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RFC 194 - The Data Reconfiguration Service -- Compiler/Interpret


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                                      Vint Cerf - UCLA

                                      Eric Harslem - Rand

RFC 194                               John Heafner - Rand
NIC 7139
Category: D.4                         Bob Metcalfe - MIT
Updates: None
Obsoletes: None                       Jim White - UCSB

                  THE DATA RECONFIGURATION SERVICE --

               COMPILER/INTERPRETER IMPLEMENTATION NOTES

                    I.  NEW FEATURES OF THE LANGUAGE

1.   The meaning of S(#,E,,l) is only find an arbitrary
     number  (<=256) of EBCDIC characters and store them in
     identifier S.  This descriptor is terminated only by
     an invalid EBCDIC or by exceeding maximum permissible
     character count (256).
2.   The assignment (S .<=. T) causes all attributes of
     identifier T to be given to S, i.e., length, type,
     and contents.
3.   (S .<=. T || X) concatenates X onto the right-hand
     side of T and stores the result in S.  If T and X
     are binary the resulting value has a length equal
     to the sum L(T) + L(X).
4.   T(X) joins L(X) and V(X) as a built-in identifier
     function.
     T(X) = type of identifier X.
     L(X) = length of contents of X.
     V(X) = contents of X converted to binary
            (decimal - binary is presently the only
            transformation).
5.   New types ED and AD are EBCDIC and ASCII encoded
     decimal, respectively.  These have been added to
     complement the V(X) function.
6.   New type SB has been added as signed binary.  Type B
     is a logical binary string.
7.   The syntactic notation for return-from-a-form has
     been changed.  See new syntax.

II.  NEW SYNTAX

form              :: = rule | form
rule              :: = label  inputstream outputstream;
label             :: = INTEGER | NULL
inputstream       :: = terms | NULL
terms             :: = term | terms, term
outputstream      :: = :terms | NULL
term              :: = identifier | identifier descriptor |
                       descriptor | comparator
identifier        :: = <alpha followed by 0-3 alphanumerics>
descriptor        :: = (replicationexpr, datatype, valueexpr,
                       lengthexpr control)
comparator        :: = (concatexpr connective concatexpr control) |
                       (identifier .<=. concatexpr control)
replicationexpr   :: = # | arithmetricexpr | NULL
datatype          :: = B | O | X | E | A | ED | AD | SB | T (identifier)
valueexpr         :: = concatexpr | NULL
lengthexpr        :: = arithmeticexpr | NULL
connective        :: = .LE. | .LT. | .GT. | .GE. | .EQ. | .NE.
concatexpr        :: = value | concatexpr    value
value             :: = literal | arithmeticexpr
arithmeticexpr    :: = primary | arithmeticexpr operator primary
primary           :: = identifier | L(identifier) | V(identifier) |
                         INTEGER
operator          :: = + | - | * | /
literal           :: = literaltype "string"

literaltype       :: = B | 0 | X | E | A | ED | AD | SB
string            :: = <from 0 to 256 chars>
control           :: = :options | NULL
options           :: = SFUR (arithmeticexpr) | SFUR (arithmeticexpr),
                       SFUR (arithmeticexpr)
SFUR              :: = S | F | U | SR | FR | UR

III.  THE FORM INTERPRETER

Interpreter Overview

     The interpreter is a simple minded machine having the virtue of
helping the compiler writer by providing a rather powerful instruction
set for hard-to-compile operations.  Figure 1 shows the machine
configuration:

  +-------------+                        +--------------+
  | inputstream |                        | outputstream |
  +-------------+                        +--------------+
             /\                           /
              \                          /
               \                        /
                \                     \/
                +-----------------------+
                |         CPU           |
                +-----------------------+
                       |        /\
                       |         |
                       |         |
                       \/        |
                +-----------------------+
    Storage:    | Instruction           |
                | Sequence              |
                +-----------------------+
                | Label Table           |
                +-----------------------+
                | Literal/Identifier    |
                | Pool                  |
                +-----------------------+
                | Variable length       |
                | string area           |
                +-----------------------+

                Fig. 1. Form Interpreter

    The CPU is a box full of miscellaneous parts, the most important
being the Arithmetic Logic Unit and the instruction decoding unit.  The
CPU also maintains a collection of state registers to keep track of what
it is doing.  Figure 2 shows the rough layout.

   +-----------------+                +---------------+
   | Instruction     |                | Instruction   |
   | Counter         |                | Register      |
   +-----------------+                +---------------+
                                           |
                                           |
                                           V
                                    +----------------+
                                    | Operation Code |
                                    | Decoding       |
     Run Time Stack                 +----------------+
   +------------------+                 /     |    \
   |   Operands       |                /      |     \
   +------------------+              \/       V     \/
   |                  |               +-----------------+
   +------------------+              /   Instruction     \
   |                  |              |   Interpreter     |
   +------------------+              |   Routines        |
   |                  |               \                 /
   +------------------+                +---------------+
   |                  |                    |      /\
   +------------------+                    |       |
   |                  |                    |       |
   +------------------+                    V       |
   |                  |                +---------------+
   +------------------+ <------------- | Arithmetic    |
   |                  | -------------> | Logic Unit    |
   +------------------+                +---------------+
   |                  |
   +------------------+
   |                  |
   +------------------+

   +------------------+                +------------------+
   |Initial Input Ptr.|                | Output pointer   |
   +------------------+                +------------------+

   +------------------+                +------------------+
   |Current Input Ptr.|                | True/False Flag  |
   +------------------+                +------------------+

Fig.  2.  The Central Processor

     The CPU is a stack machine driven by a Polish postfix instruction
sequence.  Operands placed on the Run Time Stack are used for arithmetic
expression evaluation and for parameter passing between the interpreter
and the built-in functions.
     The Current Input Pointer and the Output Pointer keep track of the
two data streams.  Two input pointers are needed because of the backup
requirement in the event of rule failure.  All of these pointers are bit
pointers into the two streams.
     Various implementations of the Run Time Stack are independent of
the interpretation of the DRS machine's instruction set.  It is
suggested that the stack will contain instruction operands from the
instruction stream.
     The format of a compiled instruction sequence for a form is shown
in Fig. 3.

                        16 bits
                 +--------/\---------+
                /                     \

                +---------------------+
                |  length n in bytes  |
           +--  +---------------------+
           |    |                     |
           |    |     compiled        |
           |    |     16-bit          |
        n <     |     instructions    |
           |    |                     |
           |    |                     |
           |    |                     |
           +--  +---------------------+

       Fig. 3.  Compiled Instruction Sequence Format

   The format of the compiled Label Table is shown in Fig. 4.

                                       16 bits
                                  +-----/\-------+
                                 /                \

                                 +-----------------+
                                 |  length n       |
                                 |  in bytes       |
        +--   +------------------+-----------------+
        |     | numeric value of |  byte offset    |
        |     | statement number |  in inst. seq.  |
        |     +------------------+-----------------+
        |     |        :                :          |
     n <      |        :                :          |
        |     |        :                :          |
        |     |                                    |
        |     |                                    |
        |     |                                    |
        +--   +------------------------------------+

              \_________________ _________________/
                                V
                              32 bits

                    Fig. 4.  Compiled Label Table

   Literals and Identifiers are compiled as shown in fig. 5.

                                   2              2
                              +----/\----+   +----/\----+
                             /            \ /            \

                             +-------------+--------------+
            1         1      | length n    |    length n  |
         ___/\____ ___/\____ | in bytes    |    in bytes  |
        +---------+----------+-------------+--------------+
     /  |         |//////////|             |              |
     |  | Type    |//////////| bit length  |  byte offset |
     |  |         |//////////|             |              |
     |  +---------+----------+-------------+--------------+
5*n <   |                           :                     |
     |  |                           :                     |
     |  |                           :                     | Identifiers
     |  |                                                 |
     \  |                                                 |
        +-------------------------------------------------+
     /  |                                                 |
     |  |            literals are                         |
     |  |            byte-aligned                         | Literals
  m <   |                                                 |
     |  |                                                 |
     |  |                                                 |
     \  +-------------------------------------------------+

     Legend:

     Type 0 = undefined
          1 = B (binary)
          2 = 0 (octal)
          3 = X (hexadecimal)
          4 = E (EBCDIC)
          5 = A (ASCII)
          6 = ED (EBCDIC encoded decimal)
          7 = AD (ASCII encoded decimal)
          8 = SB (signed binary, two's complement)

             Fig. 5.  Compiled Literals and Identifiers

   Types B, 0, X, AD, ED, and SB point to 32-bit word- aligned data
   shown below.

 +---+---+-----+-------+       +-------------------+    word-aligned,
 | T |///|  L  |    ---+-----> |                   |    32-bit right-
 +---+---+-----+-------+       +-------------------+    justified

      Types E and A point to byte-aligned symbol streams
as shown below.

                                 byte-aligned, L <= 256
 +---+---+-----+-------+       +------------------------+
 | T |///|  L  |    ---+-----> |                        |
 +---+---+-----+-------+       +------------------------+

Instruction Format

     Since literals and identifiers will be stored in the same data
area, more than 256 literals plus identifiers might be encountered so
more than 8 bits are needed to reference literal/id pool.  Furthermore,
such references must be distinguished from operators in the instruction
stream, so a 16-bit instruction will be used, as shown below.

     +--------+------------------------+
     |    4   |          12            |
     +--------+------------------------+
         |
        /
       /
      /
     |
     V
     LD = 0  literal or identifier reference (12-bit positive integer)
     IC = 1  12-bit two's complement integer constant
     OP = 2  operator
     AD = 3  address (12-bit positive integer)
    ARB = 4  indefinite replication factor
   NULL = 5  missing attribute of term

     The operation code decoder picks up types 0, 1, 3, 4,
and 5 and deposits them on top of the stack (TOS).  LD is an
index into the literal/identifier table, and AD is an index
into the instruction sequence.

     The decoder examines OP elements further:

         4        4            8
     +--------+--------+----------------+
     |  0010  |        |////////////////|
     +--------+--------+----------------+
        OP        |
                  +----------> 0 = binary operator
                               1 = unary operator
                               2 = special operator

Binary Operators (*)

     Let the TOS contain y and the next level, x.  The binary operators
compute x  <bop> y, popping both x, y from stack, and put the result
back on top of the stack.

                     +---+ <-- TOS  +-----+ <-- TOS
                     | y |          | x-y |
     e.g.     x-y => +---+     ===> +-----+
                     | x |          |/////|
                     +---+          +-----+

Binary Operator Encoding

                     4        4        4        4
                +--------+--------+--------+--------+
                |  0010  |  0000  |        |////////|
                +--------+--------+--------+--------+
                                       |
            +--------------------------+
            |
            V
     0 = integer +
     1 = integer -
     2 = integer x
     3 = integer : (or /), no remainder
     4 = concatenate ||

     All binary operations except concatenate expect the top
two elements on the stack to describe type B, 0, X, or SB.  The
result is always a 32-bit type B element.  The concatenate
operator fails unless both types are identical.  For example:

-------
     (*) As suggested above, the stack really contains instruction
operands that describe data; for convenience in illustrations
the data rather than their descriptors are shown on the stack.

        type     L    value             T       L     V
       +------+------+------+        +------+------+------+
TOS -> |  B   |  32  |  4   |        |  B   |  32  |  12  | <- TOS
       +------+------+------+   ==>  +------+------+------+
       |  B   |  8   |  16  |        |//////|//////|//////|
       +------+------+------+        +------+------+------+
       Before-operation                after-operation

       +------+------+------+        +------+------+------+
TOS -> |  A   |  2   |  DE  |        |  A   |  5   |ABCDE | <- TOS
       +------+------+------+   ==>  +------+------+------+
       |  A   |  3   | ABC  |        |//////|//////|//////|
       +------+------+------+        +------+------+------+
       Before || operation             after || operation

No binary operator has any effect on the TRUE/FALSE flag.

Unary Operators

         4        4        4        4
     +--------+--------+--------+--------+
     |  0010  |  0001  |        |        |
     +--------+--------+--------+--------+
                          |         |
           +--------------+         |
           |                        |
           V                        |
    0 = integer minus               V
    1 = load identifier          0 = evaluated contents
                                     (after dec - binary
                                      conversion)
                                 1 = length field
                                 2 = type field
    2 = Label Table Reference

     For the unary minus operator the data described by the top of the
stack is replaced with its 2's complement.  The form fails if the TOS
type is not SB, B, 0, or X.
     The Load identifier expects the TOS to describe an index into the
literal/identifier pool (that is, an LD instruction) .  The TOS
described data is replaced by 32-bit type B values.  The operation fails
if the contents cannot be converted from encoded decimal to binary.  B,
0, and X types are treated as unsigned integers, SB is treated as 2's
complement.
     The Label Table Reference operator expects a 32-bit type B value
described by TOS and searches for this label in the label Table.  If
found, the TOS described data is replaced by the relative address in the
instruction sequence of the label (in the form of an AD instruction).
If not found, the form fails.  No Unary operator has any effect on the
TRUE/FALSE flag.

Special Operators

                4        4        4        4
            +--------+--------+--------+--------+
            |  0010  |  0010  |        |        |
            +--------+--------+--------+--------+
                                 |         |
         +-----------------------+        /
         |                               /
         V                              /
   0 = store TOS                        |
   1 = return                           V
   2 = branch               0 = true, 1 = false, 2 = unconditional

   3 = compare              0 = .EQ.  2 = .LE.   4 = .GE.
                            1 = .NE.  3 = .LT.   5 = .GT.

   4 = move input ptr       0 = store current into initial
                            1 = store initial into current

   5 = input call           0 = no compare
                            1 = compare

   6 = output call

Store TOS

    The TOS describes an index into the ID table and the next lower
element in the stack describes a value to be stored.  After execution,
both elements are popped off the stack.

Return

     The TOS describes a value to be returned to the routine which
initiated the FORM MACHINE.  The actual mechanism will be implementation
dependent, but the FORM MACHINE will relin- quish control after this
instruction completes execution.

Branch

     The TOS describes an index into the instruction sequence to be used
as the new instruction counter (IC) if the branch conditions are
satisfied.  The branch instruction checks the state of the TRUE/FALSE
flag register and either increments the IC by 1 or replaces it with the
TOS described element.  In any case, the TOS is popped.

Compare

     The compare operator takes the two elements described by the two
top stack entries and compares them (.EQ.,.LT.,etc.).  If n is at the
top of the stack, and m is just below, then m.xx.n is performed, and the
TRUE/False flag is set accordingly.  For .xx. = .EQ. or .NE. we must
have identical type, length, and content for equality to hold.
     The other boolean comparators will not be attempted if types are
different (i.e., form fails), but for same types, B, 0, X cause binary-
justified compares, and A, E, AD, ED cause left-justified string
compares with the shorter string padded with blanks.

Move Input Pointer

     This operator (no operands) replaces the Current Input Pointer with
the Initial Input Pointer (back-up), or the Initial Input Pointer with
the current one (entry to rule).

Input Call

    This is the most complex operator thus far encountered.  It requires
four operands from the run-time stack:

TOS  +----------------------------+
     | binary or null             |  length to find
     +----------------------------+
     | LD to literal or null      |  value (literal)
     +----------------------------+
     | binary code                |  input data type
     +----------------------------+
     | binary, arbitrary, or null |  replication count
     +----------------------------+

     The input call operator can be invoked with the "no compare" flag
set, in which case the value expression parameter is ignored and only
the input type and length expressions are used.  In this case, the input
routine tries to find in the input stream as many characters of the
required type (bits, digits, etc.) as needed to fill the length
expression requirement.  If successful, the TRUE/FALSE flag is set TRUE,
the stack is popped to remove the input parameters, and the string
obtained is described by the TOS.  If the input stream cannot be matched
then the parameters are popped off the stack, and the TRUE/FALSE flag is
set FALSE.

     If the "compare" flag is set, the input stream must be searched for
the value expression.  However, we must take some care here to be sure
we know what to look for.  There are several cases:

a)  The length expression parameter is greater than the
    length of the value expression but the type of input de-
    sired is the same as the value expression type.  For B, 0
    and X types, right-justify value expression in length-
    expression field, sign bit is extended left if type BS.
    If type A, E, AD, or ED pad on the right with blanks.  b)  Same as
a) but length is too small.  B, 0, and X type strings
    are truncated on the left.  A, E, AD and ED are truncated
    on the right.  c)  The type of the value expression and the type
parameter
    differ.  This case is deferred for discussion and pre-
    sently is considered an error causing form failure.

     If the input string matches, then the TRUE/FALSE flag is set true,
the parameters are popped from the stack, and the resulting string is
described by the TOS.  Otherwise, the FALSE flag is set and the
parameters are popped.

     When a successful match is found the input subroutine always
advances the Current Input Pointer by the appropriate amount.  Since we
are dealing at the bit level this pointer must be maintained as a bit
pointer!

Output Call

     This routine utilizes the same parameters as the input call, but
operates on the output stream.  The TRUE/FALSE flag is not distributed
by this operator.  As for input, there are four parameters on top of the
stack, the length expression value, the value expression value, the
desired output type, and the replication expression value.  When there
is a mis- match between the output type and the value expression type, a
conversion must take place.  The value expression is trans- formed into
the desired output type and fitted into the field length specified by
the length expression.

Truncation and Padding Rules

a)  Character -> character (A,E,AD,ED -> A,E,AD,ED) conversion
    is left-justified and truncated or padded with blanks
    on the right.  b)  Character -> numeric and numeric -> character
conversion is
    right-justified and truncated or padded on the left with
    zeros.  Beware!  Two's complement numbers may be bollixed
    by this.  c)  Numeric -> character conversion is right-justified and
    left padded with blanks or left-truncated.  As for the unary
operators, a numeric bit-string is treated as unsigned, except SB which
is treated as two's complement.  Thus we have:

                (1,ED,X"FF",3) = E'255'
               (1,ED,X"100",3) = E'256'
     but (1,ED,SB"10000000",4) = E'-256'

     If the output routine is able to perform the desired action, it
advances the Output Stream Pointer, and pops all parameters from the
run-time stack.

V.  INSTRUCTION SET

it/id ref           LD <num>                 Literal or identifier
                                             reference -> TOS
int const           IC <num>                 small 2's comp. integer
                                             constant -> TOS
address             AD <num>                 Address -> TOS
null parameter      NULL                     missing term attribute
add                 ADD                      TOS = x,y     x + y -> TOS
subtract            SUB                      TOS = x,y     x - y -> TOS
multiply            MUL                      TOS = x,y     x * y -> TOS
divide              DIV                      TOS = x,y     x/y -> TOS
concatenate         CON                      TOS = x,y     x||y -> TOS
unary minus         UNIN                     TOS = x       -x -> TOS
load id value       LIV                      TOS = LD x    V(LD x) -> TOS
load id length      LIL                      TOS = LD x    V(LD x) -> TOS
load id type        LIT                      TOS = LD x    V(LD x) -> TOS
look up label       LVL                      TOS = x       AD x -> TOS
sto                 STO                      TOS = x,y     y -> x
return              RET                      TOS = x       return to
                                                           caller with x
branch true         BT                       TOS = AD x    AD x -> Instr.
                                                                   counter
branch false        BF                       TOS = AD x    AD x -> Instr.
                                                                   counter
branch              BU                       TOS = AD x    AD x -> Instr.
                                                                   counter
compare equal       CEQ                      TOS = x,y     (y.EQ.x) ->
                                                                   TRUE/FALSE
                                                                   flag
compare not equal   CNE                      TOS = x,y     (y.NE.x) -> T/FF
compare <=          CLE                      TOS = x,y     (y.LE.x) -> T/FF
call output         OUT                      TOS = r,t,v,l (r,t,v,l) -> output
call input          IN ( INC = compare       TOS = r,t,v,l (r,t,v,l) -> TOS
                         INN = no compare )
current -> initial  SCIP                     CIP -> IIP    (store current input
                                                            ptr - initial IP)
initial -> current  SICP                     IIP -> CIP    (store initial input
                                                            ptr - CIP)

VI.  EXAMPLE COMPILATION

FORM SOURCE               GENERATED POLISH INSTRUCTION SEQUENCE

                     ADDR. INSTR.     COMMENTS
(NUMB.<=.1);         0     SICP     RULE PRELUDE
                     1     IC   1
                     2     LD   0   REFERENCE TO NUMB
                     3     STO      STORE IN NUMB
                     4     SCIP     RULE POSTLUDE
1 CC(,E,,1:FR(99)),  5     SICP     RULE PRELUDE
                     6     NULL     NO REPLICATION EXPRESSION
                     7     IC   4   TYPE EBCDIC
                     8     NULL     NO VALUE EXPRESSION
                     9     IC   1   LENGTH
                     10    INN      INPUT CALL WITH NO COMPARE
                     11    AD   15
                     12    BT       SKIP RETURN IF INN SUCCEEDS
                     13    IC   99  RETURN CODE
                     14    RET      RETURN TO CALLER IF FAILED
                     15    LD   1   REFERENCE TO CC
                     16    STO      STORE INPUT DATA IN CC
LINE(,E,,121:        17    NULL     NO REPLICATION EXPRESSION
         FR(99)),    18    IC   4   TYPE IS EBCDIC
                     19    NULL     NO VALUE EXPRESSION
                     20    IC   121 LENGTH
                     21    INN      INPUT WITH NO COMPARE
                     22    AD   26
                     23    BT       SKIP RETURN IF OK
                     24    IC   98  RETURN CODE
                     25    RET      RETURN TO CALLER IF FAILED
                     26    LD   2   REFERENCE TO LINE
                     27    STO      STORE INPUT IN LINE
:CC,                 28    SCIP     SUCCESSFUL INPUT
                     29    NULL     NO REPLICATION FACTOR
                     30    LD   1   REFERENCE TO CC
                     31    LIT      TYPE OF CC
                     32    LD   1   REFERENCE TO VALUE OF CC
                     33    LD   1   CC AGAIN
                     34    LIL      LENGTH OF CC
                     35    OUT      OUTPUT CC
(,ED,NUMB,2),        36    NULL     NO REPLICATION
                     37    IC   6   TYPE IS ED
                     38    LD   0   REFERENCE TO VALUE OF NUMB
                     39    IC   2   LENGTH OF OUTPUT FIELD
                     40    OUT      OUTPUT NUMB AS EBCDIC DEC.
(,E,E".",1),         41    NULL     NO REPLICATION
                     42    IC   4   TYPE IS EBCDIC

                     43    LD   3   REFERENCE TO E"."
                     44    IC   1   LENGTH TO OUTPUT
                     45    OUT      OUTPUT THE PERIOD
(,E,LINE,117),       46    NULL     NO REPLICATION
                     47    IC   4   TYPE IS EBCDIC
                     48    LD   2   REFERENCE TO LINE
                     49    IC   117 LENGTH TO OUTPUT
                     50    OUT      PUT OUT CONTENTS OF LINE
(NUMB.<=.NUMB+1:     51    LD   0   REFERENCE TO NUMB
         U(1));      52    IC   1   AMOUNT TO ADD
                     53    ADD      ADD TO NUMB
                     54    LD   0   REFERENCE TO NUMB
                     55    STO      STORE BACK INTO NUMB
                     56    AD   5   PLACE TO GO
                     57    B        UNCONDITIONAL BRANCH BACK

                LITERAL/IDENTIFIER TABLE

                     0     NUMB
                     1     CC
                     2     LINE
                     3     E"."

                     LABEL TABLE

                  LABEL     OFFSET
                    1         5

       [ This RFC was put into machine readable form for entry ]
         [ into the online RFC archives by Simone Demmel 6/97 ]

 

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