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RFC 3826 - The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Cipher Algorit


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Network Working Group                                      U. Blumenthal
Request for Comments: 3826                           Lucent Technologies
Category: Standards Track                                       F. Maino
                                                   Andiamo Systems, Inc.
                                                           K. McCloghrie
                                                     Cisco Systems, Inc.
                                                               June 2004

        The Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) Cipher Algorithm
                 in the SNMP User-based Security Model

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).

Abstract

   This document describes a symmetric encryption protocol that
   supplements the protocols described in the User-based Security Model
   (USM), which is a Security Subsystem for version 3 of the Simple
   Network Management Protocol for use in the SNMP Architecture.  The
   symmetric encryption protocol described in this document is based on
   the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) cipher algorithm used in
   Cipher FeedBack Mode (CFB), with a key size of 128 bits.

Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    2
       1.1.  Goals and Constraints. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    2
       1.2.  Key Localization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    3
       1.3.  Password Entropy and Storage . . . . . . . . . . . . .    3
   2.  Definitions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    4
   3.  CFB128-AES-128 Symmetric Encryption Protocol . . . . . . . .    5
       3.1.  Mechanisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    5
             3.1.1. The AES-based Symmetric Encryption Protocol . .    6
             3.1.2. Localized Key, AES Encryption Key and
                    Initialization Vector . . . . . . . . . . . . .    7
             3.1.3. Data Encryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    8
             3.1.4. Data Decryption . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    8

       3.2.  Elements of the AES Privacy Protocol . . . . . . . . .    9
             3.2.1. Users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .    9
             3.2.2. msgAuthoritativeEngineID. . . . . . . . . . . .    9
             3.2.3. SNMP Messages Using this Privacy Protocol . . .   10
             3.2.4. Services provided by the AES Privacy Modules. .   10
       3.3.  Elements of Procedure. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   11
             3.3.1. Processing an Outgoing Message. . . . . . . . .   12
             3.3.2. Processing an Incoming Message. . . . . . . . .   12
   4.  Security Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   13
   5.  IANA Considerations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   13
   6.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   14
   7.  References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   14
       7.1.  Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   14
       7.2.  Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   14
   8.  Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   15
   9.  Full Copyright Statement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .   16

1.  Introduction

   Within the Architecture for describing Internet Management Frameworks
   [RFC3411], the User-based Security Model (USM) [RFC3414] for SNMPv3
   is defined as a Security Subsystem within an SNMP engine.  RFC 3414
   describes the use of HMAC-MD5-96 and HMAC-SHA-96 as the initial
   authentication protocols, and the use of CBC-DES as the initial
   privacy protocol.  The User-based Security Model, however, allows for
   other such protocols to be used instead of, or concurrently with,
   these protocols.

   This memo describes the use of CFB128-AES-128 as an alternative
   privacy protocol for the User-based Security Model.  The key words
   "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", "SHOULD",
   "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED",  "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this document
   are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

1.1.  Goals and Constraints

   The main goal of this memo is to provide a new privacy protocol for
   the USM based on the Advanced Encryption Standard (AES) [FIPS-AES].

   The major constraint is to maintain a complete interchangeability of
   the new protocol defined in this memo with existing authentication
   and privacy protocols already defined in USM.

   For a given user, the AES-based privacy protocol MUST be used with
   one of the authentication protocols defined in RFC 3414 or an
   algorithm/protocol providing equivalent functionality.

1.2.  Key Localization

   As defined in [RFC3414], a localized key is a secret key shared
   between a user U and one authoritative SNMP engine E.  Even though a
   user may have only one pair of authentication and privacy passwords
   (and consequently only one pair of keys) for the entire network, the
   actual secrets shared between the user and each authoritative SNMP
   engine will be different.  This is achieved by key localization.

   If the authentication protocol defined for a user U at the
   authoritative SNMP engine E is one of the authentication protocols
   defined in [RFC3414], the key localization is performed according to
   the two-step process described in section 2.6 of [RFC3414].

1.3.  Password Entropy and Storage

   The security of various cryptographic functions lies both in the
   strength of the functions themselves against various forms of attack,
   and also, perhaps more importantly, in the keying material that is
   used with them.  While theoretical attacks against cryptographic
   functions are possible, it is more probable that key guessing is the
   main threat.

   The following are recommended in regard to user passwords:

   -  Password length SHOULD be at least 12 octets.
   -  Password sharing SHOULD be prohibited so that passwords are not
      shared among multiple SNMP users.
   -  Implementations SHOULD support the use of randomly generated
      passwords as a stronger form of security.

   It is worth remembering that, as specified in [RFC3414], if a user's
   password or a non-localized key is disclosed, then key localization
   will not help and network security may be compromised.  Therefore, a
   user's password or non-localized key MUST NOT be stored on a managed
   device/node.  Instead, the localized key SHALL be stored (if at all)
   so that, in case a device does get compromised, no other managed or
   managing devices get compromised.

2.  Definitions

   This MIB is written in SMIv2 [RFC2578].

SNMP-USM-AES-MIB DEFINITIONS ::= BEGIN
    IMPORTS
        MODULE-IDENTITY, OBJECT-IDENTITY,
        snmpModules             FROM SNMPv2-SMI          -- [RFC2578]
        snmpPrivProtocols       FROM SNMP-FRAMEWORK-MIB; -- [RFC3411]

snmpUsmAesMIB  MODULE-IDENTITY
    LAST-UPDATED "200406140000Z"
    ORGANIZATION "IETF"
    CONTACT-INFO "Uri Blumenthal
                  Lucent Technologies / Bell Labs
                  67 Whippany Rd.
                  14D-318
                  Whippany, NJ  07981, USA
                  973-386-2163
                  uri@bell-labs.com

                  Fabio Maino
                  Andiamo Systems, Inc.
                  375 East Tasman Drive
                  San Jose, CA  95134, USA
                  408-853-7530
                  fmaino@andiamo.com

                  Keith McCloghrie
                  Cisco Systems, Inc.
                  170 West Tasman Drive
                  San Jose, CA  95134-1706, USA

                  408-526-5260
                  kzm@cisco.com"
    DESCRIPTION  "Definitions of Object Identities needed for
                  the use of AES by SNMP's User-based Security
                  Model.

                  Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).

            This version of this MIB module is part of RFC 3826;
            see the RFC itself for full legal notices.
            Supplementary information may be available on
            http://www.ietf.org/copyrights/ianamib.html."

    REVISION     "200406140000Z"
    DESCRIPTION  "Initial version, published as RFC3826"

    ::= { snmpModules 20 }

usmAesCfb128Protocol OBJECT-IDENTITY
    STATUS        current
    DESCRIPTION  "The CFB128-AES-128 Privacy Protocol."
    REFERENCE    "- Specification for the ADVANCED ENCRYPTION
                    STANDARD. Federal Information Processing
                    Standard (FIPS) Publication 197.
                    (November 2001).

                  - Dworkin, M., NIST Recommendation for Block
                    Cipher Modes of Operation, Methods and
                    Techniques. NIST Special Publication 800-38A
                    (December 2001).
                 "
    ::= { snmpPrivProtocols 4 }

END

3.  CFB128-AES-128 Symmetric Encryption Protocol

   This section describes a Symmetric Encryption Protocol based on the
   AES cipher algorithm [FIPS-AES], used in Cipher Feedback Mode as
   described in [AES-MODE], using encryption keys with a size of 128
   bits.

   This protocol is identified by usmAesCfb128PrivProtocol.

   The protocol usmAesCfb128PrivProtocol is an alternative to the
   privacy protocol defined in [RFC3414].

3.1.  Mechanisms

   In support of data confidentiality, an encryption algorithm is
   required.  An appropriate portion of the message is encrypted prior
   to being transmitted.  The User-based Security Model specifies that
   the scopedPDU is the portion of the message that needs to be
   encrypted.

   A secret value is shared by all SNMP engines which can legitimately
   originate messages on behalf of the appropriate user.  This secret
   value, in combination with a timeliness value and a 64-bit integer,
   is used to create the (localized) en/decryption key and the
   initialization vector.

3.1.1.  The AES-based Symmetric Encryption Protocol

   The Symmetric Encryption Protocol defined in this memo provides
   support for data confidentiality.  The designated portion of an SNMP
   message is encrypted and included as part of the message sent to the
   recipient.

   The AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) is the symmetric cipher
   algorithm that the NIST (National Institute of Standards and
   Technology) has selected in a four-year competitive process as
   Replacement for DES (Data Encryption Standard).

   The AES homepage, http://www.nist.gov/aes, contains a wealth of
   information on AES including the Federal Information Processing
   Standard [FIPS-AES] that fully specifies the Advanced Encryption
   Standard.

   The following subsections contain descriptions of the relevant
   characteristics of the AES ciphers used in the symmetric encryption
   protocol described in this memo.

3.1.1.1.  Mode of operation

   The NIST Special Publication 800-38A [AES-MODE] recommends five
   confidentiality modes of operation for use with AES: Electronic
   Codebook (ECB), Cipher Block Chaining (CBC), Cipher Feedback (CFB),
   Output Feedback (OFB), and Counter (CTR).

   The symmetric encryption protocol described in this memo uses AES in
   CFB mode with the parameter S (number of bits fed back) set to 128
   according to the definition of CFB mode given in [AES-MODE].  This
   mode requires an Initialization Vector (IV) that is the same size as
   the block size of the cipher algorithm.

3.1.1.2.  Key Size

   In the encryption protocol described by this memo AES is used with a
   key size of 128 bits, as recommended in [AES-MODE].

3.1.1.3.  Block Size and Padding

   The block size of the AES cipher algorithms used in the encryption
   protocol described by this memo is 128 bits, as recommended in [AES-
   MODE].

3.1.1.4.  Rounds

   This parameter determines how many times a block is encrypted.  The
   encryption protocol described in this memo uses 10 rounds, as
   recommended in [AES-MODE].

3.1.2.  Localized Key, AES Encryption Key, and Initialization Vector

   The size of the Localized Key (Kul) of an SNMP user, as described in
   [RFC3414], depends on the authentication protocol defined for that
   user U at the authoritative SNMP engine E.

   The encryption protocol defined in this memo MUST be used with an
   authentication protocol that generates a localized key with at least
   128 bits.  The authentication protocols described in [RFC3414]
   satisfy this requirement.

3.1.2.1.  AES Encryption Key and IV

   The first 128 bits of the localized key Kul are used as the AES
   encryption key.  The 128-bit IV is obtained as the concatenation of
   the authoritative SNMP engine's 32-bit snmpEngineBoots, the SNMP
   engine's 32-bit snmpEngineTime, and a local 64-bit integer.  The 64-
   bit integer is initialized to a pseudo-random value at boot time.

   The IV is concatenated as follows: the 32-bit snmpEngineBoots is
   converted to the first 4 octets (Most Significant Byte first), the
   32-bit snmpEngineTime is converted to the subsequent 4 octets (Most
   Significant Byte first), and the 64-bit integer is then converted to
   the last 8 octets (Most Significant Byte first).  The 64-bit integer
   is then put into the msgPrivacyParameters field encoded as an OCTET
   STRING of length 8 octets.  The integer is then modified for the
   subsequent message.  We recommend that it is incremented by one until
   it reaches its maximum value, at which time it is wrapped.

   An implementation can use any method to vary the value of the local
   64-bit integer, providing the chosen method never generates a
   duplicate IV for the same key.

   A duplicated IV can result in the very unlikely event that multiple
   managers, communicating with a single authoritative engine, both
   accidentally select the same 64-bit integer within a second.  The
   probability of such an event is very low, and does not significantly
   affect the robustness of the mechanisms proposed.

   The 64-bit integer must be placed in the privParameters field to
   enable the receiving entity to compute the correct IV and to decrypt
   the message.  This 64-bit value is called the "salt" in this
   document.

   Note that the sender and receiver must use the same IV value, i.e.,
   they must both use the same values of the individual components used
   to create the IV.  In particular, both sender and receiver must use
   the values of snmpEngineBoots, snmpEngineTime, and the 64-bit integer
   which are contained in the relevant message (in the
   msgAuthoritativeEngineBoots, msgAuthoritativeEngineTime, and
   privParameters fields respectively).

3.1.3.  Data Encryption

   The data to be encrypted is treated as a sequence of octets.

   The data is encrypted in Cipher Feedback mode with the parameter s
   set to 128 according to the definition of CFB mode given in Section
   6.3 of [AES-MODE].  A clear diagram of the encryption and decryption
   process is given in Figure 3 of [AES-MODE].

   The plaintext is divided into 128-bit blocks.  The last block may
   have fewer than 128 bits, and no padding is required.

   The first input block is the IV, and the forward cipher operation is
   applied to the IV to produce the first output block.  The first
   ciphertext block is produced by exclusive-ORing the first plaintext
   block with the first output block.  The ciphertext block is also used
   as the input block for the subsequent forward cipher operation.

   The process is repeated with the successive input blocks until a
   ciphertext segment is produced from every plaintext segment.

   The last ciphertext block is produced by exclusive-ORing the last
   plaintext segment of r bits (r is less than or equal to 128) with the
   segment of the r most significant bits of the last output block.

3.1.4.  Data Decryption

   In CFB decryption, the IV is the first input block, the first
   ciphertext is used for the second input block, the second ciphertext
   is used for the third input block, etc.  The forward cipher function
   is applied to each input block to produce the output blocks.  The
   output blocks are exclusive-ORed with the corresponding ciphertext
   blocks to recover the plaintext blocks.

   The last ciphertext block (whose size r is less than or equal to 128)
   is exclusive-ORed with the segment of the r most significant bits of
   the last output block to recover the last plaintext block of r bits.

3.2.  Elements of the AES Privacy Protocol

   This section contains definitions required to realize the privacy
   modules defined by this memo.

3.2.1.  Users

   Data en/decryption using this Symmetric Encryption Protocol makes use
   of a defined set of userNames.  For any user on whose behalf a
   message must be en/decrypted at a particular SNMP engine, that SNMP
   engine must have knowledge of that user.  An SNMP engine that needs
   to communicate with another SNMP engine must also have knowledge of a
   user known to that SNMP engine, including knowledge of the applicable
   attributes of that user.

   A user and its attributes are defined as follows:

   <userName>
      An octet string representing the name of the user.

   <privAlg>
      The algorithm used to protect messages generated on behalf of the
      user from disclosure.

   <privKey>
      The user's secret key to be used as input to the generation of the
      localized key for encrypting/decrypting messages generated on
      behalf of the user.  The length of this key MUST be greater than
      or equal to 128 bits (16 octets).

   <authAlg>
      The algorithm used to authenticate messages generated on behalf of
      the user, which is also used to generate the localized version of
      the secret key.

3.2.2.  msgAuthoritativeEngineID

   The msgAuthoritativeEngineID value contained in an authenticated
   message specifies the authoritative SNMP engine for that particular
   message (see the definition of SnmpEngineID in the SNMP Architecture
   document [RFC3411]).

   The user's (private) privacy key is different at each authoritative
   SNMP engine, and so the snmpEngineID is used to select the proper key
   for the en/decryption process.

3.2.3.  SNMP Messages Using this Privacy Protocol

   Messages using this privacy protocol carry a msgPrivacyParameters
   field as part of the msgSecurityParameters.  For this protocol, the
   privParameters field is the serialized OCTET STRING representing the
   "salt" that was used to create the IV.

3.2.4.  Services provided by the AES Privacy Modules

   This section describes the inputs and outputs that the AES Privacy
   module expects and produces when the User-based Security module
   invokes one of the AES Privacy modules for services.

3.2.4.1.  Services for Encrypting Outgoing Data

   The AES privacy protocol assumes that the selection of the privKey is
   done by the caller, and that the caller passes the localized secret
   key to be used.

   Upon completion, the privacy module returns statusInformation and, if
   the encryption process was successful, the encryptedPDU and the
   msgPrivacyParameters encoded as an OCTET STRING.  The abstract
   service primitive is:

      statusInformation =              -- success or failure
        encryptData(
        IN    encryptKey               -- secret key for encryption
        IN    dataToEncrypt            -- data to encrypt (scopedPDU)
        OUT   encryptedData            -- encrypted data (encryptedPDU)
        OUT   privParameters           -- filled in by service provider
              )

   The abstract data elements are:

   statusInformation
      An indication of the success or failure of the encryption process.
      In case of failure, it is an indication of the error.

   encryptKey
      The secret key to be used by the encryption algorithm.  The length
      of this key MUST be 16 octets.

   dataToEncrypt
      The data that must be encrypted.

   encryptedData
      The encrypted data upon successful completion.

   privParameters
      The privParameters encoded as an OCTET STRING.

3.2.4.2.  Services for Decrypting Incoming Data

   This AES privacy protocol assumes that the selection of the privKey
   is done by the caller and that the caller passes the localized secret
   key to be used.

   Upon completion the privacy module returns statusInformation and, if
   the decryption process was successful, the scopedPDU in plain text.
   The abstract service primitive is:

      statusInformation =
        decryptData(
        IN    decryptKey               -- secret key for decryption
        IN    privParameters           -- as received on the wire
        IN    encryptedData            -- encrypted data (encryptedPDU)
        OUT   decryptedData            -- decrypted data (scopedPDU)
              )

   The abstract data elements are:

   statusInformation
      An indication of whether the data was successfully decrypted, and
      if not, an indication of the error.

   decryptKey
      The secret key to be used by the decryption algorithm.  The length
      of this key MUST be 16 octets.

   privParameters
      The 64-bit integer to be used to calculate the IV.

   encryptedData
      The data to be decrypted.

   decryptedData
      The decrypted data.

3.3.  Elements of Procedure

   This section describes the procedures for the AES privacy protocol
   for SNMP's User-based Security Model.

3.3.1.  Processing an Outgoing Message

   This section describes the procedure followed by an SNMP engine
   whenever it must encrypt part of an outgoing message using the
   usmAesCfb128PrivProtocol.

   1) The secret encryptKey is used to construct the AES encryption key,
      as described in section 3.1.2.1.

   2) The privParameters field is set to the serialization according to
      the rules in [RFC3417] of an OCTET STRING representing the 64-bit
      integer that will be used in the IV as described in section
      3.1.2.1.

   3) The scopedPDU is encrypted (as described in section 3.1.3) and the
      encrypted data is serialized according to the rules in [RFC3417]
      as an OCTET STRING.

   4) The serialized OCTET STRING representing the encrypted scopedPDU
      together with the privParameters and statusInformation indicating
      success is returned to the calling module.

3.3.2.  Processing an Incoming Message

   This section describes the procedure followed by an SNMP engine
   whenever it must decrypt part of an incoming message using the
   usmAesCfb128PrivProtocol.

   1) If the privParameters field is not an 8-octet OCTET STRING, then
      an error indication (decryptionError) is returned to the calling
      module.

   2) The 64-bit integer is extracted from the privParameters field.

   3) The secret decryptKey and the 64-bit integer are then used to
      construct the AES decryption key and the IV that is computed as
      described in section 3.1.2.1.

   4) The encryptedPDU is then decrypted (as described in section
      3.1.4).

   5) If the encryptedPDU cannot be decrypted, then an error indication
      (decryptionError) is returned to the calling module.

   6) The decrypted scopedPDU and statusInformation indicating success
      are returned to the calling module.

4.  Security Considerations

   The security of the cryptographic functions defined in this document
   lies both in the strength of the functions themselves against various
   forms of attack, and also, perhaps more importantly, in the keying
   material that is used with them.  The recommendations in Section 1.3
   SHOULD be followed to ensure maximum entropy to the selected
   passwords, and to protect the passwords while stored.

   The security of the CFB mode relies upon the use of a unique IV for
   each message encrypted with the same key [CRYPTO-B].  If the IV is
   not unique, a cryptanalyst can recover the corresponding plaintext.

   Section 3.1.2.1 defines a procedure to derive the IV from a local
   64-bit integer (the salt) initialized to a pseudo-random value at
   boot time.  An implementation can use any method to vary the value of
   the local 64-bit integer, providing the chosen method never generates
   a duplicate IV for the same key.

   The procedure of section 3.1.2.1 suggests a method to vary the local
   64-bit integer value that generates unique IVs for every message.
   This method can result in a duplicated IV in the very unlikely event
   that multiple managers, communicating with a single authoritative
   engine, both accidentally select the same 64-bit integer within a
   second.  The probability of such an event is very low, and does not
   significantly affect the robustness of the mechanisms proposed.

   This AES-based privacy protocol MUST be used with one of the
   authentication protocols defined in RFC 3414 or with an
   algorithm/protocol providing equivalent functionality (including
   integrity), because CFB encryption mode does not detect ciphertext
   modifications.

   For further security considerations, the reader is encouraged to read
   [RFC3414], and the documents that describe the actual cipher
   algorithms.

5.  IANA Considerations

   IANA has assigned OID 20 for the snmpUsmAesMIB module under the
   snmpModules subtree, maintained in the registry at
   http://www.iana.org/assignments/smi-numbers.

   IANA has assigned OID 4 for the usmAesCfb128Protocol under the
   snmpPrivProtocols registration point, as defined in RFC 3411
   [RFC3411].

6.  Acknowledgements

   Portions of this text, as well as its general structure, were
   unabashedly lifted from [RFC3414].  The authors are grateful to many
   of the SNMPv3 WG members for their help, especially Wes Hardaker,
   Steve Moulton, Randy Presuhn, David Town, and Bert Wijnen.  Security
   discussions with Steve Bellovin helped to streamline this protocol.

7.  References

7.1.  Normative References

   [AES-MODE] Dworkin, M., "NIST Recommendation for Block Cipher Modes
              of Operation, Methods and Techniques", NIST Special
              Publication 800-38A, December 2001.

   [FIPS-AES] "Specification for the ADVANCED ENCRYPTION STANDARD
              (AES)", Federal Information Processing Standard (FIPS)
              Publication 197, November 2001.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC2578]  McCloghrie, K., Perkins, D. and J. Schoenwaelder,
              "Structure of Management Information Version 2 (SMIv2)",
              STD 58, RFC 2578, April 1999.

   [RFC3411]  Harrington, D., Presuhn, R. and B. Wijnen, "An
              Architecture for Describing Simple Network Management
              Protocol (SNMP) Management Frameworks", STD 62, RFC 3411,
              December 2002.

   [RFC3414]  Blumenthal, U. and B. Wijnen, "User-based Security Model
              (USM) for version 3 of the Simple Network Management
              Protocol (SNMPv3)", STD 62, RFC 3414, December 2002.

   [RFC3417]  Presuhn, R., Ed., "Transport Mappings for the Simple
              Network Management Protocol (SNMP)", STD 62, RFC 3417,
              December 2002.

7.2.  Informative References

   [CRYPTO-B] Bellovin, S., "Probable Plaintext Cryptanalysis of the IP
              Security Protocols", Proceedings of the Symposium on
              Network and Distributed System Security, San Diego, CA,
              pp. 155-160, February 1997.

8.  Authors' Addresses

   Uri Blumenthal
   Lucent Technologies / Bell Labs
   67 Whippany Rd.
   14D-318
   Whippany, NJ  07981, USA

   Phone:  +1-973-386-2163
   EMail:  uri@bell-labs.com

   Fabio Maino
   Andiamo Systems, Inc.
   375 East Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA. 95134 USA

   Phone:  +1-408-853-7530
   EMail:  fmaino@andiamo.com

   Keith McCloghrie
   Cisco Systems, Inc.
   170 East Tasman Drive
   San Jose, CA. 95134-1706 USA

   Phone:  +1-408-526-5260
   EMail:  kzm@cisco.com

9.  Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2004).  This document is subject
   to the rights, licenses and restrictions contained in BCP 78, and
   except as set forth therein, the authors retain all their rights.

   This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
   OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET
   ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED,
   INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE
   INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
   WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.

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Acknowledgement

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.

 

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