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RFC 3558 - RTP Payload Format for Enhanced Variable Rate Codecs


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Network Working Group                                              A. Li
Request for Comments: 3558                                          UCLA
Category: Standards Track                                      July 2003

      RTP Payload Format for Enhanced Variable Rate Codecs (EVRC)
                   and Selectable Mode Vocoders (SMV)

Status of this Memo

   This document specifies an Internet standards track protocol for the
   Internet community, and requests discussion and suggestions for
   improvements.  Please refer to the current edition of the "Internet
   Official Protocol Standards" (STD 1) for the standardization state
   and status of this protocol.  Distribution of this memo is unlimited.

Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003).  All Rights Reserved.

Abstract

   This document describes the RTP payload format for Enhanced Variable
   Rate Codec (EVRC) Speech and Selectable Mode Vocoder (SMV) Speech.
   Two sub-formats are specified for different application scenarios.  A
   bundled/interleaved format is included to reduce the effect of packet
   loss on speech quality and amortize the overhead of the RTP header
   over more than one speech frame.  A non-bundled format is also
   supported for conversational applications.

Table of Contents

   1. Introduction ................................................... 2
   2. Background ..................................................... 2
   3. The Codecs Supported ........................................... 3
      3.1. EVRC ...................................................... 3
      3.2. SMV ....................................................... 3
      3.3. Other Frame-Based Vocoders ................................ 4
   4. RTP/Vocoder Packet Format ...................................... 4
      4.1. Interleaved/Bundled Packet Format ......................... 5
      4.2. Header-Free Packet Format ................................. 6
      4.3. Determining the Format of Packets ......................... 7
   5. Packet Table of Contents Entries and Codec Data Frame Format ... 7
      5.1. Packet Table of Contents entries .......................... 7
      5.2. Codec Data Frames ......................................... 8
   6. Interleaving Codec Data Frames ................................. 9
   7. Bundling Codec Data Frames .................................... 12
   8. Handling Missing Codec Data Frames ............................ 12

   9. Implementation Issues ......................................... 12
      9.1. Interleaving Length .......................................12
      9.2. Validation of Received Packets ............................13
      9.3. Processing the Late Packets ...............................13
   10. Mode Request ................................................. 13
   11. Storage Format ............................................... 14
   12. IANA Considerations .......................................... 15
      12.1. Registration of Media Type EVRC ..........................15
      12.2. Registration of Media Type EVRC0 .........................16
      12.3. Registration of Media Type SMV ...........................17
      12.4. Registration of Media Type SMV0 ..........................18
   13. Mapping to SDP Parameters .................................... 19
   14. Security Considerations ...................................... 20
   15. Adding Support of Other Frame-Based Vocoders ................. 20
   16. Acknowledgements ............................................. 21
   17. References ................................................... 21
      17.1 Normative ................................................ 21
      17.2 Informative .............................................. 22
   18. Author's Address ............................................. 22
   19. Full Copyright Statement ..................................... 23

1. Introduction

   This document describes how speech compressed with EVRC [1] or SMV
   [2] may be formatted for use as an RTP payload type.  The format is
   also extensible to other codecs that generate a similar set of frame
   types.  Two methods are provided to packetize the codec data frames
   into RTP packets: an interleaved/bundled format and a zero-header
   format.  The sender may choose the best format for each application
   scenario, based on network conditions, bandwidth availability, delay
   requirements, and packet-loss tolerance.

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in RFC 2119 [3].

2. Background

   The 3rd Generation Partnership Project 2 (3GPP2) has published two
   standards which define speech compression algorithms for CDMA
   applications: EVRC [1] and SMV [2].  EVRC is currently deployed in
   millions of first and second generation CDMA handsets.  SMV is the
   preferred speech codec standard for CDMA2000, and will be deployed in
   third generation handsets in addition to EVRC.  Improvements and new
   codecs will keep emerging as technology improves, and future handsets
   will likely support multiple codecs.

   The formats of the EVRC and SMV codec frames are very similar.  Many
   other vocoders also share common characteristics, and have many
   similar application scenarios.  This parallelism enables an RTP
   payload format to be designed for EVRC and SMV that may also support
   other, similar vocoders with minimal additional specification work.
   This can simplify the protocol for transporting vocoder data frames
   through RTP and reduce the complexity of implementations.

3. The Codecs Supported

3.1. EVRC

   The Enhanced Variable Rate Codec (EVRC) [1] compresses each 20
   milliseconds of 8000 Hz, 16-bit sampled speech input into output
   frames in one of the three different sizes: Rate 1 (171 bits), Rate
   1/2 (80 bits), or Rate 1/8 (16 bits).  In addition, there are two
   zero bit codec frame types: null frames and erasure frames.  Null
   frames are produced as a result of the vocoder running at rate 0.
   Null frames are zero bits long and are normally not transmitted.
   Erasure frames are the frames substituted by the receiver to the
   codec for the lost or damaged frames.  Erasure frames are also zero
   bits long and are normally not transmitted.

   The codec chooses the output frame rate based on analysis of the
   input speech and the current operating mode (either normal or one of
   several reduced rate modes).  For typical speech patterns, this
   results in an average output of 4.2 kilobits/second for normal mode
   and a lower average output for reduced rate modes.

3.2. SMV

   The Selectable Mode Vocoder (SMV) [2] compresses each 20 milliseconds
   of 8000 Hz, 16-bit sampled speech input into output frames of one of
   the four different sizes: Rate 1 (171 bits), Rate 1/2 (80 bits), Rate
   1/4 (40 bits), or Rate 1/8 (16 bits).  In addition, there are two
   zero bit codec frame types: null frames and erasure frames.  Null
   frames are produced as a result of the vocoder running at rate 0.
   Null frames are zero bits long and are normally not transmitted.
   Erasure frames are the frames substituted by the receiver to the
   codec for the lost or damaged frames.  Erasure frames are also zero
   bits long and are normally not transmitted.

   The SMV codec can operate in six modes.  Each mode may produce frames
   of any of the rates (full rate to 1/8 rate) for varying percentages
   of time, based on the characteristics of the speech samples and the
   selected mode.  The SMV mode can change on a
   frame-by-frame basis.  The SMV codec does not need additional
   information other than the codec data frames to correctly decode the

   data of various modes; therefore, the mode of the encoder does not
   need to be transmitted with the encoded frames.

   The SMV codec chooses the output frame rate based on analysis of the
   input speech and the current operating mode.  For typical speech
   patterns, this results in an average output of 4.2 kilobits/second
   for Mode 0 in two way conversation (approximately 50% active speech
   time and 50% in eighth rate while listening) and lower for other
   reduced rate modes.  SMV is more bandwidth efficient than EVRC.  EVRC
   is equivalent in performance to SMV mode 1.

3.3. Other Frame-Based Vocoders

   Other frame-based vocoders can be carried in the packet format
   defined in this document, as long as they possess the following
   properties:

      o The codec is frame-based;
      o blank and erasure frames are supported;
      o the total number of rates is less than 17;
      o the maximum full rate frame can be transported in a single RTP
        packet using this specific format.

   Vocoders with the characteristics listed above can be transported
   using the packet format specified in this document with some
   additional specification work; the pieces that must be defined are
   listed in Section 15.

4. RTP/Vocoder Packet Format

   The vocoder speech data may be transmitted in either of the two RTP
   packet formats specified in the following two subsections, as
   appropriate for the application scenario.  In the packet format
   diagrams shown in this document, bit 0 is the most significant bit.

4.1. Interleaved/Bundled Packet Format

   This format is used to send one or more vocoder frames per packet.
   Interleaving or bundling MAY be used.  The RTP packet for this format
   is as follows:

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      RTP Header [4]                           |
   +=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
   |R|R| LLL | NNN | MMM |  Count  |  TOC  |  ...  |  TOC  |padding|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |        one or more codec data frames, one per TOC entry       |
   |                             ....                              |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

   The RTP header has the expected values as described in the RTP
   specification [4].  The RTP timestamp is in 1/8000 of a second units
   for EVRC and SMV.  For any other vocoders that use this packet
   format, the timestamp unit needs to be defined explicitly.  The M bit
   should be set as specified in the applicable RTP profile, for
   example, RFC 3551 [5].  Note that RFC 3551 [5] specifies that if the
   sender does not suppress silence, the M bit will always be zero.
   When multiple codec data frames are present in a single RTP packet,
   the timestamp is that of the oldest data represented in the RTP
   packet.  The assignment of an RTP payload type for this packet format
   is outside the scope of this document; it is specified by the RTP
   profile under which this payload format is used.

   The first octet of a Interleaved/Bundled format packet is the
   Interleave Octet.  The second octet contains the Mode Request and
   Frame Count fields.  The Table of Contents (ToC) field then follows.
   The fields are specified as follows:

   Reserved (RR): 2 bits
      Reserved bits.  MUST be set to zero by sender, SHOULD be ignored
      by receiver.

   Interleave Length (LLL): 3 bits
      Indicates the length of interleave; a value of 0 indicates
      bundling, a special case of interleaving.  See Section 6 and
      Section 7 for more detailed discussion.

   Interleave Index (NNN): 3 bits
      Indicates the index within an interleave group.  MUST have a value
      less than or equal to the value of LLL.  Values of NNN greater
      than the value of LLL are invalid.  Packet with invalid NNN values
      SHOULD be ignored by the receiver.

   Mode Request (MMM): 3 bits
      The Mode Request field is used to signal Mode Request information.
      See Section 10 for details.

   Frame Count (Count): 5 bits
      The number of ToC fields (and vocoder frames) present in the
      packet is the value of the frame count field plus one.  A value of
      zero indicates that the packet contains one ToC field, while a
      value of 31 indicates that the packet contains 32 ToC fields.

   Padding (padding): 0 or 4 bits
      This padding ensures that codec data frames start on an octet
      boundary.  When the frame count is odd, the sender MUST add 4 bits
      of padding following the last TOC.  When the frame count is even,
      the sender MUST NOT add padding bits.  If padding is present, the
      padding bits MUST be set to zero by sender, and SHOULD be ignored
      by receiver.

   The Table of Contents field (ToC) provides information on the codec
   data frame(s) in the packet.  There is one ToC entry for each codec
   data frame.  The detailed formats of the ToC field and codec data
   frames are specified in Section 5.

   Multiple data frames may be included within a Interleaved/Bundled
   packet using interleaving or bundling as described in Section 6 and
   Section 7.

4.2. Header-Free Packet Format

   The Header-Free Packet Format is designed for maximum bandwidth
   efficiency and low latency.  Only one codec data frame can be sent in
   each Header-Free format packet.  None of the payload header fields
   (LLL, NNN, MMM, Count) nor ToC entries are present.  The codec rate
   for the data frame can be determined from the length of the codec
   data frame, since there is only one codec data frame in each
   Header-Free packet.

   Use of the RTP header fields for Header-Free RTP/Vocoder Packet
   Format is the same as described in Section 4.1 for
   Interleaved/Bundled RTP/Vocoder Packet Format.  The detailed format
   of the codec data frame is specified in Section 5.

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                      RTP Header [4]                           |
   +=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+=+
   |                                                               |
   +          ONLY one codec data frame            +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |                                               |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

4.3. Determining the Format of Packets

   All receivers SHOULD be able to process both packet formats.  The
   sender MAY choose to use one or both packet formats.

   A receiver MUST have prior knowledge of the packet format to
   correctly decode the RTP packets.  When packets of both formats are
   used within the same session, different RTP payload type values MUST
   be used for each format to distinguish the packet formats.  The
   association of payload type number with the packet format is done
   out-of-band, for example by SDP during the setup of a session.

5. Packet Table of Contents Entries and Codec Data Frame Format

5.1. Packet Table of Contents entries

   Each codec data frame in a Interleaved/Bundled packet has a
   corresponding Table of Contents (ToC) entry.  The ToC entry indicates
   the rate of the codec frame.  (Header-Free packets MUST NOT have a
   ToC field.)

   Each ToC entry is occupies four bits.  The format of the bits is
   indicated below:

       0 1 2 3
      +-+-+-+-+
      |fr type|
      +-+-+-+-+

   Frame Type: 4 bits
      The frame type indicates the type of the corresponding codec data
      frame in the RTP packet.

   For EVRC and SMV codecs, the frame type values and size of the
   associated codec data frame are described in the table below:

   Value   Rate      Total codec data frame size (in octets)
   ---------------------------------------------------------
     0     Blank      0    (0 bit)
     1     1/8        2    (16 bits)
     2     1/4        5    (40 bits; not valid for EVRC)
     3     1/2       10    (80 bits)
     4     1         22    (171 bits; 5 padded at end with zeros)
     5     Erasure    0    (SHOULD NOT be transmitted by sender)

   All values not listed in the above table MUST be considered reserved.
   A ToC entry with a reserved Frame Type value SHOULD be considered
   invalid.  Note that the EVRC codec does not have 1/4 rate frames,
   thus frame type value 2 MUST be considered a reserved value when the
   EVRC codec is in use.

   Other vocoders that use this packet format need to specify their own
   table of frame types and corresponding codec data frames.

5.2. Codec Data Frames

   The output of the vocoder MUST be converted into codec data frames
   for inclusion in the RTP payload.  The conversions for EVRC and SMV
   codecs are specified below.  (Note: Because the EVRC codec does not
   have Rate 1/4 frames, the specifications of 1/4 frames does not apply
   to EVRC codec data frames).  Other vocoders that use this packet
   format need to specify how to convert vocoder output data into
   frames.

   The codec output data bits as numbered in EVRC and SMV are packed
   into octets.  The lowest numbered bit (bit 1 for Rate 1, Rate 1/2,
   Rate 1/4 and Rate 1/8) is placed in the most significant bit
   (internet bit 0) of octet 1 of the codec data frame, the second
   lowest bit is placed in the second most significant bit of the first
   octet, the third lowest in the third most significant bit of the
   first octet, and so on.  This continues until all of the bits have
   been placed in the codec data frame.

   The remaining unused bits of the last octet of the codec data frame
   MUST be set to zero.  Note that in EVRC and SMV this is only
   applicable to Rate 1 frames (171 bits) as the Rate 1/2 (80 bits),
   Rate 1/4 (40 bits, SMV only) and Rate 1/8 frames (16 bits) fit
   exactly into a whole number of octets.

   Following is a detailed listing showing a Rate 1 EVRC/SMV codec
   output frame converted into a codec data frame:

   The codec data frame for a EVRC/SMV codec Rate 1 frame is 22 octets
   long.  Bits 1 through 171 from the EVRC/SMV codec Rate 1 frame are
   placed as indicated, with bits marked with "Z" set to zero.  EVRC/SMV
   codec Rate 1/8, Rate 1/4 and Rate 1/2 frames are converted similarly,
   but do not require zero padding because they align on octet
   boundaries.

                        Rate 1 codec data frame

    0                   1                   2                   3
    0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|
   |0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|0|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|2|2|2|2|2|2|2|2|2|2|3|3|3|
   |1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9|0|1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9|0|1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9|0|1|2|
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   :                                                               :
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+
   |1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1|1| | | | | |
   |4|4|4|4|4|5|5|5|5|5|5|5|5|5|5|6|6|6|6|6|6|6|6|6|6|7|7|Z|Z|Z|Z|Z|
   |5|6|7|8|9|0|1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9|0|1|2|3|4|5|6|7|8|9|0|1| | | | | |
   +-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+-+

6. Interleaving Codec Data Frames

   As indicated in Section 4.1, more than one codec data frame MAY be
   included in a single Interleaved/Bundled packet by a sender.  This is
   accomplished by interleaving or bundling.

   Bundling is used to spread the transmission overhead of the RTP and
   payload header over multiple vocoder frames.  Interleaving
   additionally reduces the listener's perception of data loss by
   spreading such loss over non-consecutive vocoder frames.  EVRC, SMV,
   and similar vocoders are able to compensate for an occasional lost
   frame, but speech quality degrades exponentially with consecutive
   frame loss.

   Bundling is signaled by setting the LLL field to zero and the Count
   field to greater than zero.  Interleaving is indicated by setting the
   LLL field to a value greater than zero.

   The discussions on general interleaving apply to the bundling (which
   can be viewed as a reduced case of interleaving) with reduced
   complexity.  The bundling case is discussed in detail in Section 7.

   Senders MAY support interleaving and/or bundling.  All receivers that
   support Interleave/Bundling packet format MUST support both
   interleaving and bundling.

   Given a time-ordered sequence of output frames from the codec
   numbered 0..n, a bundling value B (the value in the Count field plus
   one), and an interleave length L where n = B * (L+1) - 1, the output
   frames are placed into RTP packets as follows (the values of the
   fields LLL and NNN are indicated for each RTP packet):

   First RTP Packet in Interleave group:
      LLL=L, NNN=0
      Frame 0, Frame L+1, Frame 2(L+1), Frame 3(L+1), ... for a total of
      B frames

   Second RTP Packet in Interleave group:
      LLL=L, NNN=1
      Frame 1, Frame 1+L+1, Frame 1+2(L+1), Frame 1+3(L+1), ... for a
      total of B frames

   This continues to the last RTP packet in the interleave group:

   L+1 RTP Packet in Interleave group:
      LLL=L, NNN=L
      Frame L, Frame L+L+1, Frame L+2(L+1), Frame L+3(L+1), ... for a
      total of B frames

   Within each interleave group, the RTP packets making up the
   interleave group MUST be transmitted in value-increasing order of the
   NNN field.  While this does not guarantee reduced end-to-end delay on
   the receiving end, when packets are delivered in order by the
   underlying transport, delay will be reduced to the minimum possible.

   Receivers MAY signal the maximum number of codec data frames (i.e.,
   the maximum acceptable bundling value B) they can handle in a single
   RTP packet using the OPTIONAL maxptime RTP mode parameter identified
   in Section 12.

   Receivers MAY signal the maximum interleave length (i.e., the maximum
   acceptable LLL value in the Interleaving Octet) they will accept
   using the OPTIONAL maxinterleave RTP mode parameter identified in
   Section 12.

   The parameters maxptime and maxinterleave are exchanged at the
   initial setup of the session.  In one-to-one sessions, the sender
   MUST respect these values set be the receiver, and MUST NOT
   interleave/bundle more packets than what the receiver signals that it
   can handle.  This ensures that the receiver can allocate a known
   amount of buffer space that will be sufficient for all
   interleaving/bundling used in that session.  During the session, the
   sender may decrease the bundling value or interleaving length (so
   that less buffer space is required at the receiver), but never exceed

   the maximum value set by the receiver.  This prevents the situation
   where a receiver needs to allocate more buffer space in the middle of
   a session but is unable to do so.

   Additionally, senders have the following restrictions:

   o  MUST NOT bundle more codec data frames in a single RTP packet than
      indicated by maxptime (see Section 12) if it is signaled.

   o  SHOULD NOT bundle more codec data frames in a single RTP packet
      than will fit in the MTU of the underlying network.

   o  Once beginning a session with a given maximum interleaving value
      set by maxinterleave in Section 12, MUST NOT increase the
      interleaving value (LLL) to exceed the maximum interleaving value
      that is signaled.

   o  MAY change the interleaving value, but MUST do so only between
      interleave groups.

   o  Silence suppression MUST only be used between interleave groups.
      A ToC with Frame Type 0 (Blank Frame, Section 5.1) MUST be used
      within interleaving groups if the codec outputs a blank frame.
      The M bit in the RTP header is not set for these blank frames, as
      the stream is continuous in time.  Because there is only one time
      stamp for each RTP packet, silence suppression used within an
      interleave group would cause ambiguities when reconstructing the
      speech at the receiver side, and thus is prohibited.

   Given an RTP packet with sequence number S, interleave length (field
   LLL) L, interleave index value (field NNN) N, and bundling value B,
   the interleave group consists of this RTP packet and other RTP
   packets with sequence numbers from S-N mod 65536 to S-N+L mod 65536
   inclusive.  In other words, the interleave group always consists of
   L+1 RTP packets with sequential sequence numbers.  The bundling value
   for all RTP packets in an interleave group MUST be the same.

   The receiver determines the expected bundling value for all RTP
   packets in an interleave group by the number of codec data frames
   bundled in the first RTP packet of the interleave group received.
   Note that this may not be the first RTP packet of the interleave
   group if packets are delivered out of order by the underlying
   transport.

7. Bundling Codec Data Frames

   As discussed in Section 6, the bundling of codec data frames is a
   special reduced case of interleaving with LLL value in the Interleave
   Octet set to 0.

   Bundling codec data frames indicates that multiple data frames are
   included consecutively in a packet, because the interleaving length
   (LLL) is 0.  The interleaving group is thus reduced to a single RTP
   packet, and the reconstruction of the codec data frames from RTP
   packets becomes a much simpler process.

   Furthermore, the additional restrictions on senders are reduced to:

   o  MUST NOT bundle more codec data frames in a single RTP packet than
      indicated by maxptime (see Section 12) if it is signaled.

   o  SHOULD NOT bundle more codec data frames in a single RTP packet
      than will fit in the MTU of the underlying network.

8. Handling Missing Codec Data Frames

   The vocoders covered by this payload format support erasure frames as
   an indication when frames are not available.  The erasure frames are
   normally used internally by a receiver to advance the state of the
   voice decoder by exactly one frame time for each missing frame.
   Using the information from packet sequence number, time stamp, and
   the M bit, the receiver can detect missing codec data frames from RTP
   packet loss and/or silence suppression, and generate corresponding
   erasure frames.  Erasure frames MUST also be used in storage format
   to record missing frames.

9. Implementation Issues

9.1. Interleaving Length

   The vocoder interpolates the missing speech content when given an
   erasure frame.  However, the best quality is perceived by the
   listener when erasure frames are not consecutive.  This makes
   interleaving desirable as it increases speech quality when packet
   loss occurs.

   On the other hand, interleaving can greatly increase the end-to-end
   delay.  Where an interactive session is desired, either
   Interleaved/Bundled packet format with interleaving length (field
   LLL) 0 or Header-Free packet format is RECOMMENDED.

   When end-to-end delay is not a primary concern, an interleaving
   length (field LLL) of 4 or 5 is RECOMMENDED as it offers a reasonable
   compromise between robustness and latency.

9.2. Validation of Received Packets

   When receiving an RTP packet, the receiver SHOULD check the validity
   of the ToC fields and match the length of the packet with what is
   indicated by the ToC fields.  If any invalidity or mismatch is
   detected, it is RECOMMENDED to discard the received packet to avoid
   potential severe degradation of the speech quality.  The discarded
   packet is treated following the same procedure as a lost packet, and
   the discarded data will be replaced with erasure frames.

   On receipt of an RTP packet with an invalid value of the LLL or NNN
   fields, the RTP packet SHOULD be treated as lost by the receiver for
   the purpose of generating erasure frames as described in Section 8.

   On receipt of an RTP packet in an interleave group with other than
   the expected frame count value, the receiver MAY discard codec data
   frames off the end of the RTP packet or add erasure codec data frames
   to the end of the packet in order to manufacture a substitute packet
   with the expected bundling value.  The receiver MAY instead choose to
   discard the whole interleave group.

9.3. Processing the Late Packets

   Assume that the receiver has begun playing frames from an interleave
   group.  The time has come to play frame x from packet n of the
   interleave group.  Further assume that packet n of the interleave
   group has not been received.  As described in Section 8, an erasure
   frame will be sent to the receiving vocoder.

   Now, assume that packet n of the interleave group arrives before
   frame x+1 of that packet is needed.  Receivers should use frame x+1
   of the newly received packet n rather than substituting an erasure
   frame.  In other words, just because packet n was not available the
   first time it was needed to reconstruct the interleaved speech, the
   receiver should not assume it is not available when it is
   subsequently needed for interleaved speech reconstruction.

10.  Mode Request

   The Mode Request signal requests a particular encoding mode for the
   speech encoding in the reverse direction.  All implementations are
   RECOMMENDED to honor the Mode Request signal.  The Mode Request
   signal SHOULD only be used in one-to-one sessions.  In multi-party
   sessions, any received Mode Request signals SHOULD be ignored.

   In addition, the Mode Request signal MAY also be sent through non-RTP
   means, which is out of the scope of this specification.

   The three-bit Mode Request field is used to signal the receiver to
   set a particular encoding mode to its audio encoder.  If the Mode
   Request field is set to a valid value in RTP packets from node A to
   node B, it is a request for node B to change to the requested
   encoding mode for its audio encoder and therefore the bit rate of the
   RTP stream from node B to node A.  Once a node sets this field to a
   value, it SHOULD continue to set the field to the same value in
   subsequent packets until the requested mode is different.  This
   design helps to eliminate the scenario of getting the codec stuck in
   an unintended state if one of the packets that carries the Mode
   Request is lost.  An otherwise silent node MAY send an RTP packet
   containing a blank frame in order to send a Mode Request.

   Each codec type using this format SHOULD define its own
   interpretation of the Mode Request field.  Codecs SHOULD follow the
   convention that higher values of the three-bit field correspond to an
   equal or lower average output bit rate.

   For the EVRC codec, the Mode Request field MUST be interpreted
   according to Tables 2.2.1.2-1 and 2.2.1.2-2 of the EVRC codec
   specifications [1].

   For SMV codec, the Mode Request field MUST be interpreted according
   to Table 2.2-2 of the SMV codec specifications [2].

11.  Storage Format

   The storage format is used for storing speech frames, e.g., as a file
   or e-mail attachment.

   The file begins with a magic number to identify the vocoder that is
   used.  The magic number for EVRC corresponds to the ASCII character
   string "#!EVRC\n", i.e., "0x23 0x21 0x45 0x56 0x52 0x43 0x0A".  The
   magic number for SMV corresponds to the ASCII character string
   "#!SMV\n", i.e., "0x23 0x21 0x53 0x4d 0x56 0x0a".

   The codec data frames are stored in consecutive order, with a single
   TOC entry field, extended to one octet, prefixing each codec data
   frame.  The ToC field is extended to one octet by setting the four
   most significant bits of the octet to zero.  For example, a ToC value
   of 4 (a full-rate frame) is stored as 0x04.

   Speech frames lost in transmission and non-received frames MUST be
   stored as erasure frames (frame type 5, see definition in Section
   5.1) to maintain synchronization with the original media.

12.  IANA Considerations

   Four new MIME sub-types as described in this section have been
   registered by the IANA.

   The MIME-names for the EVRC and SMV codec are allocated from the IETF
   tree since all the vocoders covered are expected to be widely used
   for Voice-over-IP applications.

12.1.  Registration of Media Type EVRC

   Media Type Name:           audio

   Media Subtype Name:        EVRC

   Required Parameter:        none

   Optional parameters:
      The following parameters apply to RTP transfer only.

      ptime:    Defined as usual for RTP audio (see RFC 2327).

      maxptime: The maximum amount of media which can be encapsulated in
         each packet, expressed as time in milliseconds.  The time SHALL
         be calculated as the sum of the time the media present in the
         packet represents.  The time SHOULD be a multiple of the
         duration of a single codec data frame (20 msec).  If not
         signaled, the default maxptime value SHALL be 200 milliseconds.

      maxinterleave: Maximum number for interleaving length (field LLL
         in the Interleaving Octet).  The interleaving lengths used in
         the entire session MUST NOT exceed this maximum value.  If not
         signaled, the maxinterleave length SHALL be 5.

   Encoding considerations:
      This type is defined for transfer of EVRC-encoded data via RTP
      using the Interleaved/Bundled packet format specified in Sections
      4.1, 6, and 7 of RFC 3558.  It is also defined for other transfer
      methods using the storage format specified in Section 11 of RFC
      3558.

   Security considerations:
      See Section 14 "Security Considerations" of RFC 3558.

   Public specification:
      The EVRC vocoder is specified in 3GPP2 C.S0014.  Transfer methods
      are specified in RFC 3558.

   Additional information:
      The following information applies for storage format only.

      Magic number: #!EVRC\n (see Section 11 of RFC 3558)
      File extensions: evc, EVC
      Macintosh file type code: none
      Object identifier or OID: none

   Intended usage:
      COMMON.  It is expected that many VoIP applications (as well as
      mobile applications) will use this type.

   Person & email address to contact for further information:
      Adam Li
      adamli@icsl.ucla.edu

   Author/Change controller:
      Adam Li
      adamli@icsl.ucla.edu
      IETF Audio/Video Transport Working Group

12.2. Registration of Media Type EVRC0

   Media Type Name:           audio

   Media Subtype Name:        EVRC0

   Required Parameters:       none

   Optional parameters:       none

   Encoding considerations:   none
      This type is only defined for transfer of EVRC-encoded data via
      RTP using the Header-Free packet format specified in Section 4.2
      of RFC 3558.

   Security considerations:
      See Section 14 "Security Considerations" of RFC 3558.

   Public specification:
      The EVRC vocoder is specified in 3GPP2 C.S0014.  Transfer methods
      are specified in RFC 3558.

   Additional information:    none

   Intended usage:
      COMMON.  It is expected that many VoIP applications (as well as
      mobile applications) will use this type.

   Person & email address to contact for further information:
      Adam Li
      adamli@icsl.ucla.edu

   Author/Change controller:
      Adam Li
      adamli@icsl.ucla.edu
      IETF Audio/Video Transport Working Group

12.3. Registration of Media Type SMV

   Media Type Name:           audio

   Media Subtype Name:        SMV

   Required Parameter:        none

   Optional parameters:
   The following parameters apply to RTP transfer only.

      ptime:    Defined as usual for RTP audio (see RFC 2327).

      maxptime: The maximum amount of media which can be encapsulated
         in each packet, expressed as time in milliseconds.  The time
         SHALL be calculated as the sum of the time the media present
         in the packet represents.  The time SHOULD be a multiple of the
         duration of a single codec data frame (20 msec).  If not
         signaled, the default maxptime value SHALL be 200
         milliseconds.

      maxinterleave: Maximum number for interleaving length (field LLL
         in the Interleaving Octet).  The interleaving lengths used in
         the entire session MUST NOT exceed this maximum value.  If not
         signaled, the maxinterleave length SHALL be 5.

   Encoding considerations:
      This type is defined for transfer of SMV-encoded data via RTP
      using the Interleaved/Bundled packet format specified in Section
      4.1, 6, and 7 of RFC 3558.  It is also defined for other transfer
      methods using the storage format specified in Section 11 of RFC
      3558.

   Security considerations:
      See Section 14 "Security Considerations" of RFC 3558.

   Public specification:
      The SMV vocoder is specified in 3GPP2 C.S0030-0 v2.0.
      Transfer methods are specified in RFC 3558.

   Additional information:
      The following information applies to storage format only.

      Magic number: #!SMV\n (see Section 11 of RFC 3558)
      File extensions: smv, SMV
      Macintosh file type code: none
      Object identifier or OID: none

   Intended usage:
      COMMON.  It is expected that many VoIP applications (as well as
      mobile applications) will use this type.

   Person & email address to contact for further information:
      Adam Li
      adamli@icsl.ucla.edu

   Author/Change controller:
      Adam Li
      adamli@icsl.ucla.edu
      IETF Audio/Video Transport Working Group

12.4. Registration of Media Type SMV0

   Media Type Name:           audio

   Media Subtype Name:        SMV0

   Required Parameter:        none

   Optional parameters:       none

   Encoding considerations:   none
      This type is only defined for transfer of SMV-encoded data via RTP
      using the Header-Free packet format specified in Section 4.2 of
      RFC 3558.

   Security considerations:
      See Section 14 "Security Considerations" of RFC 3558.

   Public specification:
      The SMV vocoder is specified in 3GPP2 C.S0030-0 v2.0.  Transfer
      methods are specified in RFC 3558.

   Additional information:    none

   Intended usage:
      COMMON.  It is expected that many VoIP applications (as well as
      mobile applications) will use this type.

   Person & email address to contact for further information:
      Adam Li
      adamli@icsl.ucla.edu

   Author/Change controller:
      Adam Li
      adamli@icsl.ucla.edu
      IETF Audio/Video Transport Working Group

13.  Mapping to SDP Parameters

   Please note that this section applies to the RTP transfer only.

   The information carried in the MIME media type specification has a
   specific mapping to fields in the Session Description Protocol (SDP)
   [6], which is commonly used to describe RTP sessions.  When SDP is
   used to specify sessions employing the EVRC or EMV codec, the mapping
   is as follows:

      o  The MIME type ("audio") goes in SDP "m=" as the media name.

      o  The MIME subtype (payload format name) goes in SDP "a=rtpmap"
         as the encoding name.

      o  The parameters "ptime" and "maxptime" go in the SDP "a=ptime"
         and "a=maxptime" attributes, respectively.

      o  The parameter "maxinterleave" goes in the SDP "a=fmtp"
         attribute by copying it directly from the MIME media type
         string as "maxinterleave=value".

   Some examples of SDP session descriptions for EVRC and SMV encodings
   follow below.

   Example of usage of EVRC:

      m=audio 49120 RTP/AVP 97
      a=rtpmap:97 EVRC/8000
      a=fmtp:97 maxinterleave=2
      a=maxptime:80

   Example of usage of SMV

      m=audio 49122 RTP/AVP 99
      a=rtpmap:99 SMV0/8000
      a=fmtp:99

   Note that the payload format (encoding) names are commonly shown in
   upper case.  MIME subtypes are commonly shown in lower case.  These
   names are case-insensitive in both places.  Similarly, parameter
   names are case-insensitive both in MIME types and in the default
   mapping to the SDP a=fmtp attribute.

14.  Security Considerations

   RTP packets using the payload format defined in this specification
   are subject to the security considerations discussed in the RTP
   specification [4], and any appropriate profile (for example [5]).
   This implies that confidentiality of the media streams is achieved by
   encryption.  Because the data compression used with this payload
   format is applied end-to-end, encryption may be performed after
   compression so there is no conflict between the two operations.

   A potential denial-of-service threat exists for data encoding using
   compression techniques that have non-uniform receiver-end
   computational load.  The attacker can inject pathological datagrams
   into the stream which are complex to decode and cause the receiver to
   become overloaded.  However, the encodings covered in this document
   do not exhibit any significant non-uniformity.

   As with any IP-based protocol, in some circumstances, a receiver may
   be overloaded simply by the receipt of too many packets, either
   desired or undesired.  Network-layer authentication may be used to
   discard packets from undesired sources, but the processing cost of
   the authentication itself may be too high.  In a multicast
   environment, pruning of specific sources may be implemented in future
   versions of IGMP [7] and in multicast routing protocols to allow a
   receiver to select which sources are allowed to reach it.

   Interleaving may affect encryption.  Depending on the used encryption
   scheme there may be restrictions on, for example, the time when keys
   can be changed.  Specifically, the key change may need to occur at
   the boundary between interleave groups.

15.  Adding Support of Other Frame-Based Vocoders

   As described above, the RTP packet format defined in this document is
   very flexible and designed to be usable by other frame-based
   vocoders.

   Additional vocoders using this format MUST have properties as
   described in Section 3.3.

   For an eligible vocoder to use the payload format mechanisms defined
   in this document, a new RTP payload format document needs to be
   published as a standards track RFC.  That document can simply refer
   to this document and then specify the following parameters:

      o Define the unit used for RTP time stamp;
      o Define the meaning of the Mode Request bits;
      o Define corresponding codec data frame type values for ToC;
      o Define the conversion procedure for vocoders output data frame;
      o Define a magic number for storage format, and complete the
        corresponding MIME registration.

16.  Acknowledgements

   The following authors have made significant contributions to this
   document: Adam H. Li, John D. Villasenor, Dong-Seek Park, Jeong-Hoon
   Park, Keith Miller, S. Craig Greer, David Leon, Nikolai Leung,
   Marcello Lioy, Kyle J. McKay, Magdalena L. Espelien, Randall Gellens,
   Tom Hiller, Peter J. McCann, Stinson S. Mathai, Michael D. Turner,
   Ajay Rajkumar, Dan Gal, Magnus Westerlund, Lars-Erik Jonsson, Greg
   Sherwood, and Thomas Zeng.

17.  References

17.1 Normative

   [1]  3GPP2 C.S0014, "Enhanced Variable Rate Codec, Speech Service
        Option 3 for Wideband Spread Spectrum Digital Systems", January
        1997.

   [2]  3GPP2 C.S0030-0 v2.0, "Selectable Mode Vocoder, Service Option
        for Wideband Spread Spectrum Communication Systems", May 2002.

   [3]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement
        Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [4]  Schulzrinne, H., Casner, S., Jacobson, V. and R. Frederick,
        "RTP: A Transport Protocol for Real-Time Applications", RFC
        3550, July 2003.

   [5]  Schulzrinne, H. and S. Casner, "RTP Profile for Audio and Video
        Conferences with Minimal Control", RFC 3551, July 2003.

   [6]  Handley, M. and V. Jacobson, "SDP: Session Description
        Protocol", RFC 2327, April 1998.

17.2 Informative

   [7]  Deering, S., "Host Extensions for IP Multicasting", STD 5, RFC
        1112, August 1989.

18.  Author's Address

   Adam H. Li
   Image Communication Lab
   Electrical Engineering Department
   University of California
   Los Angeles, CA 90095
   USA

   Phone: +1 310 825 5178
   EMail: adamli@icsl.ucla.edu

19.  Full Copyright Statement

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2003).  All Rights Reserved.

   This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to
   others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it
   or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published
   and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any
   kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this paragraph are
   included on all such copies and derivative works.  However, this
   document itself may not be modified in any way, such as by removing
   the copyright notice or references to the Internet Society or other
   Internet organizations, except as needed for the purpose of
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   copyrights defined in the Internet Standards process must be
   followed, or as required to translate it into languages other than
   English.

   The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be
   revoked by the Internet Society or its successors or assigns.

   This document and the information contained herein is provided on an
   "AS IS" basis and THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET ENGINEERING
   TASK FORCE DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING
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Acknowledgement

   Funding for the RFC Editor function is currently provided by the
   Internet Society.

 

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