Figure
   2 shows the layout of an RTP packet with multiple AUs.

               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- .. +-+-+-+-+
               | RTP     | AU(1) | AU(2) |     | AU(n) |
               | Header  |       |       |     |       |
               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+- .. +-+-+-+-+

                    Figure 2.  RTP packet structure

   Each Access Unit MUST start with the AU header defined in section
   5.2.  The AU payload MUST contain data belonging to exactly one VC-1
   frame.  This means that data from different VC-1 frames will always
   be in different AUs.  However, it possible for a single VC-1 frame to
   be fragmented across multiple AUs (see section 4.2).

   In the case of interlaced video, a VC-1 frame consists of two fields
   that may be coded as separate pictures.  The two pictures still
   belong to the same VC-1 frame.

   The following rules apply to the contents of each AU payload when
   VC-1 Advanced profile is used:

   -  The AU payload MUST contain VC-1 bit stream data in EBDU format
      (i.e., the bit stream must use the byte-stuffing encapsulation
      mode defined in Annex E of SMPTE 421M [1].)

   -  The AU payload MAY contain multiple EBDUs, e.g., a sequence layer
      header, an entry-point header, a frame (picture) header, a field
      header, and multiple slices and the associated user-data.
      However, all slices and their corresponding macroblocks MUST
      belong to the same video frame.

   -  The AU payload MUST start at an EBDU boundary, except when the AU
      payload contains a fragmented frame, in which case the rules in
      section 4.2 apply.

   When VC-1 Simple or Main profiles are used, the AU payload MUST start
   at the beginning of a frame, except when the AU payload contains a
   fragmented frame.  Section 4.2 describes how to handle fragmented
   frames.

   Access Units MUST be byte-aligned.  If the data in an AU (EBDUs in
   the case of Advanced profile and frame in the case of Simple and
   Main) does not end at an octet boundary, up to 7 zero-valued padding
   bits MUST be added to achieve octet-alignment.

4.2.  Fragmentation of VC-1 frames

   Each AU payload SHOULD contain a complete VC-1 frame.  However, if
   this would cause the RTP packet to exceed the MTU size, the frame
   SHOULD be fragmented into multiple AUs to avoid IP-level
   fragmentation.  When an AU contains a fragmented frame, this MUST be
   indicated by setting the FRAG field in the AU header as defined in
   section 5.3.

   AU payloads that do not contain a fragmented frame or that contain
   the first fragment of a frame MUST start at an EBDU boundary if
   Advanced profile is used.  In this case, for Simple and Main
   profiles, the AU payload MUST start at the beginning of a frame.

   If Advanced profile is used, AU payloads that contain a fragment of a
   frame other than the first fragment SHOULD start at an EBDU boundary,
   such as at the start of a slice.

   However, slices are only defined for Advanced profile, and are not
   always used.  Blocks and macroblocks are not BDUs (have no Start
   Code) and are not byte-aligned.  Therefore, it may not always be
   possible to continue a fragmented frame at an EBDU boundary.  One can
   determine if an AU payload starts at an EBDU boundary by inspecting
   the first three bytes of the AU payload.  The AU payload starts at an
   EBDU boundary if the first three bytes are identical to the Start
   Code Prefix (i.e., 0x00, 0x00, 0x01).

   In the case of Simple and Main profiles, since the blocks and
   macroblocks are not byte-aligned, the fragmentation boundary may be
   chosen arbitrarily.

   If an RTP packet contains an AU with the last fragment of a frame,
   additional AUs SHOULD NOT be included in the RTP packet.

   If the PTS Delta field in the AU header is present, each fragment of
   a frame MUST have the same presentation time.  If the DTS Delta field
   in the AU header is present, each fragment of a frame MUST have the
   same decode time.

4.3.  Time Stamp Considerations

   VC-1 video frames MUST be transmitted in the coded order.  A coded
   order implies that no frames are dependent on subsequent frames, as
   discussed in section 3.4.  When a video frame consists of a single
   picture, the presentation time of the frame is identical to the
   presentation time of the picture.  When the VC-1 interlace coding
   mode is used, frames may contain two pictures, one for each field.
   In that case, the presentation time of a frame is the presentation
   time of the field that is displayed first.

   The RTP timestamp field MUST be set to the presentation time of the
   video frame contained in the first AU in the RTP packet.  The
   presentation time can be used as the timestamp field in the RTP
   header because it differs from the sampling instant of the frame only
   by an arbitrary constant offset.

   If the video frame in an AU has a presentation time that differs from
   the RTP timestamp field, then the presentation time MUST be specified
   using the PTS Delta field in the AU header.  Since the RTP timestamp
   field must be identical to the presentation time of the first video
   frame, this can only happen if an RTP packet contains multiple AUs.
   The syntax of the PTS Delta field is defined in section 5.2.

   The decode time of a VC-1 frame is always monotonically increasing
   when the video frames are transmitted in the coded order.  If neither
   B- nor BI-pictures are present in the coded bit stream, then the
   decode time of a frame SHALL be equal to the presentation time of the
   frame.  A BI-picture is a special kind of B-picture, and in the
   remainder of this section the terms B-picture and B-frame also apply
   to BI-pictures and BI-frames, respectively.

   If B-pictures may be present in the coded bit stream, then the decode
   times of frames are determined as follows:

   -  B-frames:
      The decode time SHALL be equal to the presentation time of the
      B-frame.

   -  First non-B frame in the coded order:
      The decode time SHALL be at least one frame period less than the
      decode time of the next frame in the coded order.  A frame period
      is defined as the inverse of the frame rate used in the coded bit
      stream (e.g., 100 milliseconds if the frame rate is 10 frames per
      seconds.)  For bit streams with a variable frame rate, the maximum
      frame rate SHALL determine the frame period.  If the maximum frame
      is not specified, the maximum frame rate allowed by the profile
      and level SHALL be used.

   -  Non-B frames (other than the first frame in the coded order):
      The decode time SHALL be equal to the presentation time of the
      previous non-B frame in the coded order.

   As an example, consider Figure 1 in section 3.4.  To determine the
   decode time of the first frame, I0, one must first determine the
   decode time of the next frame, P1.  Because P1 is a non-B frame, its
   decode time is equal to the presentation time of I0, which is 3 time
   units.  Thus, the decode time of I0 must be at least one frame period
   less than 3.  In this example, the frame period is 1, because one
   frame is displayed every time unit.  Consequently, the decode time of
   I0 is chosen as 2 time units.  The decode time of the third frame in
   the coded order, P4, is 4, because it must be equal to the
   presentation time of the previous non-B frame in the coded order, P1.
   On the other hand, the decode time of B-frame B2 is 5 time units,
   which is identical to its presentation time.

   If the decode time of a video frame differs from its presentation
   time, then the decode time MUST be specified using the DTS Delta
   field in the AU header.  The syntax of the DTS Delta field is defined
   in section 5.2.

   Receivers are not required to use the DTS Delta field.  However,
   possible uses include buffer management and pacing of frames prior to
   decoding.  If RTP packets are lost, it is possible to use the DTS
   Delta field to determine if the sequence of lost RTP packets
   contained reference frames or only B-frames.  This can be done by
   comparing the decode and presentation times of the first frame
   received after the lost sequence against the presentation time of the
   last reference frame received prior to the lost sequence.

   Knowing if the stream will contain B-pictures may help the receiver
   allocate resources more efficiently and can reduce delay, as an
   absence of B-pictures in the stream implies that no reordering of
   frames will be needed between the decoding process and the display of
   the decoded frames.  This may be important for interactive
   applications.

   The receiver SHALL assume that the coded bit stream may contain
   B-pictures in the following cases:

   -  Advanced profile:
      If the value of the "bpic" media type parameter defined in section
      6.1 is 1, or if the "bpic" parameter is not specified.

   -  Main profile:
      If the MAXBFRAMES field in STRUCT_C decoder initialization
      parameter has a non-zero value.  STRUCT_C is conveyed in the
      "config" media type parameter, which is defined in section 6.1.

   Simple profile does not use B-pictures.

4.4.  Random Access Points

   The entry-point header contains information that is needed by the
   decoder to decode the frames in that entry-point segment.  This means
   that in the event of lost RTP packets, the decoder may be unable to
   decode frames until the next entry-point header is received.

   The first frame after an entry-point header is a random access point
   into the coded bit stream.  Simple and Main profiles do not have
   entry-point headers, so for those profiles, each I-picture is a
   random access point.

   To allow the RTP receiver to detect that an RTP packet that was lost
   contained a random access point, this RTP payload format defines a
   field called "RA Count".  This field is present in every AU, and its
   value is incremented (modulo 256) for every random access point.  For
   additional details, see the definition of "RA Count" in section 5.2.

   To make it easy to determine if an AU contains a random access point,
   this RTP payload format also defines a bit called the "RA" flag in
   the AU Control field.  This bit is set to 1 only on those AU's that
   contain a random access point.  The RA bit is defined in section 5.3.

4.5.  Removal of HRD Parameters

   The sequence layer header of Advanced profile may include up to 31
   leaky bucket parameter sets for the Hypothetical Reference Decoder
   (HRD).  Each leaky bucket parameter set specifies a possible peak
   transmission bit rate (HRD_RATE) and a decoder buffer capacity
   (HRD_BUFFER).  See section 3.3 for additional discussion about the
   HRD.

   If the actual peak transmission rate is known by the RTP sender, the
   RTP sender MAY remove all leaky bucket parameter sets except for the
   one corresponding to the actual peak transmission rate.

   For each leaky bucket parameter set in the sequence layer header,
   there is also a parameter in the entry-point header that specifies
   the initial fullness (HRD_FULL) of the leaky bucket.

   If the RTP sender has removed any leaky bucket parameter sets from
   the sequence layer header, then for any removed leaky bucket
   parameter set, it MUST also remove the corresponding HRD_FULL
   parameter in the entry-point header.

   Removing leaky bucket parameter sets, as described above, may
   significantly reduce the size of the sequence layer headers and the
   entry-point headers.

4.6.  Repeating the Sequence Layer Header

   To improve robustness against loss of RTP packets, it is RECOMMENDED
   that if the sequence layer header changes, it should be repeated
   frequently in the bit stream.  In this case, it is RECOMMENDED that
   the number of leaky bucket parameters in the sequence layer header
   and the entry-point headers be reduced to one, as described in
   section 4.5.  This will help reduce the overhead caused by repeating
   the sequence layer header.

   Any data in the VC-1 bit stream, including repeated copies of the
   sequence header itself, must be accounted for when computing the
   leaky bucket parameter for the HRD.  See section 3.3 for a discussion
   about the HRD.

   If the value of TFCNTRFLAG in the sequence layer header is 1, each
   picture header contains a frame counter field (TFCNTR).  Each time
   the sequence layer header is inserted in the bit stream, the value of
   this counter MUST be reset.

   To allow the RTP receiver to detect that an RTP packet that was lost
   contained a new sequence layer header, the AU Control field defines a
   bit called the "SL" flag.  This bit is toggled when a sequence layer
   header is transmitted, but only if that header is different from the
   most recently transmitted sequence layer header.  The SL bit is
   defined in section 5.3.

4.7.  Signaling of Media Type Parameters

   When this RTP payload format is used with SDP, the decoder
   initialization parameters described in section 3.3 MUST be signaled
   in SDP using the media type parameters specified in section 6.1.
   Section 6.2 specifies how to map the media type parameters to SDP
   [5], section 6.3 defines rules specific to the SDP Offer/Answer
   model, and section 6.4 defines rules for when SDP is used in a
   declarative style.

   When Simple or Main profiles are used, it is not possible to change
   the decoder initialization parameters through the coded bit stream.
   Any changes to the decoder initialization parameters would have to be
   done through out-of-band means, e.g., by a SIP [14] re-invite or
   similar means that convey an updated session description.

   When Advanced profile is used, the decoder initialization parameters
   MAY be changed by inserting a new sequence layer header or an entry-
   point header in the coded bit stream.

   The sequence layer header specifies the VC-1 level, the maximum size
   of the coded frames and optionally also the maximum frame rate.  The
   media type parameters "level", "width", "height", and "framerate"
   specify upper limits for these parameters.  Thus, the sequence layer
   header MAY specify values that are lower than the values of the media
   type parameters "level", "width", "height", or "framerate", but the
   sequence layer header MUST NOT exceed the values of any of these
   media type parameters.

4.8.  The "mode=1" Media Type Parameter

   In certain applications using Advanced profile, the sequence layer
   header never changes.  This MAY be signaled with the media type
   parameter "mode=1".  (The "mode" parameter is defined in section
   6.1.)  The "mode=1" parameter serves as a "hint" to the RTP receiver
   that all sequence layer headers in the bit stream will be identical.
   If "mode=1" is signaled and a sequence layer header is present in the
   coded bit stream, then it MUST be identical to the sequence layer
   header specified by the "config" media type parameter.

   Since the sequence layer header never changes in "mode=1", the RTP
   sender MAY remove it from the bit stream.  Note, however, that if the
   value of TFCNTRFLAG in the sequence layer header is 1, each picture
   header contains a frame counter field (TFCNTR).  This field is reset
   each time the sequence layer header occurs in the bit stream.  If the
   RTP sender chooses to remove the sequence layer header, then it MUST
   ensure that the resulting bit stream is still compliant with the VC-1
   specification (e.g., by adjusting the TFCNTR field, if necessary.)

4.9.  The "mode=3" Media Type Parameter

   In certain applications using Advanced profile, both the sequence
   layer header and the entry-point header never change.  This MAY be
   signaled with the media type parameter "mode=3".  The same rules
   apply to "mode=3" as for "mode=1", described in section 4.8.
   Additionally, if "mode=3" is signaled, then the RTP sender MAY
   "compress" the coded bit stream by not including sequence layer
   headers and entry-point headers in the RTP packets.

   The RTP receiver MUST "decompress" the coded bit stream by
   re-inserting the entry-point headers prior to delivering the coded
   bit stream to the VC-1 decoder.  The sequence layer header does not
   need to be decompressed by the receiver, as it never changes.

   If "mode=3" is signaled and the RTP receiver receives a complete AU
   or the first fragment of an AU, and the RA bit is set to 1 but the AU
   does not begin with an entry-point header, then this indicates that
   the entry-point header has been "compressed".  In that case, the RTP
   receiver MUST insert an entry-point header at the beginning of the
   AU.  When inserting the entry-point header, the RTP receiver MUST use
   the one that was specified by the "config" media type parameter.

5.  RTP Payload Format Syntax

5.1.  RTP Header Usage

   The format of the RTP header is specified in RFC 3550 [3] and is
   reprinted in Figure 3 for convenience.

       0                   1                   2                   3
       0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |V=2|P|X|  CC   |M|     PT      |       sequence number         |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |                           timestamp                           |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
      |           synchronization source (SSRC) identifier            |
      +=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
      |            contributing source (CSRC) identifiers             |
      |                             ....                              |
      +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                Figure 3.  RTP header according to RFC 3550

   The fields of the fixed RTP header have their usual meaning, which is
   defined in RFC 3550 and by the RTP profile in use, with the following
   additional notes:

   Marker bit (M): 1 bit
         This bit is set to 1 if the RTP packet contains an Access Unit
         containing a complete VC-1 frame or the last fragment of a VC-1
         frame.

   Payload type (PT): 7 bits
         This document does not assign an RTP payload type for this RTP
         payload format.  The assignment of a payload type has to be
         performed either through the RTP profile used or in a dynamic
         way.

   Sequence Number: 16 bits
         The RTP receiver can use the sequence number field to recover
         the coded order of the VC-1 frames.  A typical VC-1 decoder
         will require the VC-1 frames to be delivered in coded order.
         When VC-1 frames have been fragmented across RTP packets, the
         RTP receiver can use the sequence number field to ensure that
         no fragment is missing.

   Timestamp: 32 bits
         The RTP timestamp is set to the presentation time of the VC-1
         frame in the first Access Unit.  A clock rate of 90 kHz MUST be
         used.

5.2.  AU Header Syntax

   The Access Unit header consists of a one-byte AU Control field, the
   RA Count field, and 3 optional fields.  All fields MUST be written in
   network byte order.  The structure of the AU header is illustrated in
   Figure 4.

               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
               |AU     | RA    |  AUP  | PTS   | DTS   |
               |Control| Count |  Len  | Delta | Delta |
               +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

                  Figure 4.  Structure of AU header

   AU Control: 8 bits
         The usage of the AU Control field is defined in section 5.3.

   RA Count: 8 bits
         Random Access Point Counter.  This field is a binary modulo 256
         counter.  The value of this field MUST be incremented by 1 each
         time an AU is transmitted where the RA bit in the AU Control
         field is set to 1.  The initial value of this field is
         undefined and MAY be chosen randomly.

   AUP Len: 16 bits
         Access Unit Payload Length.  Specifies the size, in bytes, of
         the payload of the Access Unit.  The field does not include the
         size of the AU header itself.  The field MUST be included in
         each AU header in an RTP packet, except for the last AU header
         in the packet.  If this field is not included, the payload of
         the Access Unit SHALL be assumed to extend to the end of the
         RTP payload.

   PTS Delta: 32 bits
         Presentation time delta.  Specifies the presentation time of
         the frame as a 2's complement offset (delta) from the timestamp
         field in the RTP header of this RTP packet.  The PTS Delta
         field MUST use the same clock rate as the timestamp field in
         the RTP header.

         This field SHOULD NOT be included in the first AU header in the
         RTP packet, because the RTP timestamp field specifies the
         presentation time of the frame in the first AU.  If this field

         is not included, the presentation time of the frame SHALL be
         assumed to be specified by the timestamp field in the RTP
         header.

   DTS Delta: 32 bits
         Decode time delta.  Specifies the decode time of the frame as a
         2's complement offset (delta) between the presentation time and
         the decode time.  Note that if the presentation time is larger
         than the decode time, this results in a value for the DTS Delta
         field that is greater than zero.  The DTS Delta field MUST use
         the same clock rate as the timestamp field in the RTP header.
         If this field is not included, the decode time of the frame
         SHALL be assumed to be identical to the presentation time of
         the frame.

5.3.  AU Control Field Syntax

   The structure of the 8-bit AU Control field is shown in Figure 5.

     0    1    2    3    4    5    6    7
   +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+
   |  FRAG   | RA | SL | LP | PT | DT | R  |
   +----+----+----+----+----+----+----+----+

   Figure 5.  Syntax of AU Control field.

      FRAG: 2 bits
         Fragmentation Information.  This field indicates if the AU
         payload contains a complete frame or a fragment of a frame.  It
         MUST be set as follows:

         0: The AU payload contains a fragment of a frame other than the
            first or last fragment.
         1: The AU payload contains the first fragment of a frame.
         2: The AU payload contains the last fragment of a frame.
         3: The AU payload contains a complete frame (not fragmented.)

   RA: 1 bit
         Random Access Point indicator.  This bit MUST be set to 1 if
         the AU contains a frame that is a random access point.  In the
         case of Simple and Main profiles, any I-picture is a random
         access point.

         In the case of Advanced profile, the first frame after an
         entry-point header is a random access point.

         If entry-point headers are not transmitted at every random
         access point, this MUST be indicated using the media type
         parameter "mode=3".

   SL: 1 bit
         Sequence Layer Counter.  This bit MUST be toggled, i.e.,
         changed from 0 to 1 or from 1 to 0, if the AU contains a
         sequence layer header and if it is different from the most
         recently transmitted sequence layer header.  Otherwise, the
         value of this bit must be identical to the value of the SL bit
         in the previous AU.

         The initial value of this bit is undefined and MAY be chosen
         randomly.

         The bit MUST be 0 for Simple and Main profile bit streams or if
         the sequence layer header never changes.

   LP: 1 bit
         Length Present.  This bit MUST be set to 1 if the AU header
         includes the AUP Len field.

   PT: 1 bit
         PTS Delta Present.  This bit MUST be set to 1 if the AU header
         includes the PTS Delta field.

   DT: 1 bit
         DTS Delta Present.  This bit MUST be set to 1 if the AU header
         includes the DTS Delta field.

   R: 1 bit
         Reserved.  This bit MUST be set to 0 and MUST be ignored by
         receivers.

6.  RTP Payload Format Parameters

6.1.  Media type Registration

   This registration uses the template defined in RFC 4288 [7] and
   follows RFC 3555 [8].

   Type name:  video

   Subtype name:  vc1

   Required parameters:

         profile:
            The value is an integer identifying the VC-1 profile.  The
            following values are defined:

            0: Simple profile
            1: Main profile
            3: Advanced profile

            If the profile parameter is used to indicate properties of a
            coded bit stream, it indicates the VC-1 profile that a
            decoder has to support when it decodes the bit stream.

            If the profile parameter is used for capability exchange or
            in a session setup procedure, it indicates the VC-1 profile
            that the codec supports.

            level:
            The value is an integer that specifies the level of the VC-1
            profile.

            For Advanced profile, valid values are 0 through 4, which
            correspond to levels L0 through L4, respectively.  For
            Simple and Main profiles, the following values are defined:

            1: Low Level
            2: Medium Level
            3: High Level (only valid for Main profile)

            If the level parameter is used to indicate properties of a
            coded bit stream, it indicates the highest level of the VC-1
            profile that a decoder has to support when it decodes the
            bit stream.  Note that support for a level implies support
            for all numerically lower levels of the given profile.

            If the level parameter is used for capability exchange or in
            a session setup procedure, it indicates the highest level of
            the VC-1 profile that the codec supports.  See section 6.3
            of RFC 4425 for specific rules for how this parameter is
            used with the SDP Offer/Answer model.

   Optional parameters:

         config:
            The value is a base16 [6] (hexadecimal) representation of an
            octet string that expresses the decoder initialization
            parameters.  Decoder initialization parameters are mapped
            onto the base16 octet string in an MSB-first basis.  The
            first bit of the decoder initialization parameters MUST be
            located at the MSB of the first octet.  If the decoder
            initialization parameters are not multiples of 8 bits, up to
            7 zero-valued padding bits MUST be added in the last octet
            to achieve octet alignment.

            For Simple and Main profiles, the decoder initialization
            parameters are STRUCT_C, as defined in Annex J of SMPTE 421M
            [1].

            For Advanced profile, the decoder initialization parameters
            are a sequence layer header directly followed by an entry-
            point header.  The two headers MUST be in EBDU format,
            meaning that they must include their Start Codes and must
            use the encapsulation method defined in Annex E of SMPTE
            421M [1].

         width:
            The value is an integer greater than zero, specifying the
            maximum horizontal size of the coded frames, in luma samples
            (pixels in the luma picture).

            For Simple and Main profiles, the value SHALL be identical
            to the actual horizontal size of the coded frames.

            For Advanced profile, the value SHALL be greater than, or
            equal to, the largest horizontal size of the coded frames.

            If this parameter is not specified, it defaults to the
            maximum horizontal size allowed by the specified profile and
            level.

         height:
            The value is an integer greater than zero, specifying the
            maximum vertical size of the coded frames, in luma samples
            (pixels in a progressively coded luma picture).

            For Simple and Main profiles, the value SHALL be identical
            to the actual vertical size of the coded frames.

            For Advanced profile, the value SHALL be greater than, or
            equal to, the largest vertical size of the coded frames.

            If this parameter is not specified, it defaults to the
            maximum vertical size allowed by the specified profile and
            level.

         bitrate:
            The value is an integer greater than zero, specifying the
            peak transmission rate of the coded bit stream in bits per
            second.  The number does not include the overhead caused by
            RTP encapsulation, i.e., it does not include the AU headers,
            or any of the RTP, UDP, or IP headers.

            If this parameter is not specified, it defaults to the
            maximum bit rate allowed by the specified profile and level.
            See the values for "RMax" in Annex D of SMPTE 421M [1].

         buffer:
            The value is an integer specifying the leaky bucket size, B,
            in milliseconds, required to contain a stream transmitted at
            the transmission rate specified by the bitrate parameter.
            This parameter is defined in the hypothetical reference
            decoder model for VC-1, in Annex C of SMPTE 421M [1].

            Note that this parameter relates to the codec bit stream
            only, and does not account for any buffering time that may
            be required to compensate for jitter in the network.

            If this parameter is not specified, it defaults to the
            maximum buffer size allowed by the specified profile and
            level.  See the values for "BMax" and "RMax" in Annex D of
            SMPTE 421M [1].

         framerate:
            The value is an integer greater than zero, specifying the
            maximum number of frames per second in the coded bit stream,
            multiplied by 1000 and rounded to the nearest integer value.
            For example, 30000/1001 (approximately 29.97) frames per
            second is represented as 29970.

            This parameter can be used to control resource allocation at
            the receiver.  For example, a receiver may choose to perform
            additional post-processing on decoded frames only if the
            frame rate is expected to be low.  The parameter MUST NOT be
            used for pacing of the rendering process, since the actual
            frame rate may differ from the specified value.

            If the parameter is not specified, it defaults to the
            maximum frame rate allowed by the specified profile and
            level.

         bpic:
            This parameter signals that B- and BI-pictures may be
            present when Advanced profile is used.  If this parameter is
            present, and B- or BI-pictures may be present in the coded
            bit stream, this parameter MUST be equal to 1.

            A value of 0 indicates that B- and BI-pictures SHALL NOT be
            present in the coded bit stream, even if the sequence layer
            header changes.  Inclusion of this parameter with a value of
            0 is RECOMMENDED, if neither B- nor BI-pictures are included
            in the coded bit stream.

            This parameter MUST NOT be used with Simple and Main
            profiles. For Main profile, the presence of B- and
            BI-pictures is indicated by the MAXBFRAMES field in STRUCT_C
            decoder initialization parameter.

            For Advanced profile, if this parameter is not specified, a
            value of 1 SHALL be assumed.

         mode:
            The value is an integer specifying the use of the sequence
            layer header and the entry-point header.  This parameter is
            only defined for Advanced profile.  The following values are
            defined:

            0: Both the sequence layer header and the entry-point header
               may change, and changed headers will be included in the
               RTP packets.
            1: The sequence layer header specified in the config
               parameter never changes.  The rules in section 4.8 of RFC
               4425 MUST be followed.
            3: The sequence layer header and the entry-point header
               specified in the config parameter never change.  The
               rules in section 4.9 of RFC 4425 MUST be followed.

            If the mode parameter is not specified, a value of 0 SHALL
            be assumed.  The mode parameter SHOULD be specified if modes
            1 or 3 apply to the VC-1 bit stream.

         max-width, max-height, max-bitrate, max-buffer, max-framerate:
            These parameters are defined for use in a capability
            exchange procedure.  The parameters do not signal properties
            of the coded bit stream, but rather upper limits or

            preferred values for the "width", "height", "bitrate",
            "buffer", and "framerate" parameters.  Section 6.3 of RFC
            4425 provides specific rules for how these parameters are
            used with the SDP Offer/Answer model.

            Receivers that signal support for a given profile and level
            MUST support the maximum values for these parameters for
            that profile and level.  For example, a receiver that
            indicates support for Main profile, Low level, must support
            a width of 352 luma samples and a height of 288 luma
            samples, even if this requires scaling the image to fit the
            resolution of a smaller display device.

            A receiver MAY use any of the max-width, max-height, max-
            bitrate, max-buffer, and max-framerate parameters to
            indicate preferred capabilities.  For example, a receiver
            may choose to specify values for max-width and max-height
            that match the resolution of its display device, since a bit
            stream encoded using those parameters would not need to be
            rescaled.

            If any of the max-width, max-height, max-bitrate, max-
            buffer, and max-framerate parameters signal a capability
            that is less than the required capabilities of the signaled
            profile and level, then the parameter SHALL be interpreted
            as a preferred value for that capability.

            Any of the parameters MAY also be used to signal
            capabilities that exceed the required capabilities of the
            signaled profile and level.  In that case, the parameter
            SHALL be interpreted as the maximum value that can be
            supported for that capability.

            When more than one parameter from the set (max-width,
            max-height, max-bitrate, max-buffer, and max-framerate) is
            present, all signaled capabilities MUST be supported
            simultaneously.

            A sender or receiver MUST NOT use these parameters to signal
            capabilities that meet the requirements of a higher level of
            the VC-1 profile than that specified in the "level"
            parameter, even if the sender or receiver can support all
            the properties of the higher level, except if specifying a
            higher level is not allowed due to other restrictions.  As
            an example of such a restriction, in the SDP Offer/Answer
            model, the value of the level parameter that can be used in
            an Answer is limited by what was specified in the Offer.

         max-width:
            The value is an integer greater than zero, specifying a
            horizontal size for the coded frames, in luma samples
            (pixels in the luma picture).  If the value is less than the
            maximum horizontal size allowed by the profile and level,
            then the value specifies the preferred horizontal size.
            Otherwise, it specifies the maximum horizontal size that is
            supported.

            If this parameter is not specified, it defaults to the
            maximum horizontal size allowed by the specified profile and
            level.

         max-height:
            The value is an integer greater than zero, specifying a
            vertical size for the coded frames, in luma samples (pixels
            in a progressively coded luma picture).  If the value is
            less than the maximum vertical size allowed by the profile
            and level, then the value specifies the preferred vertical
            size.  Otherwise, it specifies the maximum vertical size
            that is supported.

            If this parameter is not specified, it defaults to the
            maximum vertical size allowed by the specified profile and
            level.

         max-bitrate:
            The value is an integer greater than zero, specifying a peak
            transmission rate for the coded bit stream in bits per
            second.  The number does not include the overhead caused by
            RTP encapsulation, i.e., it does not include the AU headers,
            or any of the RTP, UDP, or IP headers.

            If the value is less than the maximum bit rate allowed by
            the profile and level, then the value specifies the
            preferred bit rate.  Otherwise, it specifies the maximum bit
            rate that is supported.

            If this parameter is not specified, it defaults to the
            maximum bit rate allowed by the specified profile and level.
            See the values for "RMax" in Annex D of SMPTE 421M [1].

         max-buffer:
            The value is an integer specifying a leaky bucket size, B,
            in milliseconds, required to contain a stream transmitted at
            the transmission rate specified by the max-bitrate

            parameter.  This parameter is defined in the hypothetical
            reference decoder model for VC-1, in Annex C of SMPTE 421M
            [1].

            Note that this parameter relates to the codec bit stream
            only and does not account for any buffering time that may be
            required to compensate for jitter in the network.

            If the value is less than the maximum leaky bucket size
            allowed by the max-bitrate parameter and the profile and
            level, then the value specifies the preferred leaky bucket
            size.  Otherwise, it specifies the maximum leaky bucket size
            that is supported for the bit rate specified by the max-
            bitrate parameter.

            If this parameter is not specified, it defaults to the
            maximum buffer size allowed by the specified profile and
            level.  See the values for "BMax" and "RMax" in Annex D of
            SMPTE 421M [1].

         max-framerate:
            The value is an integer greater than zero, specifying a
            number of frames per second for the coded bit stream.  The
            value is the frame rate multiplied by 1000 and rounded to
            the nearest integer value.  For example, 30000/1001
            (approximately 29.97) frames per second is represented as
            29970.

            If the value is less than the maximum frame rate allowed by
            the profile and level, then the value specifies the
            preferred frame rate.  Otherwise, it specifies the maximum
            frame rate that is supported.

            If the parameter is not specified, it defaults to the
            maximum frame rate allowed by the specified profile and
            level.

   Encoding considerations:
            This media type is framed and contains binary data.

   Security considerations:
            See Section 7 of RFC 4425.

   Interoperability considerations:
           None.

   Published specification:
           RFC 4425.

   Applications that use this media type:
           Multimedia streaming and conferencing tools.

   Additional Information:
           None.

   Person & email address to contact for further information:
           Anders Klemets <anderskl@microsoft.com>
           IETF AVT working group.

   Intended Usage:
           COMMON

   Restrictions on usage:
           This media type depends on RTP framing; therefore, it is
           only defined for transfer via RTP [3].

   Authors:
           Anders Klemets

   Change controller:
           IETF Audio/Video Transport Working Group delegated from the
           IESG.

6.2.  Mapping of media type parameters to SDP

   The information carried in the media type specification has a
   specific mapping to fields in the Session Description Protocol (SDP)
   [4].  If SDP is used to specify sessions using this payload format,
   the mapping is done as follows:

   o  The media name in the "m=" line of SDP MUST be video (the type
      name).

   o  The encoding name in the "a=rtpmap" line of SDP MUST be vc1 (the
      subtype name).

   o  The clock rate in the "a=rtpmap" line MUST be 90000.

   o  The REQUIRED parameters "profile" and "level" MUST be included in
      the "a=fmtp" line of SDP.

      These parameters are expressed in the form of a semicolon
      separated list of parameter=value pairs.

   o  The OPTIONAL parameters "config", "width", "height", "bitrate",
      "buffer", "framerate", "bpic", "mode", "max-width", "max-height",
      "max-bitrate", "max-buffer", and "max-framerate", when present,
      MUST be included in the "a=fmtp" line of SDP.

      These parameters are expressed in the form of a semicolon
      separated list of parameter=value pairs:

         a=fmtp:<dynamic payload type> <parameter
         name>=<value>[,<value>][; <parameter name>=<value>]

   o  Any unknown parameters to the device that uses the SDP MUST be
      ignored.  For example, parameters defined in later specifications
      MAY be copied into the SDP and MUST be ignored by receivers that
      do not understand them.

6.3.  Usage with the SDP Offer/Answer Model

   When VC-1 is offered over RTP using SDP in an Offer/Answer model [5]
   for negotiation for unicast usage, the following rules and
   limitations apply:

   o  The "profile" parameter MUST be used symmetrically, i.e., the
      answerer MUST either maintain the parameter or remove the media
      format (payload type) completely if the offered VC-1 profile is
      not supported.

   o  The "level" parameter specifies the highest level of the VC-1
      profile supported by the codec.

      The answerer MUST NOT specify a numerically higher level in the
      answer than that specified in the offer.  The answerer MAY specify
      a level that is lower than that specified in the offer, i.e., the
      level parameter can be "downgraded".

      If the offer specifies the sendrecv or sendonly direction
      attribute and the answer downgrades the level parameter, this may
      require a new offer to specify an updated "config" parameter.  If
      the "config" parameter cannot be used with the level specified in
      the answer, then the offerer MUST initiate another Offer/Answer
      round or not use media format (payload type).

   o  The parameters "config", "bpic", "width", "height", "framerate",
      "bitrate", "buffer", and "mode", describe the properties of the
      VC-1 bit stream that the offerer or answerer is sending for this
      media format configuration.

      In the case of unicast usage and when the direction attribute in
      the offer or answer is recvonly, the interpretation of these
      parameters is undefined and they MUST NOT be used.

   o  The parameters "config", "width", "height", "bitrate", and
      "buffer" MUST be specified when the direction attribute is
      sendrecv or sendonly.

   o  The parameters "max-width", "max-height", "max-framerate", "max-
      bitrate", and "max-buffer" MAY be specified in an offer or an
      answer, and their interpretation is as follows:

      When the direction attribute is sendonly, the parameters describe
      the limits of the VC-1 bit stream that the sender is capable of
      producing for the given profile and level, and for any lower level
      of the same profile.

      When the direction attribute is recvonly or sendrecv, the
      parameters describe properties of the receiver implementation.  If
      the value of a property is less than that allowed by the level of
      the VC-1 profile, then it SHALL be interpreted as a preferred
      value and the sender's VC-1 bit stream SHOULD NOT exceed it.  If
      the value of a property is greater than what is allowed by the
      level of the VC-1 profile, then it SHALL be interpreted as the
      upper limit of the value that the receiver accepts for the given
      profile and level, and for any lower level of the same profile.

      For example, if a recvonly or sendrecv offer specifies
      "profile=0;level=1;max-bitrate=48000", then 48 kbps is merely a
      suggested bit rate, because all receiver implementations of Simple
      profile, Low level, are required to support bit rates of up to 96
      kbps.  Assuming that the offer is accepted, the answerer should
      specify "bitrate=48000" in the answer, but any value up to 96000
      is allowed.  But if the offer specifies "max-bitrate=200000", this
      means that the receiver implementation supports a maximum of 200
      kbps for the given profile and level (or lower level).  In this
      case, the answerer is allowed to answer with a bitrate parameter
      of up to 200000.

   o  If an offerer wishes to have non-symmetrical capabilities between
      sending and receiving, e.g., use different levels in each
      direction, then the offerer has to offer different RTP sessions.
      This can be done by specifying different media lines declared as
      "recvonly" and "sendonly", respectively.

   For streams being delivered over multicast, the following rules apply
   in addition:

   o  The "level" parameter specifies the highest level of the VC-1
      profile used by the participants in the multicast session.  The
      value of this parameter MUST NOT be changed by the answerer.
      Thus, a payload type can be either accepted unaltered or removed.

   o  The parameters "config", "bpic", "width", "height", "framerate",
      "bitrate", "buffer", and "mode", specify properties of the VC-1
      bit stream that will be sent and/or received on the multicast
      session.  The parameters MAY be specified, even if the direction
      attribute is recvonly.

      The values of these parameters MUST NOT be changed by the
      answerer.  Thus, a payload type can be either accepted unaltered
      or removed.

   o  The values of the parameters "max-width", "max-height", "max-
      framerate", "max-bitrate", and "max-buffer" MUST be supported by
      the answerer for all streams declared as sendrecv or recvonly.
      Otherwise, one of the following actions MUST be performed: the
      media format is removed or the session is rejected.

6.4.  Usage in Declarative Session Descriptions

   When VC-1 is offered over RTP using SDP in a declarative style, as in
   RTSP [12] or SAP [13], the following rules and limitations apply:

   o  The parameters "profile" and "level" indicate only the properties
      of the coded bit stream.  They do not imply a limit on
      capabilities supported by the sender.

   o  The parameters "config", "width", "height", "bitrate", and
      "buffer" MUST be specified.

   o  The parameters "max-width", "max-height", "max-framerate", "max-
      bitrate", and "max-buffer" MUST NOT be used.

   An example of media representation in SDP is as follows (Simple
   profile, Medium level):

   m=video 49170 RTP/AVP 98
   a=rtpmap:98 vc1/90000
   a=fmtp:98 profile=0;level=2;width=352;height=288;framerate=15000;
   bitrate=384000;buffer=2000;config=4e291800

7.  Security Considerations

   RTP packets using the payload format defined in this specification
   are subject to the security considerations discussed in the RTP
   specification [4], and in any appropriate RTP profile.  This implies
   that confidentiality of the media streams is achieved by encryption;
   for example, through the application of SRTP [11].

   A potential denial-of-service threat exists for data encodings using
   compression techniques that have non-uniform receiver-end
   computational load.  The attacker can inject pathological RTP packets
   into the stream that are complex to decode and that cause the
   receiver to be overloaded.  VC-1 is particularly vulnerable to such
   attacks, because it is possible for an attacker to generate RTP
   packets containing frames that affect the decoding process of many
   future frames.  Therefore, the usage of data origin authentication
   and data integrity protection of at least the RTP packet is
   RECOMMENDED; for example, with SRTP [11].

   Note that the appropriate mechanism to ensure confidentiality and
   integrity of RTP packets and their payloads is dependent on the
   application and on the transport and signaling protocols employed.
   Thus, although SRTP is given as an example above, other possible
   choices exist.

   VC-1 bit streams can carry user-data, such as closed captioning
   information and content meta-data.  The VC-1 specification does not
   define how to interpret user-data.  Identifiers for user-data are
   required to be registered with SMPTE.  It is conceivable for types of
   user-data to be defined to include programmatic content, such as
   scripts or commands that would be executed by the receiver.
   Depending on the type of user-data, it might be possible for a sender
   to generate user-data in a non-compliant manner to crash the receiver
   or make it temporarily unavailable.  Senders that transport VC-1 bit
   streams SHOULD ensure that the user-data is compliant with the
   specification registered with SMPTE (see Annex F of [1].)  Receivers
   SHOULD prevent malfunction in case of non-compliant user-data.

   It is important to note that VC-1 streams can have very high
   bandwidth requirements (up to 135 Mbps for high-definition video).
   This causes a potential for denial-of-service if transmitted onto
   many Internet paths.  Therefore, users of this payload format MUST
   comply with the congestion control requirements described in section
   8.

8.  Congestion Control

   Congestion control for RTP SHALL be used in accordance with RFC 3550
   [3], and with any applicable RTP profile; e.g., RFC 3551 [15].

   If best-effort service is being used, users of this payload format
   MUST monitor packet loss to ensure that the packet loss rate is
   within acceptable parameters.  Packet loss is considered acceptable
   if a TCP flow across the same network path and experiencing the same
   network conditions would achieve an average throughput, measured on a
   reasonable timescale, that is not less than the RTP flow is
   achieving.  This condition can be satisfied by implementing
   congestion control mechanisms to adapt the transmission rate or by
   arranging for a receiver to leave the session if the loss rate is
   unacceptably high.

   The bit rate adaptation necessary for obeying the congestion control
   principle is easily achievable when real-time encoding is used.  When
   pre-encoded content is being transmitted, bandwidth adaptation
   requires one or more of the following:

   -  The availability of more than one coded representation of the same
      content at different bit rates.  The switching between the
      different representations can normally be performed in the same
      RTP session by switching streams at random access point
      boundaries.

   -  The existence of non-reference frames (e.g., B-frames) in the bit
      stream.  Non-reference frames can be discarded by the transmitter
      prior to encapsulation in RTP.

   Only when non-downgradable parameters (such as the VC-1 "profile"
   parameter) are required to be changed does it become necessary to
   terminate and re-start the media stream.  This may be accomplished by
   using a different RTP payload type.

   Regardless of the method used for bandwidth adaptation, the resulting
   bit stream MUST be compliant with the VC-1 specification [1].  For
   example, if non-reference frames are discarded, then the FRMCNT
   syntax element (Simple and Main profile frames only) and the optional
   TFCNTR syntax element (Advanced profile frames only) must increment
   as if no frames had been discarded.  Because the TFCNTR syntax
   element counts the frames in the display order, which is different
   from the order in which they are transmitted (the coded order), it
   will require the transmitter to "look ahead" or buffer some number of
   frames.

   As another example, when switching between different representations
   of the same content, it may be necessary to signal a discontinuity by
   modifying the FRMCNT field, or if Advanced profile is used, by
   setting the BROKEN_LINK flag in the entry-point header to 1.

   This payload format may also be used in networks that provide
   quality-of-service guarantees.  If enhanced service is being used,
   receivers SHOULD monitor packet loss to ensure that the service that
   was requested is actually being delivered.  If it is not, then they
   SHOULD assume that they are receiving best-effort service and behave
   accordingly.

9.  IANA Considerations

   IANA has registered the media type "video/vc1" and the associated RTP
   payload format in the Media Types registry and in the RTP Payload
   Format MIME types registry, as specified in section 6.1.

10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [1]  Society of Motion Picture and Television Engineers, "VC-1
        Compressed Video Bitstream Format and Decoding Process", SMPTE
        421M.

   [2]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [3]  Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Frederick, R., and V. Jacobson,
        "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications", STD 64,
        RFC 3550, July 2003.

   [4]  Handley, M. and V. Jacobson, "SDP: Session Description
        Protocol", RFC 2327, April 1998.

   [5]  Rosenberg, J. and H. Schulzrinne, "An Offer/Answer Model with
        Session Description Protocol (SDP)", RFC 3264, June 2002.

   [6]  Josefsson, S., Ed., "The Base16, Base32, and Base64 Data
        Encodings", RFC 3548, July 2003.

   [7]  Freed, N. and J. Klensin, "Media Type Specifications and
        Registration Procedures", BCP 13, RFC 4288, December 2005.

   [8]  Casner, S. and P. Hoschka, "MIME Type Registration of RTP
        Payload Formats", RFC 3555, July 2003.

10.2.  Informative References

   [9]  Srinivasan, S., Hsu, P., Holcomb, T., Mukerjee, K., Regunathan,
        S.L., Lin, B., Liang, J., Lee, M., and J. Ribas-Corbera,
        "Windows Media Video 9: overview and applications", Signal
        Processing: Image Communication, Volume 19, Issue 9, October
        2004.

   [10] Ribas-Corbera, J., Chou, P.A., and S.L. Regunathan, "A
        generalized hypothetical reference decoder for H.264/AVC", IEEE
        Transactions on Circuits and Systems for Video Technology,
        August 2003.

   [11] Baugher, M., McGrew, D., Naslund, M., Carrara, E., and K.
        Norrman, "The Secure Real-time Transport Protocol (SRTP)", RFC
        3711, March 2004.

   [12] Schulzrinne, H., Rao, A., and R. Lanphier, "Real Time Streaming
        Protocol (RTSP)", RFC 2326, April 1998.

   [13] Handley, M., Perkins, C., and E. Whelan, "Session Announcement
        Protocol", RFC 2974, October 2000.

   [14] Handley, M., Schulzrinne, H., Schooler, E., and J. Rosenberg,
        "SIP: Session Initiation Protocol", RFC 2543, March 1999.

   [15] Schulzrinne, H. and S. Casner, "RTP Profile for Audio and Video
        Conferences with Minimal Control", STD 65, RFC 3551, July 2003.

Acknowledgements

   Thanks to Regis Crinon, Miska Hannuksela, Colin Perkins, Shankar
   Regunathan, Gary Sullivan, Stephan Wenger, and Magnus Westerlund for
   providing detailed feedback on this document.

Author's Address

   Anders Klemets
   Microsoft Corp.
   1 Microsoft Way
   Redmond, WA 98052
   USA

   EMail: Anders.Klemets@microsoft.com

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